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A)

B)

C)

D)

A)

B)

C)

D)

5
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called

spermatogonia.
A)

primary spermatocytes.
B)

secondary spermatocytes.
C)

spermatids.
D)
6

A)

.
B)

C)

D)
cell

A)

B)

e
C)

D)

A)

B)

C)

D)

1
0
A)

.
B)

.
C)

D)

1
1

approximately 500,000
A)

fewer than 20,000,000


B)

more than 2,000,000,000.


C)

75,000,000 to 400,000,000
D)

1
2

spermatids
A)

secondary spermatocytes
B)

primary spermatocytes
C)

spermatogonia
D)

1
3 The function of the cremaster muscle is to

elevate the testes during sexual arousal and exposure to cold


A)

generate peristaltic waves in the ductus deferens


B)

control the release of secretions from the seminal vesicles


C)

control the release of sperm cells from the testes into the epididymis
D)

1
4 The form (stage) of developing male gamete located nearest to the basement membrane of
a seminiferous tubule is the

spermatid
A)

primary spermatocyte
B)

secondary spermatocyte
C)

spermatogonium
D)

1
5 Leydig cells are located

in all the male accessory reproductive organs.


A)

interspersed among developing sperm cells in seminiferous tubules.


B)

lining the epididymis and ductus deferens.


C)

in spaces between adjacent seminiferous tubules.


D)
1
6 The immune system does NOT normally attack spermatogenic cells because

they are recognized as "self" structures.


A)

they do not have any antigens on their cell membranes.


B)

spermatogenic cells are protected by the blood-testis barrier.


C)

the acrosome covers any antigens that would be recognized as foreign.


D)

1
7 The process of crossing-over, or recombination, of genes occurs during

meiosis I.
A)

meiosis II.
B)

spermiogenesis.
C)

spermiation.
D)

1
8 All of the following are part of the spermatic cord EXCEPT the

testicular artery.
A)

lymphatic vessels.
B)

ductus deferens.
C)

ejaculatory duct.
D)
1
9 The function of fructose in semen is to

provide an energy source for ATP production by sperm.


A)

promote coagulation of semen in the female reproductive tract.


B)

buffer acids in the female reproductive tract.


C)

inhibit the growth of bacteria in semen and the female reproductive tract.
D)

2
0 The seminal vesicles are located

inferior to the prostate within the urogenital diaphragm.


A)

within the lobules of the testes.


B)

within the spermatic cord.


C)

posterior and inferior to the urinary bladder, in front of the rectum.


D)

2
1

A)

B)

C)

D)
2
2

A)

B)

C)

D)

2
3 If the testes fail to descend, a male is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by

relatively high internal body temperature.


A)

excessive production of estrogen.


B)

lack of testosterone.
C)

None of the above.


D)

2
4

A)

B)

C)

.
D)
2
5 Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus,

posterior pituitary and adrenal glands.


A)

anterior pituitary and adrenal glands.


B)

posterior pituitary gland and testes.


C)

anterior pituitary gland and testes.


D)

2
6

A)

B)

C)

D)

2
7

A)

B)

C)
D)

2
8

A)

sustentacular cells.
B)

interstitial cells
C)

the hypothalamus.
D)

2
9

.
A)

B)

C)

D)

3
0

.
A)

.
B)
C)

D)

3
1

.
A)

.
B)

.
C)

.
D)

3
2

A)

B)

.
C)

D)

3
3

A)
B)

C)

D)

3
4 The first step in oogenesis is a

secondary oocyte divides to form a polar body and an egg cell.


A)

primary oocyte divides to form a secondary oocyte and a first polar body.
B)

follicle is converted to a corpus luteum.


C)

corpus luteum is converted to a corpus albicans.


D)
3
5

A)

.
B)

.
C)

D)

3
6

a.
A)

B)
C)

D)

3
7 The cell commonly called the egg, or ovum, is more correctly called a(n)

primary oocyte.
A)

secondary oocyte.
B)

oogonium.
C)

zygote.
D)
3
8

A)

B)

C)

D)

3
9

A)

B)

C)
D)

4
0

A)

B)

C)

D)

4
1 The first meiotic division in oogenesis occurs

before ovulation.
A)
only if the egg is fertilized.
B)

after ovulation.
C)

monthly after puberty in response to FSH and LH.


D)

4
2

A)

B)

a.
C)
D)

4
3 The glycoprotein layer between the oocyte and the granulosa cells of an ovarian follicle is
called the

theca interna.
A)

theca externa
B)

antrum.
C)

zona pellucida.
D)

4
4

A)
B)

C)

D)

4
5

A)

B)

C)

D)

4
6

A)

B)

C)

D)

4
7

.
A)

B)

C)

.
D)

4
8

A)

B)

C)

D)

4
9

.
A)

.
B)

.
C)

D)
5
0 The major hormonal changes that occur in the maternal body during pregnancy are

placental tissues secrete high amounts of estrogen and progesterone


A)

the breasts secrete placental lactogen, which stimulates the placenta to develop
B)

decreased secretion of aldosterone, which leads to sodium retention


C)

All of the above


D)
5
1 _____.

A)

B)

C)

D)

5
2

A)

B)
C)

D)

5
3

.
A)

B)

.
C)

D)

5
4 Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of

increased secretion of adrenal androgens


A)

decreased secretion of adrenal androgens


B)

increased synthesis of GnRH


C)

decreased synthesis of GnRH


D)

5
5

A)
B)

C)

D)

5
6

A)

B)

C)

D)

5
7

A)

B)

C)

D)

5
8 f
A)

B)

C)

D)

5
9

A)

B)

C)

D)

6
0

A)

B)

C)

D)
6
1

A)

B)

C)

D)

6
2

A)
.
B)

.
C)

D)

6
3

m
A)

B)

C)

D)

6
4

A)

B)

C)

D)

6
5
A)

B)

C)

D)

6
6

A)

B)

C)

D)

6
7 F

A)

B)

C)

D)
6
8

A)

B)

C)

D)

6
9

A)

B)

C)

D)
)
Human haploid gametes ________.

have 23 pairs of chromosomes

are produced by mitosis

contain 23 chromosomes

contain 46 chromosomes

.
ct
What important hormone-producing structure forms in the ovary from the residual
follicle following ovulation?

the polar body

the oocyte

the Graafian follicle

the corpus luteum

t
)

Which pituitary hormone stimulates ovulation and can be used to predict the time
of ovulation?

progesterone

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

HCG

luteinizing hormone (LH)

All of the following can be used to prevent pregnancy AFTER intercourse


EXCEPT ________.

Mifeprex (RU-486)

Preven

traditional birth control pills

Plan B

1. .............? (1 point)
2. (1 point)

3. ? (1 point)

4. ................? (1 point)

5. .............? (1 point)
the developing Foetus

target organs via the bloodstream

the Brain

the Ovaries

6. A hormoanal response is .................. than a nervous response (1 point)


faster

slower

better

stronger

7. The central nervous system is made up of ..................? (1 point)


the brain and pituitary gland

the brain and spinal cord


all of the senses

the neurones in your body

8. Clones are ..........................................? (choose the most accurate!)

(1 point)
offspring produced by Assexual Reproduction which are different to their parent organism.

sheep that are identical to each other

offspring produced in a test tube which are identical to their parent organism.

offspring produced by Assexual Reproduction which are identical to their parent organism.

9. LH is responsible for .................................? (1 point)


causing the release of an egg (ovulation)

building up the lining of the uterus

causing an egg to mature in the ovary

inhibiting FSH production

10. ..............................? (1 point)

11. (1 point)

12.

All of the following body parts are part of the MALE reproductive system
EXCEPT:

A) penis
B) epididymis
C) ovary
D) testis

2. Throughout a woman's life, she will regularly menstruate (have her


menstrual cycle) once every:

A) semester
B) month
C) period
D) year

3. Menstruation is the process by which the inner lining of the


__________________ created during ovulation is no longer needed and is
discharged from the woman's body.

A) vagina
B) oviduct
C) ovary
D) uterus

4. The problem with an older couple having children at an older age, is that
the chances of _________________ problems increase, such as Down's
Syndrome.

A) genetic
B) ovarian
C) economic ($)
D) menstrual

5. The LAST step in the Menstrual Cycle is:

A) the release of an egg from the ovary


B) the zygote implanting itself in the wall of the uterus
C) the ovum (egg) entering the uterus
D) the lining of the uterus is broken down and disintegrates

6. Normal fertilization usually takes place in the:

A) oviduct
B) vagina
C) uterus
D) ovary
7. Abnormal (not normal) fertilization usually takes place in the:

A) ovary
B) oviduct
C) uterus
D) vagina

8. The following 3 structures are associated with the natural Reproductive


System of a pregnant woman, EXCEPT:

A) embryo
B) sperm
C) umbilical cord
D) placenta

9. The structure that provides the baby its food and disposes of its wastes is
the (hint: people in certain countries use a ground version of this organ for their
hair):

A) amniotic fluid
B) amnion
C) vagina
D) placenta

10. All of the following are stages of Human Development EXCEPT:

A) Childhood
B) Middle Age
C) Adolescence
D) Infancy

11. The onset (beginning) of puberty marks the _____________________


cycle segment of Human Development.

A) infancy
B) childhood
C) Later Years
D) adulthood

12. The mammal with the longest life span mentioned in our chapter 19
worksheets is the:
A) elephant
B) human
C) squirrels
D) turtles

13. The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the __________________.

A) uterus
B) cervix
C) amniotic sac (amnion)
D) placenta

14. Reproductive cells are also called ____________________.

A) zygotes
B) embryos
C) ovaries
D) gametes

15. The second stage of the Human Life Cycle is ______________________.

A) childhood
B) adulthood
C) adolescence
D) infancy

16. Males get rid of their urine waste through a tube called
_____________________.

A) epididymis
B) puberty
C) urethra
D) testis

17. Whereas the urethra in the female reproductive system is only used for
the disposal of urine, in the male, the urethra is used to both dispose of urine and
as a point of exit for _______________.

A) sweat
B) epididymis
C) sperm
D) blood
18. Internal fertilization in the oviduct of the female occurs when the
_____________ of both the sperm and ovum combine.

A) chromosomes
B) cell membranes
C) coronas
D) tails

19. Internal fertilization of an ovum does not usually occur by the first sperm
that reaches the target but rather by the sperm that is allowed to _______
____________.

A) come inside
B) get away
C) undergo mitosis
D) swim away

20. In meiosis, _______ gametes result from the original cell.

A) 16
B) 23
C) 4
D) 46
The sex chromosomes of females are ______ and the sex chromosomes of males
are ______.

XX, YY

XY, XX

XX, XY

YY, XX

During early foetal development, the ______ has the capacity to


develop into the male reproductive system and the ______ has the
capacity to develop into the female reproductive system.
Wolffian duct, Mullerian duct
Wolffian duct, corpus luteum

Parotid duct, Mullerian duct

Mullerian duct, Wolffian duct

Females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia:


Show precocious early sexual development

Show masculinisation of the external genitalia

Often have webbed hands and feet

All of the above

In Turner's syndrome:
The individual (female) inherits only one X chromosome

The individual (male) inherits two X chromosomes

The individual (male) inherits only one Y chromosome

The individual (male) inherits two Y chromosomes

During early development, sex hormones are sometimes said to have


______ on the development of the nervous system.
An organisational effect

An activational effect
A foundational effect

A stimulatory effect

When John Money (1984) questioned 30 young women who had a


history of adrenogenital syndrome, the majority (40%) described
themselves as:
Homosexual

Bisexual

Celibate

Heterosexual

During the menstrual cycle, a surge of luteinizing hormone causes:


The ovaries to produce oestrogen

The corpus luteum to rupture

Ovulation

Menstruation

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels are at their highest


during the:
Ovulation (mid cycle)

Follicular phase (first part of the cycle)

Menstruation (end of cycle)


Luteal phase (second half of the cycle)

John Manning has shown that males with longer ring fingers (4th digit)
compared to the index (2nd digit) are more likely to show:
Increased levels of testosterone

Reduced sperm counts

Poor spatial ability

A predisposition for being right handed

Raisman and Field (1973) found that ______ had more synapses in
female rats than in males.
The preoptic area of the hypothalamus

The corpus callosum

The mammillary bodies

Onuf's nucleus

According to Simon LeVay, the third interstitial nuclei in the anterior


hypothalamus (INAH-3) is:
Shows no difference in size between homosexual and heterosexual men

Bigger in homosexual men compared to heterosexual males

Smaller in homosexual men compared to heterosexual males

Bigger in lesbian women than in homosexual men


Which of the following structures appears to be relatively larger in
human female brains compared to males?
Corpus callosum

Mammillary bodies

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

The Leydig cells are found in the:


Hypothalamus

Testes

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Pituitary gland

Rose et al (1975) showed that a monkey's testosterone level prior to


being put into a social group:
Correlated with the dominance rank they would later attain

Correlated with the level of later sexual activity

Did not correlate with later dominance ranking or aggressive behaviour

Correlated with the level of aggression they would later show


In a study of soccer fans during the 1994 World Cup (Fielden et al
1994), it was found that those who supported the victorious team (i.e.
Brazil) showed:
Increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Decreased sensitivity to pain

Decreased levels of aggression

Increased levels of testosterone

The structure which is responsible for detecting pheromones is called


the:
Bowman's organ

Olfactory bulb

Olfactory epithelium

Vomeronasal organ

In groups of female mice, the tendency for oestrus cycles to lengthen


and eventually stop is known as the:
Whitten effect

Grant Green effect

Lee-Boot effect

Bruce effect
Males who have been made paraplegic by transaction of the spinal
cord:
A) Can achieve an erection

B) Can never achieve ejaculation

C) Can never engage in sexual intercourse

All of the above

In male rats, lesions of the medial preoptic area has been shown to:
Result in sexual attraction towards other males

Lead to indiscriminate attempts at mating with other animals or even objects

Abolish sexual interest

Eliminate copulatory behaviour

In female rats, lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus:


Abolishes nest-building behaviour

Results in male-like sexual behaviour

Abolishes lordosis behaviour

Reduces maternal aggression and protection of her pups