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CIRCULATORY AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS

Science 5th 2nd term

The blood circulation

Blood circulation transports around the body the nutrients and the oxygen we get from the digestive system and the breath. It is also

important

because

it

recollects

the

waste

substances to give them to the excretion

organs.

Blood circulation takes place in the circulatory system.

Blood vessels

Blood vessels are tubes where the blood goes. There are three kind of them: arteries, veins and capillaries.

Arteries: they drive the blood from the heart to all the organs in our body. They have the thickest walls.

Veins: they drive the blood from the organs to the heart. Their walls are thinner than the arteries walls.

Capillaries: they communicate the arteries with the veins and they drive the blood inside the organs. They are the thinnest blood vessels.

The blood

The blood is a red viscous liquid that goes inside our blood vessels. It arrives to all the body parts and it transports nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste substances. It is formed by RBC, WBC, platelets and plasma.

RBC: they transport the oxygen. WBC: they defend us from illnesses.

Platelets: they are very small and avoid to lose blood.

Plasma: is the liquid formed by water where there are the RBC, the WBC and the platelets.

The heart

The heart is an organ with mucous walls that impulses blood around the body. It impulses

the

circulation

beating.

because

it

is

continually

It is located in the central part of the thorax, between the lungs. Is divided in two halves, right and left. Each half has got two cavities:

an atrium

(where the

veins

arrive)

and

a

ventricle (where the arteries start).

Parts of the heart
Parts of the heart

Complete the parts

Complete the parts

Blood circulation

The blood has two different routes inside the body. These are the pulmonary circulation and the general circulation.

Pulmonary circulation: is the route between the heart and the lungs. The objective is to load oxygen in the blood and release carbon dioxide.

General circulation: is the route around all the body. During this route, the blood gives oxygen and nutrients to all the body parts, and takes the carbon dioxide and the waste substances.

Answer

the

questions

about

the

image:

  • 1. What’s the name of the artery that pumps oxygenated blood to the head and body?

  • 2. What’s the name of the artery that sends deoxygenated blood to the left lung?

  • 3. Which cavity pumps blood to the aorta?

4. Which cavity receives

deoxygenated blood from the torso and legs?

  • 5. Which ventricle pumps blood to the lungs?

Activities

  • 1. How many cavities are there inside the heart?

  • 2. Explain the function of:

RBC

WBC Platelets Plasma

How to take care of the circulatory system

• It is important to feed us correctly; avoid the fats, pastries, meat fats, ... •
• It is important to feed us correctly; avoid the
fats, pastries, meat fats, ...
• Avoid the salt.
• Exercise our body.

Heart healthy

The most harmful fact for the circulatory

system is

the excess

of fats,

grease, in the

blood. One of them is called cholesterol.

This one can accumulate in the blood vessels and it difficult the blood circulation.

Activities

  • 1. Answer the questions:

    • - What’s cholesterol?

    • - How can it be dangerous for the circulatory system?

    • - Which

habits

system?

are

beneficial

for

the

circulatory

2.

Do you

know what’s

examples of it.

the “fast food”? Write

two

3. Think about it: Sarah is a thin girl who does a lot of sport has healthy habits. She wants to be thinner, like the models and celebrities, so she decides to eat less. Do you think it is a good idea? Why?

During the nutrition process we generate some waste substances that go to the blood. Excretion consists in delete those substances and expel them outside our body. This is the function of the excretory system and the sweat glands.

Excretory system

Is formed by:

The kidneys: they are organs located in the abdomen, in both sides from the spine. Function:

They clean the blood.

The ureters: they are two tubes that communicate the kidneys with the bladder (bufeta de l’orina)

The bladder: is the organ where we store the urine.

Urethra: is the tube that communicate the bladder to the exterior.

Parts of the excretory system

Parts of the excretory system

The excretion process

All the blood of our body goes to the kidneys. The kidneys filter the blood. The waste substances retained in the kidneys mix with water and form urine. Urine leave the kidneys, goes through the ureters and arrive to the bladder.

The sweat glands In the sweat glands

is formed the

sweat, a liquid

formed by water and waste substances.

Each gland is communicated with the exterior with a

duct ending in surface skin.

pores.

All

the

pores

are

in

our

The sweat glands In the sweat glands is formed the sweat , a liquid formed by

Activities

  • 1. What’s the kidneys function?

  • 2. Draw the urine tour from the kidney to the expulsion.

  • 3. Why

the

sweat

excretion system?

glands

take

part

in

the

How to take care of the excretory system

We can prevent diseases from the excretory system and feel healthy if we have good hygiene habits, like:

Drink a lot of water. Avoid hold urine in the bladder for a long time. Clean yourself after go to the toilet. Avoid coming into contact the urethra and the anus when we clean us with toilet paper. Have a shower after do exercise to avoid the clogging of pores through which sweat goes out. Use breathable clothes and shoes.

Water is health

The urine and the sweat are formed principally by water. To recover this loss of liquid we need to drink a lot of water, exactly 2 litres every day (8 glasses).

When we exercise we sweat, so it is more important to drink water in this case.

When we don’t drink enough water, our urine is more concentrated.

People who practise a lot of sport usually drink water with salts, because they lost them too.

Activities

  • 1. How many liters of water do you drink in a day? Do you think it is enough?

  • 2. What food can we use to recover the water in our body?

The physical exercise

Exercise our body and play sports are very

healthy habits.

They

help

to

get

stronger

muscles, coordinate movements, the function

of

the lungs, actives

the blood

circulation,

helps to sleep

well and facilitates the

relationships.

Activities

1.

Complete the chart:

   

Healthy habits

Never

Sometimes

Always

 

Drink 2 liters of water every day

       

Have a shower after exercise

       

Wash my hands before meals

       

Avoid places with dust and smoke

       

Do some physical exercise

       

2. Complete the summary of the unit:

Circulation: It is THE blood tour around the body to transport the

-

N

the oxygen, the carbon dioxide and the waste substances. It

S ________ the

H

,

which is formed by the

The blood has two

____________

and

______

__________.

_______ takes place in the C

blood vessels, the B

,

different routes inside our body:

Pulmonary

circulation:

blood

tour

between

the

heart

and

the

_____________. L - General circulation: blood tour around the B ________.

The health of the circulatory system: exercise our body, feed us properly,

avoid food system.

with

a

lot

of

F

__________

,

is beneficial for the circulatory

Excretion: it releases the waste substances from the B

__________.

It

takes place in the E

___________

system with the S

__________.

_______

G

The health of the excretory system: drink a lot of W

_________

is

beneficial for the excretory system because it facilitates the function of

the kidneys and allows eliminating better the waste substances.

3.

Complete the chart with excretory systems:

the circulatory and

System

Formed by

Function

     
     

4. What’s the correct blood vessel?

  • a) It drives the blood from different organs to the heart.

  • b) It drives the blood inside the organs.

  • c) It drives the blood that comes out of the heart to all the body organs.

5. Complete with the correct name:
5. Complete with the correct name: