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1. Outline EIGHT precautions that may be taken to ensure the safety of children who
might be tempted to gain unauthorized access into a construction site.

Precautions that may be taken to ensure the safety of children who might be tempted
to gain unauthorized access into a construction site are:
Reduce the likelihood of access (by fences, signs, security patrols, etc.)
Ensuring safety of the site by:
- Filling, covering or fencing excavations.
- Removing or boarding ladders.
- Immobilizing machinery
- Locking away chemicals and tools.
- Reducing the height of materials.
- Isolating services
- Clearing rubbish & debris.

2. Outline EIGHT health and safety precautions that should be taken when undertaking
demolition work.

Health and safety precautions that should be taken when undertaking demolition
work are:
Barriers & fences to protect from falling debris.
Means of preventing falls from height.
Identification and isolation of services.
Warning signs.
Removal of debris from upper levels by the use of Elephant trunks
Means of suppressing dust (e.g.: damping down)
The identification and correct removal of hazardous substances such as
Asbestos & Lead.
The use of properly maintained equipment.
Means of preventing premature collapse or the collapse of adjoining properties.
Competent personnel.
Use of the suitable PPE (e.g.: hard hats, ear defenders, mask, footwear, etc.).

3. Outline the main precautions to be taken when carrying out the excavation work.

Precaution to be taken when carrying out excavation work are:

Detection of services (from plans, use of cable / pipe detectors).
Support of sides.
Storage of materials and take it away from edge.
Stop blocks to prevent vehicles from falling into excavation.
Barriers and guardrails.
Safe means of access / egress.
Testing for, and ventilation of fumes.
Means of pumping out water.
Competent personnel.
Use of suitable PPE.

4. Outline the main hazard association with construction work.

The main construction hazards are:

Chemical hazards:
- In different forms (air borne as dust, fumes, vapors, gases from materials
as cement powder, organic solvent, etc. liquids as adhesive, tar, etc.).
- Illness linked with construction chemical hazards are silicosis, Asbestosis,
Lead poisoning, Allergies, etc.

Noise: from sources as vehicles, air compressors, cranes, pneumatic hammers,

power saws, etc.
Vibration: occur with pneumatic hammers, hand tools, etc.
Heat: Roofers are exposed to sun, working beside hot engines, heated pots of
tar etc.
Radiation: UV rays of the sun is an example. X-ray exposure can occur on
checking welds.
Falls: due to unstable footing, unguarded holes, slips off scaffolding or ladders,
Manual handling hazards: leading to back problems, hernia etc.
Diseases: as histoplasmosis, influenza, TB., etc.
Attacks by animals.
Social problems: due to intermittent & constantly changing pattern of life of
construction workers.

5. Identify the hazards associated with the use of a cement mixer and explain how they
should be controlled.

Manual handling hazards: controlled by the use of mechanical aids as

conveyor belts for example, by reducing the weight of loads, by proper selection
and training of handlers, etc.

Ergonomic hazards: controlled by the proper sitting of materials to reduce

awkward movement as twisting, etc. by proper workstation design, good lighting,

Cement health hazards irritant & corrosive to be controlled by the

establishment of a safe system of work, good hygienic practices, use of PPE as
overalls, gloves, masks, etc.

Electrical hazard (if the mixer is electrical): to be controlled by regular

inspection and testing of the equipment, reducing current voltage, safety at the
power supply, safety of wires, cable, etc. and the use of residual current devices,

Hazards of petrol driven mixer to be controlled by measures as:

provision of safe storage facilities for the fuel to protect against the risk of fire,
training in refueling procedures and the prohibition of mixer use in confined
spaces to protect from exhaust fumes as carbon monoxide

6. Outline the possible causes of a damper truck overturn on a construction site.

Overloading of the bucket of the truck.

Uneven loading of the truck bucket
Cornering at excessive speeds.
Driving across slopes.
Driving too close to the edges of embankments or excavations.
Hitting obstructions
Inappropriate tire pressure
Mechanical defects of the trucks

7. Identify the design features of a damper truck intended to minimize the risk of an

The position of the truck center of gravity.

The width of the wheelbase.
Roll Over protection
The use of seat belts