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Transféré par Jumanne Ally

- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee3150.101.09f taught by Muhammad Kalam (mak019600)
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ET 7308

Ally, J

jumannea@gmail.com

DIT

Course Outline

Principle of Communication System, Types of signal

characteristics and reason for modulation

Analogue Modulation

Angle Modulation

Digital Coding

Digital Modulation

Errors

DIT

Analogue Modulation

DIT

Introduction to Modulation

Definitions

Analog modulation

analog signals

Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation

Three signals:

transmitted

obtained after modulation

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Modulation

It is the process of facilitating the transfer of

information over a medium.

parameters of a signal including power,

frequency, phase and amplitude depending

on the requirement of the transmission

system.

DIT

Base band and band pass signals

Baseband, Passband

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower

than the carrier frequency

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the

carrier frequency

transmitted signal

DIT

Base band and band pass signals

• Base band signal is the original signal having the original frequencies

when delivered by transmitters.

modulation.

modulation schemes.

message from the carrier so that it may be processed and

interpreted by the intended receiver

DIT

Message signal m(t) modifies:

Amplitude: A(t ) AM Æ linear modulation

Phase: φ (t ) PM Non-linear modulation

Frequency: f (t) = dφ(t) dt FM

Example Compare signal waveforms

carrier

10

8

message signal

AM signal

FM signal

−2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

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Concept of Modulation

DIT

DIT

Checkpoints for studying each modulation

Spectrum (frequency-domain)

diagrams or circuits)

over other modulations)

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List of modulation methods we will learn

1. AM (amplitude modulation): AM radio, short wave

radio broadcast,

2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM):

data modem, Color TV’s color signals

3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone

4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal

1. FM (frequency modulation): FM radio broadcast, TV

sound signal, analog cellular phone

2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in

digital communication systems (but that is different)

DIT

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

AM (conventional amplitude modulation)

Amplitude Modulation (AM) is the one which the amplitude of a

sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming

message signal

Modulated signal

Carrier:

AM modulated signal

sensitivity of the modulator responsible for

the generation of the modulated signal s(t).

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Time-Domain description

The standard form of an AM wave is defined by

(

The amplitude of the time function multiplying cos 2πf c t ) is called the

envelope of AM wave s(t).

The envelope of s(t) has essentially the same shape as the baseband signal

m(t) provided that two requirements are satisfied:

1. The amplitude of is always less than unity, that is,

for all t

2. The carrier frequency fc, is much greater than the highest frequency

component W (message bandwidth) of the message signal m(t), that is

(a) Baseband signal m(t) (b) AM wave for (c) AM wave for

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Frequency-Domain description

The Fourier transform of the AM wave s(t) is given by

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Generation of AM Waves

Multipliers difficult to build in hardware

AM waves typically generated using a nonlinear device to obtain the

desired multiplication

Square law modulator sums carrier c(t) and information m(t) signals,

then squares them using a nonlinear device. Unwanted terms are

filtered out with a bandpass filter.

Switched modulation sums c(t) and m(t) then passes sum through a

switch, which approximately multiplies it by a periodic square wave.

This generates the desired signal plus extra terms that are filtered

out. Accos(2πfct+φ)

m(t)

s(t)

+ Square

or Switch BPF

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Modulation Index

The degree of modulation is an important parameter and is known as

the modulation index. It is the ratio of the peak amplitude of the

modulating signal, Am to the peak amplitude of the carrier signal, Ac

Am

ka =

Ac

(a) Under Modulation (ka < 1)

DIT

http://www.williamson-labs.com/480_am.htm

Over Modulation

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Detection of AM waves

There are two devices for the detection of AM waves, namely, the

square-law detector and the envelope detector

LPF

Residual distortion proportional to m2(t)

Ac cos(2πf ct + φ )

DIT

Explanation

portion of AM signal s(t)

When signal after D1 is positive,

C is charged.

When signal after D2 is 0,

C is discharged.

Overall effect:

y(t) remains approximately

as the envelope of s(t)

Very important: this is

m(t) can be detected from y(t)

Envelope Detector. using capacitor to remove d.c.1.

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Bandwidth of AM signal BT = 2W

minimum channel bandwidth Bc

positive frequency

= PUSB + PLSB + Pcarrier

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Normalized Average Power of AM signals

The normalized average power of the AM signal is

(t ) g (t ) A c2 [1 + m (t )]

1 1

= =

2 2 2

s

2 2

=

1

2

[

A c2 1 + 2 m (t ) + m 2 (t ) ]

A c2 + A c2 m (t ) + A c2 m 2 (t )

1 1

=

2 2

s 2

(t ) =

1 2

Ac + A c m 2 (t )

1 2

2 2

Discrete

Sideband power

carrier power

DIT

AM – Modulation Efficiency

Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of

the modulated signal that conveys information.

m 2 (t )

Modulation Efficiency: E= × 100

1 + m (t )

2

S( f ) =

Ac

[δ ( f − f c ) + M ( f − f c ) + δ ( f + f c ) + M ( f + f c )]

2

Carrier line spectral Translated version of

component message signal

DIT

Major Properties of AM

Advantages

Simplicity in implementation, especially in receiver and

transmitter

The major reason that AM was the first & most popular

broadcasting methods during early days

Disadvantages

Waste power and bandwidth

Carrier components wastes a major portion power, but

carrier does not have message information

Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the same

message information

DIT

Ways for AM improvement

Reduce/remove carrier: DSB-SC

Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Multiplex two message signals together: QAM

More expensive implementation

The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable

DIT

Double-Sideband Suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC)

In the standard form of Amplitude Modulation (AM), the carrier wave

c(t) is completely independent of the message signal m(t), which

means that the transmission of the carrier wave represents a waste

of power.

component from the modulated wave, resulting in double-sideband

suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.

is proportional to the product of the carrier wave and the message

signal.

DIT

Time-Domain Description

The standard form of a DSB-SC wave is defined by

s (t ) = Ac cos (2πf c t )m (t )

This modulated wave undergoes a phase reversal whenever the

message signal m(t) crosses zero, as illustrated in figure below

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Frequency-Domain Description

The Fourier transform of the DSB-SC wave s(t) is given by

DIT

Generation of DSB-SC Waves

A DSB-SC modulated wave consists simply of the product of the

message signal and the carrier wave. A device achieving this

requirement is called a Product Modulator.

Modulated signal is

DIT

Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave

The baseband signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSB-

SC wave s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated

sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product

It is assumed that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or

synchronized, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave

c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t).

This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or

synchronous detection.

DIT

Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-2

We find that the product modulator output is:

frequency 2fc, whereas the second term is proportional to the

baseband signal m(t).

the first term is removed by the low-pass filter, this requirement is

satisfied by choosing fc > W. At the filter output we then obtain a

signal given by

phase error is a constant.

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-3

The amplitude of this demodulated signal is maximum when

and it is minimum (zero) when

undistorted version of the original baseband signal m(t).

In practice, however, we usually find that the phase error varies randomly

with time, due to random variations in the communication channel. The

result is that at the detector output, the multiplying factor cos φ also varies

randomly with time, which is obviously undesirable.

oscillator in the receiver in perfect synchronism, in both frequency and

phase, with the carrier wave used to generate the DSB-SC modulated

signal in the transmitter.

The resulting system complexity is the price that must be paid for

suppressing the carrier wave to save transmitter power.

DIT

Costas Loop (DSB-SC Demodulator)

Goal: Maintain ∆φ ≈ ο

cosφm(t )

1

2

cos (2πf c t + φ )

sin (2πf c t + φ )

sin φm(t )

1

2

DIT

Costas Loop

One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system, suitable

for demodulating DSB-SC waves, is to use the Costas loop.

This receiver consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same

input signal, namely, the incoming DSB-SC wave Accos(2πfct)m(t), but with

individual local oscillator signals that are in phase quadrature with respect to

each other.

carrier frequency fc, which is assumed known a priori.

detector or I-channel, and that in the lower path is referred to as the

quadrature-phase coherent detector or Q-channel.

system designed in such a way as to maintain the local oscillator

synchronous with the carrier wave.

DIT

Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier

Power in a AM signal is given by

s 2 (t ) = Ac m (t )

1 2 1 2 2

Ac +

2 2

Discrete carrier power Sideband power

Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is

assumed to have a zero DC level

Then s (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos ωc t

Spectrum Î Power Î

s 2 (t ) = Ac m (t )

1 2 2

S ( f ) = c [M ( f − f c ) + M ( f + f c )]

A

2 2

m 2 (t )

E= ×100 = 100%

m (t )

Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is 2

DIT

Noise in AM Receivers

White Gaussian noise (AWGN)

n(t)

LPF

s(t)=Accos(2πfct+φ)m(t) Product 1 m´(t)+ n´(t)

+ Modulator

-B B

Accos(2πfct+φ)

Power in s(t) is 0.5Ac2Pm

Power in n(t) is N0B

SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver input)

Power in m′(t) is 0.25Ac2Pm (half the power in s(t))

Power in n′(t) is 0.5N0B (PSD 0.25N0 over BW 2B)

SNR=Pm´/Pn´= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver output)

DIT

Single-SideBand (SSB) Modulation

Standard AM and DSB-SC Modulation are wasteful of

bandwidth because they both require a transmission

bandwidth equal to twice message the message

bandwidth.

This means that insofar as the transmission of

information is concerned, only one sideband is

necessary, and no information is lost.

Thus the channel needs to provide only the same

bandwidth as the message signal, a conclusion that is

intuitively satisfying.

When only one sideband is transmitted, the modulation

is referred to as single-sideband modulation

DIT

Single Sideband Modulation(2)

Only transmits upper or lower sideband of AM and DSBSC

The transmitted signal can be written in terms m(t) and the

Hilbert Transform of m(t)

Use same demodulator as DSBSC

SSB has half the SNR of DSBSC for half the transmit

power: no SNR gain

SSB can introduce significant distortion at DC where the

sidebands meet: not good for TV signals

LSB

A

s ( t ) = c [ m ( t ) cos( 2 π f c t + φ ) ± m h ( t ) sin( 2 π f c t + φ )]

2

USB

USB

M(f) LSB

-B B -fc 0 fc

DIT

Baseband Representation of Modulated

Signals

Baseband signal representation is a compact way to represent

passband signals.

cos(2fct) + sQ(t) sin(2fct).

quadrature signal component.

The sine and cosine are orthogonal signals, can be used to separate

out the in-phase and quadrature components from s(t).

Then which is a compact way to represent and

analyze passband signals.

DIT

Generating of SSB modulated wave by phase

discrimination method

The phase discrimination method of generating an SSB modulated

wave involves two separate simultaneous modulation processes and

subsequent combination of the resulting modulation products.

The system uses two product modulators, I and Q, supplied with

carrier waves in phase quadrature to each other.

The incoming baseband signal m(t) is applied to product modulator I,

producing a modulated DSBSC wave that contains reference phase

sidebands symmetrically spaced about carrier frequency fc.

The hilbert transform mh(t) of m(t) is applied to product modulator Q,

producing DSBSC modulated wave that containssideband having

identical amplitude spectra to those of modulator I, but with phase

spectra such that vector addition or subtraction of the two modulator

outputs results in cancellation of one setof sidebands and

reinforcement of the other set.

The use of plus sign yields SSB wave with only the upper sideband,

whereas the use of minus sign yields SSB wave with only upper

sideband.

DIT

Block diagram for generating of SSB modulated

wave by phase discrimination method

Ac cos(2πf c t )

Ac sin (2πf c t )

DIT

Demodulation of SSB wave

To recover the baseband signal m(t) from the SSB wave s(t), we

have to shift the spectrum by the amounts −+ f c so as to convert

the transmitted sideband back into the baseband signal.

This can be accomplished using coherent detection, which

involves applying the SSB wave s(t), together with locally

generated carrier cos(2πf ct ), assumed to be of unit amplitude for

convenience, to a product modulator and then low-pass filtering

,

the modulator output.

cos(2πf ct )

DIT

Demodulation of SSB wave (2)

The product modulator output is given by

v(t ) = cos(2πf c t )s(t )

~(t )sin(2πf t )]

1

c

2

= Ac m(t ) + Ac [m(t ) cos(4πf c t ) m m ~(t )sin(4πf t )]

1 1

c

4 4

The first term is the desired message signal. The second term

represents an unwanted components in the product modulator

output that is removed by low-pass filtering.

The detection of SSB modulated waves assume perfect

synchronization between the local carrier and that in the transmitter

both in frequency and phase. The effect of a phase error Ф in the

locally generated carrier wave is to modify the detector output as

follows

vo (t ) = Ac m(t ) cosφ m Ac m (t )sinφ

1 1 ~

4 4

DIT

Demodulation of SSB wave (2)

Owing to the phase error Ф, the detector output

vo(t) contains not only the message signal m(t)

but also its Hilbert transform mh(t).

Consequently, the detector output suffers from

phase distortion. This phase distortion is usually

not serious with voice communications because

the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase

distortion.

In the transmission of music and video signals,

on the other hand, phase distortion in the form of

a constant phase difference in all components

can be intolerable.

DIT

Implementation Issues and Superheterodyne

Receivers

Envelope detectors tailored to a given frequency fc

In AM radio the carrier frequency changes

In DSBSC and SSB the local oscillator can radiate out

the receiver front end and cause self-interference

Fix these problems by IF processing

Downconvert the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF)

Do demodulation/filtering at IF

No reradiation and envelope detector or filter can be

optimized for IF rather than a variable carrier

Structure is called a superheterodyne receiver (used in most

analog and digital radio today)

Current technology moving to direct conversion

Fewer parts and less power consumption

DIT

Vestigial Side-Band (VSB) Modulation

Single-sideband modulation is well-suited for the

transmission of voice because of the energy gap that exists

in the spectrum of voice signals between zero and a few

hundred hertz.

When the message signal contains significant components

at extremely low frequencies i.e. television signals, the

upper and lower sidebands meet at the carrier frequency.

This means SSB modulation is inappropriate for the

transmission of television signals.

This difficulty suggests another scheme known as vestigial

sideband modulation (VSB), which is a compromise

between SSB and DSBSC modulation.

DIT

Vestigial Sideband

VSB is similar to SSB but it retains a small portion (a vestige) of the

undesired sideband to reduce DC distortion. Transmits USB or LSB

and vestige of other sideband

USB

VSB signals are generated using standard AM or DSBSC modulation,

then passing modulated signal through a band-pass filter i.e. it is the

special design of the band-pass filter that distinguishes VSB

modulation from SSB modulation.

Demodulation uses either standard AM or DSBSC demodulation

VSB used for image transmission in TV signals

DIT

Generation of VSB modulated wave

The transmission bandwidth of VSB modulation is given by

sideband

To generate a VSB modulated wave, we pass a DSBSC modulated

wave through a sideband shaping filter.

The exact design of this filter depends on the desired spectrum of the

VSB modulated wave.

the VSB modulated wave is described in the time domain as

A A

s(t ) = c m(t ) cos(2πf ct ) − c mQ (t )sin(2πf ct )

2 2

This is the desired representation representation for a VSB modulated

wave containing a vestige of the lower sideband. The component

0.5Acm(t) constitutes the in-phase component of this VSB modulated

wave, and 0.5AcmQ(t) constitutes the quadrature components.

DIT

Scheme for generation and demodulation of

a VSB modulated wave

Block diagram of VSB modulator

Ac cos (2πf c t )

Block diagram of VSB demodulator

vo (t )

Ac cos(2πf c t )

DIT

Envelope detection of a VSB wave plus

carrier

In commercial television broadcasting, a sizable carrier

is transmitted together with the modulated wave.

modulated wave by an envelope detector in the receiver.

sideband occupies a width of about 1.25 MHz, or about

one-quarter of a full sideband.

vestigial sideband required to keep the distortion due to

mQ(t) within tolerable limits when when the percentage

modulation is nearly 100.

DIT

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