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What does the introduction do?

Get the audiences attention

Reveal the topic

Relate the topic to the audience

Establish credibility

Preview main ideas

Get the audiences attention
Use an Give a
illustration, startling Give a
story or fact or quotation
anecdote statistic
Use Use to
appropriate questions historical
humor events

Refer to Refer to a
the preceding
occasion speech
Reveal the Make sure the audience understands
topic the topic of the speech

Relate the
tell them how the topic specifically relates
topic to the and it is relevant to them

Establish Why should we listen to YOU?" Give some

type of factual information or some reference
credibility that you are competent about the topic.

identify the main points to be discussed in

Preview the body.
Paraphrase your thesis
Summarize statement.
the Establish a sense of
speech order by reminding
audience of message

Use a recommended
Clincher technique
Closure Reflect on the meaning
and significance of the
Recommended clincher
1. Reference to the Introduction Refer to the remarks used to introduce your
topic to promote continuity and closure.
2. Stories and Illustrations: Stories or examples (personal or not) illustrate
importance of topic.
3. Shocking Facts, Statement, or Situation: Present a claim or situation that
seems so unreal it shocks or startles the audience.
4. Rhetorical Question: A rhetorical question, in essence, tells the audience to
"think about it."
5. Quotation: A quote can express feelings eloquently and reinforce the speaker's
6. Humor: An appropriate and genuinely funny joke or anecdote leaves them in a
good mood.
7. Challenge, Appeal, or Request for Action (Persuasive Speeches ONLY)
Challenge: a request for audience to make some kind of effort to support topic.
Appeal: a specific, direct request for audience to engage in a particular, specific
Why create an Outline?

Aids in the process of writing

Helps you organize your ideas

Presents your material in a logical form

Shows the relationships among ideas in

your speech
Why create an Outline?

Outlines are essential to effective speeches.

By outlining, you make sure that

a. Related ideas are together.

b. Your thoughts flow from one to another.

c. The structure of the speech is coherent.

For the Preparation Outline: You
State your specific purpose and central idea.
Identify main points, subpoints, and sub
subpoints by a consistent pattern of
symbolization and indentation.
Four main components for
effective outlines
Parallelism Each heading and subheading should preserve a
parallel structure

All the information contained in Heading 1 should

Coordination have the same significance as the information in
Heading 2.

The information in the headings should be general,

Subordination while the information in the subheadings should be
more specific.

Division Each heading should be divided into two or more

Elements of the outline
Specific purpose
Central idea
Main points
Sub points
Bibliography Lucas p. 213
Use of connectives:

Transitions However; But; Nevertheless; On the contrary; Because;

And; Lastly; Yet; On the other hand.

Internal There are a couple of points I would like to make here,

preview There is both a problem and a solution to propose

Internal "I have reviewed,

"Now that I have talked about a couple of the key points,
summaries To summarize, ..

Signposts First I will ., To begin with .

A speech that teaches others

new information concepts processes

ideas principles

to convey knowledge or understanding

Types of Infomative speech:

People, Presents information through

tangible things. Topical The Rossetta Stone
objects, Describes either famous Spatial Nelson Mandela
places people, personal Chronological Pisa Tower
acquaintances, things, places.
Inti Raymi
Events Describes an event that either
Spatial October 8th
has happened or will happen Thanksgiving Day

Processes or Reviews how something works

How to: Fix a computer
Topical Operate a nuclear
procedures or describe a process.
Chronological power plant.
Buy a quality used car

Ideas, Presents abstract information or Communism

Topical Buddhism
concepts discusses concepts, theories or

To enhance To maintain
To be
audience audience
understanding interest

Be audience-centered. Keep listeners engaged Be organized, appropriately

Use words your listeners and intrigued. redundant by using internal
will interpret in the same Focus on audiences summaries and a final
way as you do. interests and needs summary and relating the
message to their interest.