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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology (DIT)

ET 8117

Introduction to Communication Systems

Ally, J


Course Outline
„ Principle of Communication System

„ AM Modulation

„ Angle Modulation

„ Digital coding

„ Digital Modulation

„ Errors

Principle of Communication System

Information Representation
„ Communication systems convert information into a format
appropriate for the transmission medium.
‰ Channels convey electromagnetic waves (signals).

„ Analog communication systems convert (modulate) analog

signals into modulated (analog) signals
„ Digital communication systems convert information in the form of
bits into binary/digital signals
„ Types of Information:
‰ Analog Signals: Voice, Music, Temperature readings
‰ Analog signals or bits: Video, Images
‰ Bits: Text, Computer Data
‰ Analog signals can be converted into bits by quantizing/digitizing

Basic Mode of Communication

There are two basic modes of communication:

‰ Broadcasting: which involves the use of a single powerful

transmitter and numerous receivers that are relatively inexpensive
to build. Here information-bearing signals flow only in one direction.

‰ Point-to-point communication: in which the communication

process takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a
receiver. In this case, there is usually a bidirectional flow of
information-bearing signals, which requires the use of a transmitter
and receiver at each end of the link.

Primary Communication Resources
In a communication system, two primary resources are employed:
Transmitted Power and Channel Bandwidth.

‰ The Transmitted Power: is the average power of the transmitted signal

‰ The channel bandwidth is defined as the band of frequencies allocated for
the transmission of the message signal

™ A general system design objective is to use these two resources as
efficiently as possible.

™ In most communication channels, one resource may be considered

more important than the other.

™ Therefore we may classify communication channels as Power limited or


™ Example, the telephone circuit is a typical Band-limited channel, whereas

a space communication link or satellite channel is typically Power limited.

Source of Information
The telecommunications environment is dominated by four important
sources of information: speech, music, pictures, and computer data

™ Speech is the primary method of human communication

™ Music is the one originates from instruments such as the piano,

violin, and flute

™ Pictures is the one relies on the human visual system for its
perception. The picture can be dynamic, as in television, or static, as
in fascimile (fax) machine

™ Computer data is the information transmitted or exchanged through

computer or other electronic devices

Communication System Block Diagram

m(t ) x(t) xˆ(t) mˆ ( t )

„ Source encoder converts message into message signal or bits.

„ Transmitter converts message signal or bits into format appropriate for
channel transmission (analog/digital signal).
„ Channel introduces distortion, noise, and interference.

„ Receiver decodes received signal back to message signal.

„ Source decoder decodes message signal back into original message.

NB: The good communication system is to produce at the destination

(receiver) an acceptable replica of the source message.

Modulation and Demodulation

„ Modulation
¾ Is the process of changing ore or more properties such
as amplitude, frequency, and phase of the analog carrier
in proportion with the information signal
¾ Performed in a transmitter by a circuit called a modulator

„ Demodulation
¾ Is the reverse process of modulation and converts the
modulated carrier back to the original information
¾ Performed in a receiver by a circuit called a demodulator

Two Basic of Electronic Communication
‰ An analog communication system

¾ Is a system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog

form (a continuously varying signal such as sine wave)

¾ Both the information and the carriers are analog signal

‰ The digital communication system

Covers a broad range of communication techniques, including

digital transmission and digital radio

Two Basic of Electronic Communication System(2)
™ Digital transmission
- Is a true digital system where digital pulses are transferred between
two or more point a communication system
- There is no analog carrier, and the original source may be in digital or
analog form
- Require physical transmission medium such as metallic cable or optical

™ Digital Radio
- Is the transmitted of digitally modulated carrier between two or
more points in a communication system
- The modulating signal and the demodulated signal are digital
- Digital pulse modulate an analog carrier
- Transmission medium may be a physical facility or free space
(i.e. The Earth’s atmosphere)

Advantage of using Digital transmission compared
to Analog transmission

„ Increased immunity to channel noise and external


„ Flexible operation of the system

„ A common format for the transmission of different kinds

of message signals (e.g. voice signals, video signals,
computer data)

„ Improved security of communication through the use of


Summary of various modulation technique

„ Analog Modulation Types

¾ Amplitude Modulation (AM): is the one if the information signal is analog and the
amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal
¾ Frequency Modulation (FM): is the one if the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied
proportional to the information signal
¾ Phase modulation (PM): is the one if the phase (θ) of the carrier is varied proportional
to the information signal

„ Digital Modulation Types

¾ Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): is the one if the information signal is digital and the
amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal
¾ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): is the one if the frequency (f) of the carrier is varied
proportional to the information signal
¾ Phase Shift Keying (PSK): is the one if the phase (θ) of the carrier is varied
proportional to the information signal
¾ Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): is the one if both the amplitude (V) and the
phase (θ) of the carrier are varied proportional to the information signal

Why Modulation is necessary

„ It is extremely difficult to radiate low frequency

signals from an antenna in the form of
electromagnetic energy
„ It is possible to combine a number of baseband
(information) signal and send them through the
medium, provided different carrier frequencies
are used for different baseband signals
„ Transmitting signals over large distance,
because low frequency signals have poor
radiation characteristics

Analog vs. Digital Systems
„ Analog signals
‰ The amplitude changes continuously
with respect to time with no discontinuities
„ Digital signals x(t)
‰ The one which are discrete and their
amplitudes maintains a constant level
for prescribed period of time and then it
changes to another level
Digital systems more x(t)
„ Binary signals
‰ Has at most 2 values t
‰ Used to represent bit values x(t) 1 1
‰ Bit time T needed to send 1 bit
‰ Data rate R=1/T bits per second 0 0 0
T 0

j = −1

Line Spectra and Fourier Series

Phasors and line spectra
-we express sinusoids in terms of the cosine function and write

where A is the peak value or amplitude

θ is the radian frequency

-The reciprocal of the period equals the cyclical frequency

-The phasor representation of a sinusoidal signal comes from Euler's theorem

-we can write any sinusoid as the real part of a complex exponential, namely

Periodic Signals and Average Power

„ Given any time function v(t), its average value over all time is defined as:

„ In the case of a periodic signal, the equation above reduces to the average over any
interval of duration To, thus

„ Our definition of the average power associated with an arbitrary periodic signal then

„ In any case, the value of P will be real and nonnegative and the signal v(t) is said to
have well defined average power, and will be called a periodic power signal

Fourier Series
„ Let be a power signal with period . Its exponential
Fourier series expansion is

„ The series coefficients are related to by

„ so , equals the average of the product since the

coefficients are complex quantities in general, they can be xpressed
in the polar form

where arg c, stands for the angle of c

Three important spectral properties of periodic
power signals
„ All frequencies are integer multiples or harmonics of the fundamental
frequency fo = l/To. Thus the spectral lines have uniform spacing fo.
„ The dc component equals the average value of the signal, by setting n = 0

„ If v(t) is a real (noncomplex) function of time, then

Replace the above equation by n=-n. Hence

which means that the amplitude spectrum has even symmetry and the phase
spectrum has odd symmetry

„ Consider the periodic train of rectangular pulses amplitude,
A and width or duration To calculate the Fourier
coefficients, we'll take the range of integration over the
central period ,where


For simplification we use the sinc function, which is

Multiplying and dividing by finally gives

Fourier Transform Properties
„ Useful Properties
‰ Linearity, time shift,Parseval
„ Key Properties
‰ Time scaling
„ Contracting in time yields expansion in frequency
‰ Duality
„ Operations in time lead to dual operations in frequency
„ Fourier transform pairs are duals of each other
‰ Frequency shifting
„ Multiplying in time by an exponential leads to a frequency
‰ Convolution and Multiplication
„ Multiplication in time leads to convolution in frequency
„ Convolution in time leads to multiplication in frequency

Fourier Transforms

„ If v(t) is the voltage across a resistance, the total delivered energy would be found by
integrating the instantaneous power . We therefore define normalized signal
energy as

„ NB: When the integral in the above equation exists and yields the signal
u(t) is said to have well-defined energy and is called a nonperiodic energy signal.

„ To introduce the Fourier transform, we'll start with the Fourier series representation
of a periodic power signal

Fourier Transforms(2)

„ Let the frequency spacing approach zero, and the index n approach
infinity such that the product approaches a continuous frequency variable f. Then

„ The bracketed term is the Fourier transform of v(t) symbolized by or

and defined as:

The time function v(t) is recovered from V(f) by the inverse Fourier transform

Parseval’s Power Theorem

„ Parseval's theorem relates the average power P of a periodic signal to its

Fourier coefficients, which is

„ Homework
Derive Parseval's theorem by using the following expression

Rayleigh's Energy Theorem
„ Rayleigh's energy theorem is analogous to Parseval's power theorem. It
states that the energy E of a signal v(t) is related to the spectrum V(f) by

it implies that gives the distribution of energy in the frequency domain,

and therefore may be termed the energy spectral density

„ Rayleigh's theorem is actually a special case of the more general integral


Prove Rayleigh's theorem by follows the same lines for the derivation of
Parseval’s theorem

Duality Theorem
„ The theorem states that if v(t) and V(f) constitute a known transform pair,
and if there exists a time function z(t) related to the function V(f) by

where v(-f) equals v(t) with t = -f

„ Therefore, we may replace f in fourier transform equation with the dummy

variable and write

„ Furthermore, since t is a dummy variable, z(t) = V(t) in the theorem,

Comparing these integrals then confirms that

Time delay and Scale change
„ Specifically, replacing t by , produces the time-delayed signal

„ If , is a negative quantity, the signal is advanced in time and the added

phase has positive slope. The amplitude spectrum remains unchanged in
either case, since

„ Scale change in the time domain becomes reciprocal scale change in the
frequency domain, since

„ Hence, compressing a signal expands its spectrum, and vice versa. If

then so both the signal and spectrum are reversed.

Frequency Translation and Modulation
„ Besides generating new transform pairs, duality can be used to generate
transform theorems. In particular, a dual of the time-delay theorem is

„ Since is not a real time function and cannot occur as a

communication signal. However, signals of the form are
common-in fact, they are the basis of carrier modulation-and by direct
extension of the equation above we have the following modulation theorem:

„ The theorem is easily proved with the aid of Euler’s theorem

Differentiation and Integration
Differentiation in the time domain
¾ Let and assume that the first derivative of v(t) is Fourier transformable.

and by iteration we get

which is the differentiation theorem.

Integration in the time domain

¾ Let then, provided V(0), the integration theorem says that


The zero net area condition in the above equation ensures that the integrated signal goes
to zero as

Convolution Theorems
„ This property is listed below along with the associative and
distributive properties

„ we now list the two convolution theorems:

„ The prove of above theorem is by using time delay theorem

Special Functions
„ Dirac delta function

„ Exponentials Αδ(f-fc)
Aej2πfct ⇔
„ Sinusoids
.5Αδ(f+fc) .5Αδ(f-fc)
Acos(2πfct) ⇔
-fc fc
„ Delta Function Train
Ts∑nδ(t-nTs) ∑nδ(t-n/Ts)

-3Ts -2Ts -Ts 0 Ts 2Ts 3Ts -1/Ts 1/Ts

„ Sampling (Time):

x(t) ∑nδ(t-nTs) = xs(t)

0 0

„ Sampling (Frequency)
X(f) (1/Ts)∑nδ(t-n/Ts) =
1 * 1/Ts

-B 0 B -1/Ts 0 1/Ts -1/Ts 0 1/Ts

DITto recreate signal from samples

Nyquist: Must sample at Ts<1/(2B)