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CALUBAQUIB(v(REPUBLIC(

FACTS:(
1. President+ Quezon+ issued+ Proclamation+ No.80+ which+ declared+ a+ landholding+
located+in+Cagayan+a+military+reservation+rights.++
It+expressly+stated+that+it+was+being+issued+subject+to+private+rights,+if+
any+there+be.+
The+Republic+obtained+an+OCT+over+the+property.+
2. Republic+ filed+ before+ the+ RTC+ a+ complaint+ for+ recovery+ against+ Calubaquib+
(by+ArugayK+Administrator+of+the+Military+Reservation).+
Republic+unlawfully+entered+the+military+reservation+through+strategy+
and+stealth+and+took+possession+of+the+subject+property.+
Calubaquib+refused+to+vacate+the+premises.+
Republic+ prayed+ that+ petitioners+ be+ ordered+ to+ vacate+ the+ subject+
property+and+to+pay+rentals+computed+from+the+time+they+unlawfully+
withheld+the+same+form+the+respondent+until+the+latter+is+restored+to+
possession.+
3. Calubaquib+ in+ their+ Answer+ denied+ the+ allegation+ and+ maintained+ that+ they+
and+his+predecessor+in+interest+has+been+in+OCENPO+of+the+subject+property+
since+1900.+The+property+is+known+to+be+the+Calubaquib+Ranch.+
They+alleged+that+they+acknowledged+the+issuance+of+Proclamation+but+
maintained+that+the+subject+property+was+excluded+from+its+operation+
as+stated+expressly+in+the+phrase+exempts+from+military+reservation+
site,+private+rights+if+there+be+any+
Thus,+dismissal+is+in+order.+
4. The+ TC,+ the+ facts+ being+ undisputed,+ advised+ the+ parties+ to+ file+ a+ motion+ for+
summary+judgment.+Neither+party+filed+the+motion.+
Republic+ expressed+ its+ objection+ to+ a+ summary+ judgment+ explaining+
the+existence+of+a+genuine+and+vital+factual+issue+K>+Calubaquibs+lcaim+
of+ownership+over+the+subject+property.+
It+argued+that+the+issue+will+only+be+resolved+by+trying+the+case+on+the+
merits.+
5. RTC+issued+an+order+for+summary+judgment.+
It+noticed+that+the+Republic+failed+to+raise+any+issue.+
6. RTC(Ruling:(Dismissed(Calubaquibs(claim(of(possession(in(the(concept(
of( an( owner.( While+ the+ Proclamation+ recognized+ the+ existence+ of+ private+
rights+on+the+military+reservation,+petitioners+position+could+not+be+sustained+
because+ there+ was+ no+ right+ to+ speak+ of+ that+ was+ recognized+ by+ the+
government.+
7. CAs(Ruling:+Affirmed(RTCs(decision.+
Calubaquib+ failed+ to+ establish+ that+ it+ complied+ with+ all+ the+
requirements+of+the+law+for+confirmation+of+an+imperfect+title+before+
the+ property+ became+ a+ military+ reservation+ site.+ (30+ years+ of+
occupation+and+cultivation)+
8. Hence,+this+petition+
Petitioners+ask+the+case+to+be+remanded+to+the+TC+for+the+reception+of+
evidence.+They+maintain+that+the+case+presents+several+factual+issues+
such+ as+ the+ determination+ of+ the+ nature+ of+ the+ property+ (whether+
alienable+or+inalienable).+
Republic+on+the+other+hand,+argues+that+petitioners+were+not+able+to+
prove+ that+ petitioners+ have+ any+ vested+ right+ prior+ to+ the+
Proclamation.+
ISSUE:(W/N(the(trial(court(erred(in(ordering(a(summary(judgment(
(
HELD:(YES.(
1.+ Summary+ judgments+ are+ proper+ when,+ upon+ motion+ of+ the+ plaintiff+ or+ the+
defendant,+the+court+finds+that+the+answer+filed+by+the+defendant+does+not+tender+a+
genuine+issue+as+to+any+material+fact+and+that+one+party+is+entitled+to+a+judgment+as+a+
matter+of+law.+
The+ purpose+ of+ summary+ judgment+ is+ to+ expedite+ or+ promptly+ dispose+ of+
cases+ where+ facts+ appear+ undisputed+ and+ certain+ from+ pleadings,+
dispositions+and+affidavits.+
However,+ where+ there+ are+ doubts+ as+ to+ such+ facts+ and+ there+ be+ an+ issue+
joined+ by+ the+ parties+ and+ the+ facts+ pleaded+ are+ disputed+ or+ contested,+
proceedings+for+a+summary+judgment+cannot+take+place+of+a+trial.+
In+spite+of+its+expediting+character,+relief+by+summary+judgment+can+only+be+
allowed+after+compliance+with+the+minimum+requirement+of+vigilance+by+the+
court+in+a+summary+hearing+considering+that+this+remedy+is+in+derogation+of+a+
partys+right+to+a+plenary+trial+of+his+case.+
+At+ any+ rate,+ a+ party+ who+ moves+ for+ summary+ judgment+ has+ the+ burden+ of+
demonstrating+ learly+ the+ absence+ of+ any+ genuine+ issue+ of+ fact,+ or+ that+ the+
issue+posed+in+the+complaint+is+so+patently+unsubstantial+as+not+to+constitute+
a+genuine+issue+for+trial,+and+any+doubt+as+to+the+existence+of+such+an+issue+is+
resolved+against+the+movant.+
2.+TEST(OF(PROPRIETY(OF(SUMMARY(JUDGMENT:(
The( existence( of( a( genuine( issue( of( fact( as( distinguished( from( a( sham,(
fictitious,(contrived(or(false(claim.((
A( factual( issue( raised( by( a( party( is( a( sham( when( by( its( nature( it( is(
evident( that( it( cannot( be( proven( or( it( is( such( that( the( party( tendering(
the( same( has( neither( any( sincere( intention( nor( adequate( evidence( to(
prove(it(
o This+ can+ be+ shown+ if+ the+ denials+ of+ the+ defendant+ is+ merely+ for+ the+
sake+ of+ delay+ taking+ advantage+ of+ the+ fact+ that+ their+ answers+ are+ not+
under+oath+anyway.(
In( determining( the( genuineness( of( the( issue( the( court( is( obliged( to(
carefully(study(and(appraise(the(facts(alleged(under(oath(by(the(parties(
or( witnesses( in( affidavits( that( they( submitted( with( motion( and( the(
corresponding(opposition.(
o The+filing+of+a+motion+and+the+conduct+of+a+hearing+on+the+motion+are+
important+because+these+enable+the+court+to+determine+if+the+parties+
pleadings+affidavits+and+exhibits+in+support+or+against+the+motion+are+
sufficient+to+overcome+the+opposing+papers+and+adequately+justify+the+
finding+ that,+ as+ a+ matter+ of+ law,+ the+ claim+ is+ clearly+ meritorious+ or+
there+is+no+defense+to+the+action.(
o The+ nonKobservance+ of+ the+ procedural+ requirements+ on+ filing+ a+
motion+ and+ conducting+ a+ hearing+ warrants+ the+ setting+ aside+ of+ the+
summary+judgment.(
3.(APPLICATION(IN(THE(CASE(AT(BAR.(
In+ the+ case+ at+ bar,+ a+ summary+ judgment+ was+ entered+ with+ neither+ of+ the+
parties+ filing+ for+ a+ motion+ thereof.+ An+ opposition+ was+ even+ raised+ by+ the+
Republic+ and+ insisted+ that+ there+ is+ a+ genuine+ issue+ of+ fact.+ Thus,+ it+ was+
improper+ for+ the+ trial+ court+ to+ have+ persisted+ in+ rendering+ summary+
judgment.+(
(( KThe+ remedy+ of+ a+ summary+ judgment+ being+ derogatory+ of+ a+ partys+
right+to+a+plenary+trial+of+his+case,+the+trial+court+cannot+railroad+the+parties+
rights+over+the+objection.+
+ KThe+ lower+ courts+ assumed+ that+ the+ facts+ raised+ by+ Calubaquib+ was+
sham+and+thus+will+not+be+proven.+
The+guidelines+and+safeguards+for+the+rendition+of+a+summary+judgment+were+
all+ignored+by+the+TC.++
Case+is+remanded+to+the+TC.++
+