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A-Translation
1 Rahasya Traya Saram - A Translation
ADHIKARA 1. UPOTKARA ADHIKARA
2 (Introductory)
3
4 For the one who desires Moksha (Mumukshu), the very desire can arise
only through a proper Guru and the attainment of this proper Guru itself is
possible only if one or more of the following conditions are satisfied:
5 (i) God's love
6 (ii) Good deeds done even by chance
7 (iii) The gracious glance of God even at the time of birth (Jayamana
Kadaksha) or in Tamil (Karuvile Thiru)
8 (iv) Absence of hatred towards fellow beings (another way of saying love
towards fellow beings)
9 (v) Willingness to learn the truths
10 (vi) Association with the virtuous.
11 Our Vedas have time and again reiterated that essentially the individual
souls are divine and have an inherent right to attain Moksha. But, due to
the dirt of Karma Vasanas they had accumulated over several lives, they
are oblivious of this divinity and stray into the cycle of births and deaths in
a vicious circle of Karma and Punarjanma. Thus, they become confirmed
'Nitya Samsaris' without any hope of redemption. It is only a rare
occurance that due to the factors stated above that an individual soul
stumbles on a Guru who initiates him into the eternal truths and restores
him to his rightful place in Moksha through Bhakti or Prapatti.
12 To illustrate the importance and the role of the Guru, and the deep debt of
gratitude the emancipated soul owes to the Guru, Swami Desika gives an
illustration thus:
13 The young crown prince of a king goes with his father on a hunting
expedition to a forest where he gets lost. He is brought up by some
huntsmen. He imbibes the qualities, customs, manners and habits of the
tribes forgetting that he is actually the prince. After some time, he is
spotted by a few courtiers of the king who reveal to him his identity and
bring him back to the king. The king is mightily happy in getting back his
dear son whom he had believed as lost forever. Thanks to the royal
servants, the prince regained his regalia. In the same manner, the
Jeevatma that had lost its identity is restored to its pristine glory through
the chance encounter with the Gurus who are the true servitors of God.
14
15 ADHIKARA 2 : SARA NISHKARSHA ADHIKARA
16 (Determination of what is best)
17
18 It is these Gurus who instruct a Mumukshu what should be learnt and what
should be ignored as not useful for attaining the goal of Moksha. Having
fixed our objective as the attainment of Moksha, We should carefully avoid
those that are either opposed to or are not conducive to the said goal.
Indeed, there are innumerable things in this world to know, life is short and
hinderences are many. Therefore, A WISE PERSON DESIRING MOKSHA
SHOULD PREFER ONLY WHAT IS ALWAYS AND UNCONDITIONALLY
MOST VALUABLE, without frittering away time and energy on lesser or
even harmful objectives. The things to be scrupulously avoided are:
19 (i) the philosophies of those opposed to the Vedas ( like Charvakas,
Buddhists, Jains etc.,) and the philosophies of heretics (like those who
accept the Vedas but misinterpret its contents).These are worthless
(Asaara).
20 (ii) the philosophies contained in Karma khanda of the Vedas because they
are only of very little value (Alpasaara).
21 (iii) That part which deals with the attainment of Svarga (Heavens) after
death though may appear valuable to some- does not lead to Moksha
( Saara)
22 (iv) that part which deals with the realization of one's own self (Kaivalya)
and the means to attain thereof, though a little more valuable than (iii)
above is really not conducive to the attainment of Moksha (Saaratara)
23 (v) What is most valuable is that which deals with the supreme Brahman,
the attainment of this Brahman and the means thereof (Saaratama).
24
25 ADHIKARA 3 : PRADHANA PRATI TANTRA ADHIKARA
26 (The most important and distinctive doctrine)
27
28 A basic understanding of the Sarira bhava ( body aspect) of the Jeevatma
in relation to the Sariri bhava (soul aspect) of the Paramatma is the
springboard for our take off on the way to attain Moksha. We have dealt
with this in greater detail in our Chapter "Who is God?" ( being posted in a
separate serial )
29 We have discussed therein how Chetanas or sentient beingsconstitute the
body of Iswara and are supported, controlled and directed by Isvara who is
their soul. It naturally follows that they exist for the pleasure of Isvara. The
Seshatva(Subordination) of the souls is only another way of saying that
they have Dasatva (Service) or right and duty to serve Isvara,who is their
master.
30
31 ADHIKARA 4: ARTHA PANCHAKA ADHIKARA
32 (The five things that should be known to the seeker of Salvation)
33
34 The Acharyas instruct us on the following five important things that should
be known to every seeker of salvation -called Artha Panchaka:-
35 (i) Paramatma Svarupa: the characteristics of the Supreme soul
36 (ii) Jeevatma Svarupa: the characteristics of the individual soul
37 (iii) Upaya Svarupa: the means for the Jeevatma to reach the Paramatma
(ie) Moksha through Bhakti or Prapatti (Note that rajayoga, karmayoga and
gnanayoga are not the direct means to attain moksha.)
38 (iv) Phala Svarupa: the ultimate purpose of existence of the Jeevatmas is
to serve (Dasatva) at the feet of Paramatma on attaining Moksha and
39 (v) Virodhi Svarupa: the nature of impediments on the path of the ultimate
goal
40 The items (i) to (iv) have already been dealt with in our Chapter Who is
God? mentioned above.We mention here the various forms of the
impediments . The impediments arise from sins committed by the
individual souls by transgressing the codes of conduct prescribed in the
Sastras thus incurring the displeasure of the Lord. This in turn impedes the
progress of the Jeeva towards Moksha. The sins are born out of Avidya
(Ignorance),and Karmavasana (the latent impressions of the past and the
present deeds)-the effects of which can be got rid of only by atoning and
surrendering to the Lord (Vide the details in the chapter mentioned above
and also in the chapter on Karma and Punarjanma, which will also be
posted separately)
41 As for the impediments, they manifest in different ways:-
42 (i) Associating the Jeeva with Prakriti, thus blunting intellect
43 (ii) Making the Jeeva identify itself with the body and sense organs
44 (iii) The Jeeva being born as an animal or bird etc., which have no access
to Sastras
45 (iv) Even if born as a human, the intellect of the Jeeva being maliciously
influenced by atheism.
46 (v) Even if a Jeeva is a theist, becoming too much addicted to worldly
pleasures
47 (vi) Committing sins deliberately to secure temporary and trivial mundane
benefits
48 (vii) Continuing to commit sins more and more- one sin leading to another
in an endless chain
49 (viii) Performing rites and rituals for securing trivial mundane benefits and
from petty deities (devatantara) who are no better than the Jeeva himself.
50 To use Swami Desika's anology, they are LIKE COWS TETHERED
TOGETHER IN THE SAME BARN, and imagining such trivial benefits as
the 'be all and end all 'of life and becoming immersed In the worship of
such petty divinities
51 (ix) Imperfect meditation and wrongful worship leading to further
involvement in Samsara, and
52 (x) Other such hinderences to the progress towards liberation - IT MAKES
NO DIFFERENCE IF A PERSON JUMPING OVER A WELL FALLS
WITHIN EITHER RIM OF THE WELL says Swami Desika.
53
54 ADHIKARA 5.: TATTVA TRAYA CHINTANA ADHIKARA
55 (The three reals)
56
57 The three 'reals' of Chetana (Sentient), Achetana ( Non-sentient) and
Isvara (All-sentient),their Svarupa ( form) and Svabhava (nature) have
already been dealt with extensively in Chapter Who is God? mentioned
above.
58
59 ADHIKARA 6.: PARA DEVATA PARAMARTHYA ADHIKARA
60 (Truth as to who is the Paramatma - the Supreme deity)
61
62 We have seen that the ultimate aim and object of all Chetanas is the
attainment of Moksha (i,e) integrating with Paramatma.It
is,therefore,necessary to know who this Paramatma is. JUST AS A
PERSON DESIRING TO REACH A SPECIFIC DESTINATION SHOULD
KNOW WHERE EXACTLY IT IS LOCATED AND THE PRECISE AND
SHORTEST ROUTE LEADING THERETO, THE PERSON DESIRING
MOKSHA SHOULD KNOW WHO CAN GRANT THIS MOKSHA AND THE
EASIEST MEANS TO SECURE THE SAME. WE NEED NOT KNOW
ANYTHING ELSE THAT DOES NOT RELATE TO THIS SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVE. The Paramatma referred to is none other than SRIMAN
NARAYANA ( as explained in our Chapter '" O! My God !")
63
64 ADHIKARA 7: MUMUKSHUTVA ADHIKARA
65 (When one becomes desirous of Moksha)
66
67 Through the Sastras, the individual soul discerns the differentiation as
between its self and the body on the one hand and as between its
individual soul (Jeevatma ) and the Universal soul (Paramatma) on the
other. He also comes to know that his deeds (Karma) are responsible for
his repeated reincarnations (Punarjanmas). He therefore refrains from bad
deeds (Papa) and resorts to spiritually meritorious deeds (Punya) as
prescribed in the Sastras. He also becomes aware of the Supreme Lord
Sri Narayana and that surrender (Prapatti) to him as the only means to
reach Narayana and enjoy everlasting bliss. He thus becomes a
mumukshu.
68 To put it differently, the desire for securing Moksha would arise in an
individual only when the following categories of feelings of 'I' and 'Mine' are
got over.(Aham kara and Mama kara):
69 (i) the feeling generated by the soul's attachment to the body
70 (ii) the feeling of possessiveness over the body and bodily experiences
71 (iii) the feeling of being subordinate to another deity or being equally
subordinate to Bhagavan and the other deities.
72 (iv) the mistaken impression that individual soul is its own protector and
lord.
73 (v) the mistaken belief of the self acting on its own, for its own benefit and
enjoying the fruits thereof.
74
75 ADHIKARA 8 : ADHIKARI VIBHAGA ADHIKARA
76 (Classification of persons qualified for Moksha)
77
78 There are two kinds of persons qualified for Moksha viz., Bhaktas and
Prapannas.We have discussed about Bhakti in the Chapter on Bhakti
yoga. What remains is Prapatti.This Prapatti can be performed even by
one who is not aware of the rules to be followed and the steps to be taken
in performing Prapatti.(Surrender). This surrender can be done by simply
surrendering to the Lord with absolute faith in him
79 ( i ) By repeating the Mantra AS ADVISED BY THE GURU. THIS IS
CALLED "UKTI NISHTA"-(performance done as told.)
80 ( ii ) one may request his Acharya who acceding to his request performs
Prapatti and prays to the Lord on behalf of the Sishya without the Sishya
repeating the Mantra himself. THIS IS CALLED 'ACHARYA NISHTA.'
81 ( iii ) In very rare cases, highly evolved souls can resort to Selfsurrender.
THIS IS CALLED 'SWA NISHTA' and those who do this are called
'Swayam acharyas'
82 ( iv ) Others who can do neither 'Swa nishta' nor find an appropriate
Acharya for doing 'Ukti nishta' or 'Acharya nishta' as above ( e.g those who
have migrated to foreign countries like the USA but who are nevertheless
desirous of doing Prapatti) can find out another devotee of Bhagavan and
perform Prapatti in WHAT IS KNOWN AS 'BHAGAVATA NISHTA'
83 Unless one resorts to Bhakti or Prapatti, it is impossible to attain Moksha.
Between them, Prapatti can be adopted by all irrespective of caste, creed,
sex, place or time and done without any elaborate rituals. Prapatti can
destroy all Sanchita Karma. Bhakti and Prapatti are inculcated also by
Bhagavata Abhimana (devotion towards the devotees of the Lord) and
Divyadesa vasa (residing in places sacred to the Lord).
84
85 ADHIKARA 9: UPAYA VIBHAGA ADHIKARA
86 (Classification of the means for attaining Moksha)
87
88 It is well known -
89 (i) that Rajayoga or Hatayoga can at best serve as means to discipline the
body and mind and cannot lead to Moksha.
90 (ii) that Karma yoga has to be of the Nishkamya variety and that while we
cannot give up Nitya and Naimittika karmas under any circumstances
Karma yoga by itself cannot lead to Moksha but at best serve to lead to
Gnana yoga and then possibly to Bhakti yoga
91 (iii) that Gnana yoga cannot by itself lead to Moksha because mere
'knowledge' will be 'useless tinsel' unless it blossoms into ' action
in .devotion.'(e.g) - Merely 'knowing' that a disease can be cured by
appropriate medicine cannot cure the disease unless the specific medicine
is actually consumed; - Merely 'knowing' that hunger will subside by taking
food cannot solve the problem of hunger unless one actually eats food; -
Merely "knowing" the way to reach a particular destination cannot help in
taking one there unless one actually moves towards the destination.
92 (iv) that Bhakti yoga while being counted as one of the direct means to
Moksha is difficult to practice as explained in the opening paragraph of this
series..
93 ARJUNA was therefore confused and frustrated and asked SRI KRISHNA
as to what he should do in these intriguing circumstances. As an answer to
this question, Sri Krishna advised Arjuna to totally surrender to himself and
that as God incarnate he would himself stand in the place of these yogas.
Having left all dharma (i.e) these upayas, if he thus surrenders, the Lord
would certainly wipe off all his sins, and protect him. Having pledged his
promise, Sri Krishna advised him not to entertain any grief any more.
WHAT WAS ADVISED TO ARJUNA IS APPLICABLE TO ALL OF US AND
GOD WOULD CERTAINLY EXTEND THE SAME PROTECTION TO US IF
WE UNCONDITIONALLY SURRENDER OURSELVES TO HIM.
94 Thus, over and above the four upayas listed above Bhagavan has
provided in his Charamasloka, a fifth course , that of Prapatti - THE ONLY
EASY BUT SURE MEANS TO ATTAIN MOKSHA.
95 The essential differences between Bhakti and Prapatti may be summarised
as follows :
96 Point of difference is indicated by Roman Numerals Bhakti a.k.a. Upasana
is indicated by letter (B) Prapatti a.k.a. Saranagathi is indicated by the
letter (P)
97 I.BIRTH (B):One should be born within the first three Castes because
Upasana can be commenced only in the Sarira secured at birth though it
can be continued in any other Sarira in subsequent births. (P): Irrespective
of Castes, the only qualifications are i) One should feel incapable of
following Bhaktiyoga ii) Desire ONLY Moksha iii) Desire it ONLY from
Bhagavan knowing that ONLY He can grant it
98 II.KNOWLEDGE OF SASTRAS. (B): One should know the Sastras
properly (P) : Lack of knowledge of Sastras is not a disqualification
99 III. FOLLOWING THE DISCIPLINES (B): One should follow the disciplines
prescribed in the Sastras scrupilously and without fail (P): Following the
disciplines is RECOMMENDED as an ADJUNCT and not as the main
condition of Prapatti
100 IV.DELAY IN SECURING MOKSHA (B) : One who does not mind delay in
securing Moksha can adopt Bhakti (P) : One who is anxious in securing
Moksha without delay should adopt only Prapatti
101 V. VARNASHRAMA DHARMA (B) : The observance of Varna and
Ashrama Dharmas is sin-quanon and forms a necessary condition and
includes several strenuous Nitya and Naimittika duties. (P) : The
observance of Dharmas while cannot be dispensed with, is NOT
considered to be PART OF PRAPATTI. It is done to please the Lord with
angas detailed in Adhikara 11 below.
102 VI. ANTHIMA SMRITI (B): The remembrance of the Lord at the time of
death is necessary. This can dawn ONLY in the LAST SARIRA when all
the karmas get obliterated. (P) : This is not necessary. Once surrendered,
the Lord remembers and so grants Moksha at the end of the CURRENT
life itself or earlier as prayed for at the time of Prapatti.( Vide Varaha
Charama sloka also)
103 VII. REMOVAL OF KARMA (B) : Bhakti yoga can not remove Prarabda
Karma. (P) : Prapatti will remove both Sanchita Karma and even Prarabda
Karma till the performance of Prapatti. If one desires Moksha HERE and
NOW and prays for it AT THE TIME OF PRAPATTI, the Lord would grant it
right away. This is called AARTHA PRAPATTI.
104 Any delay is only because the Prapanna had not prayed for an immediate
release, being prepared to go through the unexpired portion of Prarabda
Karma till the end of the CURRENT life. This is called TRIPTA PRAPATTI.
In this case, the sins committed without knowledge are ignored and those
committed knowingly get expatiated by atonement (Nirveda and
Prayaschitta) or by suffering minor punishments in the CURRENT life
itself.
105 VIII : DURATION AND INTENSITY OF SAADHANA (B) : Has to be
practised incessantly for long periods; Is beset with numerous
impediments; Is a difficult process for attaining Moksha because it involves
the strict observance of one or more of the 32 Vidyas attached to Bhakti
yoga. (P) : Prapatti guarantees Moksha INSTANTLY; Requires to be done
ONLY ONCE; No impediments or hard conditions to be fulfilled; Can be
resorted to even by one who does not have any clear knowledge provided
one has the mind and inclination to adopt the means.
106 Mr.A.K.RAMANUJAM, observes- "Prapatti (unlike Bhakti) works for
everyone, whatever be his state, status. caste or previous history. Not
merit but demerit may qualify the soul for the grace. Not learning or high
caste but their opposite may endear one to God...for Prapatti , there are no
conditions of place, time, manner, fitness.The only condition is that the
Lord and ONLY the Lord be the object. Draupadi, the heroine of
Mahabharata, performed Prapatti when she was menstruating and
unclean. Arjuna received the Lord's counsel and grace on the battlefield,
surrounded by vile and unclean people"
107 When this Supreme Lord is so Supreme and the individual soul is so
worthless on account of sins, how would God stoop down to the level of
the soul and lift him up?
108 Sri Ramanuja answers that God can and will do this in exercise of his
immense accessability, grace and compassion (Saulabhya ) in preference
to his Paratva ( omnipotent power) And, JOHN.B.CARMAN quotes Sri
Ramanuja asking and answering- "How can a lame man climb on an
elephant, if you tell him to do so? Likewise, how can an insignificant soul in
this imperfect world approach the Lord of all? The answer is surely that an
elephant can accommodate itself lying down so that the lame man can
mount"- All that is needed is the absolute confidence (Mahaviswasa) on
the part of the lame man that the elephant would allow him to mount on by
lowering itself down to his level.
109 Another question arises as to how Prapatti could destroy all the Sanchita
karmas as also the Prarabda Karmas? These Karmas can be likened to a
huge load of cotton bales stacked in a warehouse. And, if the entire stock
has to be used up by taking out for purposes of spinning little by little, it
would take an inordinately long time. But, by applying a single burning
match STICK, the entire STOCK could be gutted. Likewise, the sparkling
matchstick that the Acharya lights up at the time of Prapatti can and indeed
does destroy all the accumulated sins.
110 Sri ANDAL puts it picturesquely: "The entire stock of accumulated sins and
those that had started to yield results would be incinerated like dirt
scorched by fire" "Poya Pizhaiyum Pugu Tharuvaan Ninranavum
Theeyinaal Thoosagum"
111 "It is said that the enormous debit entries appearing on the balance sheet
of the individual's Karma account can be more than offset by one mighty
stroke of credit entry of simple faith in the saving grace of God. And,
Prapatti which represents this credit transaction demands no effort; not
even an act of will. Rather, the abandonment of the will, the abandonment
of all effort. It merely requires Absolute surrender to his will"
112
113 ADHIKARA 10 : PRAPATTI YOGYATA ADHIKARA
114 (Fitness for Prapatti)
115
116 The following qualifications are required for both Bhakti and Prapatti viz.,
The desire to attain Moksha
117 Seeking the truth from the Sastras
118 Desire and capacity to perform the duties as prescribed in the Sastras The
following further qualifications are special to those desiring to adopt
Prapatti viz.,
119 Inability to adopt any other means (aakinchanyam)
120 Absence of interest in resorting to any other means being aware of the
delay involved in attaining Moksha through them (Ananya Gathi tvam)
121 Unconditional and Absolute surrender to Sri Narayana with an unwavering
and unflinching faith in him as the only Savior (Ananya saranatvam

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12315 June 2006,02:24 PM


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Re: Rahasya Traya Saram - A Translation


ADHIKARA 11: PARIKARA VIBHAGA ADHIKARA
124 (The Accessories or Angas of Prapatti)
125
126 This chapter deals with the accessories or Angas for performing Prapatti.
They are:-
127 (1) Aanukulya Sankalpam: Resolve to act only in accordance with the
directives of the Lord and which would , therefore, be pleasurable to him.
This includes- Following the duties enunciated for the Varna and Ashrama
(i.e) Nitya and Naimittika karmas
128 Respecting the devotees of the Lord (Bhagavatas and Acharyas) with the
same ardor as while respecting the Lord himself.
129 Exceptional and Unconditional devotion to Sri Narayana only to the
exclusion of all other deities.
130 (2) Praatikulya Varjanam: Resolve to scrupulously avoid all actions not
pleasurable to the Lord (i.e) those opposed to the ones stated under (1)
above.
131 (3) Maha Viwasam: Absolute faith and confidence that the Lord will surely
protect the soul and certainly grant Moksha.
132 (4) Karpanyam : Realizing the utter inability of the soul to do anything
except surrendering at the feet of the Lord. This 'Self effacing' confession
eliminates the ego, pride, possessiveness and such other defects in the
individual
133 (5) Goptrutva Varanam or Atma Nikshepam : A formal expression of one's
total dependence on the Lord for salvation
134 One who observes these five Angas at the time of Prapatti will certainly be
saved by the Lord and granted Moksha at the end of the present lifetime
itself. This however does not mean that there can be a dilution in these
Angas ( parts ) at the Post-Prapatti period. This only means that they are
the accessories at the time of performing Prapatti . Of these, the most
important is Mahaviswasam which can arise only as a result of the benign
blessings of one's Acharya. Otherwise, it will be difficult to gear up
adequate determination and concentration. It may be doubted how one
could cultivate the five Angas mentioned above. Day in and day out, we
are adopting and practicing these in our lives without our ever being aware
of it.
135 Take the case of your visit to a departmental stores for buying some article
that you need. The fact that you go to the particular stores is a favor done
to that store. This is Anukulya sankalpa. That you avoid going to another
competitor of his is Pratikulya varjana. Since you are not capable of
manufacturing the product is an admission of your Akinchanya. The trust
you place in the particular stores for delivering the goods in quality,
quantity and a reasonable price is your Mahavisvasa that impels you to go
to that stores. The fact of your picking up the product you need from the
aisle, putting it in the store cart and pushing it to the cash counter for
preparing the bill for payment in an implied request for the item constitutes
your Goptrutva varana.
136 To cite another example, when you have necessarily to go out under
unavoidable circumstances, you may have to entrust your kids to the care
of a baby-sitter, of course for a consideration. The fact that you pay the
baby sitter is your Anukulya Sankalpa towards that person. Not entrusting
the job to some other person is an act of avoiding something unfavorable
to that person .This is Pratikulya varjana. It is because of your inability to
look after your wards or take them with you for whatever reason is a tacit
acceptance of your helplessness. This is your Akinchanya. Your trust in
the babysitter for taking good care of your wards constitutes your
confidence or Mahavisvasa. What you request that person while entrusting
the job is the expression of Goptrutva varana.
137 The same analogy can be extended to any situation in real life where one
has to be dependent on another at whatever time or place or
circumstances. If we recognize the fact of adoption of these measures
even in our daily routine, it should not be difficult for us to consciously
adopt the same while performing Prapatti- and no special training or
orientation is needed to inculcate these requirements.
138 Mahaviswasam consists of having complete faith in the following:-
139 (i) The Lord is omniscient (Sarvjna) while the self is imperfect with full of
blemishes due to Karma Vasanas. As the Lord is aware of the defects of
the Chetana, in the normal course, the Chetana would deserve only
punishment. But, on the recommendations of Mother Goddess Lakshmi,
the Lord takes pity on the individual, accepts him, forgives his sins and
grants Moksha
140 (ii) The Lord dispenses justice (rewards or punishments) strictly in
accordance with one's Karma only. Since most of our deeds are misdeeds,
we deserve punishments only. Still out of extreme compassion and love,
God may forgive and grant Moksha.
141 (iii) Since the Lord is omnipotent, there is nothing he cannot grant and
there is no higher authority to question his decisions (Sankalpa), he can in
exercise of his compassion accept the acts of submission (Prapatti) and
reward with Moksha.
142 (iv) The Supreme Lord may not grant other rewards of material benefits as
quickly or as assuredly for various reasons in the interests of the Prapanna
( unlike other deities) but he never delays in granting Moksha to the
Prapanna as requested by him
143 (v) The Lord has no prejudices, no favoritism. Whoever performs Prapatti
is rewarded with Moksha irrespective of Caste, Creed, Sex etc. This is due
to His Saulabhya (accessibility)
144
145 ADHIKARA 12 : SANGA PRAPANA ADHIKARA
146 ( The preliminaries for performing Prapatti)
147
148 An archer might be able to fix the arrow to his bow and aim immediately at
the target. Though the actual act of shooting might be done at an incredibly
short split-second, he would have gone through a lot of preparation,
practice and intense training before acquiring the expertise and precision
in fixing and targeting. He would have developed over a period of
probation adequate mental concentration, adequate physical agility,
adequate dexterity and adequate confidence about his achieving the
hallmark of marksmanship .
149 So also, there are a few preliminaries for one desirous of performing
Prapatti. These are:-
150 Surrendering one's self unto the Lord (Svarupa Samarpana)
151 Entrusting the responsibility of one's protection to the Lord (Bhara
Samarpana)
152 Dedicating the fruits of all deeds to the Lord himself (Phala Samarpana)
The mental preparation consists of the following auto suggestions and
conviction thereof:
153 "I" do not belong to me
154 I have nothing to call my own
155 I am not subject to anyone other than the Paramatma
156 Being my natural owner and master, Paramatma does every act of mine
and for his own pleasure
157 I have no means to protect myself other than the Lord
158 Myself and all that is supposedly mine belong to the Lord and the
responsibility for protecting them rests with the Lord only and none else
159 The results (fruits) entailing from such protection accrues to the Lord and
none else. These are known as Kartrutva Tyaga, Mamata Tyaga, Phala
Tyaga and Phalopaya Tyaga.
160 If a person prays at the time of Prapatti for a sinless future in the Post-
Prapatti period for the rest of the present life itself, the Lord grants this
prayer also. But, such a prayer could occur to a Prapanna only when his
mind is so evolved by the kind of training in the disciplines and dedication
mentioned above.
161
162 ADHIKARA 13 : KRITA KRITYA ADHIKARA
163 ( The one who has done what ought to be done)
164
165 The marks of a person who has performed what he ought to perform viz.,
Prapatti are explained:
166 In the Post-Prapatti period till death the Prapanna should be free from all
anxieties, worries, tensions or doubts regarding the fact of achieving the
goal. He should look forward to the event of deliverance as anticipating the
arrival of a honored guest since the release from Samsara ( cycle of births
and deaths) is a matter for supreme rejoicing.
167 He should, nevertheless, be wary of his promises to do the Nitya and
Naimittika karmas pleasurable to the Lord, avoid those that would
displease the Lord and maintain the Mahaviswasa and remember his own
Karpanya and Aakinchanya during the rest of his life. In short, he will
conduct himself as a liberated soul even while living in this world .
168 The repentance on his having committed sins and the atonement therefor
are proper before Prapatti; Otherwise, Prapatti would be ineffective. If on
the other hand, he languishes over his past karma EVEN AFTER
PRAPATTI, it will amount to disbelieving the Lord's assurance to forgive all
that. SO, ATONEMENT BEFORE AND HOPE AFTER ARE THE
HALLMARKS OF A PERSON WHO HAS DONE PRAPATTI.
169 A self conceited person might feel that his initiative has been lost, but the
Prapanna would feel that the initiative was never with him; It was always
with the Lord to whom he had surrendered. Neither our will nor our mind
nor our intelligence work out things for us. Every action is His; The only
actin that can ever be ours is to surrender our will to Him. This surrender,
he does not do for us because it has to come out of our free will. All he
does is to create the circumstances for us to surrender to Him. If we don't
surrender in word, thought and deed, He mercifully lets us go free, but to
be tossed about in Samsara and take our own time to come to Him. Once,
having surrendered, the Prapanna can rest assured of His protection and
has nothing else to do for saving himself. (To be continued)
170
171 ADHIKARA 14 : SVANISHTA ABHIGNANA ADHIKARA
172 (Characteristics of behaviour of a Prapanna which show that he has
developed the proper state of mind required of a Prapanna)
173
174 The following traits of behaviour would reveal that a Prapanna has attained
proper stage of evolution of mind and the following nishtas (Codes of
conduct) Viz., (i) Svarupa Nishta ( self surrender), (ii) Upaya Nishta
( surrendering the means ) and (iii) Purusharta Nishta ( surrendering the
fruits of surrender) would serve as a barometer to measure the stage of
such evolution:
175 (1) SVARUPA NISHTA:
176 (a) He will not feel hurt when others hurl insults on him, being aware that
the soul can never be insulted
177 (b) He will feel compassionate towards those insulting him for only they
would incur sin by insulting a Prapanna.
178 (c) He will feel thankful towards those accusing him because they make
him aware of a possible defect in him for rectifying which they had given
him an opportunity.
179 (d) He will not harbor any ill will against those insulting him being
convinced that it is divine will that is instrumental for such accusations in a
process of testing his courage to face insults with equanimity.
180 (e) He will feel happy that his sins get removed by being exposed to insults
(merited or otherwise) and by exposure of his defects. In practical termsIf
someone insults, you say "I think you are perhaps correct" If someone calls
you a fool, you say "I have that doubt myself" If someone besmears you,
you think you have gained an experience If you think nothing is in your
hands, you will have no grief or misery
181 SRI ANDAL has provided in her TIRUPPAVAI an excellent example of this
attitude. When her mates accused her , she answered "Maybe, I am at
fault"- "Nanethan Ayiduga"6 This is considered to be the essential index of
a true Vaishnava ( Vaishnava lakshanam) NARSI MEHTA, a Gujarati poet
composed a poem to answer the question "Who is a
Vaishnava?" ( devotee of Vishnu) and this poem is said to have influenced
Mahatma Gandhi in adopting his famous creed of ahimsa. He enlists the
following as the traits of a Vaishnava:
182 (i) One who feels sympathetic on seeing the sufferings of others and
rushes to alleviate their sufferings and does not feel proud for doing this.
183 (ii) One who respects all living beings alike, and does not engage himself
in slandering through mind, word or deed
184 (iii) One who has no illwill towards others and regards all womenfolk (other
than his wife) as Mother (i.e) without lust., one who does not indulge in
falsehood, one who does not covet others' belongings
185 (iv) One who has banished with a determination Kama and Krodha (desire
and anger) from his mind.
186 (v) One who has totally dedicated himself to the service of the Lord and
humanity- because such service is the true hallmark of a Vaishnava.
187 (2) UPAYA NISHTA
188 (a) He is convinced that he is not subservient to any one other than Sri
Narayana.
189 (b) He is prepared to welcome death as and when it comes-as an honored
guest, knowing full well that on his death, he would reach up to the
kingdom of God.
190 (c) He does not take recourse to any other means to achieve his goal in
the firm faith that Lord Sri Narayana has already assured to respond to his
prayers and will protect him under all circumstances.
191 (d) He is free from all worries knowing that Lord Sri Narayana would
destroy all that is harmful and grant all that is beneficial to his spiritual
upliftment ( not necessarily what he desires, which might turn out to be
harmful ultimately)
192 (3) PURUSHARTHA NISHTA
193 (a) Being immersed in his dedication to the Lord, he no more seeks
physical or material comforts or nourishment, in the conviction that
everything happens as per the will of God.
194 (b) If any physical or material comforts come his way (through Dharmic
ways, of course) he does not shun them, knowing that it is one of the ways
to get rid of his Punya karmas because they also constitute impediments
on his path to Moksha
195 (c) He views both joy and sorrow alike submitting himself to both with
equanimity, knowing that both pleasure and pain visit him as ordained by
the Lord.
196 (d) He feels intensity of devotion like that of 'Parama Bhakti" when he
cannot brook any further delay in achieving communion with the Lord
197 When one acquires the mental caliber as aforesaid, there can be no fear
other than Bhagavata Apachara and Acharya Apachara (disrespect to
devotees and preceptor) which in any case, he would not indulge in.
198 In short, a true Vaishnava is a true gentleman and answers to the
description of a 'TRUE GENTLEMAN' given by CARDINAL NEWMAN in
these words: "The true gentleman carefully avoids whatever may cause a
jar or a jolt in the minds of those with whom he is cast; all clashing of
opinion , or collision of feeling, all restraint or suspicion; or gloom or
resentment. His great concern being to make everyone at their ease and at
home. He has his eyes on all his company. HE IS TENDER TOWARDS
THE BASHFUL, GENTLE TOWARDS THE DISTANT, AND MERCIFUL
TOWARDS THE ABSURD. He can recollect to whom he is speaking. He
guards against unseasonable allusions, or topics which may irritate. He is
seldom prominent in conversation and never wearisome. He makes light of
favors and SEEMS TO BE RECEIVING WHEN HE IS CONFERRING. He
never speaks of himself except when compelled, never defends himself by
a mere retort. He has no ears for slander or gossip, is scrupulous in
imputing motives to those who interfere with him. He is never mean or little
in his disputes, never takes unfair advantage, never mistakes personalities
or sharp sayings for arguments or insinuates evil which he dare not say
out. From a long sighted prudence, he observes the maxim of the ancient
sage that we should EVER CONDUCT OURSELVES TOWARDS OUR
ENEMY AS IF HE WERE ONE DAY TO BE OUR FRIEND.
199 He has too much good sense to be affronted at insults; he is too well
employed to remember injuries and too indolent to bear malice. He is
patient, forbearing and resigned on philosophical principles HE SUBMITS
TO PAIN BECAUSE IT IS INEVITABLE, TO BEREAVEMENT BECAUSE
IT IS IRREPAIRABLE AND TO DEATH BECAUSE IT IS HIS DESTINY.
200 If he engages in controversy of any kind, his disciplined intellect preserves
him from the blundering discourtesy to better though less educated minds.
He may be right or wrong in his opinions but he is too clear headed to be
unjust, he is as simple as he is forcible and as brief as he is decisive"
201
202 ADHIKARA 15 : UTHARA KRITYA ADHIKARA
203 (The manner in which one should conduct oneself after Prapatti)
204
205 This Chapter lays down the duties to be performed by a Prapanna from the
time of his doing Prapatti till attaining Moksha on death.
206 (a) A Prapanna should not slacken his attentions to and performance of his
Nitya Karmas.
207 (b) He should continue to widen his knowledge by associating with
Acharyas and others qualified.
208 (c) Even if he has achieved a mental evolution befitting him to a direct
communion with God., he should not feel proud about it since he should be
ever aware of his own insignificance
209 (d) He should keep his sense organs under perfect control
210 (e) He should continue to do service to the archa form of the Lord as also
Nishkamya Karmas.
211 (f) He should consciously avoid all desire for worldly pleasures and carry
on his daily routine with wealth earned through Dharmic means.
212 (g) He should always feel grateful to the grace of the preceptor who
initiated him into Prapatti
213 (h) He should always utter the Dvaya mantra as advised by his Guru
214 (i) He should never boast about his own greatness (j) He should
scrupulously avoid insulting or disrespecting the Bhagavatas and
Acharyas.
215 (j) He should always be eager to perform service to Bhagavan, the
Bhagavatas and Acharyas.
216 (k) He should eat only pious foods conducive to augmenting Satva guna.
217 What a Prapanna should do and what he should not may be summarized
as follows:
218 (i) Not to indulge in Worldly pleasures and desire therefor (ii) To
remember The great help rendered by Acharyas (iii) Not to utter
Words of Self-praise (iv) To utter Dvaya Mantra (v) To avoid in mind
Disrespect to Bhaghavatas and word and deed Acharyas (v) To
perform in mind Service to Bhaghavan, Bhaghavatas word and deed
and Acharyas
219
220 ADHIKARA 16 : PURUSHARTHA KAASHTA ADHIKARA
221 (The farthest extent of our ultimate object)
222 If we probe into what is most pleasurable to the Lord, we will come to the
conclusion that service to his devotees is the one that is so. Hence, service
to Bhagavatas constitutes the farthest extent and most important aspect of
our service to the Lord. As we saw, the ultimate object of a Prapanna is to
do service to the Lord in Paramapada. But, one has to be trained in such
service even while being in this world. Since Bhagavatas are ensouled by
Bhagavan any service done to them constitute service to the Lord himself.
As Bhagavatas are like God's favorite children, service done to them will
please the Lord just like a parent being pleased with the one who pets his
child. It is, therefore, that a Srivaishnava calls himself 'adiyen' which means
"I who am at your feet". This concept also finds echoed in the expression
"adiyar". This service which acts as a probationary period of service so that
the Prapanna could taste the pleasure of service to God ' again for the first
time' when he reaches Paramapada. This also saves the Prapanna from
223 (i) Propensity to commit sins
224 (ii) Entertaining doubts in the authority of the Sastras
225 (iii) Attachment to petty deities
226 (iv) Imagining pleasures as resulting out of one's own efforts and
227 (v) Misappropriating the fruits of efforts for one's self instead of dedicating
them to the Lord.
228
229 ADHIKARA 17 :SASTRIYA NIYAMANA ADHIKARA
230 (The injunctions ordained by the Sastras)
231
232 We have been repeating time and again that one should act according to
the injunctions ordained by the Sastras. Sri RAMANUJA, at the time of his
death gave his disciples the following commandments that constitute the
essence of these Sastric injunctions:
233 (1) The Prapanna should study the philosophy of SRI BASHYA and
expound them to others.
234 (2) If he cannot do this, he should study the 4000 holy collects (Nalayira
Divya Prabandham) authored by Alwars and expound them to others.
235 (3) If he cannot do this also, he can engage himself in such services in
Divya Desas (shrines consecrated by the Alwars) like preparing offerings
of prasada, preparing sandal paste, garlands etc to adorn the Archa forms
of the Lord, lighting lamps in the sanctum sanctorum and around the
temples etc
236 (4) If he cannot do even this, he must concentrate and unceasingly recite
the Dvaya Mantra and meditate on its meaning constantly (5) If none of the
above is possible, he must conduct himself in such a way as to become
acceptable as a disciple to a qualified preceptor.
237 The Prapanna should bear in mind the following:-
238 (i) Srivaishnavas (Bhakthas Of Sri Vishnu) are like his kith and kin and he
should yearn for association with them and feel glad in their company like
enjoying the fragrance of sandal paste flowers, moonlight, cool southerly
breeze or a dear darling wife.
239 (ii) Those opposed to Bhagavan should be shunned like poisonous
snakes, fire etc.,
240 (iii) Others who are neither Bhaktas nor opposed to Bhagavan should be
ignored as dirt. This category of people, if they show signs of being
amenable to turning good, an attempt can be made to instruct them; if not ,
the Prapanna can only sympathize with them as being misled.
241 If out of desire for worldly pleasures one disregards a Bhakta or supports a
non-believer, one is sure to incur the wrath of the Lord (which is another
name for sin). If the neutral type of persons are supported for the same
reasons, it is like not being able to differentiate between a gem and a clod
of clay- and the Lord would ignore such supporters.
242 Hence, a Prapanna should be circumspect in offering his services only to
the proper Bhaktas (To be continued)
243
244 ADHIKARA 18 : APARADHA PARIHARA ADHIKARA
245 (Atonement for offences)
246
247 After Prapatti, a Prapanna will not indulge in committing any sins
248 (1) Should he commit any without intention, such sins will not accrue to
him
249 (2) Sins knowingly and deliberately committed can be neutralized by
atonement -prayaschitta prapatti (not for the purpose of Moksha)
250 (3) Should one indulge in sins deliberately and does not atone, minor
punishments will be imposed on him like becoming blind, lame etc., or
disobedience by wife, children etc. In such an event also the Prapanna
would not be denied Moksha because his papas will be negatived by
atonement or suffering punishment as aforesaid.
251 (4) Even major sins except what is stated in (5) below will be excused by
the Lord by inflicting a light punishment in exercise of his patience, love
and compassion towards the Prapanna.
252 (5) The only heinous and unpardonable sins which will nullify the effects of
Prapatti are: (a) Disrespect to Bhagavatas and Acharyas and (b)
Adherence to deities other than Bhagavan.
253 (6) Though the means and Phala of Moksha are identical as between a
Prapanna and the great Nityas and Muktas like PARASARA,VYASA,SRI
NATHAMUNI and others, the Prapanna should not arrogate himself by
equating himself with these extraordinary luminaries since they are far
superior on account of their birth, character, knowledge, discipline etc
which are not comparable to those of the Prapanna.
254 (7) THE PRAPANNA SHOULD NOT DISCRIMINATE ANY ONE AS
INFERIOR ON ACCOUNT OF THE LATTER'S CASTE, CREED, SEX OR
OTHER DIFFERENCES
255 (8) The Apacharas committed towards Bhagavatas can also be expiated
but Only by seeking the forgiveness of the same Bhagavatas
256 (9) A SUBTLE POINT TO NOTE IN THIS CONNECTION IS THAT IF A
PRAPANNA PRAYS AT THE TIME OF DOING PRAPATTI
FORGIVENESS OF SINS HE MIGHT COMMIT KNOWINGLY OR
UNKNOWINGLY IN THE POST-PRAPATTI PERIOD, THE LORD WOULD
TAKE CARE TO GUARD HIM AGAINST HIS COMMITTING SUCH SINS
ALSO.
257 (10) The Post-Prapatti sins get exculpated thus:- 1/4th by not repeating
such sins; 1/4th by feeling repentant; th by efforts to perform atonement
(Prayaschitta) and the balance 1/4th by actually performing the
Prayaschitta. Thus, for the Prapanna, there is no consignment to hell or
the danger of rebirth under any circumstances.
258
259 ADHIKARA 19 : STHANA VISESHA ADHIKARA
260 (The places suitable for the Prapanna's residence )
261
262 The question arises as to which places will be most suitable for a
Prapanna to reside. This is answered as follows:
263 (1) A Prapanna should select a place suitable for carrying out his daily
ritualistic chores relating to his Varna and Ashrama
264 (2) Any place sanctified by Bhagavatas would be suitable. Places glorified
and consecrated by Alwars in their Mangala Sasanas ( statement of
consecration) will be most suitable since they will be the usual places
where other devotees would prefer to reside.
265 (3) However great a place may be, if it is not recognized by Bhagavatas,
such a place is not fit for a Prapanna. (4) SHOULD, HOWEVER, A
PRAPANNA IS FORCED BY CIRCUMSTANCES TO LIVE IN ANY SUCH
PLACE (e.g.) IN THE USA OR ELSEWHERE, AND CONTINUES TO
PERFORM SCRUPULOUSLY HIS DHARMIC DUTIES, SUCH A PLACE
WOULD BECOME SANCTIFIED BY VIRTUE OF HIS HAVING RESIDED
THEREIN.

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26715 June 2006,02:29 PM


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Re: Rahasya Traya Saram - A Translation


ADHIKARA 20 : Niryana Adhikara
268 ( The Departure of the soul)
269
270 Long long ago, in fact, millions of years ago, our Sastras have explained
graphically and with minute details not only what processes the soul
undergoes 'At death' and what happens 'After death'.
271 Sri Ramanuja's SriBashya based on the Vedas and Upanishads clearly
portrays these aspects and Swami Sri Vedanta Desika has incorporated
these in Adhikaras 20.21 and 22 of his Rahasya Traya Sara in his own
inimitable style. We discuss below the subject as told by these pioneers
272
273 SECTION 1 : The two faces of death Death?
274 The very thought would send a chill through the spine to any person
especially one who is face to face with death. Those who are impervious to
such a sensation would be those driven to suicidal proclivity by deep
distress, untold miseries, jilted love, betrayal by trusted ones, financial
breakdown or mental alteration caused by drug , dope and the like.
Though the media blares forth day in and day out cases of murder, loot,
arson and rape along with a good sprinkling of suicides - the suicide
instances are comparatively few and far between.
275 On the other end of the continuum, there are of course, a few exceptional
cases who 'liked to live and not die' for very different reasons. For
example, when Sri Rama beckoned Anjaneya to ascend with him to
Paramapada, the latter declined politely saying that the relationship he had
acquired with Sri Rama on earth would be unavailable in Paramapada and
therefore preferred to ' live' here on earth! Similarly, Thondar Adippodi
Alwar also liked to stay back saying that he would not trade in the pleasant
experience he had in this world serving Sri Ranganatha with any of the
pleasures that Paramapada itself could offer !.
276 Swami Desikan also saysTvam Chet Praseedasi Tavaasmi Sameepatas
Chet Tvayi Asti Bhaktir Anagha Kari Saila Naatha Samsrijyate Yadicha
Daasajanaas Tvadheeyah Samsaara Yesha Bhagavaan Apavarga Eva
277 " O! Lord! If thou art gracious, if I am always by thy side, if there is in me
pure devotion to thee, if I am in the company of those who are thy
servants- Then, this Samsara itself is salvation"
278 Death and total non-existence are unbearable and unacceptable to the
ordinary mortal in spite of the trauma attaching to the struggle for existence
and the survival of the fittest. THE MAJORITY, HOWEVER, WOULD
RATHER LIKE TO LIVE THAN 'JOIN THE MAJORITY'. This has been very
vividly portrayed in the Puranic story of a man hounded by a wild animal
and falling into a deep well surrounded by poisonous snakes clinging to a
branch that was being gnawed by rats- still going in for the momentary
pleasure of tasting the rare drop of honey dripping from the honeycomb
nested on the branch of the tree just above his head.
279 Life of man on earth is likened to the flight of a sparrow through a banquet
hall in winter, with a good fire in the midst, while storms of rain and snow
batter abroad. The sparrow is flying in at one door and immediately exiting
out at another. During the passage in the hall he is safe from the wintry
storm but after a short sojourn of fair weather, he instantly vanishes into
the dark winter from which he emerged. The only difference is that the
sojourn here is really not that rosy while the Scriptures say that the beyond
is beautiful to the one who has played by the rule while on earth. Says Dr.
Radhakrishnan " The fleeting is enclosed on both sides by an eternity
which is real"
280 Another reason for the dread is the prospect of one's having to contend
with death 'all alone'. Even when one is involved in a collision dash on the
road or, or a train smash or a plane crash or a ship wreck when hundreds
die, each one has to go through the throes of death 'all by oneself'..
281 More than the inevitability of death itself, the fact of the pangs involved in
the process is forbiddingly threatening.
282 It is here that our Vedas, Sastras, Itihasas, Puranas and in fact the entire
gamut of our sacred scriptures step in to assure that one could actually
look forward to death as a welcome guest, LIVE PEACEFULLY TILL IT
ARRIVES AND DIE GRACEFULLY.
283 Lord Krishna , the Charioteer friend turned Acharya of Arjuna intended to
convey this comforting formula to us under the pretext of advising Arjuna.
He deliberately goaded Arjuna to ask a leading question by feigning to slip
out an apparent indiscretion when he said to Arjuna " I taught this great
truth to Vivaswan (the Sungod), he to Manu and Manu to his son Ikshvaku
etc."
284 Arjuna promptly seized the slip to question Krishna that since they
themselves were just contemporaries, how could Krishna have taught
anything to Vivaswan. The launching pad thus set adroitly, Krishna
proceeds to explain the secret of his Avatara, how the imperishable soul
transmigrates to newer bodies and therefore he should not imagine he was
killing the soul and how the perishable body is cast away by the soul in
successive births so that he should not feel sorry for the destruction of the
body which, in any case, was going to perish.
285 " Many births of mine have passed away, Arjuna! as well as many of yours.
I know them all but you know them not, Slayer of foes"
286 He further explains how even though he has no birth he is born out of his
own sheer will while others are born due to their karma.
287 This concept of transmigration of the soul , the central theme of Hinduism
imparts the much needed solace to the troubled minds of those fearing
death. It presents the prospect of death as a welcome experience not to
feel sorry about, prepares us to cast off our mortal coils, 'IF THE TIME
COMES, WHEN IT COMES' with absolute ease and equanimity.
288 "To understand man's life as important, but not all important, as good but
with a chance to be still better, is to relax the grip of terror a bit, and to see
things in perspective. When one does see things in perspective - 'freedom
from existence' can become the goal which transcends and transforms the
threat of death to a sweet promise."
289 How the soul escapes at the time of death has been engaging the attention
of researchers all over the world. They experiment with persons with '
paranormal' and 'Near- death- experiences' (NDE). Even recently, in the
USA, a person terminally ill with a prognosis of imminent death was
enclosed in a glass domed cubicle. When he actually died, the scientists
wondered how the breath could have escaped through the air tight,
hermetically sealed cubicle. They noticed a minuscule - less than hairline
fracture in the glass that was not there earlier when the dome was
examined with sophisticated instruments before the experiment. The
experiment conclusively proved that the soul must have pierced through
the glass dome.
290
291 ADHIKARA 21 : GATHI VISESHA ADHIKARA
292 (THE DEPARTURE OF THE SOUL)
293 SECTION 2 : AT DEATH - THE PREPARATION FOR DEPARTURE
294 Swami Desika describes how the soul leaves the body through the various
Nadis (veins) and how the soul of a Prapanna and that of a Non-Prapanna
take different routes and different destinations. First, he emphasizes how
in the case of a Prapanna the attainment of Moksha is certain even if he
had committed any indiscretions after performing Prapatti.
295 A person who has performed Prapatti will not consciously commit any sins.
But, due to 'Prarabda karma' that had begun to yield fruits while he is living
in this world, some may swerve:
296 (i) He may display feelings of 'I' and 'My' and commit certain offences
consequently. The Lord will make him realize his folly by making wisdom
dawn on him.
297 (ii) He may display a taste or desire for an object other than the Lord. Even
when a Prapanna desires and prays for it, Isvara will not grant what is not
good for his spiritual upliftment. This is like a mother preventing her child
from falling into fire. The Lord declares 'when I decide to bless someone
with Moksha, I strip him of his possessions; inflict on him tragedies of
death of his dear and near ones; if, in spite of all these, he clings to me
( as he surely will), I grant him the bliss which even the Gods cannot
secure'5 Or, he might grant what he desires in such an abundant measure
as to create a revulsion and aversion to what he had asked for ( as in the
case of Kuchela) The idea is that in any case, the person chosen would
emerge a fully evolved soul to deserve Moksha.
298 (iii) He may contact other deities. In such cases, the Lord would create a
situation by associating him with Paramaikantins and make him feel
ashamed of his deviate behavior.
299 (iv) Being weak minded, he may desire to adopt other Upayas. The Lord
will in due course dispel his desire to adopt other Upayas. By all means,
the Lord would rid the Prapanna of any failings or foibles he might have
contracted due to the interaction of his 'Prarabda karma' and eventually
make him fit and qualified for Moksha - all before the Prapanna actually
arrives at the point of departure from this life.
300 For the Prapanna who has not swerved, the delay in securing Moksha is
only so long as he desires it. The Lord is anxious to bring him into the
company of Nityasuris ( Never born) and is actually sorry for the delay
desired by the Prapanna. He, therefore, produces an eagerness in the
mind of the Prapanna to attain the goal. He creates a suitable atmosphere
for the Prapanna to leave his worldly life and decides on the appropriate
time and pretext for the event.
301 At the appointed time, the Lord projects for the Prapanna to behold a
remembrance of all his thoughts, desires and deeds during his lifetime in a
sort of flashback. " A certain amount of experimental evidences has been
gathered from those who have come very close to death through some
accident and then been restored to life; the trend of this evidence is to
support the idea that at the moment death was nearest, they passed in
review the events of their whole life"6 There is a dictum that one who dies
during daytime, Sukla paksha ( bright fortnight of the moon), and
Uttarayana ( the six month period when the Sun moves northward) alone
can reach Paramapada through what is known as Archiradi marga ( the
shiny path) and the others go through the Dhumadi marga (the smoky
path) only to be reborn. This view has been expressed in several contexts
thus: Lord Krishna declares-"O! Arjuna! I shall declare to you the path
following which the yogis attain the state of not returning and also those
who attain the state of returning. Light in the form of fire, the day, the bright
fortnight preceding the full moon, the six months of the Sun's northern
progress- departing therein, men who know Brahman go to Brahman.
Smoke, night, the dark fortnight of the waning moon and the six months of
the Sun's southern journey- departing in these periods, souls attain the
light of the moon and come back to be reborn. Indeed, these two paths,
the bright and the dark, for the world of the departing souls are deemed to
be eternal. By the one, one attains the state of nonreturning; by the other
one comes back again"
302 The same idea has been expressed in Mahabharata But, this is not
applicable in the case of a Prapanna who may die at any time- day or
night, in the bright or dark fortnight, in Uttarayana or Dakshinayana etc.,
since in his case, Karma lasts only as long as the body lasts; and, the
moment he sheds his mortal coil, he moves to Paramapada through
Archiradi marga. Brahmasutram also makes this point very clear
Chandokya Up also confirms this;
303 ' Whether the funeral rites are performed or not by their heirs, these
Brahmagnanis ( who have done Prapatti) reach only this bright and shiny
path and are led by a superhuman force to Brahman through the Deva
marga ( Shiny path) or Brahma marga ( Path leading to Brahman). Those
who have gone through this path never, never return to this mundane
world' In the case of a Prapanna , all his Sanchita karmas are destroyed on
performing Prapatti, like the bales of cotton that are burnt by fire. 'Prarabda
karma' alone remains ( that which the Prapanna had agreed to go through
during his lifetime). At the time of his death, the balance , if any, of his
Punya karmas are transferred to his friends who have done him good and
Papa karmas to those who had remained inimical to him. This is done
because, the Prapanna's karma account has to show a nil balance and
also because, Punya is like golden fetters and Papa is like iron fetters -
thus making no difference to the soul which yearns for freedom from all
shackles.
304 At the appointed moment, the lord joins the Gnanendriyas ( Sense
organs ) and the Karmendriyas (Motor organs) with the mind. When the
sense of speech ceases to function, we see that the mind continues to
work. This is true when someone is so ill as not to be able to talk; or one
who is observing a vow of silence; also we have seen mute persons whose
minds however keep working. Even so, when other senses cease to
function, the mind is still found to be working. Then, the mind with the
sense organs affiliated to it is joined with the Vital air (Prana). We see this
when a person is in a state of coma or unconsciousness , he merely
breathes and even the functioning of the mind appears stalled. The Prana
(with which are joined the senses and mind) is then united with the
Jeevatma or the soul. This, however, will not be perceptible to the
onlooker. The jeeva is then churned out of the physical body and united
with the subtle form of fire and other primary elements. It can be noticed
that even though a person is pronounced dead, there is some heat still felt
in some part of the body indicative of this union of Jeevatma with the
subtle element of fire. Similarly, all other elements (Panchbhutas) ( the five
natural elements) are also joined with the Jeevatma ready to depart. This
has been stated in Chandokya Up.
305 Brihadaranyaka. up also states that" all the vital airs go with the Jeeva at
the time of death even as the faithful followers of a king go with him in his
victorious march even without his specific bidding"
306 Since the jeeva would have become emaciated due to the churning, the
Lord embraces him to give him solace and rest. Upto this point, the
preparation for departure of the soul is common to both the Prapanna,
Bhakta and also others , sinners and saints alike.
307
308 SECTION 3 : THE MODE OF ACTUAL DEPARTURE
309 Three specific ways have been identified through which the souls escape:
310 1. There are 72,000 Nadis or ( invisible veins ) which branch off from the
heart and end up with nine major openings ( Navadwara) as also
innumerable pores on the skin ( through which one perspires). Some run
horizontally and some downwards. These are either colorless or dim.
Through them go those who had been so wicked during their sojourn in
this life that they have to expiate the results of their sins only by suffering in
the penitentiary ( Naraka ) after which they are born in the world as
animate beings like animals, birds or even as trees. Those whose account
shows a predominance of evil deeds have to remain condemned to being
inanimate objects like stone, mud etc for specific periods during which time
they will be incapacitated to indulge in any wrong doing.
311 2. One hundred Nadis of various colors, white, black, blue, golden yellow
and red go upwards from the heart. Those who go through these Nadis
that go upwards go to the higher worlds to experience the fruits of the
extraordinary Punya they had accumulated and after exhausting such
Punya return to the earth to experience the results of their other karma
( both good and bad).
312 This is called the Dhumadhi marga (smoky path) or Pitruyana (the path of
the manes) A soul that had performed meritorious deeds has to enjoy the
fruits thereof. So, such a soul accompanied by the senses and elements
reaches the moon through the Dhumadhi marga and reach heaven or
Svarga (which is different from Moksha). There the soul assumes a subtle
body to enjoy the fruits. When the good deeds get almost exhausted, it is
reborn in this world along with the balance of Karma13 :This has also been
very extensively explained in Chand.up which deals with 'Panchagni
vidya' ( a special treatise on the journey of the soul from death to rebirth)
according to which such a soul passes through five fires after falling down
from Moon (Apram) viz.
313 i. Heaven or Svarga where the soul enjoys the fruits of the extraordinary
good deeds and falls into the sky.( Sradda)
314 ii. After enjoying, the soul enters the rain bearing clouds ( Soman).
315 iii. Then, along with the rains, ( Vrishti) it comes down to earth and is
united with paddy, etc that grow on earth
316 iv. When the food ( Annam) made out of these is consumed by the male,
the soul gets into his seminal fluid.
317 v. When the male and the female unite, this creative fluid ( Retas) enters
the womb of the female and subsequently born into this world on delivery.
318 3. There is, however, one Nadi other than the 100 mentioned above which
starting from the navel (Mooladhara) goes past the heart and ends up on
the top of the crown. This is a special Nadi reserved only for a Prapanna
(who attains Moksha at the end of the current life itself) or a Bhakta ( who
attains Moksha at the end of the life in which he reaches a nil balance in
his karma account- which may be at the end of the current life or after
many lives). The Lord illuminates this Nadi at the point where it goes past
the heart and the departing soul sensing the flickering radiance leaves the
heart and escapes through an aperture like bursting through a push- door
into this Nadi. This Nadi is called the Moordhanya Nadi or Sushumna Nadi
or Brahmanadi or Brahma Randra since it opens at the top of the skull of
the person leading him to Brahmam itself through the Shining path or the
Archiradhi marga . The soul starts its journey with the help of the rays of
the Sun. This has been explained in Kata Up also.15
319
320 SECTION 4 : THE LAST THOUGHT ( ANTHIMA SMRITI)
321 The Prapanna will attain Moksha even if he is unconscious and unable to
remember the Lord or utter any Mantra ( especially Dvaya) at the time of
his death.
322 In the famous VARAHA CHARAMA SLOKA , the Lord assures- " The man
who, when his mind is in its normal condition, when the body is not
shattered and when the Dhatus (elementary constituents of the body ) are
in perfect equipoise meditates on me as the one who has the world as my
body and as the one who is not subject to births due to karma-- when that
man lies like a log of wood or a piece of stone in his dying moments, I think
of him ( my devotee) and lead him to attain the highest state" 16 Thus, for
the Prapanna, the Lord will himself appear in his last thoughts and save
him and he need not strive to effect it as an Upaya.
323 It is said that in the case of others destined to be born again, they become
in their next birth what they were thinking of at the time of their death. This
is expressed by Lord Krishna in BG17 This happened in the case of
JADABHARATA, a great sage who reared a deer and became so much
attached to it that his last thoughts were hitched on to that dear deer. He
was himself born as a deer in his next birth.
324 The last thought is that which arises when all sense organs have ceased to
function and the person is in a state similar to a deep dreamless sleep
(Sushupti). It will not be known to the onlookers who may be near the
dying person. It can be cognized only by the dying person especially, if he
is a Prapanna and the Lord who confers this remembrance to him purely
as a matter of his Grace-' Kevalam Madeeya Dayaaya' in the words of Sri
Ramanuja. As for the place of death and the omens or signs under which
the death occurs, Swami Sri Vedanta Desika says that wherever and
whenever and under whatever omens or signs a Prapanna dies that
becomes auspicious. This is because like a father who descends into a
well full of slushy mire to take out his beloved child that had fallen into it,
the Lord himself who abides in the cave of the heart (dahara) condescends
to help the Prapanna to enter the special 101st Nadi through which he
reaches Paramapada.
325
326 SECTION 5 : EN ROUTE TO VAIKUNTA
327 As we saw, the Lord releases the soul from the gross body (Stula Sarira)
and provides with a subtle body ( Sukshma Sarira) and takes it through the
Brahma Nadi on the Devayana. Swami Desika compares this to a king
carrying his infant prince for a stroll.
328 This jeeva is received with due honors by the deities presiding over the
following :-
Archis ( Fire )
Ahas ( Day),
Suklapaksha ( Bright fortnight of the month before the full moon),
Uttarayana ( the six monthly period when the Sun is traversing
towards the north),
Varusha or Samvatsara ( Year) and then by
Vayu ( Wind God),
Surya ( Sun God),
Chandra ( Moon God), and finally by
Vidyut Purusha a.k.a. Amaanava Purusha or Maanasa Purusha who
is accompanied by
Varuna (Rain God) ,
Indra ( Lord of Devas) and
Prajapathi ( the Creator of lives).
329 The Gods mentioned at 9 to 12 take him to the very boundaries of the
manifest world ( Prakriti mandala). These deities are Called 'ADHI
VAHIKAS' (Prime Guides).
330 A doubt may arise as to how names of divisions of time like day, bright
fortnight, half- year and year could be clubbed with the names of deities.
Sri Bashyam clarifies where the various divisions of time are mentioned
they refer to the deities presiding over the respective time periods and
therefore there is no incongruity in the listing.
331 Again, different Upanishads list the various Adhivahikas differently some
omitting a few and some mentioning the names of certain lokas and some
others jumbling the sequence. Sri Bashyam clarifies that where a more
detailed listing is given it should be adopted and where only an oblique
reference is made to certain deities , they should be fitted into the pattern
and sequence given in the detailed listing. We have adopted the sequence
and listing as consolidated in Sri Bashyam and as adopted by Swami
Desika in his Rahasya Traya Sara.
332 WHAT HAS BEEN DECLARED IN OUR SASTRAS IN THIS REGARD IS
NOT A FIGMENT OF IMAGINATION. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BASED
ON CASES OF DEATHBED VISIONS (DBVS), NEAR DEATH
EXPERIENCES ( NDE), OUT OF BODY EXPERIENCES (OBE) ETC IN
THE USA AND ELSEWHERE CONDUCTED BY RENOWNED
RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS CONFIRM THE FINDINGS OF OUR
SCRIPTURES.(VIDE ANNEXURE 1)
333 Another point also requires clarification . We saw that both categories of
souls that pass through the Archiradimarga and Dhoomadhimarga reach
the moon on their itinerary at some stage Then, what difference does it
make as between the two categories that one goes to Paramapada and
the other to Svarga? Kaushitaki Up. says that all those who reach the
Moon through whatever path are invariably interrogated by Moon God who
permits only those that answer his questions correctly to proceed on the
onward path to Vaikunta , and sends those that are unable to answer
correctly to Svarga to be reborn as described in the Panchagni Vidya.
Invariably, the Prapannas and Bhaktas would be able to give correct
answers, having had their 'ORIENTATION DURING THEIR PROBATION' .
334 The question is simply "Who are you?". The answer is equally simple. The
soul would reply " I have been born again and again due to beginning-less
sins. Having taken refuge under the Lord who is 'Satya' and having
performed Bhakti or Prapatti, I have realized the Lord to be my soul as well
as the soul of all that is, including you, the moon god. I see Narayana in
my own self and in everything else. Please therefore do not hurl me down
to be born again and let me reach the supreme state of Paramapada".
Pleased with the answer, such soul is allowed to proceed further on its
onward march to Paramapada. Once it goes through this, it can no longer
return.
335 SWAMI DESIKA SAYS THAT IT IS LIKE THE PROVISION OF A LADDER
FOR A PERSON TO CLIMB UP AND ONCE ONE HAD REACHED THE
TOP THE LADDER IS WITHDRAWN SO THAT THE PERSON COULD
NO WAY COME DOWN AGAIN.
336 The soul is then made to cross the celestial Viraja river a.k.a Vijara
meaning ( ageless).
337 The jeeva then sheds even the subtle body which had been kept on merely
for the sake of journey and conversing with the Moon god ( as aforesaid).
338 SWAMI DESIKA COMPARES THIS TO A PERSON WHO USES A BOAT
TO CROSS A RIVER. AFTER CROSSING, THE BOAT IS CAST OFF
AND LEFT BEHIND ON THE BANK WHERE HE GOT OFF AND
STEPPED OUT TO THE SHORE.
339 The jeeva acquires a super-sensuous divine form made of Suddha satva
( Aprakrita ). It is then taken to a divine tank ( as big as an ocean ) called
Airammadeeyam and then to a huge Aswattha tree called Somasavana.
There 500 Apsaras in batches of 100 each adorn the jeeva with garlands,
collyrium, perfumes, garments and ornaments respectively and receive it
with royal honors. Then divine fragrance ( Brahma Gandha), divine flavor
( Brahma Rasa) and divine splendor ( Brahma Tejas) enter into the jeeva.
340 The jeeva is then received by Nityasuris who take it to the portals of the
city with high walls adorned with festive banners in the world called
'Aparajita'. Indra and Prajapati who are the guards there welcome the
Jeeva like their master and offer honors befitting a crown prince with
Purnakumbha, lamps and other Upacharas ( services).This is ' Salokya'
341 Then, the Jeeva is led to the enchanting assembly hall , a Gopura ( Tower)
studded with precious gems called 'Prabuvimitam' or 'Vibupramitam'.
342 Then, the Jeeva acquires divine form and fame ( Divya yasas). This is
called 'Saroopya'
343 Then, the Jeeva is led to the seat of the Lord called 'Vichakshana Peetam'.
This is ' Sameepyam'
344 The Lord allows the Jeeva to climb up his divine couch called 'Amitoujas'
and reveals his blissful form to the Mukta This is 'Sayujya'.
345 The Lord restores to the jeeva its essential nature with the 8 qualities viz.,
Being free from
Sin,
Old age,
Death,
Sorrow,
Hunger and
Thirst,
Being endowed with all desired objects and
an unhindered will.
346 The Lord bestows Sayujya which means ( being united in equal
enjoyment), places the Mukta in the galaxy of Nityas and other Muktas for
enjoying infinite being, infinite knowledge and infinite bliss. The Lord
mingles with them like friends of the same youthful age group as Nitya
yuva as he himself.
347 This Archiradi is the shortest route to Moksha in the sense that even
though the various stages have been described elaborately in Chandokya
Up. , Kaushitaki Up. and other scriptures and in Sri Bashya , THE JEEVA
IS SAID TO TRAVERSE THROUGH ALL OF THEM INSTANTANEOUSLY
WITH A BEWILDERING SUPERSONIC SPEED IMMEDIATELY ON
SHEDDING THE MORTAL COILS (STULA SARIRA). THIS IS BECAUSE
OF THE UTMOST INTENSITY FOR ' THE GET-TOGETHER' SENSED
AND SHARED EQUALLY BY THE PARAMATMA AND THE JEEVATMA.
348 Archiradi is not the only route to Moksha. There are other routes for those
who had acquired an eligibility to enter Paramapada through various
Upasanas and Vidyas prescribed in Bhaktiyoga.
349 1. Those who practice Madhuvidya obtain positions like those of Vasus
350 2. Those who meditate on the four faced Brahma as the body of Narayana
reach his Satyaloka and stay with him till the end of Brahma's life called
Para when dissolution takes place and having fulfilled themselves they
enter the highest seat Paramapadam along with him. So says Kurma
Purana
351 3. Certain others reach Anirudda and after staying with him for sometime
they go to Pradyumna, then to Sankarshana and finally to Paravasudeva
(Narayana)
352 4. Jayakya Samhita mentions another route for Bhaktas who practice
some other Vidyas. " They go from here to Svetadweepa and reach Hari
who has the Universe as his form. Then, they reach Hari in his form as
Anirudda who is in the ocean of milk. From there, they go to Hari who is
the Lord of Brahma and all others. Then, they proceed to Samkarshana
and finally to the eternal Bhagavan, Vasudeva"
353 These are known as 'Krama Mukti" ( Release by gradation) and are
applicable to those who practice Bhakti yoga and we need not be
concerned about them.
354 FOR US PRAPANNAS , THE SIMPLEST, SHORTEST, SUREST AND
SETTLED ROUTE IS THE ROYAL ROUTE OF ARCHIRADI MARGA.
355 In daily meditation, the Prapanna reminds himself of the Archiradimarga
since such remembrance becomes an end in itself producing a keen
delight in knowing that very soon he would be treading the same path to
attain Moksha. SWAMI DESIKA LIKENS THIS TO THE ANXIOUS
EXPECTATION OF A PROSPECTIVE BRIDEGROOM WHO COUNTS
THE DAYS BEFORE THE ENSUING WEDDING DAY THAT HAD BEEN
FIXED ALREADY.

356 Reply With Quote

35715 June 2006,02:44 PM


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Re: Rahasya Traya Saram - A Translation
ADHIKARA 22 PARIPOORNA BRAHMA ANUBHAVA ADHIKARA
358 ( On the full and perfect enjoyment of the bliss of brahman )
359 SECTION 6 : WHAT HAPPENS AT VAIKUNTA?
360 We saw that the prapanna on reaching Srivaikunta as aforesaid, will enjoy
infinite being, infinite knowledge and infinite bliss ( Sat, Chit and Ananda ).
During his stay on earth all these were in a contracted state due to to the
interaction with the mundane world and his identification with his
perishable body. Now, that he is associated with the eternal Paramatma
with whom he has identified himself, his being, knowledge and bliss have
become expanded without any limit.
361 Mahabharata describes what happens to the Mukta at this stage. "The
Mukta attains the Supreme being and acquires the attributes of the
Supreme being like having four arms, the crown, the regal insignia which
the Supreme being himself wields. He too becomes free from
imperfections. He too becomes Omniscient. He too becomes free from
Karma., from suffering, from sorrow. He too becomes blissful, blemishless
and independent in the sense that he is not subject to Karma but his own
limitless free will."
362 As stated in Vishnu Suktam ," he will be constantly witnessing the radiance
of the divine personality of Sri Narayana in Paramapada in the company of
Nityas and Muktas Along with them he will also be singing his praise and
enjoy the beatitude eternally. Having reached there, even the darkest night
appears like eternal day, he obtains whatever he wants, he wins over
everything, everything he ever desired he gets, he is ever victorious"
363 He will be in a position to offer his services to the Lord 'at all times, at all
places and in all manners' unrestricted by time (kala), space (desa) or
matter (prakriti).
364 A doubt might arise that if the Jeeva were to render all services at all times
etc., would there not be a competition and conflict among the servitors
(e.g) Adhisesha is Lord's couch; Garuda is his vehicle. Can a Mukta aspire
to replace them and take over their duties? The answer is that a Mukta will
not aspire for any service other than what is allotted to him and would
never aspire to replace others in their respective duties. This is because,
his will coincides with the will of the Lord. As the Lord has willed the
respective duties to Adhisesha, Garuda and others the will of other Nityas,
and Muktas would be in consonance with the Lord's will. Therefore, there
can be no competition or conflict. Further, the pleasure derived from
whatever service allotted will be the same for all of them.
365 There is a saying in Mahabharata that some Muktas live in the same loka
as Paramatma ( Salokya); some live in the proximity of the Paramatma
( Sameepya); some others assume the form of Paramatma ( Saroopya)
and yet others share bliss equally with Paramatma ( Sayujya).
366 SWAMI DESIKA SAYS THAT A JEEVATMA WHICH ATTAINS SAYUJYA
HAS ALSO IPSO FACTO ATTAINED SALOKYA, SAMEEPYA AND
SAROOPYA. JUST LIKE'HUNDRED' IS A PART OF 'THOUSAND',
THESE ARE CONTAINED IN SAYUJYA .
367 To the Jeeva who has attained Moksha everything will be pleasant,
agreeable and blissful. Even those that appeared painful or even less
pleasurable while on earth because of the constraining effects of the
material world, would now appear enjoyable due to the absence of the
material binding and the presence of Bhagavan.
368 SWAMI DESIKA SAYS THAT THIS IS LIKE A PERSON WHO DISLIKED
DELICIOUS MILK WHILE HE WAS AILING FROM BILIOUSNESS
RELISHES IT WHEN CURED OF IT.
369 Therefore, the Jeeva would not have to go back to earth nor would he
have any desire to do so.
370 1.. Since his wisdom has become fully blossomed, he has no illusions or
ignorance that could impel him to return to earth.
371 2. Since the Lord is so much pleased with the Jeeva that he would never
let him go back to earth.
372 3. In the Mukti stage, the Jeeva is not governed by the dictates of Sastras.
Therefore, he will not be guilty of transgressing the Lord's will resulting in
Karma and return to the material world.
373 4. Since what is pleasing to the Lord is also his own pleasure, he is not
going against the wishes of God. So, there is no question of his incurring
the displeasure of God that can hurl him down to the earth.. There are
several passages to substantiate this.
374 Ahirbudnya Samhita confirms that the Jeeva reaches a ' point of no return'
in Paramapada. Lord Krishna also confirms this Periyalwar in his
Thirumozhi says that even if the jeeva vows and pledges security in the
name of Mahalakshmi that he would certainly return after visiting the earth,
the Lord would never allow him to go back to earth.
375 Sutrakara also concludes that one who has attained Moksha "NEVER
RETURNS, NEVER RETURNS"-by repeating the statement twice.
376 But, if for carrying out any of the Lord's purposes on earth like protecting
the virtuous, destroying evil and establishing Dharma as stated by Lord
Krishna in BG, he may be permitted to come to earth, In this case, he
returns not as a result of Karma but out of sheer free will.
377 Baudayana says that the assumption or non aaumption of forms is entirely
left to the option of the Muktaatma (released soul). If it chooses, it can take
MANY bodies out of its own free will like a flame that ignites several other
flames.Brahma Sutra Iv.4.12 confirms-
378 Yadhaa Sa Sareerataam Sankhalpayati Tadhaa Sa Sareera Bhavan |
379 Yadhaa Tu Asareerataam Tadaa Asareerah Iti Bhavati ||
380 4.15 ibid- further states-
381 Yathaa Praddepah Ekah Aneka Pradeepa Bhaavam Apaadhyate |
382 Vikaara- Sakti - Yogaat Evam Ekah Api San Muktaatma Aiswarya Yogaat
Aneka Bhaavam Aapaadhya Sarvaani Samkalpa- Srishtitaani Sareeraani
Aavisathi ||
383 When he so incarnates he will retain his Sudda Satva quality. During such
descents, his being, his knowledge and his bliss never get contracted
because he is 'ON DEPUTATION' AS IT WERE by God's will. For this
reason, results of deeds done during such sojourn in terrestrial life do not
affect him at all. Great spiritual Acharyas who lead the lay folk on the right
path are ,therefore, considered as such incarnations and should not be
viewed as ordinary human beings. They are the ' alter ego' of the Lord
himself and deserve respect and devotion as shown to the Lord.
384 THE GREAT ALWARS AND THE ACHARYAS LIKE THE JEEYAR OF
AHOBILA MUTT, PAUNDARIKAPUAM SRIMAD ANDAVAN, SRIMAD
ANDAVAN OF PERIYASHRAMAM AND SUCH OTHERS BELONG TO
THIS CATEGORY.
385 It is held by some that the Jeevatma merges, gets absorbed, gets
dissolved in Paramatma. This is not correct. According to Sri Bashya, what
happens is that the Jeevatma joins, associates and integrates with the
Paramatma.
386 IT STILL EXISTS AS AN ENTITY BUT UNITED WITH HIM INSEPARABLY
AND INDISTINGIUISHABLY. BEING UNITED IS NOT THE SAME THING
AS BEING IN UNION; RATHER IT IS IN CLOSE COMMUNION WITH
GOD.
387 An instance is cited here from Srimad Ramayana to make the point clear.
Sri Hanuman explains to Sri Sita how Sri Rama and Sugriva came
together. He uses the word 'Aikyam' which means ' COMING TOGETHER'
AND NOT ABSORPTION 26
388 Another example is given in Jayakya Samhita (4.83) is that WHEN IRON
IS HEATED TO A RED HOT STATE, IT LOOKS LIKE FIRE ITSELF
THOUGH THE TWO ARE TOTALLY DIFFERENT ENTITIES. So also,
Iswara who is different from the Jeeva indwells in the Jeeva as Antaryami
and both appear as one entity though they are actually different. Unless
they are different, how could the scriptures speak of Jeevatma serving
Paramatma?
389 The Upanishad statement that the Jeeva is one with Paramatma refers
only to the equal enjoyment of the wisdom and bliss of the Brahman-
'Samyam"( Equality). There are quite a few areas of activity which are
inalienable and exclusive preserves of the Lord viz., One who is the cause
of the world
390 One who confers Moksha on the Jeevas
391 One who is the support of the world
392 One who is the controller of the world
393 One for whom all non-sentient things and sentient beings exist
394 One who has everything as his body
395 One who is denoted by all words
396 One who can be understood by the Vedas
397 One who is the refuge of all the worlds
398 One who should be adored by all those who desire Moksha
399 One who grants the fruits of all actions
400 One whose essential nature is Omnipresence, Omniscience and
Omnipotence
401 One who is the spouse of Sri Mahalakshmi.
402 These are the features peculiar to him and are his distinctive
characteristics. But, how come the equality spoken of? This is explained as
follows WHEN A FARMER WHO TOILS AND RAISES A CROP SHARES
THE FOOD PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF HIS LABOURS ALONG WITH
HIS CHILDREN, THE ENJOYMENT IS COMMON TO BOTH THE
FATHER AND THE CHILDREN. LIKEWISE, THE EQUALITY SPOKEN OF
IN THE UPANISHADS REFERS TO THE EQUAL ENJOYMENT OF THE
BLISS ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE LORD.
403 Chand. Up.also says that the Mukta sees everything and enjoys everything
with the Lord
404 Brahma Sutra also confirms this fact" There is no difference in the
enjoyment even though the Jeeva has no activity like creation of the world
(Jagat vyaapaara)
405 Lord Krishna confirms " Having gained this knowledge, they attain a status
equal to me; there is no more any birth or death for them"
406 Mundaka Up. " Shorn of all blemishes, he attains absolute equality with
me"
407 When two persons eat a delicious dish, the sense of enjoyment can be
said to be equal. This is "Sayujyam". There is however another term used
in this connection viz.,"Sarshtita" which means the intensity of pleasure
accruing from such sharing. If both of them enjoy the dish in the same
location, it is called "'Samana lokata" The Jeeva thus enjoys, Salokya,
Sameepya, Sayujya, Sarshtita and Samanaloka with the Lord
ETERNALLY, EVER AND ANON.
408 ANNEXURE 1
409 RESULTS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE SUBJECT
CONFIRMING THE VARIOUS FINDINGS OF HINDU SCRIPTURES ON
DEATH AND AFTER - DEATH. DEATH BED VISIONS (DBVs) - 1 "
Between 1959 and 1973, KARLIS OSIS under the auspices of first
Parapsychology foundation and then the American Society of Physical
Research collected data on tens of thousands of DBV and NDE in the USA
and in a joint effort with Erlandur Heraldson in India.
410 Deathbed Visions share common characteristics not influenced by racial,
cultural, religious, educational, age and socio-economic lines such as
radiant lights, scenes of great beauty, beings of light and feelings of great
peace... These figures are called "Take away apparitions' because their
apparent purpose is to summon or escort the dying to the after-world. Their
appearance usually elicits a response of joy, peace, happiness and
cessation of pain though a small number of individuals react with fear or
denial.
411 Total visions in which the dying behold (or are transported out of body to
see) a preview of the after- world, occur in about 1/3rd of DBVs. Such
visions usually are of endless and exquisitely beautiful gardens. Other
visions are of great architectural structures and symbols of transition such
as gates, bridges, rivers and boats. These after-world scenes may be
populated with angels or spirits of the dead and in a small number of
cases, may be permeated with celestial music. Typically, colors are vivid
and the dying one feels uplifted. Seldom do after-world visions conform to
the religious expectations of the dying.
412 OSIS and HERALDSON found DBVs are most likely to occur to patients
who are fully conscious. DBVs are significant to thanatology, the scientific
study of death, for they show death not as extinction but as a wondrous
transition, a rite of passage that should be undergone consciouly and with
dignity".
413 NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCES (NDEs) - 2 "Term coined in the 1970s by
the American physician RAYMOND MOODY to describe the mystical- like
phenomena experienced by individuals who appear to die and then return
to life or who come close to death.
414 In an NDE, people generally experience one or more of the following : a
sense of being dead; or an OBE in which they feel themselves floating
above their bodies, looking down; cessation of pain and a feeling of bliss or
peacefulness; travelling down a dark tunnel toward a light at the end;
meeting non-physical beings who glow, many of whom are dead friends
and relatives; coming in contact with a guide or supreme being who takes
them on a life review during which their entire lives are put into perspective
without rendering any negative judgements about past acts and finally, a
reluctant return to life.
415 The NDE is not limited to religious or 'good' people. Many who have NDEs
become more spiritual or develop a belief in some type of God after their
return from death. Most say they lose their fear of death and begin
believing in after-life. Almost all discover a new and positive purpose for
their lives, finding meaning it previously lacked. In some cases, the NDE
leaves individuals with heightened intuitive or psychic abilities, including
precognition, clairvoyance and telepathy.
416 " Coming back to life" (1988) author P.M.H.ATWATER found that NDE
survivors identified these as the most common negative reactions : Anger,
because they had to return to life; Gulit, for not being sorry about leaving;
Disappointment, because once again they were back in their bodies;
Dumbfoundedness and inability to talk about their experiences ( or fear of
talking about it ); and Depression at the realization that they had to resume
their lives.
417 On the positive side, survivors offered these reactions : Ecstasy at the
wonder of their experience; Thrill, because of what they were able to
experience; Gratitude, for what had happened to them; Awe and lack of
words to describe what happened; Evangelism in wanting to tell others
why they should'nt fear death; And. Humility at the overwhelming nature of
their experience.
418 RING, philosopher, MICHAEL GROSSO and others have theorized that
NDE may be a form of enlightenment or ' Gateway' to a higher
consciousness and could have a transformative effect on the entire planet,
if enough people have similar experiences.
419 Modern NDE stories, like their medieval counterparts, provide a way for
individuals to incorporate a 'religious' sense to the cosmos into their
scientific / secular understanding. ZALESKI holds that NDE is 'one way in
which religious imagination mediates the search for the ultimate truth"
420 OUT OF BODY EXPERIENCES ( OBEs) - 3
421 "A phenomenon in which a person feels separated from his / her physical
body and seems to travel to and perceive distant locations on earth or in
non-worldly realms. OBEs are also called 'Astral Projection', 'Astral travel'
and 'Exteriprization'
422 While accounts of OBEs vary, there are common characteristics. Most
often reported is the existence of a second subtle body that becomes the
vehicle for travel. The subtle body is described as a ghostly semi-
transparent double of the physical body that is either naked, clothed in
duplicate clothing or clothed in other apparel. They pass through walls and
solid objects with the speed of thought,
423 The NDE usually involves some form of OBE. Some people who have
'clinically' died or come 'close to death' report the separation of their
consciousness from their bodies.
424 The OBE is often preceded by a perception of strong and high frequency
vibrations. Individuals report leaving through their head or solar plexus or
simply rising up and flaoting away. Re- entry is accomplished by returning
through the head or solar plexus or by melting back into the body.
425 It is believed that if the ' silver cord' is severed while one is out of body,
physical death occurs, because the body has been cut off from its soul.
The cord also is said to snap when the body dies and the consciousness
or soul is released."
426 ANNXURE 2
427 THE ROUTE OF THE PRAPANNA ' FROM HERE TO ETERNITY' ( Read
from 1 to 24)
428
429 24. Bhagavan Sri Vishnu Narayana in Paramapadam
430 23. Amitoujas- Paryanka ( Couch) - Saayujya
431 22. Brahma Yasas & Brahma Prajna - Divine fame, form cognition-
Saaroopya
432 21. Vichakshana - Peetam ( Seat) - Sameepya
433 20. Vibhupramitham or Prabhuvimitham-Gopura ( Tower)
434 19. Aparaajita - Paramapada Loka ( City)- Saalokya
435 18. SomasaVana ( Forest of Aswatta trees) where 500 Apsaras adorn the
Aprakrita Sareera of
436 the Soul with Brahma Gandha ( fragrance,) Brahma Ras ( Taste)
437 and Brahma Tejas ( splendour)
438 17. Airammadiyam ( A great lake) The soul takes
439 16. Aprakrita Sarira
440 15. After crossing the Viraja river, the river that bestows agelessness
441 14. Amanava Purusha a.k.a Vidyut Purusha a.k.a Maanasa Purusha
accompanied by
442 13. Prajapathi (the creator) takes the Sukshma Sarira of the Jeeva on its
upward march
443 after its being permitted by Chandra
444 12. Indra ( the master of Devas)
445 11. Varuna ( the master of the universe),
446 10. Chandra ( Moon God ) who questions the Soul on its eligibility to reach
Paramapada
447 9. Surya ( Sun God )
448 8. Vayu ( Wind God )
449 7. Samvatsara ( Presiding deity of the Year )
450 6. Uttaraayana ( Presiding deity of the half year of the Sun's Northern
movement )
451 5. Sukla Paksha (Presiding deity of the Bright fortnight of the Moon)
452 4. Ahas ( Presiding deity of the Day)
453 3. Archis ( Fire God )
454 2. Sukshma Sarira of Jeevatma with Prana, Manas,Gnanendriyas and
Karmendriyas
455 escaping through Brahma Nadi (.Sushumna or Murdanya ) at the crown of
456 1. the Stula Sarira (Gross body)
457 NOTES on References to Scriptural and other texts cited in Adhikaras
20,21 and 22 of RTS.
458 1. TM, verse 2 Ichuvai tavira yaan poi indiralokam alum Achuvai perinum
venden arangama nagar ulane
459 2. BG 4 / 1 "Imam viwaswate yogam proktavan Aham avyayam Viwaswan
maanave praha manur ikshvakave abraveeth"
460 3. BG 4 / 5 "Bahuni me vyateetani janmani tava cha arjuna janyaham veda
sarvani na tvam vedha! Paranthapa!"
461 4. Kirk,p.153
462 5. Bhagavata sloka ' yasya anugraham ichami dhanam tasya
haraamyaham Baandhavais cha viyogena brunam bavathi duhkitah Tena
duhkena santapto yadi maam na parityajeth Tam prasadam karishyami yat
surairapi durlabah
463 6. 3 Ms, Vol.5, p.1416
464 7. BG 8 /23 to26
465 Yata kale tu anavrittim avrittim cha eva Yoginah
466 Prayata yaanti tam kalam vakshyami bharatarshaba
467 Agnir jyotir ahah suklah shanmasa uttarayanam
468 Tatra prayata gachanti brahma brahmavido janah
469 Dhoomo ratris tatha krisnah shanmasa dakshinayanam
470 Tatra chaandramasam jyotirr yogi prapya nivartate
471 Sukla krishna gathi hi yete jagatah saswatte mathe
472 ekaya yatianavrittim anyaya avartate punah
473 8. MB Anusasana Parva 220. Divaa cha sukla pakshascha
uttarayanameva cha Mumurshatam prasastam viparitam tu garhitam
474 9. Brahma Sutra, 4.2.18 and 19' 'nisi nati chet na samsara bandasya yavat
deha bhavitvath darsayat cha/
475 athas cha ayanepi dakshine/'
476 10. Chan. Up.4.15.5 ' atha yadu chaivasmin savyankurvanti yati cha
narchishameva abisambavanti/
477 tat purusho manavah sa enan brahma gamayat yesha devapado
brahmapada yetena pratipadyamanaa imam manavam
avartamnaavartanta/naavartante/
478 11. Chan. Up., 6.8.6 "Asya somya, purushasya prayatah, Vak manasi
sampadyate, manah prane, pranah tejasi...
479 12. Brih.Up.,6.4.2
480 13. Pras. Up.,1.1.9 'Tadye ha vai tadishta purte kritam ityupasate, te
chandramasameva lokam abijayante, ta eva punar avartante."
481 14. Chan. Up.,5 / 3 to 10
482 15. Kata Up. 6.16
483 Satam cha ekaa hridayasya nadyas |
484 taasaam moordhanamabinihsrutaikaa ||
485 Tayo urdvam aayan amrutatvam eti |
486 Vishvanganya utkramena bhavanti ||
487 16. Varaha Charama Sloka
488 "Stite manasi susvaste sareere sati yo narah Dhatu samye stite smarta
viswaroopam cha maam ajam Tatastham mriyamaanam tu kashta
pashana sannibham Aham smaraami mad bhaktam nayaami paramaam
gathim"
489 17. BG 8 / 6
490 "Yam yam vapi smaran bhavam tyajante kalebaram
491 Tam tameva kaunteya! Sada tad bhava bhavitah:
492 18. Kurm. P.1.12.269
493 Brahmana saha te sarve sampraapte prati sanchare |
494 Parasya ante krutam atmanah pravisanti param padam"
495 19. MB., Santi Parva., 313 ( 26 to 31)
496 20. V. S. , verse 12 20
497 "Tad vishnoh paramam padam |
498 sada pasyanti soorayah |
499 Diveeva chakshuratatham |
500 Tad vipraso vipanyavo jagruvam sassamindate |
501 Visnoryah Paramam padamparyaptyaAnantarayaya sarva stomo |
502 Ati ratram uttamam ahar bhavathi |
503 Sarvasyaptyai sarvasya jityai |
504 sarvameva Tena aapnoti sarvam jayathi | "
505 21. Bhagavata sloka
506 " lokeshu vishnor nivasanti kechit |
507 Sameepam richanti cha kechit anye
508 Anye tu roopam sadrusam bhajante
509 Sayujyam anye sa tu moksha uktah ||"
510 22. Ahir. S., 37 / 25 and 26
511 " prapyate paramam dhama yato na avartate yatih"
512 23. BG 8 / 15 and 16
513 " maam upetya punar janma duhkalayam asaswatam |
514 Na apnuvanti mahatmaanah samsiddim paramam gathah ||
515 Aabrahmabhuvanal lokah punaravartino Arjuna! |
516 Maam upetya tu kaunteya! Punar janma na vidyate ||
517 24. PATM.,4.5.2 poyinaal pinnai ith disaikku enrum pinai koduthalum poga
vottare"
518 25. Brahma sutra., 4.4.22 - 24" ' Anavritti sabdath, Anavritti sabdath'
519 26. VR 5.35.51" Rama Sugrivayor Aikyam, Devi " evam Samajaayata"
520 27. Jay.S., 4..83
521 28. Taitt. Up. Ananda valli 1.2 "Sa asnute sarvan kaamaan saha
brahmanaa vipaschiteth"
522 29. Chan. Up. 7.26.2 " sarvamha pasyati sarvam aapnoti sarvasah"
523 30. Brahma Sutra 4.4.21 " bhoga maatra saamya lingaas cha"
524 31. BG 14 / 2 " Idam Gnanam Upasritya Mama Saadharmyam Agata
Sargepi Nopa jayante Pralaye Na Vyatanti Cha"
525 32. Mundaka Up. " " Niranjanah Paramam Saamyam Upaithi"
526 NOTES FOR ANNEXURE 1.
527 1. Harper's Encyclopedia of Mystical and Paranormal Experience -by
Rosemary, Ellen Guiley Published by Harper, San Francisco- 1991 (p.
141- 143 )
528 2 ibid, ( p.399-400)
529 3. ibid ( p.419 - 423)
530 In the next 4 Adhikaras (23 to 26) called Streekarana part, Swami Desika
deals with anticipated doubts and objections relating to the principles
enunciated so far and answers them.
531
532 ADHIKARA 23: SIDDHA UPAYA SODHANA ADHIKARA
533 (On the One means already existing)
534
535 "Siddhopaya" means the one that is already existing. Since Bhagavan is
already there, there is no need to 'create' him. Only the means (Sadhya
upaya) has to be chosen. They are Bhakti and Prapatti as we have already
seen. To secure the knowledge of this already existent Upaya, one has to-
(i) appeal to Mother Goddess SRI LAKSHMI who grants the necessary
Gnana (ii) approach a proper preceptor and perform Bhakti or Prapatti (iii)
follow established traditions and observe the prescribed austerities. Those
who do not have a clear mind should not get into the company of atheists
who deny the very existence of God and those who deny God's
omnipotence- because such association would destroy all chances of
progress towards Godhead and consign their victims to eternal damnation.
536 Certain doubts relating to Siddhopaya are cleared as follows:
537 (1) Certain statements seem to suggest that Prapatti is not necessary.
Why should God ignore a Chetana for so long and why again should he
correct and bless him at a particular point of time,? If he does this in
exercise of His Swatantriya (independence), why should Chetana adopt
any Upaya at all?
538 Answer: It is true that the Lord is independent. Still he directs the Chetana
to take an Upaya before granting him Moksha. If he were to grant Moksha
to everyone indiscriminately without reference to the adoption of an Upaya,
would it not amount to partiality by bracketing together both the deserving
and the undeserving?
539 (2) If directing the Chetana to adopt an Upaya is also the handiwork of
God, Why God should not do this to everyone in the first place itself and
why different times are taken to different persons in bestowing his
benevolence?
540 Answer: The Chetana has to acquire a certain stage of evolution to be fit
enough to receive divine grace. As a result of different Karma, such an
evolution arises in different individuals at different times and God is quick
in directing one to take recourse to an Upaya as and when one is ready
and ripe enough for it.
541 (3)Certain pramanas ( authorities) depict as if God feels sorry on seeing
the suffering humanity. If this were so, does it not mean that he behaves
the same way as any of us?
542 Answer : Really, God is beyond all joy and sorrow we experience but his
exhibiting the same is to show a kind of sympathy with his devotees
543 (4)Since God is all powerful and all knowing, how can we who are fit to be
punished will ever be granted Moksha?
544 Answer: God's principal qualities are indeed Gnana and Sakti. Since he
knows everything he is aware of our fault and merits; since he is also
powerful he can no doubt inflict punishments or award rewards., Thus
Gnana and Sakti are useful in punishing as much as in rewarding good
deeds. But, His Karunya (compassion) is exclusively useful for conferring
his grace on the sinner who surrenders to him.
545 (5)Since it is said that a Prapanna has done what he ought to do, does it
mean that he need not do any karmas after Prapatti?
546 Answer: What is meant is that he need not do anything for the purpose of
securing Moksha .It does not mean that he can give up Nitya and
Naimittika karmas which have to be done for the pleasure of the Lord.
547 (6) Does it mean that because one has done Prapatti, he is entitled for
Moksha?
548 Answer: The answer is Yes and No. Without doing Prapatti or Bhakti, one
cannot secure Moksha and one is definitely entitled to Moksha but this
does not mean that Prapatti itself grants Moksha. It is the Lord's sankalpa
that is really responsible for the Prapanna securing Moksha.
549 (7)As God is like mother, he has to nourish the child, the child has nothing
to do at all. .Is this correct? Answer: TRUE. BUT EVEN IN THIS CASE,
THE CHILD HAS TO PUT ITS MOUTH TO THE BREAST OF THE
MOTHER BEFORE SHE COULD FEED IT. PRAPATTI IS LIKE THIS AND
HAS TO BE GONE THROUGH.
550 (8) When it is the Lord who grants Moksha , how does Goddess Lakshmi
come into the picture?
551 Answer: The Lord has vowed to protect his proteges and this he is doing
as a Yagna. As a person without a wife is not fit to do any yagna, he is
always accompanied by - Sri Lakshmi in performing this yagna. She is with
him both in Upaya and Phala. This has been confirmed by great sages like
Nammalwar, Hiranyagarbhar, Kasyapa, Sownaka, Sri Parasara,
Emperumanar (Satvata Samhita), Sri Ramanuja, Kurattalwan, Bhattar,
Nanjeeyar and a host of other great personalities. Just as in yagas the
offerings are submitted to two or more deities together, as for example for
Agni and Soma etc., the offering of our souls is submitted to the divine
couple and both together protect the souls jointly.
552 (9) But the scriptures do not always refer to the divine couple but only to
the Lord?
553 Answer : Wherever the scriptures refer to the Lord, it should be taken as
referring to both. For the sake of convenience, they have divided among
themselves the various qualities and responsibilities. The Lord has such
masculine qualities like independence, power to quell the wicked, firmness
etc., while Mother Goddess is the personification of patience, forbearance,
tenderness and other feminine qualities chief of which is MERCY OR
COMPASSION with which she prevails upon the Lord to spare the rod and
accept the surrendered soul and admit him into the Moksha Samrajya.
554 (10)It is said that when the Goddess takes independent position in the
Archa form we can not worship her in that form? Answer : The Archa form
of mother Goddess has three manifestations in the temples viz., (i)
Layaarcha : her form seated on the chest of the Lord (ii) Bhogarcha: Her
form as seated or standing by the side of the Lord and (Iii) Adhikararcha :
her manifestations in separate temples without the form of the Lord
555 While there is no doubt of worshipping her in the first two forms, it must be
mentioned that in the third form she is believed to confer boons other than
Moksha. In actual practice, however, even when she manifests in
Adhikaraarcha form, it can be seen that the Lord always adorns her chest
even as she adorns his chest in the Laya Archa form.
556
557 ADHIKARA 24 : SADHYOPAYA SODHANA ADHIKARA
558 (Clarification of certain doubts regarding the means of Bhakti and Prapatti)
559
560 (1) How Bhakti which is difficult to practice and Prapatti which is easier to
practice could result in the same benefit of Moksha?
561 Answer: To the one who has the capacity to adopt Bhakti, that is the
proper course. For the one who is incapable of doing Bhakti in the manner
elaborated earlier the only course open is Prapatti. Just like a sick person
is advised manasa snana (thinking of the lord) as he is not fit to take
shower and it is said to confer the same purification as a regular bath,
while doing prapatti, the lord is supposed to stand in the place of Bhakti
and grant the desired reward of Moksha which is the common goal of both
Bhakti and Prapatti.
562 A tiller toils and earns by the sweat of the brow and enjoys the fruits of his
labor; But, a merchant sits in his shop, sells goods, earns and enjoys the
fruits of his earnings. The pleasure of enjoying the earnings is the same for
both the tiller and the merchant. Similarly, the fruits obtained by the difficult
process of Bhakti and the easy means of Prapatti give the same kind of
pleasure Viz., Moksha.
563 (2) It is said that Prapatti will secure not only Moksha but also other worldly
benefits .In actual practice, however, we see several Prapannas not
securing material benefits. Why is this so?
564 Answer: It may be that the Prapatti was not done with adequate intensity of
confidence (Mahavisvasa) or that God grants material benefits or withholds
them in accordance with the Karma that the Prapanna had agreed to go
through while performing Tripta Prapatti.
565 (3) It is questioned why if Bhakti yoga is so difficult, it should be prescribed
at all and especially when it has no relevance in the Kaliyuga?
566 Answer: Even in Kaliyuga saints like Nammalwar attained Moksha through
Bhakti. Hence, there is no harm in prescribing it.
567 (4)What is the daily routine of a Prapanna?
568 Answer: The daily routine of a Prapanna is as follows: The daytime is
divided into 5 periods of say 2 1/2 to 3 hours from sunrise.
569 1st period: Abhigamana : Praying to the Lord that the day's austerities
should be carried on without any impediments.
570 2nd Period: Upadana: Gathering flowers ,leaves, preparing sandal paste
etc for the purpose of doing the Thiru Aradhana (Ritual worship). This
includes purification both physical and mental by uttering the appropriate
Mantras.
571 3rd Period: Ijya: Thiru Aradhana proper according to Agama traditions
572 4th Period: Svadhyaya: augmenting knowledge of philosophical truths by
deep study of the scriptures
573 5th period: Yoga: Meditating on the feet of the Lord both during the waking
state and during the dream state.
574
575 ADHIKARA 25 : PRABHAVA VYAVASTHA ADHIKARA
576 (Limitations under which Bhakti and Prapatti operate)
577
578 Certain people exaggerate the efficacy of Prapatti to absurd extents. This
chapter seeks to disabuse the views so expressed on certain aspects.
579 ( 1 ) That even though one is born in a lower caste, he becomes one of a
higher caste on performing Prapatti. The answer is that so long as the
body exists, the caste does not change. EVEN A TEMPLE COW,
HOWEVER HOLY IT MIGHT BE, REMAINS ONLY A COW.
580 Even though Sri Krishna eulogized VIDURA a person belonging to the
fourth caste, he did not say that he changed his caste. Similarly, even
Viswamitra never became a Brahmin. The story regarding his birth shows
that since his mother partook of the potion meant for a Brahmin foetus, he
was already a Brahmin indeed by birth but his brahminic traits remained
eclipsed. This does not mean that one can afford to despise another on the
basis of caste. EVEN A PERSON OF THE SO CALLED LOWER CASTE,
IF THEY ARE DEVOTEES - DUE RESPECT HAS TO BE PAID TO THEM.
FOR, DID NOT THE BRAHMIN MADHURAKAVI BECOME THE
DISCIPLE OF THE SUDRA NAMMALWAR ?
581 ( 2 ) That even the sins committed by a Prapanna knowingly will not affect
him and some people go the extent of saying that God relishes the sins.
This is not correct. Sins can be exculpated either by atonement by
performing another Prayaschitta Prapatti or by suffering the consequences
during the current life itself. There is no doubt, however, in the Prapanna
attaining Moksha since his sins will get wiped out by one of these methods
before his death.
582 ( 3 ) That the spittle of a Prapanna is holy. This is a gross
exaggeration .Spittle can never be considered holy.
583 ( 4 ) That whatever a Prapanna utters becomes law. This is not correct.
Only those utterances which are not repugnant to the Sastras can be held
valid. Prapannas should attend to Bhagavatas whenever an occasion
arises Bhagavatas are of three kinds:
584 (i) EKANTINS :Who have no attachment towards other deities and are
totally dedicated to Sri Narayana.
585 (ii) PARAMAIKANTINS: who have no goal other than attaining the feet of
the Lord.
586 (iii) SHODASA VAMA SVARNA PARAMAIKANTINS: who are so dedicated
to the Lord that they do not aspire for any thing including Svarga or even
Moksha They just do their duty and expect nothing in return leaving
everything to God.
587
588 ADHIKARA 26 : PRABHAVA RAKSHA ADHIKARA
589 (Indication of the efficacy of Prapatti)
590
591 This Chapter shatters the attempts of some who denigrate the importance
of Prapatti and establishes the efficacy of Prapatti.
592 ( 1 ) Even if a Bhagavata has swerved a little from the Sastric injunctions
unwittingly, HE SHOULD NOT BE DISRESPECTED. You should not,
however, seek to get Samasrayanam or Bharanyasam from him.
593 ( 2 ) Disrespect to a Bhagavata is more deadly than even sinning against
God.
594 ( 3 ) Chanting the names of God (Nama samkeerthana) and residing with
Bhaghavatas will be useful in taking a person to the right path of Bhakti or
Prapatti, only if he is not an atheist at heart.
595 ( 4 ) PRAPATTI DESTROYS NOT ONLY SANCHITA KARMA BUT IS
CAPABLE OF DESTROYING PRARABDA KARMA ALSO COMMITTED
UPTO THE POINT OF PERFORMING PRAPATTI.
596 ( 5 ) Why Prapannas also suffer during their lifetime? It may be that they
had not prayed for a suffering-free Post-Prapatti life. But, more importantly,
for such Prapannas God dispenses with their Prarabda karmas through ill
health, death of near and dear ones to make them absolutely Karma-free.
SUFFERING IS A CHASTENING AGENT FOR A PRAPANNA.
597 ( 6 )SAMAASRAYANAM is the ceremony by which one gets administered
the PANCHA SAMSKARA ( the five-fold purificatory ceremonies) by their
Acharyas. They are:-
598 (i) TAAPA : getting embossed with the impressions of the conch
(Panchajanya Sankha) and Wheel (Sudarsana Chakra) on the arms by the
Acharya.
599 (ii) PUNDRA: Wearing the twelve Sri Vaishnava marks on the body reciting
appropriate names of the Lord as taught by the Acharya
600 (iii) NAAMA : Adding a suffix like 'Dasa" to one's name in token of one's
subordination to Sri Ramanuja
601 (iv) MANTRA: Learning from the Acharya the three great Mantras of
Ashtakshara, Dvaya and Charamasloka with their invocatory Slokas
(Dyana Slokas).
602 (v) AARAADHANA: Learning Aaraadhana or ( the formula for worship of
God-) Both external (Baahya) and mental (Maanasika). The detailed
procedure of such worship is given in Nitya Grantha of Sri Ramanuja.
603 BUT,FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT ABLE TO DO THE WORSHIP AS PER
THE FULL STANDARDS, THE SAME MAY BE DONE IN AN ABRIDGED
FORM (LAGHU THIRUVARADHANA) WITHOUT THE LOSS OF THE
SPIRIT., FOR AFTER ALL, WHAT IS IMPORTANT - IS SINCERITY AND
QUALITY, NOT DURATION NOR QUANTITY. Aradhana is normally to be
done in the mornings at the Ijya period, but on special occasions like
Janmashtami, Sri Rama Navami and Nrisimha Jayanthi, the Bahya
Aradhana should be done at midnight, noon and at sunset receptively.
604 ( 7 ) IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT EVEN THOSE WHO HAVE NOT
GONE THROUGH THE PANCHASAMSKARA OR ANY PART THEREOF,
IF THEY DO PRAPATTI - SO LONG AS THEY ARE NOT ATTACHED TO
PETTY DEITIES AND DO NOT DISRESPECT BHAGAVATAS AND
ACHARYAS- THEY WILL SURELY ATTAIN MOKSHA AT THE END OF
THE CURRENT LIFE ITSSELF.
605 EVEN AN ANIMAL ( GAJENDRA) AND A BIRD ( KAKASURA) WHICH
HAD NOT GONE THROUGH THE PANCHA SAMSKARA HAD DONE
PRAPATTI AND ATTAINED MOKSHA. THIS IS NOT TO SAY THAT
THERE IS NO NEED FOR THE PANCHA SAMSKARA BUT THAT DUE
TO UNAVOIDABLE CIRCUMSTANCES THOSE WHO COULD NOT OR
HAD NOT GONE THROUGH THESE, NEED NOT FEEL DESPONDENT
BUT CAN TALE RECOURSE TO PRAPATTI AND BE SAVED.
606 ( 8 ) How to identify a REAL BHAGAVATA? Would it be correct to give
respect to one who has just the external marks like Nama, Rupa, Taapa
etc., only and who in reality is not a Vishnu Bhakta? So long as the
duplicity of such a person does not get exposed, a Prapanna will have to
show respect, But, once it gets revealed, the Prapanna can just ignore
him.
607
608 ADHIKARA 30 : ACHARYA KRITYA ADHIKARA
609 (The duties of an Acharya)
610
611 The three great Mantras and their significance can be appreciated only by
those initiated by tradition into their secrets. THE DELIGHTFUL TASTE OF
THE BREAST MILK OF THE LIONESS CAN BE APPRECIATED ONLY
BY HER OWN CUBS.
612 In the first place, the Acharya will himself master the hidden truths of the
scriptures as taught by his Acharyas and by faithfully following the
injunctions, acquire the quality of Sattva . He would then select the proper
students by testing their sincerity and integrity and impart to them the
traditional teachings. Students found wanting in these respects should not
be admitted for instruction into these truths. Otherwise, it will be like saying
'Anything is fish that comes to the net'.
613 The preceptor should avoid liars, eunuchs, misers, mentally perverse,
conceited., those who delight in tormenting others, those who indulge in
vilifying others, those that engage in vain arguments (Vitandavada),
atheists (Nastikas), those who heckle for the sake of embarrassing
demanding reasons for everything (Hytukas), those whose views are
distorted (Kudhrishti), prattlers (Jalpa), who misinterpret (Kuyukta),
heretics (Pashandis), and hypocrites who pose to be virtuous but in reality
are vile.
614 Lord Krishna, the Prathama Acharya " prohibits transmission of these
secrets to those who do not perform their dharmic duties, those who do not
have faith in God, those who are not sincere and eager to learn and most
importantly those who bear ill will or jealousy towards God and therefore
intolerant."
615 He proceeds to advise as to whom these secrets can be revealed and the
benefits accruing from such revelation. "These secrets can be revealed
only to those devoted to me. Anyone who reveals to such deserving
persons would notice an unfoldment of his own devotion into the state of
Parabhakti and finally secure myself as his reward"
616 "Even among those who possess positive qualities as discerned by the
preceptor by means of appropriate tests, cannot be told unless the would
be student formally petitions to him -in the manner of Arjuna pleading
before the Lord
617 Some students who may not have the requisite caliber to assimilate but
are nevertheless sincere in reforming themselves may be instructed the
broad outlines of Tattva, Hita and Uttarakritya without going deeper into
the esoteric meanings enshrined in the great truths.
618 Tattva: Jeevatma is a permanent sentient entity as different from the body
that is perishable. Again, Jeevatma is different from Paramatma who is its
SESHI and its ONLY protector. This is Tattva.
619 Hita: This Jeevatma remains submerged from beginning-less time in the
ocean of Samsara. Only by a stroke of luck it could come across an
Acharya who would instruct the Dvaya Mantra and initiate into Prapatti.
This is Hita.
620 Uttara Kritya: The Jeevatma should have total and unconditional faith that
having been recommended by the Acharya, the Lord would most certainly
grant Moksha and will under no circumstances forsake the surrendered
soul and it should in the post-prapatti period, till the end of the current life
do service to Bhagavan, Bhagavatas and Acharyas. This is Uttara kritya.
621 These truths have been handed down to successive generations from Sri
Ramanuja to Pranathartihara (a.k.a.Kidambi Achan, Madaippalli Achan)
and then to his son, Kidambi Ramanujacharya and his son Kidambi
Rangarajachariyar and to his son Kidambi Appullar (a.k.a. Vadihamsa
Ambuvaha chariyar). This Appullar was the maternal uncle of Swami Sri
Vedanta Desika from whom he learnt them. As directed by Lord Hayagriva
himself, Swami Desika acted as his scribe in incorporating them in the
Rahasya Traya Sara. Thus, the great Mantra has been invested with divine
sanction besides having glorious Guru Sishya Parampara. As such, the
truths should be cherished like a great treasure and handed down only to
worthy recipients.
622
623 ADHIKARA 31 : SISHYA KRITYA ADHIKARA
624 ( DUTIES OF THE DISCIPLE )
625
626 As the Acharya has shown him the way to Tattva, Hita and Uttarakritya like
showing to a poverty stricken person a treasure lying hidden under his own
home which he had not known before, and that without any expectation of
any reward- the disciple should be ever grateful to the Acharya. This
gratitude is no return for favor received. In fact, the Sishya on his own free
volition should offer his entire wealth, or half of it, or a quarter of it or
whatever he can- again not in the attitude of returning any favor to the
Acharya. The Upanishad commands that the disciple should show the
same Bhakti towards his Acharya as he shows to the Lord himself:
627 "Yasya deve para bhaktih yatha deve tatha gurou".
628 Otherwise, he would be *like a blind man even when he has his eyes in
tact*. All Sastras proclaim that for the Acharya who has shown the way to
Moksha. there is nothing that can be deemed adequate recompense. Any
offer made to the Acharya can only be a token of gratitude and never be
any return. The truths learnt from the Acharya should not be revealed to
undeserving persons just for the sake of money or in an open assembly
consisting of both deserving and undeserving persons. Otherwise, it would
be LIKE WATER KEPT IN A SKULL OR MILK PLACED IN A WATERPOT
MADE OF DOG'S LEATHER thus becoming worthless due to the
impurities of the containers.
629 If one indulges in imparting sacred knowledge to undeserving for the sake
of material gain, it would be - - LIKE EATING THE VOMIT, as it were or -
LIKE A PROSTITUTE adorning herself for pleasing her clients or - LIKE
SANDAL PASTE ( CHANDAN) PREPARED FOR SALE or - LIKE A BAG
OF POPCORN SCATTERED ON THE ROAD or - LIKE ENTRUSTING A
GARLAND OF FLOWERS TO THE HANDS OF A MONKEY.
630 If the Sastras learnt are not utilized for the performance of dharmic duties,
self purification or self improvement, such Sastras , however beautiful in
diction and style would be LIKE THE CAWING OF THE CROW. The
disciple ( now turned preceptor) should-
631 1. Always remember and openly acknowledge his gratitude to the line of
his preceptors through whom he had acquired the sacred knowledge.
632 2. Should not propagate the truths without first initiating the Sishya;
otherwise, knowledge acquired through books or by eavesdropping
expositions can only be in 'bits and pieces'. One who tries to learn
stealthily would be - LIKE A THIEF ADORNING STOLEN ORNAMENTS
ALWAYS APPREHENSIVE OF BEING APPREHENDED.
633 3. If one does not pay obeisance to his Guru before commencing his
instructions, the meanings of the truths will be lost on his audience LIKE A
CREEPER THAT IS MERELY WINDING AROUND A TREE WITHOUT
HAVING ITS OWN ROOTS FIRMLY GROUNDED IN THE SOIL.
634 4. He should not twist the meanings conveyed to him by his teacher.
Otherwise, he would be treated AS A TRAITOR.
635 5. It is equally wrong not to impart guidance to a deserving student.
636 6. Even if, by fortuitous circumstances, he stumbles upon new ways of
expressing the truths, he should acknowledge that he is able to so express
solely by the benign grace of his Acharya and never claim any originality
for himself. Only if this is done, his rating in the minds of his own Sishyas
will go up sensing the gratitude shown to the PRACHARYAS.(Guru's
Gurus).
637 The Upanishads and the Parama Purusha hailed by the Upanishads would
be pleased;. When the Praachaarya comes to know about such grateful
expressions, he would feel mighty pleased that his efforts have not been in
vain but have actually borne fruit.

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63915 June 2006,02:45 PM


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Re: Rahasya Traya Saram - A Translation


SECTION 4 : CONCLUSION:
640 In spite of going through the treatise, some lingering doubts may arise in
the minds of genuine seekers.
641 Doubt 1 : What guarantee is there that a person performing Prapatti is sure
to reach Moksha at the end of this life?
642 Answer : The Vedas, Sastras and the entire gamut of our scriptures
proclaim this truth; The venerable Maharishis, Sages and Seers of ancient
times have seconded this fact; The lineage of our Acharyas have
confirmed in unambiguous terms the veracity of the claim. Nothing more
will be needed to accept the proposition.
643 One is reminded of Bhattar's exposition of an imaginary conversation as
between lord Ranganatha and a Jiva taking place at the time of the Lord
emerging out of his ceremonial bath (Thirumanjana) Wearing a single wet
yellow raiment and a solitary garland of Tulasi ( the holy basil) standing
serenely before the shining lamp with wick soaked in pure ghee.
644 Lord </U>: You are mine.
645 Jeeva </U>: No. I am mine.
646 Lord </U>: How do you say that?
647 Jeeva </U>: Where is the record in support of your claim?
648 Lord </U>: My claim is based on Vedas.
649 Jeeva </U>: Vedas are your making.
650 Lord </U>: Then, on what basis you say that you are yours.
651 Jeeva </U>: I have been believing this from the beginning-less time and on
the strength of life experiences (Anubhava Vibhava) and this is verily the
law.
652 Lord </U>: But your claim has been objected.
653 Jeeva </U>: By whom and when?
654 Lord </U>: By Gita and other scriptures.
655 Jeeva</U>: Gita is your word; Scriptures are your making. Tell me, have
you any other witnesses to support the objections? Lord </U>: Yes, the
great Vyasa, Parasara and other great sires.
656 Jeeva </U>: Lo! They are all prejudiced in your favor (Pakshapadi). Bhattar
imagines that since no judge or jury could be spotted to settle the dispute,
the only course open to the Lord was to appear in the attire he wore, stand
serenely before the lamp and swear.
657 MAY BE, EVEN SUCH SWEARING WILL NOT BE BELIEVED THESE
DAYS BUT IN BHATTAR'S PERIOD PEOPLE HAD ABSOLUTE FAITH
WHEN SOMEONE SWORE TO THE TRUTH IN THE MANNER
DESCRIBED.
658 EVEN SO, SRI SWAMI DESIKA IS PREPARED TO DISCUSS BOTH THE
ALTERNATIVES OF THE PROPOSITION BEING TRUE OR FALSE. HE
SAYS THAT IF IT WERE TRUE AND IF YOU ARE DESIROUS OF
SALVATION, YOU GET WHAT YOU WANT; IF NOT TRUE, YOU DO
NOT LOSE ANYTHING BY PERFORMING PRAPATTI. SO, IT IS A CASE
OF 'ALL WIN AND NO LOSS' AND INVITES US TO HAVE A TRY.
659 Doubt 2: It is said that after doing Prapatti no sins should be committed. If
committed they would accrue to the Acharya. As frail humans subject to
Karma, we cannot avoid committing sins knowingly or unknowingly. And,
to make the Acharya suffer on account of our faults would be unfair to him.
Therefore, it is better to postpone Prapatti as far as possible and perform it
at the end of this life when very little time will be left in our hands to commit
any sins - thus 'Sparing the Acharya' from our misdemeanor.
660 Answer : The argument is indeed very clever, seeks to help in evading
performance of Prapatti and impart a justification for escapism. It is true
that Manu Dharma Sastra very clearly stipulates that 'The sins committed
by his subjects accrue to the king; the king's sins accrue to his Purohit; the
wife's sins accrue to the husband and the disciple's sins accrue to his
preceptor's.
661 The objection is obviously based on this. This is a general rule applicable
to ordinary circumstances. The position of a Prapanna stands on a
different footing. The Prapatti Sastra admits that as human beings exposed
to the vagaries of life even a Prapanna might commit sins. But, in the first
place a Prapanna will scrupulously avoid committing any sins whatsoever.
Sins committed unknowingly WILL NOT have any effect. Sins committed
knowingly can be expiated by repentance (Nirveda) or by atonement
(Prayaschitta) or by undergoing minor sufferings by way of punishment ( if
not atoned). Thus, such sins will not cling to the Prapanna himself and
there is no question of their accruing to the Acharya as assumed.
Therefore the Prapatti Sastras advise you to - 'SAVE YOUR OWN SOUL'
AND ALSO 'SPARE THE ACHARYA' from being dragged into the net of
your sins by a ' TRANSFER ENTRY' as imagined by you.
662 Doubt 3: Some advance another specious excuse that in the background
of modern day hectic activity and struggle for survival, one cannot be too
meticulous about observing the age old stipulations of Dharmic duties like
SALIGRAMA ARADHANA etc ; one cannot be too fastidious about
avoiding prohibited foods like onions, garlic etc, or too fussy about
partaking in 'socializing' involving as it does imbibing intoxicants.
663 Some wanting to appear more puritanic than the puritans extend it to such
innocuous pastimes like viewing movies or TV shows or using baser
materials like stainless steel in the place of Silver Poona articles etc.
664 Answer : Again, this is an escapist argument betraying an unwillingness to
face facts and a flagrant turning away from the goal of Moksha.
665 LET IT BE UNDERSTOOD THAT THERE IS - NO COMPULSION FROM
ANY QUARTERS THAT YOU SHOULD SEEK SALVATION; NO
CONDITION THAT YOU SHOULD STAY AWAY FROM SINS; NO
RESTRICTION ON CONSUMING UNDESIRABLE FOODS; NO
EMBARGO ON YOUR SOCIALIZING - IF THESE PLEASE YOU AND
SUIT YOUR PREDILICTIONS. ALL THAT IS SOUGHT TO BE
IMPRESSED IS THAT IF - AND THERE IS A BIG IF THERE - IF YOU
DESIRE SALVATION (THE WHOLE TREATISE IS ONLY FOR SUCH A
PERSON AND SUCH A PERSON ONLY) THERE ARE WAYS TO GO
ABOUT IT.
666 As already explained, if in any unavoidable circumstances, the Prapanna is
unable to fulfill his Dharmic duties in the prescribed manner or is
compelled to resort to non- dharmic practices such as eating unholy or
remnant foods or drink, such situations will fall under the category of sins
committed knowingly. As explained earlier, one should feel really repentant
(NIRVEDA) or perform atonement (PRAAYASCHITTA) and beseech the
Lord to excuse the indiscretion due to circumstances beyond one's control
(individually and socially).
667 Viewing movies or TV is neither Dharmic nor Adharmic so long as it does
not interfere with the observance of other Swadharmic duties prescribed in
the Sastras. No doubt the Prapanna should earnestly endeavor to avoid
getting into such situations in future.
668 Doubt 4: There are many passages even in our Sandyavandana, Tarpana
etc., worshipping Pitrus and other deities like Vayu, Agni, Gayatri, Savitri,
Saraswati, Brahma Deivatyam, Rudra Deivatyam etc., If only Narayana is
to be worshipped , why do we worship these minor divinities?
669 Answer : Firstly, these expressions have been drawn from the Vedas
prescribing the daily recitations in which these deities are invoked as the
embodiment of Sir Narayana who is their soul. When we mention their
names, we are not worshipping them but their indwelling soul, the
Paramatma, Sri Narayana. Secondly, since these names are only common
names they are applicable to them as well as to Sri Narayana indwelling in
them. We are not actually worshipping them but only Sri Narayana.(e.g.)
the word 'Agni' means 'One who leads'- 'Agre Nayati iti Agni' .Though it
names Agni, it denotes Narayana who is the real one who actually leads
even the deity of Agni. Thus, the ultimate meaning of any attributes or
divinities actually refer to Lord Narayana .
670 JUST LIKE WHEN WE GARLAND SOMEONE, WE DO NOT GARLAND
THE SHIRT ON WHICH IT IS WORN, NOR THE BODY OF THE PERSON
WEARING IT BUT THE PERSON WITHIN, WHEN THE NAMES OF
THESE DIVINITIES ARE UTTERED , THEY ARE MEANT ACTUALLY TO
REFER ULTIMATELY TO LORD NARAYANA ONLY. WHAT IS
ESSENTIAL FOR A PRAPANNA ARE JUST THE FOLLOWING AND IT
SAYS IT ALL.
671 1. SHOULD HAVE FIRM AND EXCLUSIVE FAITH IN SRI NARAYANA AS
THE SOLE SAVIOUR AND BESTOWER OF MOKSHA AND IN PRAPATTI
AS THE SOLE MEANS TO SECURE MOKSHA.
672 2. SHOULD SCRUPULOUSLY AVOID UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES
ANY DISRESPECT IN MIND, WORD OR DEED TOWARDS BHAGAVAN,
BHAGAVATAS AND ACHARYAS.
673 If the attitude is healthy, motivation ethical, intention honest and if the will
is there to remain virtuous in the face of temptations, THERE ALWAYS IS
A WAY TO REMAIN SO.
674 The constant effort towards evolution will come in naturally and one can
palpably feel in one's own heart the progress of regeneration and a march
to self improvement.
675 Nobody need be worried about not being able to achieve perfection to the
level of their role-models because only 'practice makes for perfection'. Any
attempts towards perfection will be a stepping stone to the success.
676 IF ONE DEVELOPS THIS FAITH AND THIS ATTITUDE, ALL ELSE WILL
FALL IN PLACE AUTOMATICALLY. Nigamantha Maha Desikaya Namah

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