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1. - 16. sorularda, cmlede bo braklan yerlere 7.

A battery cell that ---- popular during the

uygun den szck ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. nineteenth century ---- in 1836 by the
English chemist John Frederick Daniell.

1. Some temperate environments have mild

A) had become / had been constructed
winters with abundant ----, combined with
B) would have become / has been
extremely dry summers.
C) is to become / is constructed
A) heat
D) became / was constructed
B) harvest
E) will become / may have been constructed
C) rainfall
D) supply
8. Cells that ---- the fastest, such as those in
E) growth
the blood-forming tissues in bone marrow, --
-- most seriously by nuclear radiations.
2. The worlds forests provide many ----
benefits, such as prevention of soil erosion,
A) will divide / must have been affected
as well as commercially important timber.
B) have divided / had been affected
C) divided / will be affected
A) severe
D) had divided / have been affected
B) dependent
E) divide / are affected
C) extinct
D) desperate
9. For more than three thousand years, from
E) valuable
the age of the pharaohs until the 1500s,
people ---- that the sun, the stars, and the
3. Each species has the capacity to produce
planets ---- around the earth.
more offspring than will ---- to maturity.
A) have believed / had moved
A) conform
B) believe / have moved
B) present
C) had believed / move
C) recognize
D) were believing / could have moved
D) suggest
E) believed / moved
E) survive
10. If we ---- the materials of technology, silicon
4. Although most scientists agree that our
---- the first on that list.
planet will continue to warm, they disagree
over how ---- the warming will proceed.
A) are listing / was
B) listed / had been
A) hideously
C) were to list / would be
B) suitably
D) had listed / is
C) profoundly
E) are to list / has been
D) rapidly
E) decadently
11. ---- the fourteenth century, some architects
broadened their studies ---- light and began
5. Because chemistry ---- all materials, it is a
to explore the science of optics.
subject of enormous importance.
A) Over / over
A) makes up
B) During / of
B) looks up
C) Through / throughout
C) runs over
D) At / in
D) deals with
E) Among / under
E) turns out
12. The changes of energy in nuclear reactions
6. Since total sleeping time is likely to
are enormous ---- comparison ---- those in
decrease with age, older people may find
chemical reactions.
going to bed later or ---- earlier helpful.
A) above / over
A) getting up
B) in / for
B) making out
C) beyond / to
C) breaking down
D) by / with
D) keeping off
E) of / after
E) taking away

13. A mixture is a material ---- can be separated 17. - 21. sorularda, aadaki parada
by physical means into two or more numaralanm yerlere uygun den szck ya
substances. da ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) whereas
Differences in temperature caused by variations in
B) whereby
the (I) ---- of solar energy at different locations drive
C) whether
the circulation of the atmosphere. The warm surface
D) that
(II) ---- the equator heats the air with which it comes
E) as
into contact, causing this air to expand and rise. (III)
---- the warm air rises, it flows away from the
14. ---- the source of energy for nuclear power
equator, cools, and sinks again. (IV) ---- of it
plants and weapons can be the same, a
recirculates back to the same areas which it
typical nuclear power plant does not contain
originally (V) ----, but the remainder flows towards
enough fissionable material in high enough
the poles, where eventually it is chilled. Similar
concentration to produce a nuclear
upward movements of warm air and its subsequent
flow towards the poles occur at higher altitudes.
A) Although
17. I
B) When
A) pattern
C) If
B) severity
D) Just as
C) influence
E) In case
D) pressure
E) amount
15. Enormous underground beds of sodium and
potassium compounds formed ---- lakes and
18. II
seas became isolated by geological events.
A) until
B) inside
A) as long as
C) through
B) so that
D) near
C) even if
E) within
D) unless
E) when
19. III
A) As
16. With a nuclear weapon, the objective is to
B) Although
release the energy ---- rapidly ---- possible
C) Just as
and produce a nuclear explosion.
D) As long as
E) Even if
A) as / as
B) both / and
20. IV
C) either / or
A) Any
D) so / that
B) Much
E) not only / but also
C) A few
D) Many
E) Few

21. V
A) is to leave
B) leaves
C) had left
D) will leave
E) left<

22. - 26. sorularda, aadaki parada 27. - 38. sorularda, verilen cmleyi uygun
numaralanm yerlere uygun den szck ya ekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
da ifadeyi bulunuz.
27. If there was a 'Big Bang, ' that is, a huge
Water recycling is reusing wastewater to save both explosion in space some 15 billion years
energy and the environment. Landscape irrigation, ago, ----.
cooling processes in oil refineries and dust control
are (I) ---- the most common non-potable (not for A) there are two other ways to find out the
drinking) purposes. Recycled water can meet most age of the universe
water demands (II) ---- it is adequately treated to B) a great deal of evidence has been offered
ensure water quality. In situations where people are C) it must have occurred simultaneously at all
overly (III) ---- to recycled water, they are more likely points in the universe
to contract diseases. However, no documented D) the ages of stars have been estimated to
cases of human health problems (IV) ---- contact be about 10 to 15 billion years
with recycled water have been reported. As such, E) over 90 per cent of the universe may be
demand for recycled water is increasing very nonluminous dark matter
rapidly, and with no doubt, it (V) ---- many recycling
projects across the world in following decades. 28. ---- whether the universe will continue to
expand forever.
22. I
A) upon A) From the discussions at the conference it
B) over has been clear
C) with B) There is evidence for the growing view
D) about C) Many scientists have conclusively proved
E) among D) A recent analysis of some galaxies has
23. II E) One important question is
A) so that
B) as long as 29. Although Dalton considered atoms to be the
C) even though ultimate particles of matter, ----.
D) as if
E) whereas A) we now know that atoms themselves have
24. III B) metallic elements and their compounds
A) exposed are obtained principally from the earths
B) objected crust
C) devoted C) silicon is a prominent and considerably
D) sentenced useful material of technology
E) entitled D) ceramics have been extended to include
materials other than fired clay and glass
25. IV E) composites are constructed of two or
A) as well as more materials
B) rather than
C) as opposed to 30. ---- when the atoms in substances rearrange
D) instead of and combine into new substances.
E) due to
A) The speeds of molecules in a gas vary
26. V over a range of values
A) has been prompting B) Atomic theory is central to chemistry
B) is prompting C) A chemical reaction occurs
C) will be prompting D) The first metals used by man were
D) was prompting probably those that occurred naturally
E) had been prompting such as gold
E) A metal ore contains varying quantities of
economically worthless material

31. ---- as it extends outwards into space. 35. ----, the change in the length of a metal rod
is generally too small to measure accurately
A) Earths rotation influences the direction for ordinary changes in temperature.
that winds blow
B) The atmosphere becomes less dense A) When the first idea for a thermometer
C) Without the sun, life on Earth would cease made use of the expansion of a gas
D) The nature of wind, with its turbulent gusts B) Although metals expand with temperature
or lulls, is complex and difficult to C) Just as the most common scale today to
understand measure temperature is the Celsius scale
E) Winds tend to blow from areas of high D) As long as the Fahrenheit scale is
atmospheric pressure to areas of low commonly used in the United States
pressure E) If different materials do not expand in
quite the same way over a wide
32. ---- that consists of physically distinct parts, temperature range
each with different properties.
36. Earths temperature shows significant
A) By the end of the eighteenth century variations ----.
Lavoisier and others had examined many
compounds A) because the suns energy does not
B) Millions of substances have been uniformly reach all places
characterized by chemists B) even though the atmosphere is an
C) The various materials we see around us invisible layer of gases that envelops the
are either substances or mixtures of Earth
substances C) whether or not oxygen and nitrogen are
D) A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture the predominant gases in the atmosphere
E) The word 'matter' is the general term used D) in case the atmosphere performs several
to refer to the materials around us ecologically important functions
E) as deep ocean currents often travelled in
33. In a natural ecosystem, the essential different directions and at different speeds
minerals removed from the soil by plants
are returned ----. 37. Organisms depend on the atmosphere, ----.

A) whereby many human activities generate A) although the suns energy is emitted into
soil problems, including mineral depletion space in the form of electromagnetic
B) since water, wind, ice, and other agents radiation
cause soil erosion B) but they also maintain and, in certain
C) while humans often accelerate soil erosion instances, modify its composition
through poor soil management practices C) since, without the suns energy, all water
D) although soil is a valuable natural on planet Earth would be frozen
resource on which humans depend for D) just as the persistent prevailing winds
food blowing over the oceans produce ocean
E) when the plants and the animals that eat currents
them die and decompose E) if the position of land masses also affects
oceanic circulation
34. ----, Earths overall temperature increases.
38. Many animals have a defined growth period
A) Because, during the past 1,000 years, ----.
forests in temperate areas were largely
cleared A) that terminates when a characteristic adult
B) Since subsistence agriculture accounts for size is reached
60 per cent of tropical deforestation B) even when the living material within cells
C) As the atmosphere and the oceans warm is in continuous motion
D) Even though wildlife in tropical lands C) although organisms move as they interact
suffers due to deforestation with the environment
E) While certain parts of the world are D) whether adaptations are traits that enable
critically short of protected areas such as an organism to survive in a particular
national parks environment
E) since Darwin did not know about DNA or
understand the mechanisms of inheritance

39. - 46. sorularda, verilen ngilizce cmleye A) Dizst bilgisayarlar ounlukla kiisel
anlamca en yakn Trke cmleyi, Trke uralar iin kullanlmasna ramen,
cmleye anlamca en yakn ngilizce cmleyi byk bilgisayarlar gibi ayn anda birok
bulunuz. kullanc tarafndan eriilen merkez
bilgisayarlar olarak irketler ve resm
daireler tarafndan da kullanlabilir.
39. Several problems have to be overcome to
B) Dizst bilgisayarlar ounlukla kiisel
make any nuclear reactor function.
faaliyetler iin kullanlrken, byk
bilgisayarlar, birok kullancnn e
A) Herhangi bir nkleer reaktrn almasn
zamanda ulaabildii merkez bilgisayarlar
salamak iin, bir sr sorunun
olarak irketler ve resm daireler
zmlenmesi arttr.
tarafndan kullanlr.
B) Bir nkleer reaktrn almas, pek ok
C) Byk bilgisayarlar genellikle irketler ve
sorunun stesinden gelinmesine baldr.
resm dairelerde birok kiinin ayn anda
C) Bir nkleer reaktr altrabilmek iin,
ulaabildii merkez bilgisayarlar olarak
eitli sorunlarn almas gerekmektedir.
kullanlr, dizst bilgisayarlar ise daha
D) Birok sorunun zmlenmesi, bir nkleer
ok kiisel faaliyetler iin tercih
reaktrn almas iin gereklidir.
E) Bir nkleer reaktrn almas iin, farkl
D) Dizst bilgisayarlar kiisel kullanmlar iin
pek ok sorunun zm gerekir.
tasarlanm olsa da irketlerde ve resm
dairelerde birok kullancnn ayn anda
40. The discovery of the electron in the 1890s
eriebildii merkez bilgisayarlar olarak da
might be said to mark the beginning of
modern physics.
E) Dizst bilgisayarlar byk
bilgisayarlardan ayran zellik, hem kiisel
A) 1890larda elektronun kefinin, modern
iler iin hem de irketler ve devlet
fiziin balangcn belirledii sylenebilir.
daireleri tarafndan ayn zamanda birok
B) Denilebilir ki elektronun 1890larda kefi,
kullancnn eriebildii merkez
modern fiziin balangcn ifade eder.
bilgisayarlar olarak kullanlabilmeleridir.
C) 1890larda elektronun kefi ile modern
fizik balamtr denilebilir.
43. Batyla karlatrldnda Asya lkeleri,
D) Modern fiziin, 1890larda elektronun kefi
yal ve hasta akrabalara ailenin bakaca
ile balad sylenebilir.
varsaymna dayanarak emekli maalarna
E) Elektronun 1890larda kefi zerine,
ve sosyal gvenlik sistemlerine daha az
modern fiziin balad sylenebilir.
yatrm yapmtr.
41. One of the most interesting applications of
A) Thinking that the family will look after their
laser light is the production of three-
elderly and ill relatives, Asian countries
dimensional images called 'holograms.'
have hardly made investment in pensions
and social security systems, compared
A) 'Hologram' denilen ve boyutlu olan
with the West.
grntlerin retilmesi, lazer nn en
B) When compared with the West, Asian
ilgin kullanmlarndan bir tanesidir.
countries have invested less in pensions
B) Lazer nn en ilgin uygulamalarndan
and social security systems, but they
biri, 'hologram' ad verilen boyutlu
believe the family will look after the old
grntlerin retilmesidir.
and ill relatives.
C) 'Hologram' olarak bilinen boyutlu
C) Asian countries, compared with the West,
grntler, lazer nn en ilgin bir
have invested less in pensions and social
ekilde kullanm ile retilmektedir.
security systems, on the assumption that
D) Lazer nn en ilgin bir baka
the family will look after the elderly and ill
kullanm, 'hologram' olarak tanmlanan
boyutlu grnt retimidir.
D) In comparison with the West, Asian
E) En ilgin bir uygulama ile, lazer ,
countries assume that the family will look
'hologram' denilen boyutlu grntlerin
after the elderly and ill relatives, thus they
retiminde kullanlmaktadr.
invest less in pensions and social security
42. While laptops are mostly used for personal
E) As Asian countries, unlike the West, think
activities, large computers are used by
that the family will be able to look after the
corporations and government agencies as
old and ill relatives, they invest less in
central computers that can be
pensions and social security systems.
simultaneously accessed by many users.

44. Samanyolunun saysz yldzdan ibaret 46. 1930larn ortalarna kadar, tm atomlarn,
olduunu ilk gzlemleyen, Galileo olmutur. ntronlar, protonlar ve elektronlardan
olutuu kabul ediliyordu.
A) The Milky Way was first observed by
Galileo who suggested that it consisted of A) Until the mid-1930s, it was admitted that
innumerable stars. all atoms were made up of neutrons,
B) It was Galileo who first observed that the protons, and electrons.
Milky Way is comprised of countless stars. B) Down to the middle of the 1930s, it was
C) Galileo was the first to observe the Milky agreed that neutrons, protons, and
Way, which is made up of an infinite electrons constituted atoms of all kinds.
number of stars. C) By the middle of the 1930s, atoms of all
D) For Galileo, who first made observations, kinds were believed to have neutrons,
an infinite number of stars constituted the protons, and electrons in them.
Milky Way. D) It was about the mid-1930s that the basic
E) The Milky Way, which was first observed constituents of all atoms were considered
by Galileo, is constituted by a countless to be neutrons, protons, and electrons.
number of stars. E) As far back as the mid-1930s, it was
recognized that every atom had neutrons,
45. Aa yukar 200 yl ncesine kadar, bilimsel protons, and electrons as its basic
aratrmalarda lm birimleri standart constituents.
deildi ve bu standart eksiklii, bilimsel
iletiimi zorlatryordu.

A) Since the units of measurement in

scientific research had not been
standardized before, there was much
difficulty in scientific communication about
200 years ago.
B) Due to the lack of standards for the units
of measurement in scientific research,
scientific communication until about 200
years ago was very difficult.
C) It was about 200 years ago that, as there
were no standards for the units of
measurement in scientific research, it was
extremely difficult to have any scientific
D) It was very hard to have any scientific
communication about 200 years ago
because there was a serious lack of
standards for the units of measurement in
scientific research.
E) Until about 200 years ago, the units of
measurement in scientific research were
not standardized, and this lack of
standards made scientific communication

47. - 50. sorular aadaki paraya gre 49. It is clear from the passage that the
cevaplaynz. presence of a nucleus in an atom ----.

A) had always been a controversial issue

In the early part of the twentieth century, the
among physicists until the early 1930s
experiments carried out by Ernest Rutherford and
B) was understood as a result of the
his colleagues led to the idea that at the centre of an
experiments undertaken by Rutherford
atom there is a tiny but massive nucleus. At the
and his colleagues
same time that the quantum theory was being
C) had been known for a long time before
developed and that scientists were attempting to
Rutherford and his colleagues clearly
understand the structure of the atom and its
defined its structure
electrons, investigations into the nucleus itself had
D) was revealed only after Chadwick
also begun. An important question to physicists was
discovered and defined the neutron
whether the nucleus had a structure, and what that
E) is still a major question for physicists since
structure might be. In fact, it has so far turned out
the nature of the nucleons needs to be
that the nucleus is a complicated entity, and even
fully described
today, it is not fully understood. However, by the
early 1930s, a model of the nucleus had been
50. It is clear from the passage that Chadwicks
developed that is still useful. According to this
work as regards the neutron ----.
model, a nucleus is considered as an aggregate of
two types of particles: protons and neutrons. A
A) was duly taken into account by all the
proton is the nucleus of the simplest atom which is
physicists in their research on electrons
hydrogen. The neutron, whose existence was
B) had a great deal of influence on
ascertained only in 1932 by the English physicist
Rutherford and his colleagues
James Chadwick, is electrically neutral as its name
C) was undoubtedly a significant contribution
implies. These two constituents of a nucleus,
to the study of the nucleus
neutrons and protons, are referred to collectively as
D) was originally inspired by the quantum
theory which he knew so well
E) brought him much fame not only in
47. According to the passage, in the early
England but elsewhere also
twentieth century, physicists ----.

A) were so divided among themselves that

they were unable to undertake any
research in order to reveal the structure of
the nucleus
B) were greatly inspired by the research
activities which the English physicist
James Chadwick was involved in
C) were so encouraged by the discovery of
the nucleons that they were able finally to
understand the true nature of the atom
D) were engaged in the development of the
quantum theory while they were also
focusing on the study of the nucleus
E) were all seriously interested in the
quantum theory as a new scientific
development and solely focused on it

48. One understands from the passage that one

of the serious questions with which
physicists in the early twentieth century was
concerned was ----.

A) to what extent the quantum theory might

transform classical physics
B) whether the neutron provided energy for
the nucleus
C) what structure the nucleus might have
D) whether the nucleus of hydrogen
contained the nucleons
E) why Rutherford and his colleagues were
indifferent to the quantum theory

51. - 54. sorular aadaki paraya gre 53. It is pointed out in the passage that a cattle
cevaplaynz. rangeland carved out of a tropical forest ----.

A) is certainly more suitable for ranching than

Commercial logging, mostly for export abroad,
other kinds of ranges
accounts for 21% of tropical deforestation. Most
B) is actually far more profitable and
tropical countries allow commercial logging to
environmentally harmless than
proceed at a much faster rate than is sustainable.
commercial logging
For example, in parts of Malaysia, current logging
C) is more feasible in tropical countries than
practices remove the forest almost twice as fast as
anywhere else in the world
the sustainable rate. If this continues, Malaysia will
D) can be viable up to ten years and, then, is
soon experience short ages of timber and will have
over grown with shrubby plants
to start importing logs. When that happens,
E) brings in more income than other kinds of
Malaysia will have lost future revenues, both from
rangeland outside tropical forests
logging and from harvesting other forest products,
from its newly vanished forests. Moreover, in
54. A point made in the passage is that tropical
addition to commercial logging, cattle ranching also
cattle ranches ----.
causes deforestation. In fact, approximately 12% of
tropical rainforest destruction is done to provide
A) in Malaysia are mostly owned by
open rangeland for cattle. After the forests are
international companies
cleared, cattle can be raised on the land for six to
B) provide most of the beef needed by fast-
ten years, after which time shrubby plants take over
food restaurants
the range. Much of the beef raised on these
C) are growing much faster than the
ranches, which are often owned by foreign
sustainable rate for forests
companies, is exported to fast-food restaurants.
D) are a major source of income for many
countries in the West
51. It is made clear in the passage that tropical
E) produce so much beef that much of it is
deforestation ----.
exported to other countries
A) is mainly caused by commercial logging
and cattle ranching
B) should be carried out at a sustainable rate
in countries like Malaysia
C) has not yet become an environmental
concern in developed countries
D) is unavoidable since many countries
including Malaysia encourage it
E) is now so well controlled that it has
ceased to be a problem

52. In the passage, attention is drawn to the fact

that Malaysias logging practices ----.

A) have given the country a leading position

in forest products
B) enable the country to earn enormous
C) are carried out at a remarkably
sustainable rate
D) provide a much higher income than cattle
E) will be very damaging to its economy in
the long run

55. - 58. sorular aadaki paraya gre 57. The passage gives a brief account of ----.
A) the precautions that need to be taken to
prevent the extinction of certain species
Today scientists draw attention to some of the
B) the possible adverse effects that global
potential consequences of global warming on
warming will, in the future, have on
wildlife. They point out that each species reacts to
different species
changes in temperature differently. Some species
C) how different ecosystems react to the
will undoubtedly become extinct, particularly those
increase of the numbers of species
with narrow temperature requirements, those
D) why certain species can always survive in
confined to small reserves or parks, and those living
many different environments
in fragile ecosystems, whereas other species may
E) the vital importance that wildlife has
survive in greatly reduced numbers and ranges.
particularly for fragile ecosystems
Ecosystems considered most vulnerable to species
loss in the short term are polar seas, coral reefs,
58. According to the passage, some species ----.
mountains, coastal wetlands, tundra, taiga, and
temperate forests. On the other hand, some species
A) are very sensitive to the environments
may be able to migrate to new environments or
with narrow temperature requirements
adapt themselves to the changing conditions in their
and, therefore, would have their habitats
present habitats. Also, some species may be
unaffected by global warming, whereas others may
B) are so adaptable to different environments
emerge from it as winners, with greatly expanded
that they keep on migrating from one
numbers and ranges. Those considered most likely
environment to another
to prosper include weeds, pests, and disease-
C) prefer to have their habitats not only in
carrying organisms that are already common in
places such as mountains and wetlands,
many different environments.
but also in tundra, taiga, and temperate
55. It is stressed in the passage that, due to
D) will be positively affected by global
global warming, ----.
warming and, consequently, will increase
in number and range
A) scientists have focused their efforts on the
E) such as weeds and pests would survive
conservation of rare species
only in one kind of ecosystem even
B) many organisms have already changed
though they react to changes in
their habitats
C) species living in temperate forests will
have to migrate to a new environment
D) there has been a sharp increase in the
variety and number of pests
E) for some species, extinction is inevitable

56. It is clear from the passage that global

warming ----.

A) has caused much decline in the number of

many rare species
B) is particularly harmful to coastal wetlands
and coral reefs
C) has increased dangerously and
extensively throughout the world
D) has already forced many species to
migrate to new environments
E) does not have the same impact on all

59. - 62. sorular aadaki paraya gre 61. The passage draws attention to the fact that,
cevaplaynz. despite centuries of telescopic
observations, ----.
Earth and Venus, being roughly the same size and
A) planetary scientists have failed to
distance from the sun, are often regarded as twin
understand the geological composition of
planets. So it is natural to wonder how the crust of
Venus rocks
Venus compares with that of our own world.
B) there has been no information available
Although centuries of telescopic observations from
about the surface of Venus
Earth could give no insight, beginning in 1990 the
C) extensive areas of Venus have yet to be
Magellan space probes orbiting radar penetrated
the thick clouds that enshroud Venus and revealed
D) the clouds that surround Venus have only
its surface with stunning clarity. From the detailed
once been penetrated
images of land forms, planetary scientists can
E) planetary scientists were not aware of the
surmise the type of rock that covers Venus. It
fact that Venus and Earth were twin
seems that our sister planet is completely covered
by rocks of basaltic composition, which are very
much like the dark, fine grained rocks that line the
62. The passage is mainly concerned with ----.
ocean basins of Earth. Magellans mapping,
however, failed to find extensive areas comparable
A) the Magellan space probes findings about
to Earths continental crust.
B) the major question of why the surface of
59. It is stressed in the passage that, in view of
Venus is covered by rocks
its largeness as well as remoteness from
C) Venus cloud formations, which is an issue
the sun, Venus ----.
still debated by scientists
D) planetary scientists ongoing research into
A) is far different from Earth
Earths continental crust
B) is very much like our own planet
E) a scientific analysis of the pictures sent by
C) is incomparable with any other planet
the Magellan space probe
D) still seems to be incomprehensible
E) has always been a favourite for telescopic

60. According to the passage, Magellans

exploration of Venus ----.

A) was largely prevented by the planets thick

clouds and turned into a total failure
B) benefited a great deal from the data
obtained through centuries of telescopic
C) has revealed a kind of rock composition
which resembles the rocks in Earths
ocean basins
D) have enabled planetary scientists to
explain why the planet is enshrouded in
thick clouds
E) not only showed clearly the size of the
planet but also how its thick clouds were

63. - 66. sorular aadaki paraya gre 65. As one learns from the passage, the reason
cevaplaynz. why a wildfire is followed by vegetation
growth is that ----.
Wildfires are an important environmental hazard in
A) the minerals in the soil, especially
many geographical areas. Those areas most prone
potassium, phosphorus, and calcium, are
to wildfires have wet seasons followed by dry
preserved perfectly
seasons. Vegetation that grows and accumulates
B) soil erosion takes a long time and,
during the wet season dries out enough during the
therefore, plants have time to grow up
dry season to burn easily. When lightning hits the
C) plant seeds in the soil are unaffected by
ground, it ignites the dry organic material, and a fire
the fire and begin to germinate in the wet
spreads through the area. Actually fires have
several effects on the environment. First, burning
D) the ashes of the burnt organic matter
frees the minerals that are locked in organic matter.
contain many minerals indispensable for
The ashes remaining after a fire are rich in
potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and other minerals
E) the area where the fires have taken place
essential for plant growth. Thus, vegetation
becomes suitable for shade-intolerant
flourishes following afire. Second, fire removes plant
cover and exposes the soil, which stimulates the
germination of seeds requiring bare soil, and
66. One understands from the passage that,
encourages the growth of shade-intolerant plants.
while the wet season is favourable for
Third, fire can cause increased soil erosion because
vegetation, ----.
it removes plant cover, leaving the soil more
vulnerable to wind and water.
A) the dry season ushers in the danger of fire
B) it causes a great deal of soil erosion
63. According to the passage, soil erosion ----.
C) it leads to the depletion of minerals in the
A) is undoubtedly the most adverse effect
D) the dry season stimulates the germination
that wildfires have on areas where plant
of seeds
cover is thick due to heavy vegetation
E) the growth of plants largely depends on
B) can happen in an area which, due to
the condition of the soil
wildfires, has lost its plant cover, whereby
the soil has become exposed to wind and
C) can be prevented in areas prone to
wildfires just as strict measures are taken
to maintain adequate plant cover
D) extensively undermines environmental
sustainability because it not only removes
plant cover, but also prevents plant growth
E) is mainly caused by wind and water, which
destroy the plant cover of an area and turn
the area into an arid land

64. It is clear from the passage that the areas

with vegetation, where a wet season is
followed by a dry season, ----.

A) are most suitable for the germination of

plant seeds
B) usually have a vast range of
environmental diversity
C) maintain their plant cover and, therefore,
are much prone to soil erosion
D) are usually rich in various minerals that
are essential for plant growth
E) are most vulnerable to wildfires

67. - 70. sorular aadaki paraya gre 69. It is pointed out in the passage that all
cevaplaynz. organisms ----.

A) know exactly how mountain slopes

Moisture is removed from humid air by mountains,
provide the best conditions for survival
which force the air to rise. As it gains altitude, the air
B) usually have their habitat in places where
cools, clouds form, and precipitation occurs,
there isnt much exposure to sunlight
primarily on the windward slopes of the mountains.
C) are affected most adversely when the
As the air mass moves down on the other side of
climate of their environment keeps on
the mountain, it is warmed, thereby lessening the
chance of precipitation of any remaining moisture.
D) fully adapt to the conditions of the
This situation exists on the west coast of North
microclimate in which they live
America, where precipitation falls on the western
E) are perfectly able to cope with the physical
slopes of mountains that are close to the coast. The
conditions of an arid geography
dry lands on the sides of the mountains away from
the prevailing wind are called 'rain shadows.'
70. It is explained in the passage that the rain
Generally, differences in elevation, in the steepness
shadows of mountains are dry because ----.
and direction of slopes, and in exposure to sunlight
and prevailing winds may produce local variations in
A) air mass that moves over them is warm
climate known as microclimates, ' which can be
and has almost no moisture for
quite different from their overall surroundings. For
an organism, the microclimate of its habitat is of
B) they differ enormously from each other in
primary importance, because that is the climate an
terms of elevation and steepness
organism actually experiences and knows how to
C) they are fully exposed to prevailing winds
cope with.
and, therefore, have no chance of
67. As pointed out in the passage,
D) their microclimatic conditions vary
microclimates ----.
enormously and are therefore not suitable
for rainfall
A) can best be observed along the west
E) they are far from any coast that would
coast of America where precipitation is
provide them with moisture and cool air
B) occur as a result of differences in the
geographical features and conditions of an
C) show a great deal of variety in the North
American dry lands known as rain
D) create a secure environment for
organisms that prefer to live in areas with
adequate precipitation
E) are not affected by prevailing winds
because of the steepness and direction of
mountain slopes

68. It is clear from the passage that mountains -


A) with steep slopes are most suitable for the

formation of rain shadows
B) do not receive any amount of precipitation
on their windward slopes
C) form an obstacle for prevailing winds to
cause local variations in climate
D) always provide a large variety of habitat
for all kinds of organisms
E) play an important role in the change of
moist air into precipitation

71. - 75. sorularda, bo braklan yere, parada 72. Electronics and communications have been
anlam btnln salamak iin getirilebilecek completely transformed by technological
cmleyi bulunuz. advances in materials. A good example is
optical fibrecables that have replaced long-
71. Sometimes organisms modify their own distance telephone cables made of copper
micro climate. For instance, trees modify wire. Optical fibres are fine threads of
the local climate within a forest so that in extremely pure glass. ---- Not only are
summer the temperature is usually lower, optical-fibre cables cheaper and less bulky
and the relative humidity greater, than than copper cables carrying the same
outside the forest. The temperature and information, but also by using different
humidity beneath the litter of the forest floor colours of light, optical-fibre cables can
differ still more; in the summer this area is carry voice, data, and video information at
considerably cooler and moister than the the same time.
surrounding forest. ---- The cooler day time
microclimate in their burrows permits them A) In fact, in view of staggering advances in
to survive until night, when the surface scientific research and technological
cools off and they can come out to forage or application, one can say that scientists
hunt. continue to develop new materials and
discover new properties of old ones.
A) As another example, many desert- B) Scientists have demonstrated that they
dwelling animals burrow to avoid surface can transform light pulses into electronic
climatic conditions that would kill them in computer signals at the rate of 3 billion
minutes. bits of information a second.
B) An areas climate comprises the average C) Marconi (1874-1937) invented and
weather conditions that occur there over a developed the wireless telegraph, which
period of years. could send messages hundreds of
C) One of the most important climatic factors kilometres at the speed of light without the
is temperature, which comprises both use of wires.
average temperature and temperature D) Because of their purity, these fibres can
extremes. transmit laser light pulses for miles
D) Precipitation is greatest where warm air compared with only a few inches in
passes over the ocean, absorbing ordinary glass.
moisture, and is then cooled, such as E) Moreover, chemists could correlate
when humid air is forced upwards by molecular structure with the
mountains. characteristics of materials and so begin
E) Actually the tropics are hotter and less to fashion materials with special
variable in climate than are temperate and characteristics.
polar areas.

73. One characteristic property of a gas is its 74. Energy can be transformed from one form to
compressibility, that is, its ability to be another. A stone held high in the air has
squeezed into a smaller volume by the potential energy; as it falls, it loses potential
application of pressure. By comparison, energy, since its height above the ground
liquids and solids are relatively decreases. At the same time, it gains in
incompressible. The compressibility of kinetic energy, since its velocity is
gases was first studied quantitatively by increasing. Potential energy is being
Robert Boyle in 1661. When he poured transformed into kinetic energy. ---- At the
mercury into the open end of a J-shaped base of the dam, the kinetic energy of the
tube, the volume of the enclosed gas water can be transferred into turbine blades
decreased. Each addition of mercury and further transformed into electric energy.
increased the pressure on the gas,
decreasing its volume. ---- A) As for potential energy, it is the energy
associated with forces that depend on the
A) It is true that gases are composed of position or configuration of a body or
molecules whose size is negligible bodies and the surroundings.
compared with the average distance B) The word 'work' has a variety of meanings
between them. in everyday language, but in physics, work
B) While studying the composition of air, is given a very specific meaning to
John Dalton concluded in 1801 that each describe what is accomplished by the
gas in a mixture of unreactive gases acts action of a force.
as though it were the only gas in the C) Similarly, water at the top of a dam has
mixture. potential energy, which is transformed into
C) According to Newton, the pressure of a kinetic energy as the water falls.
gas was due to the mutual repulsions of D) Besides the kinetic and potential energy of
the gas particles, that is, gas molecules. ordinary objects, there are other forms of
D) The Swiss mathematician and physicist energy, which include electric energy,
Daniel Bernoulli suggested in 1738 that nuclear energy, thermal energy, and
molecules of gases move faster at higher chemical energy.
temperatures. E) For instance, according to the atomic
E) From such experiments, he formulated the theory, thermal energy is interpreted as
law now known by his name and called the kinetic energy of rapidly moving
'Boyles law.' molecules.

75. Fires were a part of the natural environment 78. (I) The atmosphere has three prevailing winds
long before humans appeared, and many that blow more or less continually. (II) The solar
terrestrial ecosystems have adapted to it. energy that reaches polar regions is less
African savana, North American grasslands, concentrated and produces lower
and pine forests of the southern United temperatures. (III) Prevailing winds that blow
States are some of the fire adapted from the northeast near the North Pole or the
ecosystems. For example, fire helps southeast near the South Pole are called 'polar
maintain grasses as the dominant easterlies.' (IV) Winds that blow in the mid-
vegetation in grasslands by removing fire- latitudes from the southwest in the Northern
sensitive hard wood trees. The influence of Hemisphere or the northwest in the Southern
fire on plants became even more evident Hemisphere are 'westerlies'. (V) Tropical winds
once humans appeared. ---- Indeed, humans that blow from the northeast in the Northern
set fires for many reasons, such as for Hemisphere or the southeast in the Southern
agricultural exploitation and urban Hemisphere are referred to as 'trade winds.'
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) Humans also try to prevent fires, and
sometimes this effort can have disastrous 79. (I) In his theory of the universe Newton
consequences. assumed the universe was static. (II) Galaxies
B) Because humans deliberately and tend to be grouped in galaxy clusters, with
accidentally set fires, fire became a more anywhere from a few to many thousands of
common occurrence. galaxies in each cluster. (III) In other words,
C) When fire is excluded from a fire-adapted Newton believed that no large-scale changes
ecosystem, organic litter accumulates. would occur over time. (IV) He recognized the
D) The deadly fire in Colorado during the difficulties in imagining a universe either as
summer of 1994 claimed the lives of 14 finite or as infinite. (V) If it is finite and has a
firefighters. boundary, then the question would be 'What is
E) Controlled burns are used to suppress fire beyond the boundary?'
sensitive trees, thereby maintaining the
natural fire-adapted ecosystem. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

76. - 80. sorularda, cmleler srasyla 80. (I) Many different conditions exist along the
okunduunda parann anlam btnln length of a river or stream. (II) The nature of a
bozan cmleyi bulunuz. flowing-water ecosystem changes greatly from
its source, where it begins, to its mouth, where
76. (I) Lake and ocean shores have extensive sand it empties into another body of water. (III) For
dunes, which are deposited by wind and water. example, headwater streams are usually
(II) At first these dunes are blown about by the shallow, cold, swiftly flowing. (IV) In contrast,
wind. (III) The sand dune environment is rivers downstream from the headwaters are
severe, with high temperatures during the day wider and deeper, less cold and slower-flowing.
and low temperatures at night. (IV) If ozone (V) Unless strong conservation measures are
disappeared from the stratosphere, Earth would initiated soon, human population growth and
become unlivable for most forms of life. (V) industrialization in tropical countries will spell
Also, sand dunes are deficient in certain the end of tropical rain forests by the middle of
mineral nutrients needed by plants. the century.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

77. (I) It is clear that nuclear power presents many

risks. (II) Other large-scale energy-conversion
methods, such as conventional coal-burning
steam plants, also present health and
environmental hazards. (III) When we speak of
a vibration or an oscillation, we mean the
motion of an object that regularly repeats itself,
back and forth, over the same path. (IV) These
include air pollution, oil spills, and the release of
carbon dioxide. (V) In fact, while trying to meet
the worlds needs for energy, we must find
ways to overcome all these environmental

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

1 C 11 B 21 E 31 B 41 B 51 A 61 B 71 A
2 E 12 D 22 E 32 D 42 B 52 E 62 A 72 D
3 E 13 D 23 B 33 E 43 C 53 D 63 D 73 E
4 D 14 A 24 A 34 C 44 B 54 B 64 E 74 C
5 D 15 E 25 E 35 B 45 E 55 E 65 D 75 B
6 A 16 A 26 C 36 A 46 A 56 E 66 A 76 D
7 D 17 E 27 C 37 B 47 D 57 B 67 B 77 C
8 E 18 D 28 E 38 A 48 C 58 D 68 E 78 B
9 E 19 A 29 A 39 C 49 B 59 B 69 D 79 B
10 C 20 B 30 C 40 A 50 C 60 C 70 A 80 E