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JR Heat Exchanger Design - Done for 1/10 of the distillate

Component Properties - Taken from HYSYS at 6 bar and 45 oC

Components Molar Flow


kmol/h
Methyl Chloride 124.4750004
Dimethyl Ether 0.0124487449

Total 124.4874491449

Stream Specifications

Flow into condenser


Pressure
Temperature Inlet
Outlet
Mean

Energy released from condensation of the distillate stream =

Ethylene Glycol Temperature

Fluid Properties - Taken from HYSYS at 600kPa and 30oC

Specific heat capacity, Jkg-1oC-1


Thermal conductivity, Wm-1K-1
Viscosity, Pas
Density, kg/m3
Heat Load Calculation

Q (process stream) = mCpT

Therefore total condenser enthalpy = Vapour + L

Tube Layout

=/

Required Cooling EG flow rate =


OR
Molar Flow is =
=
Temperature Correction Factors:
The temperature correction factor is usually correlated as a function of two dimensionless temperature ra

R = (shell-side fluid flow rate) x (fluid mean specific heat)/ (the tube-side fluid flow rate) x (the tube-sid

S - measure of the temperature efficiency of the exchanger

=
R 0.4705882353
(_1
_2)/
S =
(_2 0.68
(
_1 _2)
_1)/
(_1
From Fig_1
12.19
) Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6, the value of Ft was obtained based on the dimensionless r

Temperature Correction Factor, Ft


Heat Exchanger expected to be Economical

Log Mean Temperature Difference

Since counter-current flow is taking place in the HE, the log mean temperature difference is given by:

[(_1_2 )(_2_1
TLM
)]/( (_1_2)/
(_2_1 ))
[(_1_2 )(_2_1
)]/( (_1_2)/
(_2_1 ))

TLM *Ft

Therefore True Temperature Difference:

Fouling Factor

Process and service fluids foul heat transfer surfaces in heat exchangers to some extent. It is therefore ne
oversize the heat exchanger to allow for the reduction in performance during operation. The following fo
ranges will be considered (obtained from Table 12.2 Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6)

Fluid Coeff. (W/m2 oC)


Cooling Water (Towers) 5000
Organic liquids 5000

Heat Transfer Coefficient


From Table 12.1 Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6, the range of U for HE with water as the cold fluid
and organic solvent as the hot fluid is 500-750 W/m2 oC

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient =

Average Shell Side Temperature =


Average Tube Side Temperature =

Condensing Coeff, ho =
Overall Coefficient, Uo =

Tw = 15.93
- Mean Condensate Temperature

Tube Dimensions
Required Heat transfer area, A

Tube Dimensions
Outer diameter
Wall thickness
Inner diameter
Baffle cut
Length of tube
OR
Surface area of 1 tube
Cross sectional area

Number of tubes = (Total Required Area)/(Area of 1

Number of Shell Passes =


Number of Tube Passes =
Number of tubes per pass =
Total flow area Per Pass =

Pitch: A triangular pitch is recommended


Thus Pitch = 1.25 (O.D) 26.67
OR Pt = 0.02667

_=(
Tube side volumetric flow )/

_=_/(
Tube side velocity )

Bundle and Shell Diameter

The bundle diameter, Db depends on the number of tubes and the number of tube passes. D

_=_ (_/_ )
^(_1 ) do - tube outside diameter (mm)
The constants K1 and n1 were obtained from Table 12.4 Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6 for a triangular pi

K1 0.175
n1 2.285
Db 581.9311569077

Therefore Bundle Diameter =


OR

Using a Pull through type, the bundle diametrical clearance can be obtained from Fig 12.10 Coulson & R
Shell bundle Clearance type: Pull through
Clearance height for Pull through heat exchanger =
So Shell inside diameter , Ds 672.9311569077
_=_/
Number of tubes in centre row;

Shell Side Coefficient, ho - Process Fluid


Plant Design and Economics - 614 , C&R - 714

Average Shell Side Temperature =

Therefore taking properties at this temperature for viscosity, density and thermal conductivity of the cond

Specific heat capacity, Jkg-1oC-1


Thermal conductivity, Wm-1K-1
Viscosity, Pas
Density, kg/m3

Assumig negligible viscosity correction factor:


Condensation outside the tube
=/(_ )
h

Nr 2/3 * No. tubes in central row


(_ )_=0.95 (_ ) [((_ (__ )))/(_
hc _ )]^(1/3) _^((1/6) )

The value is almost equal to that assumed (Very small error) therefore no correction to the tube wall tem

Tube Side Coefficient, Uo - Ethylene Glycol

Cross sectional Area of 1 tube =


Tube bundle Cross Sectional Area
=No. Tubes x Area of 1 Tube =

Cross Sectional Area Per Pass =

Average EG Temperature =

Density of EG at average temperature =

Volumetric Flow Rate of water = Mass Flow Rate / Density =

Tube Velocity is therefore Volumetric Flow rate / Area =

= ()/
Re =

Pr =
(_)/
Pr =
L/di =

From Graph: jh =

=
Nu =

^(1/3)

C&R 665

Estimating Coefficient for water :


hi =
%Error =

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The overall heat transfer coefficient;

Heat transfer fouling factors


Process Stream hodc
WaterStream hidc

Thermal conductivity of tube wall material


k stanless steel 16

Thus; 1/Uo
Uo

Percentage Difference

Pressure Drop - Shell Side

Baffle Spacing _= (wider baffle for


condensers)
Cross flow area between tubes

_=((__)/_ )
_ _

_ = _/_
Shell Side Mass Velocity :

Linear Velocity (Shell Side) = _ = _/_

Equivalent diameter

_=(1.1/)(
^2(0.917


^2 ))

= (_ _)/
Re

From Graph, jf = 0.007

_= 8 _ [(_/_ )(/_ ) (_^2)/2 (/_ )


^(0.14) ]
_= 8 _ [(_/_ )(/_ ) (_^2)/2 (/_ )
^(0.14) ]

Tube Side Pressure Drop


_=_ [ 8 _ (/_ ) (/_ )^()
Tube side pressure drop , Pt =

= (_ _)/

Friction factor, jf

Thus Pt

OR

THEREFORE:

Tube Side P = 7.37


Shell Side P = 39.93
1/10 of the distillate - Inputs

Mole fraction Mol. Weight Mass flow Mass fraction


kg/s
0.9999 50.49 1.7457618806 0.9999049114
0.0001 48.01 0.0001660178 9.508860333E-005

1 1.7459278985 1

1.7459278985 kg/s 6285.3404344394


600 kPa
T1 30 oC 303.15
T2 22 oC 295.15
Tm 26 C o
299.15

stream = 2551967.80998092 kJ/h

ol Temperature Inlet t1 5
Outlet t2 22
Mean Tm 13.5
Diffference dT 17

at 600kPa and 30oC


Ethylene Glycol Stream @3.0 bar Process Stream
TUBE SHELL
capacity, Jkg-1oC-1 2.63E+03 1626.711156723
uctivity, Wm-1K-1 0.2653565713 0.1330738326
1.88E-02 0.0001920561
1107.192568 906.1705
12.0184813297
(HYSYS)
81795.467268 kJ/h

Therefore total condenser enthalpy = Vapour + Liquid = 2633763.27724895 kJ/h


OR 731.6009103469 kJ/s

16.3770146383 kg/s
58957.2526978441 kg/h
949.8510181705 kmol/h
53.249321213 m3/h

as a function of two dimensionless temperature ratios:

heat)/ (the tube-side fluid flow rate) x (the tube-side fluid specific heat)

ue of Ft was obtained based on the dimensionless ratios R and S

0.82 (Assuming use of one shell pass and 4 tube passes)


ger expected to be Economical

he log mean temperature difference is given by:

11.9399531418 oC T1 - inlet hot fluid temperature


T2 - outlet hot fluid temperature
t1 - inlet cold fluid temperature
9.7907615763 oC t2 - outlet cold fluid temperature

Tm 9.7907615763 o
C

n heat exchangers to some extent. It is therefore necessary to


in performance during operation. The following fouling factor
Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6)

Factor (m2 oC/W) C&R 640


0.0002
0.0002

nge of U for HE with water as the cold fluid


C&R 637

U, W/m2oC 685 (Upper limit taken from C&R , 638 Table 12.1)
Corresponding U =
Error =
26 C
o

13.5 C
o

850 U, W/m2oC Corresponding U


685 U, W/m2oC Error

o
C
ensate Temperature
Russ Jhing
=/(_
Insert EXTER
_ ) 109.085541276 m 2
table on righ
will autofill
(Industrial bw 5/8 and 1.5 outer diameter)
21.336 mm 0.021336 m
3.302 mm 0.003302 m
26.67 mm 0.02667 m
25 % ASSUMED -C&R (pg 650)
4.878 m ASSUMED - Peters and Timmerhaus (pg 607)
16.00 ft
0.3269675637 m2
0.000558645 m2

umber of tubes = (Total Required Area)/(Area of 1 tube) = 333.6280211654


= 334 tubes
1
4
83.5 tubes
0.0466468571 m2
(C.S. Area per tube x No. Tubes)

mm
m

_=(
)/ 0.0147914781 m3/s

_=_/(
0.3170948489 m/s
)

Coulson pg 646

bes and the number of tube passes. Db can be calculated as follows:

de diameter (mm)
.4 Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6 for a triangular pitch with 4 Tube Passes
C&R 649

mm

0.5819311569 m
1.9092171975 ft

rance can be obtained from Fig 12.10 Coulson & Richardson Vol. 6, Page 647

height for Pull through heat exchanger = 91 mm


mm
_=_/
21.8196909227 tubes

15.93 oC

cosity, density and thermal conductivity of the condensate

SHELL *Most common according to C&R , Section 12.10


1626.711156723 ***CHECK THESE WITH HYSYS!
0.1330738326 TAKEN @ 16oC
0.0001920561
906.1705 Liquid (From HYSYS)
12.0184813297 Vapour OR Vapour Density = PM/RT
0.0010716132 kg/ms

s in central row 14.5464606151


)))/(_
2735.04662044 W m-2 oC-1 (Using Kern's Method)

error) therefore no correction to the tube wall temperature is necessary.

0.000558645 m2

Area of 1 Tube = 0.1865874286 m2

0.0466468571 m2

13.5 oC

1107.1925679957 kg/m3

0.0147914781 m3/s

0.3170948489 m/s

498.10

186.1557659598
182.9021372328

2.70E-02

76.790742248

880.9284896074 W m-2 oC-1


4% ERROR ACCEPTABLE
C&R 684 : NB NO NEGATIVE ERRORS

1/_ =(1/_( ) +1/_ ) (_/_ )+((_


ln(_/_ ))/(2 _ )) +(1/_ +1/_ )

Table 12.2, pg 640


5000 W m-2 oC-1
5000 W m-2 oC-1

W m-2 oC-1 (C&R)

0.0014849763
673.4114414823 W m-2 oC-1

-1.7208734221 % Error Acceptable

(wider baffle for 672.9311569077 mm


sers) 0.6729311569 m

90567.2683874244 mm2
0.0905672684 m2

= _/_
19.2776919249 kg/sm2

= _/_ 1.6040039832 m/s

15.1496268 mm
0.0151496268 m

= (_ _)/
1520.6483019295

Ps = 39931.4386868392 Pa
OR 39.9314386868
OR 0.3993143869
)(/_ ) (_^2)/2 (/_ )
)(/_ ) (_^2)/2 (/_ )

_=_ [ 8 _ (/_ ) (/_ )^() +7.5 ] (_^2)/2

Re = 4.98E+02
Laminar
Therefore m = 0.25

1.75E-02 pg 667

7371.2674273481 Pa
7.3712674273 Kpa

0.0737126743 Bar

And Outlet Pressure

kPa 592.63
kPa 160.07
Density Vol flow Enthalpy of Vapourization Russ Jhingoorie:
Densities taken at 45 C and
kg/m 3
m /s
3
kJ/kmol 11 barg
906.2 0.00192646 20500 (NIST)
611.2 2.716E-007 18500 (NIST)

906.1705 0.00192674

6.93624906
kg/h

K
K
K

C
o
278.15 K
C
o
295.15 K
C
o
286.65 K
C
o

*Most common according to C&R , Section 12.10

1cP = 0.001 Pas


Liquid
Vapour
mit taken from C&R , 638 Table 12.1)
nding U = 673.411441

-1.7208734 %

880.92849
4%
Russ Jhingoorie:
Insert EXTERNAL diameter from
table on right. All other dimensions
will autofill
r diameter)

erhaus (pg 607)

Shell 7.37 kPa


Tube 39.93 kPa
our Density = PM/RT
12.611282913 kg/m3
Kern's Method)

Ethylene Glycol Stream


TUBE
Specific heat capacity, Jkg-1oC-1 2627.78953
Thermal conductivity, Wm-1K-1 0.26535657
Viscosity, Pas 0.01879818
Density, kg/m3 1107.19257

(HYSYS)

Unsuitable -Sinnott 2005


E ERRORS

+((_
_ )
(C&R, 709)

UNSUITABLE

kPa
Bar
Read Re = 498
hingoorie:
es taken at 45 C and
g
C&R 657

Read value of R = 0.47 and S = 0.68


Sch 40

Size External Internal Walll


mm mm mm mm
0.125 3.175 10.414 6.858 1.778
0.25 6.35 13.716 9.144 2.286
0.375 9.525 17.272 12.446 2.286
0.5 12.7 21.336 15.748 2.794
0.75 19.05 26.67 20.828 2.794
1 25.4 33.528 26.67 3.302
1.25 31.75 42.164 35.052 3.556
1.5 38.1 48.26 40.894 3.81
2 50.8 60.452 52.578 3.81
2.5 63.5 73.152 62.738 5.08
3 76.2 88.9 77.978 5.588
3.5 88.9 101.6 90.17 5.842
4 101.6 114.3 102.362 6.096
5 127 141.224 128.27 6.604
6 152.4 168.402 154.178 7.112
8 203.2 219.202 202.692 8.128
10 254 273.05 254.508 9.398
12 304.8 323.85 303.276 10.414
14 355.6 355.6 333.502 11.176
16 406.4 406.4 381 12.7
18 457.2 457.2 428.752 14.224
20 508 508 477.774 14.986
24 609.6 609.6 574.802 17.526

C&R 646
Read at bundle diameter = 0.582
C&R 674
Read Re = 1521 and Baffle cut = 25%
C&R 668
Design Temperature and Pressure

Operating Temperature
Shell side 22 OC
Tube side 30 OC

Operating Pressure
Shell side 151.5 Kpa
Tube side 600 Kpa

Tube Specifications

Outer diameter 21.336


Wall thickness 3.302
Inner diameter 26.67
Baffel cut 25
Tube length 4.878
Shell internal diameter (di) 672.9311569077
Surface area of 1 tube 0.3269675637
Tube cross sectional area 0.000558645

Shell Thickness

Corrosion allowance ( C ) 2
Weld joint efficiency ( E ) 1

Design Stress - Using 304L Stainless Steel


Taking from C&R Table 13.2 at 0-50 oC
Maximum yield stress,S 110 Russ Jhingo
Design Stres
1N/mm2 = 1000 kPa C&R 809
(Coulson and Richardson, pg 809).

Shell thickness _=(_)/(2) +

However, Minimum Thickness for a shell with diameter 672.9 mm is


6.4
Shell Baffle Geometry
Outer diameter 685.731157 mm

Baffle spacing 672.931157 mm

Number of baffles 6.24888415


approximately 7

Baffle length 504.698368 mm


OR 0.50469837 m

Baffle cut 0.25


Shell diameter, Ds 0.67293116 m
Baffle length 0.50469837 m

Torishperical heads _=1/4 ( 3+


Cs= 1.77062073 (_/_ ) )
Rc= 0.67 mm
Rk = 0.04037587 mm
Pi= 0.16665 N/mm2
E 1
S, desgin stress 110.00 N/mm2

Torispherical Head
= =(_ _ _)/(2+_ (_
0.2) )

Ellipsoidal head =(_ _)/(2 0.2 _ )


=

Flat head =_ (_/)


=

HEAD TYPE = Ellipsoidal head


Shell thickness + C = 2.00051
Nozzle Dimensions

The optimum diameter is given by;

Process Stream
Mass flow rate of fluid 1.7459278985
Density of process stream 906.1705

Therefore dopt 27.9678677 mm


1.09270739 inches

Therefore nominal Diameter = 1.25

Cooling Water Stream


Mass flow rate of fluid 16.3770146383
Density of cooling stream 1107.1925679957

Therefore dopt 83.1788365 mm


3.27475911 inches

Therefore nominal Diameter = 5

Heat Exchanger Tube Plate Design

Plate thickness due to bending


Pitch 26.67 mm
Di 21.336 mm =(_ _)/_
Ligament efficiency = 0.2

Cph 0.05 (BS5500 Design Factor)


Db 581.931157 mm
fp 165 N/mm2
P' 0.49335 N/mm2

Therefore minimum plate thickness to resist bending = tpb =

Plate thickness due to shear thinning


_=(0.155^ _)/(_ )
Tau 82.5 N/mm2
_=(0.155^ _)/(_ )

Therefore minimum plate thickness to resist shear = tps =

The bigger thickness would be used


Therefore, using larger value (conservative estimate), thickness =

The recommendation of standards is such that minimum thickness should be no less than:
Calculated thickness is

Gasket Design

Internal Diameter 0.6859851569


Material Flat- face insertion rubber ,
Tube Side pressure 0.6
Samara:
Gasket factor 2.50
Durlon Technical Handbook
Gasket 9000 appropriate
Minimum design settling stress for oleum 13.355
Outer Diammeter, do 0.7040325655
gasket width, N 0.0090237043
minimum width 0.009525
therefore outside diameter 0.7050351569

Therefore Minimum width =


Outside Diameter =

Flange Design

Flange Type Ring


Flange specifications taken from BS3274
Class 75
Inside diameter 17
Shell Thickness 0.1875
Wlded flanges 0.6875
Loose Backing flanges 0.75
Outside diameter of flange 22
Bolt Circle 20.5
Number of bolts 16
Size of bolts 0.625

Combined Loading

Shell Weight _=_


_
_ (_+0.8_)
Cv 1.15 Ws
Dm 0.67933116 m **NB: Check standard for actual thickness
Hv 4.878 m
t 0.0064 m
pm 7850 kg/m3
g 9.81

_=(_^2 _^2 ) (())/4 (_ )


Tube Weight

do 0.021336 m Wt
di 0.02667 m
L 4.878 m
density 7850 kg/m3 (Max value)
N 334
g 9.81 m/s2

Fluid Weight _=_( )+ _

Wft = Ms (distance travelled by fluid / velocity) g

Ms 1.7459279 Wft
d travelled 19.512 (Fluid Weight, Tube)
Us 0.31709485

Wfs

Ms 16.3770146 kg/s Wfs


d travelled 19.512 m/s (Fluid Weight, Shell)
Us 1.60400398 m/s

Wf 3008.2605 N

_=(_^2 _^2 ) (())/4 (_ )


Insulation Weight
tinsulation 0.004 m
do 0.025336 m Wi
di 0.021336 m
L 4.878 m
density 100 (fibre glass)
Total Weight -15665.936 N
OR = -15.665936 kN

Primary stresses
P= 660 Kpa
0.66 N/mm2
d 672.93 mm =Ds
t 2.00051 mm
Therefore Circumferential: 111.0053443737
=(_)/2

Therefore Longitudinal : 55.5026721869

=/((_+ ) )

Direct stress -3.6932267303

Total longitudinal = 51.8094454565

1 = 111.005344 N 1-2 =
2 = 51.8094455 N 1-3 =
3 = 0.33 N 2-3 =

Compressive :
=2 10 ^4 (/_ )
Design Temperature
Shell side 70 OC (Taking upper limit of eachRuss
side)Jhingoorie:
Tube side 50 OC add 20 degrees excess
temperature

design Pressure
Shell side 166.65 Kpa Russ Jhingoorie:
multiply by an overdesign
Tube side 660 Kpa (10 bar condenser
factoroperating)
of 10% i.e. factor of
1.1

mm 0.021336 m Russ Jhingoorie:


mm 0.003302 m From Thermal Design
Specifications
mm 0.02667 m
%
m
mm =Ds
m2
m2

mm (As recommended by Coulson & Richardson)


(As recommended by Coulson & Richardson)

N/mm2Russ Jhingoorie:
Design Stress Factor,
C&R 809

2.51013178 mm

mm FROM BS 3274
0.68573116 m

0.67293116 m (Wider baffle spacing recommended for condensers)

(Length of shell/baffle spacing)

Cs = Stress concentration factor for torispherical heads

(shell design pressure)

0.00090149 mm

*C&R 815-820

0.00050982 mm

0.25355764 mm

(Choosing Smallest Thickness - most economic)


mm
kg/s
kg/m3

_=260 ^0.52 ^(0.37)


(For Stainless Steel)

in

kg/s
kg/m3

in

_=_( ) _
((^)/(_ ))

3.55764173 mm

(0.155^ _)/(_ )
(0.155^ _)/(_ )

2.69695995 mm

3.55764173 mm

e no less than: 25 mm
Smaller therefore thickness is 25 mm

N/mm2 1 kPa = 0.001 N/mm2


WITH WIRE RING< FROM COULSON 860. CHANGE IN WRITEUP
N/mm2 Lower limit as recommended
m
m
m (Recommended by BS 3274)
m

0.009525 m
0.70503516 m

Units
in X
in g
in

in
in

in
6557.89618 N

-25232.794 N

1053.92065 N Ms = Mass flow rate


d traveled = Length of tube x no. passes
Us = tube side Velocity

1954.33986 N

_ )

0.70164444 N
Wft = 0.50270134

N (Half the circumferential stress)

59.1958989
110.675344 Maximum Stress
51.4794455

58.3467676 N
C&R 647
C&R 847