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# Seismic Isolation Technology for

Highway Bridges
_____________

Ian Buckle
Foundation Professor

## Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Nevada Reno, Reno NV 89557

1
Topics
Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation
Some Applications
System Design
Testing Requirements

Sources:
FHWA/MCEER 2006, Seismic
I l ti off Highway
Isolation Hi h B
Bridges,
id S
Special
i l
Publication MCEER-06-SP07
AASHTO 2010,
2010 Guide Specifications for
Seismic Isolation Design, Third Edition
2
Topics

Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation
S
Some A
Applications
li ti
System Design
Testing Requirements

3
Conventional Seismic Design

Superstructure

Abutment Bearings
ea gs
Ab t
Abutment
t

Footing
& piles

## Columns are required to support

EQ ground motion
dissipate energy, and not collapse 4
Unacceptable Performance
Collapsed
Superstructure

Bearings
ea gs
Ab t
Abutment
t Ab t
Abutment
t

Fractured
Column
Footing

Piles

EQ ground motion
5
Seismic Design Objective

column strength
F t off safety
Factor f t = > 1.0
10
earthquake force

6
Seismic Design Objective

capacity
F t off safety
Factor f t = > 1.0
10
demand

7
Conventional Design Approach
INCREASE CAPACITY

capacity
F t off safety
Factor f t = > 1.0
10
demand

8
Conventional Design

9
Conventional Design

10
Seismic Isolation an Alternative

capacity
F t off safety
Factor f t = > 1.0
10
demand

REDUCE DEMAND

11
Seismic Isolation an Alternative

12
Seismic Isolation an Alternative

Isolation
suspension
system

EQ ground motion
13
Basic Idea of Seismic Isolation
Isolate the bridge from ground motion by:
Inserting a flexible support system between the
super- and sub-structure (isolation bearings).
This will lengthen the natural period of the
bridge such that the inertia forces in the bridge
are significantly reduced.
Force reduction may be sufficient to keep
columns elastic.

## Control the liveliness of the bridge (due to the

flexible bearings) using energy dissipators
(dampers) to limit the motion.
motion

14
Seismic Isolation: Key Point

## Seismic isolation reduces the earthquake

demand on a bridge,
g rather than increases
its capacity.

## In many cases the reduction in demand is

such that it may be feasible to have
substructures perform elastically.

15
Topics

Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation
S
Some A
Applications
li ti
System Design
Testing Requirements

16
Principles of Seismic Isolation

17
Principles of Seismic Isolation

18
Principles of Seismic Isolation

19
Principles of Seismic Isolation

20
Principles of Seismic Isolation
In addition to flexibility and energy dissipation
y
most isolation systems also comprise:
p
(e g wind and braking) while
(e.g.
accommodating thermal, creep, and other
shortening effects
effects, and
Self-centering capability

21
Seismic Isolation: Key Point

## Most seismic isolation systems

comprise:
1.Flexibility
2.Energy dissipation
3.Rigidity
4.Self-centering

## Above criteria means all isolation systems

have nonlinear pproperties.
p exceptions
p exist
but are rare.
22
Principles of Seismic Isolation

Isolator Force, F

Fy Fisol Kisol
Qd Kd

Ku

dy disol
Isolator
Ku Ku Displacement, d

Kd

Qd = Characteristic strength
Fy = Yield strength Kisol = Effective stiffness
Fisol = Isolator lateral force disol = Isolator lateral displacement
Kd = Post-elastic stiffness 23
Principles of Seismic Isolation

## POLISHED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE

SEAL
R
STAINLESS STEEL
ARTICULATED SLIDER COMPOSITE LINER MATERIAL
(ROTATIONAL PART)

Friction-Pendulum
Isolator

24
Principles of Seismic Isolation

25
Bridges Not Suitable for Isolation
Bridges on soft sites, because lengthening
the p
period may
y increase,, rather than
decrease, spectral accelerations

Soft soil
spectrum
Rock
spectrum

26
Bridges Not Suitable for Isolation

Bridges
g in high
g seismic zones on soft sites,,
where displacements may be large and
costly expansion joints may be required to
accommodate movements

## Bridges with tall flexible piers, which already

have long periods and little advantage is
gained
i d with
ith iisolation
l ti

27
Seismic Isolation: Key Point

## Bridges that are most suitable for

isolation are
(a) located on stiff and medium-stiff soil
sites,
(b) have relatively stiff substructures
(e.g. short-to-medium height columns)
(c) continuous superstructures, and
(d) seat-type abutments.

28
Topics

Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation
S
Some A li ti
Applications
System Design
Testing Requirements

29
Applications: So. Rangitikei River, NZ

30
Applications: US 101 Sierra Point, CA

31
Applications: I-680 Benecia-
Martinez, CA

32
Applications: JFK Airport Light Rail, NY

33

34
Applications
(Percent of total
Isolator Type number of
isolated bridges
in North
America)

Other: Friction pendulum, High
damping rubber, Natural 5%
Rubber FIP isolator
Rubber,

35
Topics

Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation
S
Some A
Applications
li ti
System Design
Testing Requirements

36
Design of a Bridge Isolation System
Three step process:
1. Determine
ee e required
equ ed pe
performance
o a ce ccriteria
e a
2. Determine properties of the isolation system
((e.g.
g Qd and Kd) to achieve required
q
performance using one or more methods of
analysis V Kd
3. Select isolator type and Qd
design hardware to achieve
required system properties D
(i.e.,Qd and Kd values) using
a rational design procedure
37
Performance Criteria
Usually set by owner
Examples include:
o Not-to-exceed total base shear for Design
Earthquake (DE)
o Elastic columns during DE
o Not
Not-to-exceed
to exceed longitudinal displacement in
superstructure during DE.
o Essentially elastic behavior for the Maximum
Considered Earthquake (MCE)
o Reparable
p damageg in MCE,, but not collapse
p

38
Analysis Methods for Isolated
Bridges
Bridges with nonlinear isolators may be
analyzed using linear methods provided
equivalent properties are used
used, such as
effective stiffness and
equivalent
i l t viscous
i d
damping
i bbasedd on
the hysteretic energy dissipated by the
i l t
isolators.

39
Analysis Methods

Simplified Method
Single Mode Spectral Method
M lti d S
Multimode Spectral
t lMMethod
th d
Time History Method

40
Simplified Method Assumptions
1. Superstructure acts a rigid-diaphragm compared
to flexibility of isolators
2 Single displacement describes motion of
2.
superstructure, i.e. single degree-of-freedom
system
y
3. Nonlinear properties of isolators may be
represented by bilinear loops
4. Bilinear loops can be V
represented by Kisol,
effective
ff i stiffness,
iff and
d Kisol
D
energy dissipated per cycle
= area off loop
l
Note Kisol & loop area are dependent on displacement, D.
41
Simplified Method Assumptions
5. Energy dissipated per cycle may be
represented by viscous damping, i.e., work
done during plastic deformation can be
represented by work done moving viscous
fluid through an orifice.
orifice Equivalent viscous
damping ratio given by
2 Qd dy
h (1 )
Fisol disol

## 6. Acceleration spectrum is inversely

proportional
i l to period
i d (SA = a / T)
42
Simplified Method Assumptions
7. Acceleration spectra for 5% viscous
damping may be scaled for actual
damping (h%) by dividing by a damping
coefficient, BL
0.3
h
BL
0.05

BL is used in long
long-period
period range of spectrum.
spectrum
A second factor (BS) is used in short-period
range Isolated bridges fall in long
range. long-period
period
range.
43
AASHTO Design Response Spectra
SA (A) Spectral Acceleration (g)
AASHTO Spectra (SA) are for 5%
damping on a rock site (Site Class
5 % damping B)
For sites other than rock, the
h % damping
SD1 spectra
p are modified byy Site
SD1 / BL Factors, Fa and Fv

## 1.0s For damping other than 5%, the

Period T
Period,
spectra are modified by a
SD (D) Spectral Damping Factor, BL
Displacement
5 % damping Fv S1 SD1
SA A
10SD1 BLT BLT
g Fv S1T S D1T
10SD1 / BL h % damping SD D 2 9.79
4 BL BL
1.0s Period, T 44
Simplified Method
V
Qd Fisol
This method is also Kd
known as the Kisol
D
Direct-Displacement
Direct Displacement
disol
Method
andd iis applicable
li bl tto SD (D) Spectral
Displacement
5 % damping
a wide range of
10S
10SD1
structural types - not
just isolated bridges. 10S
10SD1 / BL h % damping
p g

1.0s Period, T
45
Simplified Method
Basic steps: V
Qd Fisol
1. Assume value for
Kd
disol
2. Calculate effective Kisol
D
stiffness, Kisol
disol
3. Calculate max. force,
Fisol
4. Calculate effective
period,
i d Teff
W
K isol
Qd
Kd Fisol K isol disol Teffff 2
d isol gKisol
46
Simplified Method Continued
5. Calculate viscous V
Fisol
damping ratio, h Qd
Kd
6. Calculate damping
coefficient, BL Kisol
D
7. Calculate disol
dy disol
8. Compare with value
for disol in Step (1). g Fv S 1
d isol T eff
Repeat if necessary 4 2
BL
until convergence
convergence.
2 Qd dy h 0.3 d 9 . 79 Fv S 1 T ( inches )
h (1 ) BL ( )
Fisol d isol 0.05
isol
B L
eff
ff

47
Example: Simplified Method
The superstructure of a 2-span bridge weighs
533 KK. It is located on a rock site where SD1 =
0.55. The bridge is seismically isolated with
12 isolation bearings at the piers and
abutments.

Isolation
system

48
Example

If the value of Qd = 0
0.075W
075W and
Kd = 13.0 K/in (summed over all the
isolators), calculate the maximum
displacement of the superstructure and the
total base shear.

## Neglect pier flexibility.

49
Example 1
Solution:
1. Initialize
1.1 Qd =0.075 W = 0.075 (533) = 40 K
1 2 Need initial value disol
1.2 i l
Take Teff = 1.5 sec,
5% damping (BL=1.0)
=1 0) and calculate
D = 9.79 SD1 Teff / BL
= 9.79
9 79 (0
(0.55)
55) 1
1.5
5
= 8.08 in
Take initial value for disol = D
50
Example 1 Continued
Solution:
1. Initialize
Qd = 40 K
D = 8.08
8 08 in

2 Iterate
2.
2.1 Set disol = D and proceed with Steps 1-7

51
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol
3. Max. isolator force, Fm
4. Effective period, Teff
5. Viscous damping ratio, h%
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

52
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol
3. Max. isolator force, Fm
4. Effective period, Teff
5. Viscous damping ratio, h%
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

53
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm
4. Effective period, Teff
5. Viscous damping ratio, h%
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

54
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff
5. Viscous damping ratio, h%
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

55
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46
5. Viscous damping ratio, h%
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

56
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL
7. Isolator displacement, disol

57
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL 1 46
1.46
7. Isolator displacement, disol

58
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL 1 46
1.46
7. Isolator displacement, disol 6.43

59
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08 6.43
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL 1 46
1.46
7. Isolator displacement, disol 6.43

60
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0 40.0 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0 13.0 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08 6.43 5.66
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95 20.06
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9 113.6
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46 1.65
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6 22.4
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL 1 46
1.46 1 57
1.57
7. Isolator displacement, disol 6.43 5.66

61
Example 1 Continued
Step Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial n
0. Characteristic strength, Qd 40.0 40.0 40.0
0. Post-elastic stiffness, Kd 13.0 13.0 13.0
1. Isolator Displacement, disol 8.08 6.43 5.66
2. Effective stiffness, Kisol 17.95 20.06
3. Max. isolator force, Fm 144.9 113.6
4. Effective period, Teff 1.46 1.65
5. Viscous damping ratio, h% 17.6 22.4
6 D
6. Dampingi coefficient,
ffi i t BL 1 46
1.46 1 57
1.57
7. Isolator displacement, disol 6.43 5.66

62
Simplified Method
F

Basic method
Kd
Qd Kisol

## stiff piers but Superstructure

Isolator Effective Stiffness, Kisol

F

be modified
Ksub

dsub

dsub disol F

d
Keff

d = disol + dsub

## Combined Effective Stiffness, Keff

MCEER,2006. 63
Multimodal Spectral Method
Elastic Multimodal Method, developed for
conventional bridges, may be used for isolated
bridges even though they are nonlinear systems.

## Modeling the nonlinear properties of the isolators

is usually done with equivalent linearized springs
and the response spectrum is modified for the
in the isolated
isolated modes
modes .
Recall earlier discussion
p
of the composite spectrum
p

64
Multimodal Spectral Method

## Method is iterative and a good strategy is to

use the results from the Simplified Method of
Analysis to obtain starting values for the
iteration.

## In this case convergence in 1 or 2 cycles is

possible
ibl usually
ll

65
Isolator Design
Analysis gives required system properties
((Qd and Kd) to meet desired p
performance
Next step is to design an isolation system to
have these properties
Rubber Bearing)
Curved sliders (Friction Pendulum System)
Flat plate slider with elastomeric spring

66
Elastomeric Isolator Design (LRB)

67
Elastomeric Isolator Design (LRB)
Qd = 0.9 d2 (K)
where
d = diameter of lead core (in)

Kd = G Ar / Tr
where
G = shear modulus of elastomer (e.g.
(e g 0
0.1
1 Ksi)
Ar = bonded area of elastomer
Tr = total thickness of elastomer

W c Tr
Period (post
(post-yield)
yield) = d
T 2 2 G g
( gKd )

68
Curved Sliding Isolators (FPS)

Restoring
g force

Friction

D
(Displacement)
69
Curved Sliding Isolator Design (FPS)
POLISHED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE

Qd = W
where SEAL

= coefficient of friction R
STAINLESS STEEL

## W = weight per isolator ARTICULATED SLIDER COMPOSITE LINER MATERIAL

((ROTATIONAL PART))

Kd = W R
where
R di off curvature
lid

## Period when sliding = Td 2 R g

70
Summary of LRB and FPS Designs

Elastomeric
El t i Curved
C d Slider
Slid
(LRB) (FPS)
Number of isolators 12 12
9.4 in diam. 18 in diam.
External dimensions
x 7.75 in height x 5 in (est.) height
Internal dimensions 11 x in layers radius = 41 in
1.92 in diam. lead coefficient of
Other
core friction = 0.075

71

72
Other Design Issues (All)
Restoring force capability
Clearances ((expansion
p jjoints, utility
y crossings
g )
Vertical load capacity and stability at high shear
strain
Uplift restrainers, tensile capacity
q
Non-seismic requirements ((wind, braking,
g thermal
movements )
System Property Modification Factors (-factors) for
aging, temperature, wear and tear, and
contamination

73
Topics

Background
Principles of Seismic Isolation,
Some Applications
pp
System Design
Testing Requirements

74
Basic Testing Requirements
Because isolators are subject to extreme
deformations and loads during g large
g
earthquakes, most design codes require they
be tested to demonstrate conformance with
design expectations
For both reasons (extreme loads and
extensive testing), design provisions for
isolation bearings may differ from that for
conventional bearings e.g., Section 14,
AASHTO LRFD Design Specifications

75
Basic Testing Requirements
Usually three categories of tests are required:
1. C
Characterization
a acte at o Tests ests too co
confirm bas
basic
c
properties such as effect of velocity, pressure,
and temperature to develop models for analysis
2. Prototype Tests for each project prior to
production to confirm mechanical properties
used in design
3. Production Tests performed on each isolator
( l
(along with
ith material
t i l ttests)
t ) ffor quality
lit
control/quality assurance.

76
During this lecture we have learned:
Basic purpose of seismic isolation
Four components of an isolation system
Bridge types / configurations suitable for
seismic isolation
How to calculate displacement and base
shear in an isolated bridge using the
Simplified Method
About three kinds of isolators in use today
Five questions
1. What is basic purpose of seismic isolation?
2 List the four components of an isolation system
2. system.
3. Describe bridge types and configurations that
are suitable for seismic isolation.
4. Name three common types of isolators on the
market todayy in the U.S.
5. Name three types of tests used to assure the
quality of seismic isolators