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Practical No.

02
Object: Demonstration and working of Compression Ignition engine.

Equipment required:

Demonstration unit of CI engine.

Theory:
Compression Ignition Engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which ignition of the
fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is initiated by missing the high
temperature air.

Types of Compression Ignition Engine

1. Two stroke Compression ignition engine

In this engine all the four processes (Intake, Compression, Power, and Exhaust)
are completed in two strokes i.e in one revolution (360o) of crankshaft.

Working principle

In two stroke Compression ignition engine only two strokes take place to complete one cycle
1. Stroke is Compression along with it Intake takes place.
2. Stroke is Power along with it Exhaust takes place.
In this system opening and closing of valves is controlled by Piston.

2. Four stroke Compression ignition engine


In this engine all the four processes (Intake, Compression, Power, Exhaust) are
completed in four strokes i.e in two revolution (720o) of crankshaft.

Working principle

In four stroke Compression ignition engine four separate strokes take place to complete one
cycle.
1. Intake: Piston moves Top Dead Center (TDC) to Bottom Dead Center (BDC), Air is sucked
into cylinder through inlet valve.
2. Compression: Both valves are closed piston returns to TDC by compressing air into
combustion chamber &temperatures get increased.
3.Power: While piston close to TDC high pressurized fuel is injected and ignited because of that
high pressure and temperature is developed inside cylinder and in this stroke piston moves to
BDC.
4. Exhaust: Now again returns to TDC while exhaust valve is open for the purpose of expelled
of gases.
Two Stroke Compression Ignition Engine

Fig:2.1

1. Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine

Fig:2.2

Fill in the blanks

1. Temperature which an air achieves when greatly __________


2. In two revolution __________ mechanical degree of crankshaft.
3. Air is forced into cylinder through inlet in __________ stroke.
4. 2-stroke compression ignition engines have ________ cycles of rotation.
5. 4-stroke spark compression engines have __________ cycles of rotation..