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# Example 40 - Lap Joint

Summary
Two overlapping plates (aluminum) are connected by a rivet (titanium) forming a lap joint. The aluminum
and titanium materials are both defined by piece-wise linear elasto-plastic law. The plates and the rivet
are meshed with solid elements. The free end of the bottom plate is constrained and the free end of the
top plate is pulled (by applying imposed displacement) to shear the joint. An all inclusive contact is
defined such that all the components in the model are master and all nodes of the model are slave.
This example is considered a static problem and the nonlinear implicit solver is used.

Title
Lap joint

Number
40.1

Brief Description
A lap joint is fixed at one end and pulled at the other to shear the joint.

Keywords
Nonlinear large displacement analysis (NLGEOM)

## Plasticity, Piece-wise linear elasto-plastic material (MATX36, TABLES1)

Parameters for Geometric Nonlinear Implicit Static Analysis Control (NLPARMX)

## Boundary conditions (SPC)

1
Solid element (PSOLIDX)

Input File

11.0

## Technical / Theoretical Level

Beginner

Overview
Aim of the Problem
The purpose of this example is to demonstrate a nonlinear large displacement implicit analysis (NLGEOM)
Physical Problem Description
The top and bottom plates have a length of 30mm, width of 20mm and height of 1.5mm. The rivet is 8mm
in diameter and 6mm in height. The geometry of the joint is shown in Figure 1. Due to symmetry only half
of the joint is modeled.

## Fig 1: Geometry of the joint.

The material used for the aluminum plates have the following properties:
Density: 1.2e-9 Mg/mm3

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Youngs modulus: 71700 MPa

## Fig 2: Stress plastic strain curve for aluminum

The material used for the titanium rivet has the following properties:
Density: 7.8e-9 Mg/mm3

## The stress vs plastic strain plot for titanium is shown in Figure 3.

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Fig 3: Stress plastic strain curve for titanium

## Analysis, Assumptions and Modeling Description

Geometric Linear (NLSTAT) or Geometric Nonlinear (NLGEOM) Analysis
In a geometric linear analysis all deformations and rotations are small displacements of 5% of the model
dimension are considered small.
For this lap joint example, the final deformations and strains after shearing of the lap joint are 9.5% of the
largest dimension of the model (30mm). So, the geometrically nonlinear static NLSTAT analysis could not
be considered for this example.
Modeling Methodology
The mesh is a regular solid mesh with the plates being around 1.5mm in dimension and the rivet being
around 0.5mm in dimension.
The plates and rivet have been modeled using first order fully-integrated solid elements.
PSOLID 4 1
PSOLIDX 4 14 222 VAR

## The boundary conditions applied in the model are shown in Figure 4.

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Fig 4: Boundary conditions

The imposed displacements are defined in FEM file using NLOAD1 card:

## + 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0ENDT

An all inclusive general purpose contact has been defined in the model. All the nodes of the model are
defined as slave and all components in the model are defined as the master.
SET 2 GRID LIST
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
+ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

SET 7 ELEM PROP
+ 4 5 6

CONTACT 6 7 2 7 OPENGAP

A small physical gap of around 0.02mm has been introduced between the top and bottom plates and also
between the plates and the rivet. The minimum gap specified (0.022) for the contact is slightly higher than
the physical gap for contact to take effect. A static Coulomb friction of 0.05 is defined for the interface.
PCONT 7 AUTO
PCONTX 7 0.05 0.022 0

5
+ CONST
+ 4
+
+ COUL STIFF
+

The plasticity and contact causes major nonlinearities; therefore, a static nonlinear analysis is performed
using the arc-length displacement strategy. The time step is determined by a displacement norm control.
The nonlinear implicit parameters used are:
Implicit type: Static nonlinear
Nonlinear solver: BFGS Quasi-Newton method
Termination criteria: Relative residual in force
Tolerance: 0.01
Update of stiffness matrix: 5 iterations maximum
Time step control method: Arc-length
Initial time step: 0.01
Minimum time step: 1e-5
Maximum time step: 0.05
Line search method: AUTO
Special Residual force
computation with contact 0
interfaces present:
Desired convergence 6
iteration number:
Maximum convergence 20
iteration number:
Decreasing time step 0.8
factor:
Maximum increasing time
step scale factor: 1.02

## Arc-length: Automatic computation

Spring-back option: No.

A solver method is required to resolve Ax=b in each iteration of a nonlinear cycle. The linear implicit
options used are:
Linear solver: Direct (BCS)
Precondition methods: Factored approximate Inverse
Maximum iterations System dimension (NDOF)
number:
Stop criteria: Relative residual of preconditioned matrix

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Tolerance for stop criteria: Machine precision

The input nonlinear implicit options set in the FEM file are defined by NLPARMX:

NLPARM 9 100 P

+ 0.01

## + BFGS ARC 1e-5 0.05 AUTO

+ 6 1.02 20 0.8

The nonlinear large deformation analysis has to be defined through a subcase. An NLPARM statement,
as well as ANALYSIS=NLGEOM has to be present in the subcase. The termination time of 1.0s is defined
thru the TTERM entry.

SUBCASE 1

ANALYSIS NLGEOM

SPC = 10

NLPARM = 9

TTERM = 1.000

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Simulation Results and Conclusions
Animations
The displacement, stresses (mises) and plastic strain results after the shearing of the joint are shown in
the following figures.

## Fig 6: Stress (max = 1022 MPa)

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Fig 7: Plastic strain in aluminum plates (max. = 23.86%).