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Ashesh Kumar Singh

Samarth Agarwal
KG Rahul Varma
K. Vivek Babu
CLIENT: National Highway Authority Of India
CONCESSIONAIRE: Simhapuri Expressway
CONTRACTOR: BSCPL Infrastructure Ltd.
SECTION: Nellore to Chilakalurupet of NH-5.
CHAINAGE: KM 1182+802 to KM 1366+466 .
TOTAL LENGTH: 183.67 kms.
Our whole project work was divided into two
1. Quality Control Laboratory

2. Site Execution Work

1. Soil Tests
a) Grain Size Analysis of Soil
b) Atterbergs Limit (Casegrande Method)
c) Determination of MDD and OMC (Proctor
d) CBR Test
e) Determination of FSI.
2. Aggregate Tests
a. AIV Test
b. Bitumen Content Test
c. Elongation & Flakiness Test.
This test is performed in order to find the index
properties of soil. There are wide range of soil
types available and this test helps to identify
and classify different soils.
Basic classification:-
1. Gravel (Retained by 2 mm sieve)
2. Sand (Passes 2 mm sieve and retained by 75
microns sieve)
3. Silt & Clay (Passes 75 microns sieve)
Sieves used in Laboratory
This test gives the following results:-
Liquid Limit
Plastic Limit
Shrinkage Limit &
Plasticity Index.
Liquid Limit:-
It is the water content at which soil changes from the
liquid state to the plastic state.
Less shearing resistance.
Depends on clay minerals present.
Determined by Casegrandes Apparatus.
Plastic Limit:-
It is the water content at which soil loses its
plasticity and passes to a semi-solid state.
Soil begins to crumble.
Shear strength is about 100 times that at the liquid limit.
This test is done in order to get the most
effective and economical way to improve the
stability of soils.
As the moisture content is changed density of
soil varies and maximum density is achieved at
optimum moisture.
A graph is plotted between the moisture
content and dry density and the highest point
on the graph is the maximum dry density.
CBR California Bearing Ratio
This test is performed in order to know the load
carrying capacity of soil.
The ratio of force per unit area required to
penetrate a soil mass with a plunger of 50 mm
diameter at the rate of 1.25mm/min .
Generally the ratio is determined for 2.5mm and
5mm penetrations .
Normally ratio at 5mm penetration is considered.
FSI Free Swell Index.
It is the increase in volume of soil without any
external constraint when subjected to
submergence in water .
This is performed to determine the swelling
property of soil.
Maximum permissible limit of free swell index
is 50%.
Soil swells more in water than in kerosene.

Final volume of soil specimen is seen in each cylinder.

FSI = (Vw Vk)/Vk * 100

Vw is the Volume of soil in water

Vk is the volume of soil in kerosene.
To determine the particle shape distribution of coarse
Particle shape is determined by the percentage of flaky
and elongated particles present in aggregates.
Important in gradation requirements of various types
of mixes such as
Bituminous concrete
Cement concrete
Soil aggregate mixes
To determine aggregate impact value of coarse
In construction of roads the aggregates should
be in standard of R.D.A .
To check that aggregate impact value test is
If AIV value is greater than 30 that aggregate is
not suitable for the work.
Sample of aggregate passing 12.5mm sieve and
retain on 10mm sieve is taken.
Put into a metal cylinder and compacted by
tampering rod for 3 layers.
Measure the weight of the sample.
Sample is then placed in the AIV apparatus
and crushed with 15 blows from a height of
Samples are then sieved by 2.36mm sieve.
To evaluate the bitumen present in a bitumen
mix by centrifuge extraction.
Asphalt also known as bitumen.
It is sticky , black and highly viscous liquid
present in most crude petroleum .
Primary use is in road construction.
Apparatus Centrifuge bitumen extractor.
It may be hand or electrically operated.
Following steps are followed for road
construction on site:
Site clearance



Laying of Layers
Site clearance consists of the cutting or taking down,
removal and disposal of everything above ground level
coming in the way of proposed road.
It is one of the very first step of any construction.
Equipments used:
Hydraulic Excavators
The act of excavating or making hollow, by cutting,
scooping or digging a part of a solid mass is known as
It is carried out in accordance with the design and
drawings provided.

Machinery Used:
JCB (for bulk excavation, loading trucks)
Dump Truck (for transporting excavated material)
Grader (for trimming to final level)
After scrapping the upper loose layer of soil
Embankment is done by filling suitable soil and then
compacting it.
It is done in layers of 15 cm.
It provides a firm base for the forthcoming layers of
Density tests are carried out in every compacted layer.

Machinery Used:
Tipper Trucks
Vibratory Rollers
Layers of flexible pavement from bottom to top:
1) Sub-grade( done in three layers)

2) GSB 1st layer

3) GSB 2nd layer

4) GSB top layer

5) WMM 1st layer

6) WMM 2nd layer

7) DBM

8) BC
It is laid over the embankment top.
Total thickness is 500 mm.
Laid in three layers of 150 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm
respectively from bottom to top.
Each layer is compacted to the specified density of 97%.
It provides a firm base for the pavement.

Material Used:
Approved soil from borrow areas.
Sub base is the lowest of all the pavement layers.

It is also laid in three layers:

GSB 1st layer (100 mm thick)

GSB 2nd layer (150 mm thick)

GSB top layer (100-225 mm thick)

Level is checked for only GSB top layer.

Compacted up to at least 98% of MDD.

Load bearing/distribution
Materials Used:
Natural sand
Crushed stone

Equipment used:
Wheel loader
Tipper Trucks
Vibratory roller
Water tank with spraying system
WMM is a base material in road pavement structure ,
which is batched from a mixing plant, and laid in
position with a paver.

It is laid in two layers:

WMM 1st layer(125 mm thick)

WMM 2nd layer(125 mm thick)

Materials used :
Crushed graded aggregate

Granular material premixed with water

Equipments used:

WMM mixing plant


Motor grader

Vibratory roller

DBM is bituminous road base mix .

It is used in pavement course.

Materials used:

Graded aggregates

Plant required to produce DBM:

Premix plant
Wheel loader

Machineries required for laying:

Tipper trucks
Asphalt paver
Tandem roller(80-100 KN)
Bitumen sprayer
The B.C. wearing course is the final layer of the

CRM(crumb rubber modified) Bitumen is used .

The aggregates shall be surface dry and mixed at

155-163 degree centigrade temperature.

The mix material delivered to the laying site shall be

between 120-160 degree centigrade.

Plant required to produce ACWC shall be:

Asphalt premix plant

Wheel loader

Machineries required for laying ACWC:

Tipper trucks
Asphalt paver
Tandem roller
Bitumen sprayer

Tack coat shall be applied on the surface before laying of

ACWC(asphaltic concrete wearing course)
Width of various pavement layers:

Embankment top width 19.196 m

Sub grade top width - 18.143 m

GSB 1st layer width - 17.932 m

GSB 2nd layer width - 14.850 m

GSB top layer width - 14.850 m

WMM 1st layer width - 14.750 m

WMM top layer width - 14.625 m

BC/DBM width - 14.50 m

Quantity of material required for filling various layers :

For e.g.:
GSB required to fill sub base layer

= Width x Horizontal distance x thickness x SG

= 6.93 x 180 x .1 x 2.45
= 305.1 metric tons

If load carried by 1 truck = 31 metric tons

No of loads or trucks required = 305.1

= 10 loads or trucks of load
Horizontal distance
No of loads

Gives 1 load required for some horizontal distance.

e.g. >

Let horizontal dist be 180 m and

no of loads be 10 then

Horizontal distance
No of loads

= 180
= 18 m , It means 1 load for 18 m .