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Nithra Edu Solutions

Figures if speech observed in the following Poems: Alliteration Allusions
Simile Metaphor Personification Oxymoron Onomatopoeia Anaphora Ellipsis

Important lines from Poems : Where the mind is without fear The Solitary Reaper
Going for water A Psalm of Life Be the Best Sonnet No.116.

Questions on the Biography of : Mahatma Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru Subash

Chandra Bose Helen Keller - Kalpana Chawala - Dr.Salim Ali Rani of Jhansi
Nelson Mandela Abraham Lincoln.

Questions on Shakespeares : Merchant of Venice (Art IV Court Scene) Julius

Ceasar (Art III Scene 2) Sonnet 116.

Questions from Oscar Wildes : The Model Millionaire The selfish Giant

Dr.Karl Paulnack : Music The Hope Raiser.

Comprehension Questions from the following Motivational Essays : Gopala

Krishna Gokhales Speech on 25th July in Mumbai in response to The address presented
to him by students Dale Carnegies The Road to success Dr. A P J Abdul Kalams
Vision for the Nation (from India 2020) Hope Spencers Keep your spirits high
Deepa Agarwals After the storm Brain Pattens You cant be that no you cant be

Comprehension Questions from the following description of Places : Ahtushi

Deshandes To the land of snow Manohar Devadoss Yaanai Malai Brihadeesvarar

British English American English

Figures of speech

Alliteration is a figure of speech used to create rhythm and bring focus to a line or
sentence in a piece of written material. Learn about the definition of alliteration, see
examples of alliteration and test your knowledge with a quiz.


Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

She sells seashells down by the seashore.

These are both tongue twisters most people have heard before; however, most
people don't know these sayings are examples of a literary term called alliteration, which
occurs when a series of words, usually two or more neighboring words, have the same
first consonant sound. A consonant is a speech sound that is not a vowel (a, e, i, o, u and
sometimes y). The words in the sentence, 'Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers'
mostly start with the consonant sound 'p.' Likewise, in, 'She sells seashells down by the
seashore,' most consonants start with the letters.'

As we've discussed, alliteration is a figure of speech in which a series of words,

usually two or more neighboring words, have the same first consonant sound; however,
sometimes repetition of sounds occur inside a word. Alliteration is used primarily in
poetry but can be used in various facets of literature as well as song lyrics, names,
quotations or any piece of writing.

The purpose of alliteration is to make text stand out and direct the reader's
attention to a particular section. Alliteration is commonly used to add interest to a
sentence and can be a great way to help you remember names and phrases.

The sounds created by alliteration establish a certain mood, emotion and rhythm in
text. For instance, in Dante's Inferno, Dante states: 'I saw it there, but I saw nothing in it,
except the rising of the boiling bubbles.' The repetition of the 'b' sound mimics the sounds
of bubbling. In the book Some Smug Slug, thes sound is used throughout to represent
the sliminess and slyness of the slug.
Sometimes it's easier for a writer to explain an idea by making a reference to a
famous story, person, event, or object. This reference is called an allusion, and in this
lesson, you will learn what an allusion is and read several examples from literature

An allusion is a figure of speech that refers to a well-known story, event, person,

or object in order to make a comparison in the readers' minds. For instance, imagine a
writer needs to explain her main character's struggle against an overwhelmingly powerful
opponent. She wants to get across the idea that her character is righteous and stands a
chance of winning the battle, even though that chance appears to be a remote one. She
might refer to the confrontation as 'a meeting of David and Goliath.' The writer alludes to
a well-known biblical story, the one of David and Goliath, to bring to readers' minds the
idea that the confrontation will look like a one-sided battle but that the underdog stands a
chance of triumph.

Some allusions are as obvious at the previous example, while others are more
obscure. Because the story, event, person, or object being used in the allusion can carry a
wide variety of connotations, allusions sometimes bring a wealth of information and
attitudes with them. For instance, in the David versus Goliath example, not only does this
allusion refer to an event in which one person has a clear advantage, but it also carries the
idea that the person who deserves to win, and who will probably win, is the one with very
little power.

Examples of Allusions

Sometimes allusion is easy to spot. A reference like 'That guy is a regular Adonis!'
draws upon a mythical figure of beauty to make a comparison in an obvious way. But not
all allusions are as easy to recognize. For instance, let's look at this line: 'My father
carries the weight of the world.' This is an allusion to Atlas, a figure who held up the
Earth in Greek mythology. Rather than refer to Atlas by name, this allusion calls up an
image of Atlas by mentioning his most commonly recognized trait - the fact that he holds
up the planet, and it carries connotations of enduring strength and nobility.

In Moby Dick, Herman Melville creates a sense of impending doom when he

names the main ship the Pequod. Readers in Melville's time period would have been
more familiar with the Pequot people, a Native American tribe who were driven to
extinction. The ship's name then creates a feeling of imminent destruction through
Writers sure love figurative language. That's where they take something, maybe the lady
they are trying to woo, and compare it to something else: a summer's day, a rose, a

It's pretty effective, when you think about it. Instead of telling a love interest that
they are good looking, try telling them they are like a diamond. Diamonds aren't just
beautiful; they are precious and rare, unique. Comparing someone to something else is a
shorthand way to say lots of things at once, and it sounds poetic and clever.

In literature, such comparisons, usually using the words 'like' or 'as,' are called
similes. 'Love like a sunset,' 'my love is like a red, red rose, ' 'love like winter' are all
similes that compare love to something more tangible. Often, a simile compares one
aspect of a thing to another: 'as tall as a giraffe,' 'shine like a diamond,' 'safe as houses.'

Take this poem by Robert Burns, written in 1794:

O my Luve's like a red, red rose

That's newly sprung in June;

O my Luve's like the melodie

That's sweetly play'd in tune.

This is good stuff. By comparing the object of his affection to a newly bloomed
rose, we not only get a nice image, but Burns is able to describe his love as beautiful,
youthful and fresh. By adding the simile about his love being like a 'melodie/ That's
sweetly play'd in tune,' he's able to pay even more compliments: that she's pleasing to the
senses, sounds nice and is generally awesome.

Similes vs. Metaphors

Similes are often confused with metaphors, which are another type of figurative
language used by poets, songwriters and rappers alike. But instead of using the language
of comparison the way similes do, metaphors describe things as if they were something

'Love is a battlefield' is one metaphor used in a song, while 'Love is blindness,' is

used in another. See how metaphors equate one thing with another rather than comparing
them? This makes a metaphor more of an all-or-nothing proposition than a simile.
When an author says, 'Bob is like a shadow,' she is saying that Bob has a few
qualities that are shadow-like. Maybe he's quiet or sneaks up on you easily. If an author
was to write, 'Bob is a shadow,' the comparison is much stronger. We would expect Bob
to have a lot more qualities of a shadow. Maybe he's an especially mysterious person. Or
we could even think of him as less than a complete person: 'Bob is a shadow of a man.'

Epic Similes

Epic similes are extended comparisons commonly found in epic poems - super-
long, sprawling poetry that tells a story. Epic similes are sometimes called 'Homeric
similes' after an Ancient Greek writer named Homer who used them when writing the
epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey
Basic English Grammar

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gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

The metaphor is the grand pooh-bah of literary terms. A kind of analogy that uses
figurative language connecting one thing to another to highlight how they're alike.
Metaphors are so commonplace that you probably use dozens of them every day without
ever realizing it. 'Life is a journey,' after all.

Why Metaphors
So let's look at a few. When you 'get up to join the rat race' in the morning, you're
engaging in a kind of metaphor. 'Rat race' conjures up the image of scurrying hither-tither
with no clear end in sight, a metaphor for the hustle and bustle of 9-to-5 working life.
Similarly, when I say that Roger Federer (the tennis player) is a backboard, I don't mean
that he's literally made of wood, but the metaphor implies that he returns his opponents'
balls as surely as a backboard does.

`Metaphors are powerful because they upset our expectations of a boring, literal
connection between ideas, and force our brains to work harder to understand the writer's
intent. Once we grasp that intent, the revelation leads to a more vivid image and/or
emotional response.

The Extended Metaphor

Kin to the metaphor is the extended metaphor, which is pretty much exactly what
it sounds like: a metaphor written large and lengthy to make an even deeper, more
involved comparison between the subject and the thing it's being compared with.
Extended metaphors often pop up in poetry and fiction, as in this passage from poet
Emily Dickinson, who was a great lover of extended metaphors:

My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun -

In Corners - till a Day

The Owner passed - identified -

And carried Me away -

The poem then continues the metaphor, comparing the subject's life to that of a
loaded gun, living unwanted and unused until chosen, then guarding its master, and
waiting for a chance to be useful (that is, to shoot or kill someone). Extended metaphors
are wonderful when done right - and this is a good one - but can quickly become
unintentionally humorous if not written with a light touch.

Metaphors vs. Similes

Then we have the simile. If your comparison uses the terms 'like' or 'as', your
analogy is most likely a simile and not a metaphor, even though they function similarly.
Some argue that a simile is a kind of metaphor, but I'll address that in a moment.

Instance, if I want to use an analogy to explain the process of writing a story, I

might say that 'The outline is like a rough blueprint for the builders to follow, while the
first, second and third drafts are a town built from that blueprint that keeps getting razed
by Huns, with architects improving upon each version until they finally build houses
strong enough to withstand fire; what you're left with is the final draft.'

Personification is a part of figurative language. A writer can either say something
literally, or figuratively. If it's literal, then the words mean exactly what they say. But the
meaning of figurative words is hidden behind description. When a writer uses figurative
language, the description brings a deeper meaning and understanding to the words. One
fun way to remember the definition is to think: 'if' a 'person' goes on 'vacation' (person-if-
ication), then something else may take his or her place.

Personification is a type of figurative language where non-humans are given

human characteristics. In this lesson, we will look at a few examples of how
personification is used in literature.


Here are a few examples of phrases. For instance, to describe rain, one might say,
'The clouds wept.' Clouds obviously cannot cry, but we can imagine them crying when
it's raining. Here is another example. 'The floor complained when Grandpa stepped on it.'
Floors don't literally complain, of course.
Examples of Personification in Poetry

In this section, we will look at three examples of personification in poetry. The

first is the poem, 'Because I could not Stop for Death,' by Emily Dickinson. In this poem,
Death is treated like a person, taking on the characteristics of a carriage driver.

The first stanza reads:

'Because I could not stop for Death,

He kindly stopped for me;

The carriage held but just ourselves

And Immortality.'

In Dickinson's poem, Death stops the carriage, drives slowly, passes a school, and
pauses. These are the actions of humans, but in this poem Death has taken on these

Another Example

The second example is 'The Sick Rose,' by William Blake. Here it is:

'O Rose thou are sick,

The invisible worm,

That flies in the night,

In the howling storm:

Has found out thy bed

Of crimson joy,

And his dark secret love

Does thy life destroy.'

Roses aren't like people who become ill. Also, a rose doesn't have a bed or a secret
love. But the poet uses personification to enhance both the description of the rose and our
understanding of the destruction of something beautiful
Figurative language serves to clarify our descriptions of the world around us. One
common figurative language device that can achieve that goal is the oxymoron. An
oxymoron occurs when two contradictory words are together in one phrase. In fact,
oxymoron translates from the Greek words oxy meaning sharp, and moron, which means
dull. Thus, the word itself is two contradictory words pushed together.


Some common examples are the phrases sweet sorrow, cold fire, and silent
scream. Each pair of words has opposing definitions, but they are being used side by side.
If these phrases are used in writing or even in oral communication, a more specific
meaning can be reached.

Onomatopoeia is one way a poet can create sounds in a poem. An onomatopoeia is
a word that actually looks like the sound it makes, and we can almost hear those sounds
as we read.

Here are some words that are used as examples of onomatopoeia: slam, splash,
bam, babble, warble, gurgle, mumble and belch. But there are hundreds of such words!


We'll take a look at how onomatopoeia is actually used in poems. The first poem is
'The Bells,' by Edgar Allen Poe. Poe begins the poem with a benign look at bells and how
sweetly they can sound, but in Poe fashion, he moves to a darker, more sinister role that
bells play in life.

Here is one stanza from the poem:

'How they clang, and clash, and roar!

What a horror they outpour

On the bosom of the palpitating air!

Yet the ear it fully knows,

By the twanging

And the clanging,

How the danger ebbs and flows;

Yet the ear distinctly tells,

In the jangling

And the wrangling,

How the danger sinks and swells, -

By the sinking or the swelling in the anger of the bells,

Of the bells,

Of the bells, bells, bells, bells,

Anaphora is the repetition of a certain word or phrase at the beginning of
successive lines of writing or speech. It can be used in novels and short stories, but it's
most commonly seen in poetry, essays, and formal speeches.

Martin Luther King Jr.'s speeches and sermons are full of instances of anaphora. In
the following example from his famous 'I Have a Dream' address at the March on
Washington, the underlined words indicate the repeated element:

'Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise
from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now
is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of
brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.'

As a rhetorical device, or a technique that an author uses to persuade, anaphora is

used for the purpose of generating a particular effect in your audience. As you can see in
the example, the phrase 'now is the time to' is repeated for a particular effect. Keep in
mind that anaphora can be the repetition of a whole phrase, as in Martin Luther King Jr.'s
speech, or of just a single word.

The opposite of anaphora, epiphora, in which the repeated word or phrase appears
at the end of successive lines, was used by Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address:
'It is for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that
government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.'

Ellipses are used to show an omission of information or a pause or break. When
quoting something there is often unrelated information that would only distract from your
main point, so we omit part of the text and put an ellipsis in its place. An ellipsis is three
periods ( . . . ) with a space before and after each period. If it is at the end of a sentence,
you still add a period, resulting in four dots ( . . . . ). Notice that there is a space after each
point in the ellipsis, resulting in a space before the period. You may also have noticed
already that ellipses is plural and ellipsis is singular.

Now that we know what ellipses are and how they are used, let's take a look at
Colombia's national anthem (translated into English because this isn't Spanish class) to
see how an ellipsis works when omitting text:

'Independence!' cries the American world;

The land of Columbus.

Is bathed in heroes' blood.

But this great beginning;

'The king is not sovereign,'

resounds, and those who suffer

We hear repetition all around us: commercials repeat sales and slogans to intensify
what they're saying and to burn them into our brains. Song lyrics often repeat lines and
have catchy choruses that we can easily sing along to and remember. Even in primitive
times, religious chants from various cultures often used repetition as well. In poetry,
repetition is repeating words, phrases, lines, or stanzas. Stanzas are groups of lines that
are together. Repetition is used to emphasize a feeling or idea, create rhythm, and/or
develop a sense of urgency.

Examples of Repetition in Poetry

American poet Edgar Allan Poe wrote a poem famous for its repetition. 'The Bells'
uses repetition to imitate the continual ringing of bells:

'To the swinging and the ringing

of the bells, bells, bells-

Of the bells, bells, bells, bells

Bells, bells, bells-

To the rhyming and the chiming of the bells!'

Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Important Lines from poems

Where the mind is without fear

By Rabindranath Tagore
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high

Where knowledge is free

Where the world has not been broken up into fragments

By narrow domestic walls

Where words come out from the depth of truth

Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection

Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way

Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit

Where the mind is led forward by thee

Into ever-widening thought and action

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.

The Solitary Reaper

BY William Wordsworth

Behold her, single in the field,

Yon solitary Highland Lass!

Reaping and singing by herself;

Stop here, or gently pass!

Alone she cuts and binds the grain,

And sings a melancholy strain;

O listen! for the Vale profound

Is overflowing with the sound.

No Nightingale did ever chaunt

More welcome notes to weary bands

Of travelers in some shady haunt,

Among Arabian sands:

A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard

In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird,

Breaking the silence of the seas

Among the farthest Hebrides.

Will no one tell me what she sings?

Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow

For old, unhappy, far-off things,

And battles long ago:

Or is it some more humble lay,

Familiar matter of to-day?

Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain,

That has been, and may be again?

Whatever the theme, the Maiden sang

As if her song could have no ending;

I saw her singing at her work,

And o'er the sickle bending;

I listened, motionless and still;

And, as I mounted up the hill,

The music in my heart I bore,

Long after it was heard no more.

Going for Water

By Robert frost
The well was dry beside the door,

And so we went with pail and can

Across the fields behind the house

To seek the brook if still it ran;

Not loth to have excuse to go,

Because the autumn eve was fair

(Though chill), because the fields were ours,

And by the brook our woods were there.

We ran as if to meet the moon

That slowly dawned behind the trees,

The barren boughs without the leaves,

Without the birds, without the breeze.

But once within the wood, we paused

Like gnomes that hid us from the moon,

Ready to run to hiding new

With laughter when she found us soon.

Each laid on other a staying hand

To listen ere we dared to look,

And in the hush we joined to make

We heard, we knew we heard the brook.

A note as from a single place,

A slender tinkling fall that made

Now drops that floated on the pool

Like pearls, and now a silver blade.

A Psalm of Life

What The Heart Of The Young Man Said To The Psalmist.

Tell me not, in mournful numbers,

Life is but an empty dream!

For the soul is dead that slumbers,

And things are not what they seem.

Life is real! Life is earnest!

And the grave is not its goal;

Dust thou art, to dust returnest,

Was not spoken of the soul.

Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,

Is our destined end or way;

But to act, that each to-morrow

Find us farther than to-day.

Art is long, and Time is fleeting,

And our hearts, though stout and brave,

Still, like muffled drums, are beating

Funeral marches to the grave.

In the worlds broad field of battle,

In the bivouac of Life,

Be not like dumb, driven cattle!

Be a hero in the strife!

Trust no Future, howeer pleasant!

Let the dead Past bury its dead!

Act, act in the living Present!

Heart within, and God oerhead!

Lives of great men all remind us

We can make our lives sublime,

And, departing, leave behind us

Footprints on the sands of time;

Footprints, that perhaps another,

Sailing oer lifes solemn main,

A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,

Seeing, shall take heart again.

Let us, then, be up and doing,

With a heart for any fate;

Still achieving, still pursuing,

Learn to labor and to wait.

Basic English Grammar

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English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Be The Best
By Dugals Malloch

It you cant be a pine on the top of the hill,

Be a scrub in the valley but be

The best little scrub by the side of the rill;

Be a bush, if you cant be a tree.

If you cant be a bush, be a bit of the grass,

And some highway happier make;

If you cant be a muskie, then just be a bass-

But the liveliest bass in the lake!

We cant all be captains, weve got to be crew,

Theres something for all of us here.

Theres big work to do and theres lesser to do

And the task we must do is the near.

If you cant be a highway, then just be a trail,

If you cant be the sun, be a star;

It isnt by size that you win or you fail-

Be the best of whatever you are!

By William Shakespeare

Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Admit impediments. Love is not love

Which alters when it alteration finds,

Or bends with the remover to remove:

O no; it is an ever-fixed mark,

That looks on tempests, and is never shaken;

It is the star to every wandering bark,

Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.

Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks

Within his bending sickle's compass come;

Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,

But bears it out even to the edge of doom.

If this be error and upon me proved,

I never writ, nor no man ever loved.

Biography of

Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the preeminent leader of the Indian
independence movement in British-ruled India.

Born: October 2, 1869, Porbandar

Died: January 30, 1948, New Delhi

Spouse: Kasturba Gandhi (m. 18831944)

Children: Harilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi, Devdas Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi

Education: Alfred High School (1877), University College London,Samaldas Arts


Awards: Time's Person of the Year

Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of Indias independence movement and
also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the


Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India, Mahatma Gandhi studied law and
advocated for the civil rights of Indians, both at home under British rule and in South
Africa. Gandhi became a leader of Indias independence movement, organizing boycotts
against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a
fanatic in 1948.

Early Life

Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, more commonly known

as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India, which
was then part of the British Empire. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, served as a chief
minister in Porbandar and other states in western India. His mother, Putlibai, was a
deeply religious woman who fasted regularly. Gandhi grew up worshiping the Hindu god
Vishnu and following Jainism, a morally rigorous ancient Indian religion that espoused
non-violence, fasting, meditation and vegetarianism.

Young Gandhi was a shy, unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept
with the lights on even as a teenager. At the age of 13, he wed Kasturba Makanji, a
merchants daughter, in an arranged marriage. In the ensuing years, the teenager rebelled
by smoking, eating meat and stealing change from household servants.
In 1885, Gandhi endured the passing of his father and shortly after that the death
of his young baby. Although Gandhi was interested in becoming a doctor, his father had
hoped he would also become a government minister, so his family steered him to enter
the legal profession. Shortly after the birth of the first of four surviving sons, 18-year-old
Gandhi sailed for London, England, in 1888 to study law. The young Indian struggled
with the transition to Western culture, and during his three-year stay in London, he
became more committed to a meatless diet, joining the executive committee of the
London Vegetarian Society, and started to read a variety of sacred texts to learn more
about world religions.

Upon returning to India in 1891, Gandhi learned that his mother had died just
weeks earlier. Then, he struggled to gain his footing as a lawyer. In his first courtroom
case, a nervous Gandhi blanked when the time came to cross-examine a witness. He
immediately fled the courtroom after reimbursing his client for his legal fees. After
struggling to find work in India, Gandhi obtained a one-year contract to perform legal
services in South Africa. Shortly after the birth of another son, he sailed for Durban in the
South African state of Natal in April 1893.

Spiritual and Political Leader

When Gandhi arrived in South Africa, he was quickly appalled by the
discrimination and racial segregation faced by Indian immigrants at the hands of white
British and Boer authorities. Upon his first appearance in a Durban courtroom, Gandhi
was asked to remove his turban. He refused and left the court instead. The Natal
Advertiser mocked him in print as an unwelcome visitor.

A seminal moment in Gandhis life occurred days later on June 7, 1893, during a
train trip to Pretoria when a white man objected to his presence in the first-class railway
compartment, although he had a ticket. Refusing to move to the back of the train, Gandhi
was forcibly removed and thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg. His act of
civil disobedience awoke in him a determination to devote himself to fighting the deep
disease of color prejudice. He vowed that night to try, if possible, to root out the
disease and suffer hardships in the process. From that night forward, the small,
unassuming man would grow into a giant force for civil rights.

Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight discrimination. At the
end of his year-long contract, he prepared to return to India until he learned at his
farewell party of a bill before the Natal Legislative Assembly that would deprive Indians
of the right to vote. Fellow immigrants convinced Gandhi to stay and lead the fight
against the legislation. Although Gandhi could not prevent the laws passage, he drew
international attention to the injustice.

After a brief trip to India in late 1896 and early 1897, Gandhi returned to South
Africa with his wife and two children. Kasturba would give birth to two more sons in
South Africa, one in 1897 and one in 1900. Gandhi ran a thriving legal practice, and at
the outbreak of the Boer War, he raised an all-Indian ambulance corps of 1,100
volunteers to support the British cause, arguing that if Indians expected to have full rights
of citizenship in the British Empire, they also needed to shoulder their responsibilities as

Gandhi continued to study world religions during his years in South Africa. The
religious spirit within me became a living force, he wrote of his time there. He
immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity,
austerity and celibacy that was free of material goods.

In 1906, Gandhi organized his first mass civil-disobedience campaign, which he

called Satyagraha (truth and firmness), in reaction to the Transvaal governments
new restrictions on the rights of Indians, including the refusal to recognize Hindu
marriages. After years of protests, the government imprisoned hundreds of Indians in
1913, including Gandhi. Under pressure, the South African government accepted a
compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts that included
recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of a poll tax for Indians. When Gandhi
sailed from South Africa in 1914 to return home, Smuts wrote, The saint has left our
shores, I sincerely hope forever.

Fight for Indian Liberation

After spending several months in London at the outbreak of World War I, Gandhi
returned in 1915 to India, which was still under the firm control of the British, and
founded an ashram in Ahmedabad open to all castes. Wearing a simple loincloth and
shawl, Gandhi lived an austere life devoted to prayer, fasting and meditation. He became
known as Mahatma, which means great soul.

In 1919, however, Gandhi had a political reawakening when the newly enacted
Rowlatt Act authorized British authorities to imprison those suspected of sedition without
trial. In response, Gandhi called for a Satyagraha campaign of peaceful protests and
strikes. Violence broke out instead, which culminated on April 13, 1919, in the Massacre
of Amritsar when troops led by British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer fired machine
guns into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators and killed nearly 400 people. No longer able
to pledge allegiance to the British government, Gandhi returned the medals he earned for
his military service in South Africa and opposed Britains mandatory military draft of
Indians to serve in World War I.

Gandhi became a leading figure in the Indian home-rule movement. Calling for
mass boycotts, he urged government officials to stop working for the Crown, students to
stop attending government schools, soldiers to leave their posts and citizens to stop
paying taxes and purchasing British goods. Rather than buy British-manufactured clothes,
he began to use a portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth, and the spinning
wheel soon became a symbol of Indian independence and self-reliance. Gandhi assumed
the leadership of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violence
and non-cooperation to achieve home rule.

After British authorities arrested Gandhi in 1922, he pleaded guilty to three counts
of sedition. Although sentenced to a six-year imprisonment, Gandhi was released in
February 1924 after appendicitis surgery. He discovered upon his release that relations
between Indias Hindus and Muslims had devolved during his time in jail, and when
violence between the two religious groups flared again, Gandhi began a three-week fast
in the autumn of 1924 to urge unity.

The Salt March

After remaining away from active politics during much of the latter 1920s, Gandhi
returned in 1930 to protest Britains Salt Acts, which not only prohibited Indians from
collecting or selling salta staple of the Indian dietbut imposed a heavy tax that hit the
countrys poorest particularly hard. Gandhi planned a new Satyagraha campaign that
entailed a 390-kilometer/240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where he would collect salt
in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly.

My ambition is no less than to convert the British people through non-violence

and thus make them see the wrong they have done to India, he wrote days before the
march to the British viceroy, Lord Irwin. Wearing a homespun white shawl and sandals
and carrying a walking stick, Gandhi set out from his religious retreat in Sabarmati on
March 12, 1930, with a few dozen followers. The ranks of the marchers swelled by the
time he arrived 24 days later in the coastal town of Dandi, where he broke the law by
making salt from evaporated seawater.

The Salt March sparked similar protests, and mass civil disobedience swept across
India. Approximately 60,000 Indians were jailed for breaking the Salt Acts, including
Gandhi, who was imprisoned in May 1930. Still, the protests against the Salt Acts
elevated Gandhi into a transcendent figure around the world, and he was named Time
magazines Man of the Year for 1930.

The Road to Independence

Gandhi was released from prison in January 1931, and two months later he made
an agreement with Lord Irwin to end the Salt Satyagraha in exchange for concessions that
included the release of thousands of political prisoners. The agreement, however, largely
kept the Salt Acts intact, but it did give those who lived on the coasts the right to harvest
salt from the sea. Hoping that the agreement would be a stepping-stone to home rule,
Gandhi attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform in
August 1931 as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. The conference,
however, proved fruitless.

Gandhi returned to India to find himself imprisoned once again in January 1932
during a crackdown by Indias new viceroy, Lord Willingdon. Later that year, an
incarcerated Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast to protest the British decision to
segregate the untouchables, those on the lowest rung of Indias caste system, by
allotting them separate electorates. The public outcry forced the British to amend the

After his eventual release, Gandhi left the Indian National Congress in 1934, and
leadership passed to his protg Jawaharlal Nehru. He again stepped away from politics
to focus on education, poverty and the problems afflicting Indias rural areas.

As Great Britain found itself engulfed in World War II in 1942, though, Gandhi
launched the Quit India movement that called for the immediate British withdrawal
from the country. In August 1942, the British arrested Gandhi, his wife and other leaders
of the Indian National Congress and detained them in the Aga Khan Palace in present-day
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I have not become the Kings First Minister in order to preside at the liquidation
of the British Empire, Prime Minister Winston Churchill told Parliament in support of
the crackdown. With his health failing, Gandhi was released after a 19-month detainment,
but not before his 74-year-old wife died in his arms in February 1944.

After the Labour Party defeated Churchills Conservatives in the British general
election of 1945, it began negotiations for Indian independence with the Indian National
Congress and Mohammad Ali Jinnahs Muslim League. Gandhi played an active role in
the negotiations, but he could not prevail in his hope for a unified India. Instead, the final
plan called for the partition of the subcontinent along religious lines into two independent
statespredominantly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

Violence between Hindus and Muslims flared even before independence took
effect on August 15, 1947. Afterwards, the killings multiplied. Gandhi toured riot-torn
areas in an appeal for peace and fasted in an attempt to end the bloodshed. Some Hindus,
however, increasingly viewed Gandhi as a traitor for expressing sympathy toward

In the late afternoon of January 30, 1948, the 78-year-old Gandhi, still weakened
from repeated hunger strikes, clung to his two grandnieces as they led him from his living
quarters in New Delhis Birla House to a prayer meeting. Hindu extremist Nathuram
Godse, upset at Gandhis tolerance of Muslims, knelt before the Mahatma before pulling
out a semiautomatic pistol and shooting him three times at point-blank range. The violent
act took the life of a pacifist who spent his life preaching non-violence. Godse and a co-
conspirator were executed by hanging in November 1949, while additional conspirators
were sentenced to life in prison.

Death and Legacy

Even after his death, Gandhis commitment to non-violence and his belief in
simple livingmaking his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet and using fasts for self-
purification as well as a means of protesthave been a beacon of hope for oppressed and
marginalized people throughout the world. Satyagraha remains one of the most potent
philosophies in freedom struggles throughout the world today, and Gandhis actions
inspired future human rights movements around the globe, including those of civil rights
leader Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States and Nelson Mandela in South Africa.

Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian
politics before and after independence.

Born: November 14, 1889, Allahabad

Died: May 27, 1964, New Delhi

Spouse: Kamala Nehru (m. 19161936)

Children: Indira Gandhi

Awards: Bharat Ratna

Education: Trinity College, Cambridge (19071910), Harrow School, City Law School

Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhis father, was a leader of Indias nationalist

movement and became Indias first prime minister after its independence.

Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad, India. In 1919,
he joined the Indian National Congress and joined Indian Nationalist leader Mahatma
Gandhis independence movement. In 1947, Pakistan was created as a new, independent
country for Muslims. The British withdrew and Nehru became independent Indias first
prime minister. He died on May 27, 1964, in New Delhi, India.

Pre-Political Life

Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allahabad, India in 1889. His father was a
renowned lawyer and one of Mahatma Gandhi's notable lieutenants. A series of English
governesses and tutors educated Nehru at home until he was 16. He continued his
education in England, first at the Harrow School and then at Trinity College, Cambridge,
where he earned an honors degree in natural science. He later studied law at the Inner
Temple in London before returning home to India in 1912 and practicing law for several
years. Four years later, Nehru married Kamala Kaul; their only child, Indira
Priyadarshini, was born in 1917. Like her father, Indira would later serve as prime
minister of India under her married name: Indira Gandhi. A family of high achievers, one
of Nehru's sisters, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, later became the first woman president of the
UN General Assembly.

Entering Politics

In 1919, while traveling on a train, Nehru overheard British Brigadier-General

Reginald Dyer gloating over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The massacre, also known
as the Massacre of Amritsar, was an incident in which 379 people were killed and at least
1,200 wounded when the British military stationed there continuously fired for ten
minutes on a crowd of unarmed Indians. Upon hearing Dyers words, Nehru vowed to
fight the British. The incident changed the course of his life.

This period in Indian history was marked by a wave of nationalist activity and
governmental repression. Nehru joined the Indian National Congress, one of India's two
major political parties. Nehru was deeply influenced by the party's leader, Mahatma
Gandhi. It was Gandhi's insistence on action to bring about change and greater autonomy
from the British that sparked Nehru's interest the most.

The British didn't give in easily to Indian demands for freedom, and in late 1921,
the Congress Party's central leaders and workers were banned from operating in some
provinces. Nehru went to prison for the first time as the ban took effect; over the next 24
years he was to serve a total of nine sentences, adding up to more than nine years in jail.
Always leaning to the left politically, Nehru studied Marxism while imprisoned. Though
he found himself interested in the philosophy but repelled by some of its methods, from
then on the backdrop of Nehru's economic thinking was Marxist, adjusted as necessary to
Indian conditions.
Marching Toward Indian Independence

In 1928, after years of struggle on behalf of Indian emancipation, Jawaharlal

Nehru was named president of the Indian National Congress. (In fact, hoping that Nehru
would attract India's youth to the party, Mahatma Gandhi had engineered Nehru's rise.)
The next year, Nehru led the historic session at Lahore that proclaimed complete
independence as India's political goal. November 1930 saw the start of the Round Table
Conferences, which convened in London and hosted British and Indian officials working
toward a plan of eventual independence.

After his father's death in 1931, Nehru became more embedded in the workings of
the Congress Party and became closer to Gandhi, attending the signing of the Gandhi-
Irwin pact. Signed in March 1931 by Gandhi and the British viceroy Lord Irwin, the pact
declared a truce between the British and India's independence movement. The British
agreed to free all political prisoners and Gandhi agreed to end the civil disobedience
movement he had been coordinating for years.

Unfortunately, the pact did not instantly usher in a peaceful climate in British-
controlled India, and both Nehru and Gandhi were jailed in early 1932 on charges of
attempting to mount another civil disobedience movement. Neither man attended the
third Round Table Conference. (Gandhi was jailed soon after his return as the sole Indian
representative attending the second Round Table Conference.) The third and final
conference did, however, result in the Government of India Act of 1935, giving the
Indian provinces a system of autonomous government in which elections would be held
to name provincial leaders. By the time the 1935 act was signed into law, Indians began
to see Nehru as natural heir to Gandhi, who didnt designate Nehru as his political
successor until the early 1940s. Gandhi said in January 1941, "[Jawaharlal Nehru and I]
had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years
and say so now that ... Jawaharlal will be my successor."

World War II

At the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, British viceroy Lord

Linlithgow committed India to the war effort without consulting the now-autonomous
provincial ministries. In response, the Congress Party withdrew its representatives from
the provinces and Gandhi staged a limited civil disobedience movement in which he and
Nehru were jailed yet again.
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Nehru spent a little over a year in jail and was released with other Congress prisoners
three days before Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese. When

Japanese troops soon moved near the borders of India in the spring of 1942, the
British government decided to enlist India to combat this new threat, but Gandhi, who
still essentially had the reins of the movement, would accept nothing less than
independence and called on the British to leave India. Nehru reluctantly joined Gandhi in
his hardline stance and the pair were again arrested and jailed, this time for nearly three

By 1947, within two years of Nehru's release, simmering animosity had reached a
fever pitch between the Congress Party and the Muslim League, who had always wanted
more power in a free India. The last British viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, was charged
with finalizing the British roadmap for withdrawal with a plan for a unified India. Despite
his reservations, Nehru acquiesced to Mountbatten and the Muslim League's plan to
divide India, and in August 1947, Pakistan was createdthe new country Muslim and
India predominantly Hindu. The British withdrew and Nehru became independent Indias
first prime minister.

The First Prime Minister of Independent India

Domestic Policy
The importance of Jawaharlal Nehru in the context of Indian history can be
distilled to the following points: he imparted modern values and thought, stressed
secularism, insisted upon the basic unity of India, and, in the face of ethnic and religious
diversity, carried India into the modern age of scientific innovation and technological
progress. He also prompted social concern for the marginalized and poor and respect for
democratic values.

Nehru was especially proud to reform the antiquated Hindu civil code. Finally
Hindu widows could enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property.
Nehru also changed Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination. Nehru's
administration established many Indian institutions of higher learning, including the All
India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology, and the National
Institutes of Technology, and guaranteed in his five-year plans free and compulsory
primary education to all of India's children.
National Security and International Policy

The Kashmir regionwhich was claimed by both India and Pakistanwas a

perennial problem throughout Nehru's leadership, and his cautious efforts to settle the
dispute ultimately failed, resulting in Pakistan making an unsuccessful attempt to seize
Kashmir by force in 1948. The region has remained in dispute into the 21st century.

Internationally, starting in the late 1940s, both the United States and the U.S.S.R.
began seeking out India as an ally in the Cold War, but Nehru led efforts toward a
"nonalignment policy," by which India and other nations wouldnt feel the need to tie
themselves to either dueling country to thrive. To this end, Nehru co-founded the Non-
Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality.

Recognizing the People's Republic of China soon after its founding, and as a
strong supporter of the United Nations, Nehru argued for Chinas inclusion in the UN and
sought to establish warm and friendly relations with the neighboring country. His pacifist
and inclusive policies with respect to China came undone when border disputes led to the
Sino-Indian war in 1962, which ended when China declared a ceasefire on November 20,
1962 and announced its withdrawal from the disputed area in the Himalayas.

Nehru's four pillars of domestic policies were democracy, socialism, unity, and
secularism, and he largely succeeded in maintaining a strong foundation of all four during
his tenure as president. While serving his country, he enjoyed iconic status and was
widely admired internationally for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday,
November 14, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas ("Children's Day") in recognition of
his lifelong passion and work on behalf of children and young people.

Nehru's only child, Indira, served as India's prime minister from 1966 to 1977 and
from 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi, was prime
minister from 1984 to 1989, when he was also assassinated.

Subhas Chandra Bose


Subhas Chandra Bose, widely known throughout India as Netaji, was an Indian
nationalist and prominent figure of the Indian independence movement, whose attempt
during World War II to rid India of British
Born: January 23, 1897, Cuttack

Died: August 18, 1945, Taipei, Taiwan

Spouse: Emilie Schenkl (m. 19371945)

Children: Anita Bose Pfaff

Education: Scottish Church College (1918),

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was a freedom fighter of India. He was the founder
of the Indian National Army. During pre-independence period Netaji had visited London
to discuss the future of India, with the members of the Labor party. His sudden
disappearance from Taiwan, led to surfacing of various theories, concerning the
possibilities of his survival.


Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to
Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Subhash was the ninth child among eight brothers
and six sisters. His father, Janakinath Bose, was an affluent and successful lawyer in
Cuttack and received the title of "Rai Bahadur". He, later became a member of the Bengal
Legislative Council.

Subhash Chandra Bose was a very intelligent and sincere student but never had
much interest in sports. He passed his B.A. in Philosophy from the Presidency College in
Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known
for his patriotic zeal as a student. He also adored Vivekananda as his spiritual Guru.

British Professor Thrashed

After reading so many incidents about the exploitation of the fellow Indians by the
British, Subhash decided to take revenge. In 1916, Subhash reportedly beat and thrashed
one of his British teachers E F Otten. The professor made a racist remark against the
Indian students. As a result, Bose was expelled from the Presidency College and banished
from Calcutta University. The incident brought Subhash in the list of rebel-Indians. In
December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of the
celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales's visit to India.

Indian Civil Service

His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and therefore, sent him to
England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination. Bose was placed fourth with
highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was
intense that in April 1921, Bose resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came
back to India. Soon, he left home to become an active member of India's independence
movement. He, later joined the Indian National Congress, and also elected as the
president of the party.

Subhash with Congress

Initially, Subhash Chandra Bose worked under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das,
an active member of Congress in Calcutta. It was Chittaranjan Das, who along with
Motilal Nehru, left Congress and founded the Swaraj Party in 1922. Subhash would
regard Chittaranjan Das as his political guru.

While Chittaranjan Das was busy in developing the national strategy, Subhash
Chandra Bose played a major role in enlightening the students, youths and labors of
Calcutta. He was eagerly waiting to see India, as an independent, federal and republic

Dispute in the Congress

People began to recognize Bose by his name and associated him with the freedom
movement. Bose had emerged as a popular youth leader. He was admired for his great
skills in organization development.

In 1928, during the Guwahati Session of the Congress, a difference in the opinion
between the old and new members surfaced. The young leaders, as against the traditional
leadership, wanted a "complete self-rule and without any compromise". The senior
leaders were in favor of the "dominion status for India within the British rule".
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The differences were between moderate Gandhi and aggressive Subhash Chandra
Bose was swelling. The state was so intense that Subhash Chandra Bose had to defeat
Pattabhi Sitaramayya, a presidential candidate, nominated by Gandhiji himself. Bose had
won the election but without any second thought he resigned from the party. He, then
formed the Forward Bloc in 1939.

Formation of INA

During the Second World War in September, 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose
decided to initiate a mass movement. He started uniting people from all over the country.
There was a tremendous response to his call and the British promptly imprisoned him. In
jail, he refused to accept food for around two weeks. When his health condition
deteriorated, fearing violent reactions across the country, the authority put him under

During his house-arrest, in January, 1941, Subhash made a planned escape. He

first went to Gomoh in Bihar and from there he went on to Peshawar (now, Pakistan). He
finally reached Germany and met Hitler. Bose had been living together with his wife
Emilie Schenkl in Berlin. In 1943, Bose left for south-east Asia and raised the army. The
group was later named by Bose, as the Indian National Army (INA).

Visit to England
During his sojourn to England, he met with the leaders of British Labor Party and
political thinkers including Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, G.D.H.
Cole, and Sir Stafford Cripps. Bose also discuss with them about the future of India. It
must also be noted that it was during the regime of the Labor Party (1945-1951), with
Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence.

Although it was believed that Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose died in a plane crash,
his body was never recovered. There have so many theories been put forward regarding
his abrupt desertion. The government of India set up a number of committees to
investigate the case and come out with truth.

In May 1956, the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to look into the situation
of Bose's assumed death. Citing their lack of political relations with Taiwan, the Centre,
did not seek for the assistance from their government. The reports of Justice Mukherjee
Commission, tabled in Parliament on 17 May, 2006 said, "Bose did not die in the plane
crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his". However, the findings were rejected
by the government of India.

Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the
first deafblind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree.

Born: June 27, 1880, Tuscumbia, Alabama, United States

Died: June 1, 1968, Easton, Connecticut, United States

Awards: Presidential Medal of Freedom

Movies: The Miracle Worker, Helen Keller in Her Story

Education: Radcliffe College (19001904),

American educator Helen Keller overcame the adversity of being blind and deaf to
become one of the 20th century's leading humanitarians, as well as co-founder of the

Helen Adams Keller was born on June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia, Alabama. In 1882,
she fell ill and was struck blind, deaf and mute. Beginning in 1887, Keller's teacher, Anne
Sullivan, helped her make tremendous progress with her ability to communicate, and
Keller went on to college, graduating in 1904. In 1920, Keller helped found the ACLU.
During her lifetime, she received many honors in recognition of her accomplishments.

Early Life
Helen Keller was the first of two daughters born to Arthur H. Keller and Katherine
Adams Keller. She also had two older stepbrothers. Keller's father had proudly served as
an officer in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. The family was not particularly
wealthy and earned income from their cotton plantation. Later, Arthur became the editor
of a weekly local newspaper, the North Alabamian. Keller was born with her senses of
sight and hearing, and started speaking when she was just 6 months old. She started
walking at the age of 1.

Loss of Sight and Hearing

In 1882, however, Keller contracted an illnesscalled "brain fever" by the family

doctorthat produced a high body temperature. The true nature of the illness remains a
mystery today, though some experts believe it might have been scarlet fever or
meningitis. Within a few days after the fever broke, Keller's mother noticed that her
daughter didn't show any reaction when the dinner bell was rung, or when a hand was
waved in front of her face. Keller had lost both her sight and hearing. She was just 19
months old.

As Keller grew into childhood, she developed a limited method of communication

with her companion, Martha Washington, the young daughter of the family cook. The
two had created a type of sign language, and by the time Keller was 7, they had invented
more than 60 signs to communicate with each other. But Keller had become very wild
and unruly during this time. She would kick and scream when angry, and giggle
uncontrollably when happy. She tormented Martha and inflicted raging tantrums on her
parents. Many family relatives felt she should be institutionalized.

Educator Anne Sullivan

Looking for answers and inspiration, in 1886, Keller's mother came across a
travelogue by Charles Dickens, American Notes. She read of the successful education of
another deaf and blind child, Laura Bridgman, and soon dispatched Keller and her father
to Baltimore, Maryland to see specialist Dr. J. Julian Chisolm. After examining Keller,
Chisolm recommended that she see Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the
telephone, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell met with Keller and her
parents, and suggested that they travel to the Perkins Institute for the Blind in Boston,
Massachusetts. There, the family met with the school's director, Michael Anaganos. He
suggested Helen work with one of the institute's most recent graduates, Anne Sullivan.
And so began a 49-year relationship between teacher and pupil.

On March 3, 1887, Sullivan went to Keller's home in Alabama and immediately

went to work. She began by teaching six year-old Helen finger spelling, starting with the
word "doll," to help Keller understand the gift of a doll she had brought along. Other
words would follow. At first, Keller was curious, then defiant, refusing to cooperate with
Sullivan's instruction. When Keller did cooperate, Sullivan could tell that she wasn't
making the connection between the objects and the letters spelled out in her hand.
Sullivan kept working at it, forcing Helen to go through the regimen.

As Keller's frustration grew, the tantrums increased. Finally, Sullivan demanded

that she and Keller be isolated from the rest of the family for a time, so that Keller could
concentrate only on Sullivan's instruction. They moved to a cottage on the plantation.

In a dramatic struggle, Sullivan taught Keller the word "water"; she helped her
make the connection between the object and the letters by taking Keller out to the water
pump, and placing Keller's hand under the spout. While Sullivan moved the lever to flush
cool water over Keller's hand, she spelled out the word w-a-t-e-r on Helen's other hand.
Keller understood and repeated the word in Sullivan's hand. She then pounded the
ground, demanding to know its "letter name." Sullivan followed her, spelling out the
word into her hand. Keller moved to other objects with Sullivan in tow. By nightfall, she
had learned 30 words.

A Formal Education

In 1890, Keller began speech classes at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf in
Boston. She would toil for 25 years to learn to speak so that others could understand her.
From 1894 to 1896, she attended the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York
City. There, she worked on improving her communication skills and studied regular
academic subjects.
Around this time, Keller became determined to attend college. In 1896, she
attended the Cambridge School for Young Ladies, a preparatory school for women. As
her story became known to the general public, Keller began to meet famous and
influential people. One of them was the writer Mark Twain, who was very impressed
with her. They became friends. Twain introduced her to his friend Henry H. Rogers, a
Standard Oil executive. Rogers was so impressed with Keller's talent, drive and
determination that he agreed to pay for her to attend Radcliffe College. There, she was
accompanied by Sullivan, who sat by her side to interpret lectures and texts.

By this time, Keller had mastered several methods of communication, including

touch-lip reading, Braille, speech, typing and finger-spelling. With the help of Sullivan
and Sullivan's future husband, John Macy, Keller wrote her first book, The Story of My
Life. It covered her transformation from childhood to 21-year-old college student. Keller
graduated, cum laude, from Radcliffe in 1904, at the age of 24.

In 1905, Sullivan married John Macy, an instructor at Harvard University, a social

critic and a prominent socialist. After the marriage, Sullivan continued to be Keller's
guide and mentor. When Keller went to live with the Macys, they both initially gave
Keller their undivided attention. Gradually, however, Anne and John became distant to
each other, as Anne's devotion to Keller continued unabated. After several years, they
separated, though were never divorced.

Social Activism
After college, Keller set out to learn more about the world and how she could help
improve the lives of others. News of her story spread beyond Massachusetts and New
England. She became a well-known celebrity and lecturer by sharing her experiences
with audiences, and working on behalf of others living with disabilities. Throughout the
first half of the 20th century, Keller tackled social and political issues, including women's
suffrage, pacifism and birth control. She testified before Congress, strongly advocating to
improve the welfare of blind people. In 1915, along with renowned city planner George
Kessler, she co-founded Helen Keller International to combat the causes and
consequences of blindness and malnutrition. In 1920, she helped found the American
Civil Liberties Union. When the American Federation for the Blind was established in
1921, Keller had an effective national outlet for her efforts. She became a member in
1924, and participated in many campaigns to raise awareness, money and support for the
Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
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English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

She also joined other organizations dedicated to helping those less fortunate, including
the Permanent Blind War Relief Fund (later called the American Braille Press).

Soon after she graduated from college, Keller became a member of the Socialist
Party, most likely due in part to her friendship with John Macy. Between 1909 and 1921,
she wrote several articles about socialism and supported Eugene Debs, a Socialist Party
presidential candidate. Her series of essays on socialism, entitled "Out of the Dark,"
described her views on socialism and world affairs.

It was during this time that Keller first experienced public prejudice about her
disabilities. For most of her life, the press had been overwhelmingly supportive of her,
praising her courage and intelligence. But after she expressed her socialist views, some
criticized her by calling attention to her disabilities. One newspaper, the Brooklyn Eagle,
wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development."

Work and Influence

In 1936, Keller's beloved teacher and devoted companion, Anne Sullivan, died.
She had experienced health problems for several years and, in 1932, lost her eyesight
completely. A young woman named Polly Thompson, who had begun working as a
secretary for Keller and Sullivan in 1914, became Keller's constant companion upon
Sullivan's death.

In 1946, Keller was appointed counselor of international relations for the

American Foundation of Overseas Blind. Between 1946 and 1957, she traveled to 35
countries on five continents. In 1955, at age 75, Keller embarked on the longest and most
grueling trip of her life: a 40,000-mile, five-month trek across Asia. Through her many
speeches and appearances, she brought inspiration and encouragement to millions of

Keller's autobiography, The Story of My Life, was used as the basis for 1957
television drama The Miracle Worker. In 1959, the story was developed into a Broadway
play of the same title, starring Patty Duke as Keller and Anne Bancroft as Sullivan. The
two actresses also performed those roles in the 1962 award-winning film version of the
Death and Legacy

Keller suffered a series of strokes in 1961, and spent the remaining years of her
life at her home in Connecticut. During her lifetime, she received many honors in
recognition of her accomplishments, including the Theodore Roosevelt Distinguished
Service Medal in 1936, the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964, and election to the
Women's Hall of Fame in 1965. She also received honorary doctoral degrees from
Temple University and Harvard University and from the universities of Glasgow,
Scotland; Berlin, Germany; Delhi, India; and Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South
Africa. Additionally, she was named an Honorary Fellow of the Educational Institute of

Keller died in her sleep on June 1, 1968, just a few weeks before her 88th
birthday. During her remarkable life, Keller stood as a powerful example of how
determination, hard work, and imagination can allow an individual to triumph over
adversity. By overcoming difficult conditions with a great deal of persistence, she grew
into a respected and world-renowned activist who labored for the betterment of others.

Kalpana Chawla

Kalpana Chawla was the first Indian-American astronaut and first Indian woman
in space. She first flew on Space Shuttle Columbia in 1997 as a mission specialist and
primary robotic arm operator.

Born: March 17, 1962, Karnal

Died: February 1, 2003, Texas, United States

Spouse: Jean-Pierre Harrison (m. 19832003)

Awards: Congressional Space Medal of Honor, NASA Space Flight Medal, NASA
Distinguished Service Medal

Education: University of Colorado Boulder (1988), more

Kalpana Chawla was India's first women aeronautical engineer to travel into
space. She has been a role model to several women in terms of achievement and
contributions to the field of aeronautics. Growing up in a male dominant society, Kalpana
never let her dreams of flying be affected in any way. In fact she was the first woman to
study aeronautical engineering in her batch. Some of her memorials are: the Kalpana
Chawla Award given by the Karnataka Government, a dormitory named after her in the
University of Texas at Arlington from where she did her Masters and a planetarium in
Haryana. This sheds light on her meritorious and outstanding achievements.

Even though her death was sudden and unfortunate, she left a mark in the nation
and will be remembered forever. Read the following sections to know more about this
dynamic personality, her career and life.

Early Life

Kalpana Chawla was born on the 1st of July, 1961 in a small town in Karnal
located in the state of Haryana. Her parents, Banarasi Lal Chawla and Sanjyothi had two
other daughters named Sunita and Deepa and a son named Sanjay.

Kalpana was the youngest in her family and hence, she was the most pampered
too. She got educated at the Tagore Public School and later enrolled into Punjab
Engineering College to complete her Aeronautical Engineering Degree in 1982. In the
same year, she moved to the US. She got married to Jean-Pierre Harrison in 1983. He
was her flying instructor and an aviation author. In 1984, she completed her M.S. in
Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in Arlington. In 1988, she obtained
a Ph.D. in the same subject from the University of Colorado at Boulder.


Kalpana Chawla was a certified flight instructor who rated aircrafts and gilders.
She also held a commercial pilot license for single and multi-engine airplanes,
hydroplanes and gliders. Kalpana was a licensed Technician class Amateur Radio person
certified by the Federal Communication commission. Owing to her multiple degrees in
Aerospace, she got a job in NASA as the Vice President of the Overset Methods, Inc. in
1993. She was extensively involved in computational fluid dynamics research on
Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing. It was not until 1995 that she became a part of the
NASA 'Astronaut Corps'. Three years later, she was selected for her first mission i.e. to
travel around the Earth in a space shuttle. This operation consisted of six other members.

Kalpana was responsible for organizing the Spartan Satellite but she was
unsuccessful in her role due to its malfunction. It was found that due to technical errors,
the satellite defied control of ground staff and flight crew members. Following this, she
was vindicated. On the other hand, Kalpana Chawla created history for being the first
Indian woman to travel in a space shuttle. She had the privilege of journeying as far as
10.4million km. This approximately adds up to 252 times around the Earth's orbit that
comprised of 372 hours in space. After the Spartan Satellite incident, she was given a
technical position. Her excellent work was recognized and awarded. In 2000, she was
again assigned on her second flight mission as a part of Flight STS-107. Kalpana's
responsibility included microgravity experiments. Along with her team members, she
undertook a detailed research on advanced technology development, astronaut health &
safety, the study of Earth and space science. During the course of this mission, there were
several mishaps and cracks were detected in the shuttle engine flow liners. This delayed
the project until 2003.


It was on February 1st 2003 that the space shuttle, STS-107, collapsed over the
Texas region when it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. This unfortunate event ended the
lives of seven crew members including Kalpana.

Achievements and Accolades

Despite living in America, Kalpana Chawla was considered the pride of India. She
was the first Indian woman to travel in a space shuttle for 372 hours and complete 252
rotations around the Earth's atmosphere. Her achievements have been an inspiration to
many others in India and abroad. There are many science institutions named after her.
During her lifetime, Kalpana Chawla was awarded with three awards namely the
Congressional Space Medal of Honor, NASA Space Flight Medal and the NASA
Distinguished Service Medal.

1961: She was born on 1st July in Karnal.

1982: She moved to the United States to complete her education.

1983: Married a flying instructor and aviation author, Jean-Pierre Harrison.

1984: got an M.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in Arlington.

1988: She received a Ph.D. in the same field and began to work for NASA.

1993: Joined Overset Methods Inc. as Vice President and Research Scientist.

1995: She joined the NASA 'Astronaut Corps.

1996: Kalpana was the mission specialist for prime robotic arm operator on STS-87.

1997: Her first mission on Flight STS-87 took place.

2000: Assigned on her second mission as part of Flight STS-107.

2003: Chawla got a second chance for the mission on Flight STS-107. On February 1st,
she died when the space shuttle broke down.

Salim Ali
Slim Moizuddin Abdul Ali was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist. Sometimes
referred to as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conduct
systematic bird surveys across

Born: November 12, 1896, Mumbai

Died: June 20, 1987, Mumbai

Awards: Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan

Education: St. Xavier's College-Autonomous, Mumbai, Queen Mary School, Mumbai

Career: Ornithologist,Naturalist

Nationality: Indian

Almost every one of us is interested in watching colorful and distinct birds

crossing us. But very few are passionate about studying them in detail. One such man
who took extreme interest and excitement in studying birds closely and categorizing them
was Dr. Salim Ali.
Basic English Grammar

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gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

One of the greatest biologists of all times, Salim Ali meticulously observed and
documented the birds of the sub-continent for around 80 years, thereby making immense
contribution to the field of ornithology. It was his phenomenal and path-breaking work in
the related field that he was bestowed with the nickname of "birdman of India". Besides,
he was fondly known as the "grand old man of Indian ornithology" as well. Such was his
extraordinary work in the distribution and ecology of over 1000 bird species inhabiting
South Asia that he created history and made significant contributions in conserving the
fauna, which in an integral part of a mosaic of landscapes.

Early Life
Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, or Salim Ali as he is better known as, was born as the
ninth and youngest child in a Sulaimani Bohra Muslim family. He was born in Mumbai
to Moizuddin and Zeenat-un-nissa. Losing his father at the age of one and mother at
three, Salim Ali and other kids were brought up by his maternal uncle, Amiruddin Tyabji,
and childless aunt, Hamida Begum. He was also surrounded by another maternal uncle,
Abbas Tyabji, a prominent Indian freedom fighter. He attended primary school at Zanana
Bible Medical Mission Girls High School at Girgaum and was later admitted to St.
Xavier's College at Mumbai.

However, due to his frequent chronic headaches, he was forced to drop out of
school every now and then since he was 13 years old. He was sent to Sind to stay with his
uncle with hopes of the dry air making an improvement in his health. Thus, on returning,
he just managed to clear his matriculation examination from Bombay University in 1913.
Since childhood, Salim Ali gained an interest in observing birds closely and had a hobby
of shooting birds with his toy air gun. With the help of W.S. Millard, secretary of
Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), the bird was identified as Yellow-throated
Sparrow, which further increased his seriousness towards ornithology.

Life in Burma and Germany

After spending a difficult first year in Xavier's College, Mumbai, Salim Ali
dropped out of college and went to Tavoy, Burma to care of his family's Wolfram mining
and timber business. The forests surrounding the area helped him further develop his
naturalist and hunting skills. He developed good relations with J.C. Hopwood and
Berthold Ribbentrop who worked with the Forest Service. On returning to India in 1917,
he decided to complete his studies. Hence, he studied commercial law and accountancy
from Davar's College of Commerce. He used to attend morning classes at Davar's
College and go to St. Xavier's College to attend zoology classes to complete his course in
zoology. Apart from his interest in birds, Salim Ali was also fascinated by motorcycles
and hence, owned his first motorcycle, 3.5 HP NSU while he was in Tavoy.

He later went on to possess Sunbeam, Harley-Davidson (three models), Douglas,

Scott, New Hudson, and Zenith, amongst other models. He went further to get his
Sunbeam shipped to Europe on being invited to the 1950 Ornithological Congress at
Uppsala, Sweden. While touring France, he even injured himself in a minor accident and
cobbled several times in Germany. He was rumored to have ridden on his bike all the
way from India, when he finally reached Uppsala. Coming back to his interest in
ornithology, he was rejected a position at the Zoological Survey of India due to lack of a
formal university degree. With this, he began studying further when he was hired as a
guide lecturer in the newly opened natural history section at Prince of Wales Museum in
Mumbai in 1926 with a salary of Rs. 350 per month.

Being fed up with the monotony of the job, he decided to go on a break and went
to Germany in 1928 on a study leave. He worked under Professor Erwin Stresemann at
Zoological Museum of Berlin University. He was also required to examine the specimens
collected by J.K. Stanford, a BNHS member. Stanford was supposed to communicate
with Claud Ticehurst at the British Museum who did not like the idea of involving an
Indian in his work. Hence, he kept distance with Stresemann. Salim Ali then moved to
Berlin and associated with popular German ornithologists, such as Bernhard Rensch,
Oskar Heinroth, and Ernst Mayr. Apart from his usual ornithology experience, he also
gained knowledge in ringing at the Heligoland observatory.

Contribution to Ornithology
After studying ornithology in Germany, Salim Ali returned to India in 1930 and
started looking for a job. However, to his surprise, the position of a guide lecturer had
been dropped off from universities due to lack of duns. Left with no option, Salim Ali,
along with wife Tehmina, moved to Kihim, a coastal village near Mumbai. This place
gave him another opportunity to observe and study birds very closely, including their
mating system. He then spent a few months in Kotagiri on being invited by K.M.
Anantan, a retied army officer who served in Mesopotamia during World War I. He also
met Mrs. Kinloch and her son-in-law R.C. Morris, who lived in the Biligirirangan Hills.
Gradually, on traveling places, Salim Ali got an opportunity to conduct systematic
bird surveys in the princely states of Hyderabad, Cochin, Travancore, Gwalior, Indore,
and Bhopal. He was financially supported by Hugh Whistler who had previously
conducted surveys in various parts of India. Although Whistler initially resented Salim
Ali for finding faults and inaccuracies in the early literature, he later re-examined his
specimens and accepted his mistakes. With this, began a close friendly relationship
between Ali and Whistler. He introduced Ali to Richard Meinertzhagen and the two went
on an expedition to Afghanistan. Initially, Meinertzhagen was also critical of Ali's views
but later, the two became close friends.

Salim Ali was more attracted towards studying birds in the field rather than getting
into the details of bird systematics and taxonomy. However, he did show some interest in
bird photography with the help of his friend Loke Wan Tho, a wealthy businessman from
Singapore. Ali and Loke were introduced by JTM Gibson, a member at BNHS and
Lieutenant Commander of Royal Indian Navy, who had also taught English to Loke in
Switzerland. Hence, Loke provided financial support to both Ali and BNHS. Ali talked
about the history and importance of bird study in India in Sunder Lal Hora memorial
lecture in 1971 and again in Azad memorial lecture in 1978.

Literary Career

Salim Ali was not only passionate about studying birds in general; he also showed
equal interest in capturing his views on them in words. With the help of his wife
Tehmina, a learned scholar from England, Ali improved his English prose. Thus, began
Ali's writing career, particularly journal articles for Journal of the Bombay Natural
History Society. One of his most popular articles was "Stopping by the woods on a
Sunday morning" in 1930 which was reprinted again in Indian Express on this birthday in
1984. He penned several books as well, the most prominent of them being "The Book of
Indian Birds" in 1941, which was inspired by Whistler's "Popular Handbook of Birds". It
was later translated into several languages and saw more than 12 editions. However, his
masterpiece was the 10 volume "Handbook of the Birds of India & Pakistan", written
along with Dillon Ripley and was often known as "The Handbook".

The first edition began in 1964 and was completed in 1974. The second edition
came from contributions by J.S. Serrao of BNHS, Bruce Beehler, Michel Desfayes, and
Pamela Rasmussen. This was completed after Ali's death.
Besides the national and international bird books, Ali also authored several
regional field guides, like "The Birds of Kerala" (first edition was titled "The Birds of
Travancore and cochin" in 1953), "The Birds of Sikkim", "The Birds of Kutch" (later
renamed as "The Birds of Gujarat"), "Indian Hill Birds", "Field Guide to the Birds of
Eastern Himalayas". He penned his autobiography "The Fall of a Sparrow" in 1985 where
he included his vision for BNHS and the importance of conservation related activities.
One of his last students, Tara Gandhi, published a two-volume compilation of his shorter
letters and writings in 2007.

Personal Life

On his return from Burma, Salim Ali was married off to his distant relative, Tehmina, in
December 1918 in Bombay. She accompanied him to all his expeditions and surveys. But
his life came to a halt when she suddenly died following a minor surgery in 1939. Ali
then started living with his sister Kamoo and brother-in-law.


After battling with prostate cancer for a very long duration, Salim Ali died on July
27, 1987 in Mumbai at the age of 90.

Honors & Memorials

Salim Ali was honored and credited with several honorary doctorates and awards
during his lifetime, though this journey began late. Starting with "Joy Gobinda Law Gold
Medal" in 1953 by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, he went on to receive numerous
accolades. It was based on the appreciation he received from Sunder Lal Hora. Thus, in
1970, he was conferred upon with the Sunder Lal Hora Memorial Medal of the Indian
National Science Academy. He was bestowed with honorary doctorate degrees from
Aligarh Muslim University in 1958, Delhi University in 1973, and Andhra University in
1978. On receiving the Gold Medal from the British Ornithologists' Union in 1967, Salim
Ali became the first non-British citizen to be bequeathed with such an honor. He received
the John C. Philips Memorial Medal of the International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources in the same year.
In 1973, he received the Pavlovsky Centenary Memorial Medal from the USSR
Academy of Medical Science and was made the Commander of the Netherlands Order of
the Golden Ark by Prince Bernhard of Netherlands. He was honored with Padma
Bhushan Award in 1958 and Padma Vibhushan Award in 1976. The Government of India
established the Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON) in
Coimbatore in 1990. Further, Salim Ali School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
has been established by Pondicherry University. The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary in Goa
and Thattakad Bird Sanctuary near Vembanad, Kerala have been set up in his honor. The
place where BNHS was located in Bombay was renamed as "Dr Salim Ali Chowk".

1896: Born on November 12 in Mumbai

1913: Completed matriculation from Bombay University

1914: Admitted to St. Xavier's College and went to Burma

1917: Returned to India

1918: Married distant cousin, Tehmina in December

1926: Employed as guide lecturer in Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay

1928: Left the job and went to Germany

1930: Came back to India

1939: Wife Tehmina died

1941: Wrote first book "The Book of Indian Birds"

1953: Awarded with Joy Gobinda Law Gold Medal by Asiatic Society of Bengal

1958: Received doctorate degree from Aligarh Muslim University

1958: Honored with Padma Bhushan Award

1970: Bestowed with Sunder Lal Hora Memorial Medal from INSA

1973: Received honorary doctorate from Delhi University

1976: Conferred upon with Padma Vibhushan Award

1978: Received honorary doctorate from Andhra University

Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

1985: Penned autobiography "The Fall of a Sparrow"

1987: Died on July 27 in Mumbai from prostate cancer, aged 90

1990: Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History established at Coimbatore

Rani Lakshmi Bai was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi, which is located
on the northern side of India. She was one of the most leading personalities of the first
war of India's independence that started in 1857. In this article, we will present you with
the biography of Rani Lakshmibai, who was an epitome of bravery and courage.

Rani of Jhansi
Rani Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (portrayed as asowar)
Predecessor Rani Kopal Bai
Successor British Raj
Born Manikarnika Tambe 19 November
1828 Varanasi, India
Died 18 June 1858 (aged 29) Kotah ki
Serai, near Gwalior, India
Spouse Jhansi Naresh Maharaj Gangadhar
Rao Newalkar
Issue Damodar Rao, Anand Rao (adopted)

House Maratha Empire

Father Moropant Tambe

Early Life

She was born to a Maharashtrian family at Kashi (now Varanasi) in the year 1828.
During her childhood, she was called by the name Manikarnika. Affectionately, her
family members called her Manu. At a tender age of four, she lost her mother. As a
result, the responsibility of raising her fell upon her father. While pursuing studies, she
also took formal training in martial arts, which included horse riding, shooting and
fencing. To know the complete life history of Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, read on. In the
year 1842, she got married to the Maharaja of Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Rao Niwalkar. On
getting married, she was given the name Lakshmi Bai. Her wedding ceremony was held
at the Ganesh temple, located in the old city of Jhansi. In the year 1851, she gave birth to
a son. Unfortunately, the child did not survive more than four months. In the year 1853,
Gangadhar Rao fell sick and became very weak. So, the couple decided to adopt a child.
To ensure that the British do not raise an issue over the adoption, Lakshmibai got this
adoption witnessed by the local British representatives. On 21st November 1853,
Maharaja Gangadhar Rao died.


During that period, Lord Dalhousie was the Governor General of British India. The
adopted child was named Damodar Rao. As per the Hindu tradition, he was their legal
heir. However, the British rulers refused to accept him as the legal heir. As per the
Doctrine of Lapse, Lord Dalhousie decided to seize the state of Jhansi. Rani Lakshmibai
went to a British lawyer and consulted him. Thereafter, she filed an appeal for the hearing
of her case in London. But, her plea was rejected. The British authorities confiscated the
state jewels. Also, an order was passed asking the Rani to leave Jhansi fort and move to
the Rani Mahal in Jhansi. Laxmibai was firm about protecting the state of Jhansi.

The war

Jhansi became the focal point of uprising. Rani of Jhansi began to strengthen her position.
By seeking the support of others, she formed a volunteer army. The army not just
consisted of the men folk, but the women were also actively involved. Women were also
given military training to fight a battle. In the revolt, Rani Lakshmibai was accompanied
by her generals. From the period between Sep-Oct 1857, Rani defended Jhansi from
being invaded by the armies of the neighboring rajas of Orchha and Datia. In January
1858, the British army headed it's away towards Jhansi. The conflict went on for two
weeks. Finally, the Britishers succeeded in the annexation of the city. However, Rani
Laksmi Bai managed to escape along with her son, in the guise of a man. She took refuge
in Kalpi, where she met Tatya Tope, a great warrior. She died on 17thJune, during the
battle for Gwalior. It is believed that, when she was lying unconscious in the battle field,
a Brahmin found her and brought her to an ashram, where she died. For her immense
effort, she is referred to as the 'Icon of the Indian Nationalist Movement'. Throughout the
uprising, the aim of Rani was to secure the throne for her adopted son Damodar. Her
story became a beacon for the upcoming generations of freedom fighters. Lot of literature
has been written on the life history of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. Heroic poems have
been composed in her honr
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician,
and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

Born: July 18, 1918, Mvezo, South Africa

Died: December 5, 2013, Houghton Estate, Johannesburg, South Africa

Spouse: Graa Machel (m. 19982013), more

Influenced by: Mahatma Gandhi, Walter Sisulu, Albert Lutuli

Awards: Nobel Peace Prize, Arthur Ashe Courage Award, more

Movies: Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom


Rolihlahla Mandela was born into the Madiba clan in the village of Mvezo ,
Transkei, on 18 July 1918. His mother was Nonqaphi Nosekeni and his father was Nkosi
Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela, principal counsellor to the Acting King of the Thembu
people, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. In 1930, when he was 12 years old, his father died and
the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni
.Hearing the elders stories of his ancestors valour during the wars of resistance, he
dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people.The
narrated life and times of Nelson Mandela

He attended primary school in Qunu where his teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave him
the name Nelson, in accordance with the custom of giving all schoolchildren Christian
names.He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on
to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated.

Mandela began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College
of Fort Hare but did not complete the degree there as he was expelled for joining in a
student protest.

On his return to the Great Place at Mqhekezweni the King was furious and said if
he didnt return to Fort Hare he would arrange wives for him and his cousin Justice. They
ran away to Johannesburg instead, arriving there in 1941. There he worked as a mine
security officer and after meeting Walter Sisulu, an estate agent, he was introduced to
Lazer Sidelsky. He then did his articles through a firm of attorneys Witkin, Eidelman
and Sidelsky. He completed his BA through the University of South Africa and went
back to Fort Hare for his graduation in 1943.

Meanwhile, he began studying for an LLB at the University of the Witwatersrand.

By his own admission he was a poor student and left the university in 1952 without
graduating. He only started studying again through the University of London after his
imprisonment in 1962 but also did not complete that degree.

In 1989, while in the last months of his imprisonment, he obtained an LLB

through the University of South Africa. He graduated in absentia at a ceremony in Cape

Entering politics
Mandela, while increasingly politically involved from 1942, only joined the
African National Congress in 1944 when he helped to form the ANC Youth League

In 1944 he married Walter Sisulus cousin, Evelyn Mase, a nurse. They had two
sons, Madiba Thembekile "Thembi" and Makgatho, and two daughters both called
Makaziwe, the first of whom died in infancy. He and his wife divorced in 1958.

Mandela rose through the ranks of the ANCYL and through its efforts, the ANC
adopted a more radical mass-based policy, the Programme of Action, in 1949.

In 1952 he was chosen as the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance

Campaign with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy. This campaign of civil disobedience
against six unjust laws was a joint programme between the ANC and the South African
Indian Congress. He and 19 others were charged under the Suppression of Communism
Act for their part in the campaign and sentenced to nine months of hard labour,
suspended for two years.

A two-year diploma in law on top of his BA allowed Mandela to practise law, and
in August 1952 he and Oliver Tambo established South Africas first black law firm,
Mandela & Tambo.
At the end of 1952 he was banned for the first time. As a restricted person he was
only permitted to watch in secret as the Freedom Charter was adopted in Kliptown on 26
June 1955.

The Treason Trial

Mandela was arrested in a countrywide police swoop on 5 December 1955, which
led to the 1956 Treason Trial. Men and women of all races found themselves in the dock
in the marathon trial that only ended when the last 28 accused, including Mandela, were
acquitted on 29 March 1961.

On 21 March 1960 police killed 69 unarmed people in a protest in Sharpeville

against the pass laws. This led to the countrys first state of emergency and the banning
of the ANC and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) on 8 April. Mandela and his
colleagues in the Treason Trial were among thousands detained during the state of
emergency. During the trial Mandela married a social worker, Winnie Madikizela, on 14
June 1958. They had two daughters, Zenani and Zindziswa. The couple divorced in 1996.

Days before the end of the Treason Trial, Mandela travelled to Pietermaritzburg to
speak at the All-in Africa Conference, which resolved that he should write to Prime
Minister Verwoerd requesting a national convention on a non-racial constitution, and to
warn that should he not agree there would be a national strike against South Africa
becoming a republic. After he and his colleagues were acquitted in the Treason Trial,
Mandela went underground and began planning a national strike for 29, 30 and 31 March.

In the face of massive mobilisation of state security the strike was called off early.
In June 1961 he was asked to lead the armed struggle and helped to establish Umkhonto
weSizwe (Spear of the Nation), which launched on 16 December 1961 with a series of

On 11 January 1962, using the adopted name David Motsamayi, Mandela secretly
left South Africa. He travelled around Africa and visited England to gain support for the
armed struggle. He received military training in Morocco and Ethiopia and returned to
South Africa in July 1962. He was arrested in a police roadblock outside Howick on 5
August while returning from KwaZulu-Natal, where he had briefed ANC President Chief
Albert Luthuli about his trip.
Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

He was charged with leaving the country without a permit and inciting workers to
strike. He was convicted and sentenced to five years' imprisonment, which he began
serving at the Pretoria Local Prison. On 27 May 1963 he was transferred to Robben
Island and returned to Pretoria on 12 June. Within a month police raided Liliesleaf, a
secret hide-out in Rivonia used by ANC and Communist Party activists, and several of
his comrades were arrested.

On 9 October 1963 Mandela joined 10 others on trial for sabotage in what became
known as the Rivonia Trial. While facing the death penalty his words to the court at the
end of his famous "Speech from the Dock" on 20 April 1964 became immortalised:

On 11 June 1964 Mandela and seven other accused, Walter Sisulu, Ahmed
Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Denis Goldberg, Elias Motsoaledi and
Andrew Mlangeni, were convicted and the next day were sentenced to life imprisonment.
Goldberg was sent to Pretoria Prison because he was white, while the others went to
Robben Island.

Mandelas mother died in 1968 and his eldest son, Thembi, in 1969. He was not
allowed to attend their funerals.

On 31 March 1982 Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town

with Sisulu, Mhlaba and Mlangeni. Kathrada joined them in October. When he returned
to the prison in November 1985 after prostate surgery, Mandela was held alone. Justice
Minister Kobie Coetsee visited him in hospital. Later Mandela initiated talks about an
ultimate meeting be Release from prison

On 12 August 1988 he was taken to hospital where he was diagnosed with

tuberculosis. After more than three months in two hospitals he was transferred on 7
December 1988 to a house at Victor Verster Prison near Paarl where he spent his last 14
months of imprisonment. He was released from its gates on Sunday 11 February 1990,
nine days after the unbanning of the ANC and the PAC and nearly four months after the
release of his remaining Rivonia comrades. Throughout his imprisonment he had rejected
at least three conditional offers of release.

Mandela immersed himself in official talks to end white minority rule and in 1991
was elected ANC President to replace his ailing friend, Oliver Tambo. In 1993 he and
President FW de Klerk jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize and on 27 April 1994 he voted
for the first time in his life.

On 10 May 1994 he was inaugurated as South Africas first democratically elected

President. On his 80th birthday in 1998 he married Graa Machel, his third wife.

True to his promise, Mandela stepped down in 1999 after one term as President.
He continued to work with the Nelson Mandela Childrens Fund he set up in 1995 and
established the Nelson Mandela Foundation and The Mandela Rhodes Foundation.

In April 2007 his grandson, Mandla Mandela, was installed as head of the Mvezo
Traditional Council at a ceremony at the Mvezo Great Place.

Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and

learning. Despite terrible provocation, he never answered racism with racism. His life is
an inspiration to all who are oppressed and deprived; and to all who are opposed to
oppression and deprivation.

He died at his home in Johannesburg on 5 December 2013.

Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March
1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Wikipedia

Born: February 12, 1809, Hodgenville, Kentucky, United States

Died: April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C., United States

Spouse: Mary Todd Lincoln (m. 18421865)

Children: William Wallace Lincoln, Robert Todd Lincoln, Edward Baker Lincoln, Tad

Movies: The Perfect Tribute, more

Previous offices: President of the United States (18611865), more

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States. He preserved the
Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves.

Abraham Lincoln is regarded as one of America's greatest heroes due to both his
incredible impact on the nation and his unique appeal. His is a remarkable story of the
rise from humble beginnings to achieve the highest office in the land; then, a sudden and
tragic death at a time when his country needed him most to complete the great task
remaining before the nation. Lincoln's distinctively human and humane personality and
historical role as savior of the Union and emancipator of the slaves creates a legacy that
endures. His eloquence of democracy and his insistence that the Union was worth saving
embody the ideals of self-government that all nations strive to achieve.


Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Hardin County, Kentucky to Thomas
Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. Thomas was a strong and determined pioneer who
found a moderate level of prosperity and was well respected in the community. The
couple had two other children: Abraham's older sister Sarah and younger brother
Thomas, who died in infancy. Due to a land dispute, the Lincolns were forced to move
from Kentucky to Perry County, Indiana in 1817, where the family "squatted" on public
land to scrap out a living in a crude shelter, hunting game and farming a small plot.
Thomas was eventually able to buy the land.

When young Abraham was 9 years old, his mother died of tremetol (milk
sickness) at age 34. The event was devastating on him and young Abraham grew more
alienated from his father and quietly resented the hard work placed on him at an early
age. A few months after Nancy's death, Thomas married Sarah Bush Johnston, a
Kentucky widow with three children of her own. She was a strong and affectionate
woman with whom Abraham quickly bonded. Though both his parents were most likely
illiterate, Sarah encouraged Abraham to read. It was while growing into manhood that he
received his formal educationan estimated total of 18 monthsa few days or weeks at
a time. Reading material was in short supply in the Indiana wilderness. Neighbors
recalled how Abraham would walk for miles to borrow a book. He undoubtedly read the
family Bible and probably other popular books at that time such as Robinson Crusoe,
Pilgrims Progress and Aesops Fables.
Law Career

In March, 1830, the family again migrated, this time to Macon County, Illinois.
When his father moved the family again to Coles County, 22-year-old Abraham Lincoln
struck out on this own, making a living in manual labor. At six feet four inches tall,
Lincoln was rawboned and lanky, but muscular and physically strong. He spoke with a
backwoods twang and walked with a long-striding gait. He was known for his skill in
wielding an ax and early on made a living splitting wood for fire and rail fencing. Young
Lincoln eventually migrated to the small community of New Salem, Illinois, where over
a period of years he worked as a shopkeeper, postmaster, and eventually general store
owner. It was here that Lincoln, working with the public, acquired social skills and honed
story-telling talent that made him popular with the locals. When the Black Hawk War
broke out in 1832 between the United States and Native Americans, the volunteers in the
area elected Lincoln to be their captain. He saw no combat during this time, save for "a
good many bloody struggles with the mosquitoes," but was able to make several
important political connections.

After the Black Hawk War, Abraham Lincoln began his political career and was
elected to the Illinois state legislature, in 1834, as a member of the Whig Party. He
supported the Whig politics of government-sponsored infrastructure and protective
tariffs. This political understanding led him to formulate his early views on slavery, not
so much as a moral wrong, but as an impediment to economic development. It was
around this time that he decided to become a lawyer, teaching himself the law by reading
William Blackstone'sCommentaries on the Laws of England. After being admitted to the
bar in 1837, he moved to Springfield, Illinois, and began to practice in the John T. Stuart
law firm.

It was soon after this that he purportedly met and became romantically involved
with Anne Rutledge. Before they had a chance to be engaged, a wave of typhoid fever
came over New Salem and Anne died at age 22. Her death was said to have left Lincoln
severely depressed. However, several historians disagree on the extent of Lincolns
relationship with Rutledge and his level of sorrow at her death may be more the makings
of legend.

In 1844, Abraham Lincoln partnered with William Herndon in the practice of law.
Though the two had different jurisprudent styles, they developed a close professional and
personal relationship. Lincoln made a good living in his early years as a lawyer, but
found that Springfield alone didn't offer enough work, so to supplement his income, he
followed the court as it made its rounds on the circuit to the various county seats in

Entering Politics
Abraham Lincoln served a single term in the U.S. House of Representatives from
1847 to 1849. His foray into national politics seemed to be as unremarkable as it was
brief. He was the lone Whig from the state of Illinois, showing party loyalty, but finding
few political allies. He used his term in office to speak out against the Mexican-American
War and supported Zachary Taylor for president in 1848. His criticism of the war made
him unpopular back home and he decided not to run for second term, but instead returned
Springfield to practice law.

By the 1850s, the railroad industry was moving west and Illinois found itself
becoming a major hub for various companies. Abraham Lincoln served as a lobbyist for
the Illinois Central Railroad as its company attorney. Success in several court cases
brought other business clients as wellbanks, insurance companies and manufacturing
firms. Lincoln also did some criminal trials. In one case, a witness claimed that he could
identify Lincoln's client who was accused of murder, because of the intense light from a
full moon. Lincoln referred to an almanac and proved that the night in question had been
too dark for the witness to see anything clearly. His client was acquitted.

About a year after the death of Anne Rutledge, Lincoln courted Mary Owens. The
two saw each other for a few months and marriage was considered. But in time, Lincoln
called off the match. In 1840, Lincoln became engaged to Mary Todd, a high spirited,
well-educated woman from a distinguished Kentucky family. In the beginning, many of
the couple's friends and family couldn't understand Marys attraction, and at times
Lincoln questioned it himself. However, in 1841, the engagement was suddenly broken
off, most likely at Lincoln's initiative. They met later at a social function and eventually
married on November 4, 1842. The couple had four children, of which only one, Robert,
survived to adulthood.
Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
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English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Elected President

In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri
Compromise, and allowed individual states and territories to decide for themselves
whether to allow slavery. The law provoked violent opposition in Kansas and Illinois,
and it gave rise to the Republican Party. This awakened Abraham Lincoln's political zeal
once again, and his views on slavery moved more toward moral indignation. Lincoln
joined the Republican Party in 1856.

In 1857, the Supreme Court issued its controversial decision Scott v. Sanford,
declaring African Americans were not citizens and had no inherent rights. Though
Abraham Lincoln felt African Americans were not equal to whites, he believed the
America's founders intended that all men were created with certain inalienable rights.
Lincoln decided to challenge sitting U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas for his seat. In his
nomination acceptance speech, he criticized Douglas, the Supreme Court, and President
Buchanan for promoting slavery and declared "a house divided cannot stand."

The 1858 Senate campaign featured seven debates held in different cities across
Illinois. The two candidates didn't disappoint the public, giving stirring debates on issues
ranging from states' rights to western expansion, but the central issue was slavery.
Newspapers intensely covered the debates, often times with partisan commentary. In the
end, the state legislature elected Douglas, but the exposure vaulted Lincoln into national

In 1860, political operatives in Illinois organized a campaign to support Abraham

Lincoln for the presidency. On May 18, at the Republican National Convention in
Chicago, Lincoln surpassed better known candidates such as William Seward of New
York and Salmon P. Chase of Ohio. Lincoln's nomination was due in part to his moderate
views on slavery, his support for improving the national infrastructure, and the protective
tariff. In the general election, Lincoln faced his friend and rival, Stephan Douglas, this
time besting him in a four-way race that included John C. Breckinridge of the Northern
Democrats and John Bell of the Constitution Party. Lincoln received not quite 40 percent
of the popular vote, but carried 180 of 303 Electoral votes.

Abraham Lincoln selected a strong cabinet composed of many of his political

rivals, including William Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Edward Bates and Edwin Stanton.
Formed out the adage "Hold your friends close and your enemies closer," Lincoln's
Cabinet became one of his strongest assets in his first term in office and he would need
them. Before his inauguration in March, 1861, seven Southern states had seceded from
the Union and by April the U.S. military installation Fort Sumter was under siege in
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. In the early morning hours of April 12, 1861, the
guns stationed to protect the harbor blazed toward the fort signaling the start of
Americas costliest and most deadly war.

Civil War

Abraham Lincoln responded to the crisis wielding powers as no other president

before him. He distributed $2 million from the Treasury for war material without an
appropriation from Congress; he called for 75,000 volunteers into military service
without a declaration of war; and he suspended the writ of habeas corpus, arresting and
imprisoning suspected Confederate sympathizers without a warrant. Crushing the
rebellion would be difficult under any circumstances, but the Civil War, with its
preceding decades of white-hot partisan politics, was especially onerous. From all
directions, Lincoln faced disparagement and defiance. He was often at odds with his
generals, his Cabinet, his party and a majority of the American people.

The Union Army's first year and a half of battlefield defeats made it especially
difficult to keep morale up and support strong for a reunification the nation. With the
hopeful, but by no means conclusive Union victory at Antietam on September 22, 1862,
Lincoln felt confident enough to reshape the cause of the war from saving the union to
abolishing slavery. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, which
stated that all individuals who were held as slaves in rebellious states "henceforward shall
be free." The action was more symbolic than effective because the North didnt control
any states in rebellion and the proclamation didnt apply to Border States.

Gradually, the war effort improved for the North, though more by attrition than by
brilliant military victories. But by 1864, the Confederate armies had eluded major defeat
and Lincoln was convinced he'd be a one-term president. His nemesis, George B.
McClellan, the former commander of the Army of the Potomac, challenged him for the
presidency, but the contest wasn't even close. Lincoln received 55 percent of the popular
vote and 212 of 243 Electoral votes. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee,
commander of the Army of Virginia, surrendered his forces to Union General Ulysses S.
Grant and the war for all intents and purposes was over.

Reconstruction began during the war as early as 1863 in areas firmly under Union
military control. Abraham Lincoln favored a policy of quick reunification with a
minimum of retribution. But he was confronted by a radical group of Republicans in the
Senate and House that wanted complete allegiance and repentance from former
Confederates. Before a political battle had a chance to firmly develop, Lincoln was
assassinated on April 14, 1865, by well-known actor and Confederate sympathizer John
Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Lincoln was taken from the theater
to a Petersen House across the street and laid in a coma for nine hours before dying the
next morning. His body lay in state at the Capitol before a funeral train took him back to
his final resting place in Springfield, Illinois.

Questions on Shakespeares

Merchant of Venice
Summary: Act IV, scene i,

After Shylock leaves, the duke invites Portia, still in the disguise of a young
lawyer, to dinner. Portia declines, saying that she must leave immediately for Padua. As
she leaves, the duke tells Antonio to reward the young law clerk, since it was he who
saved Antonios life. Bassanio thanks Portia, though he does not see through her disguise,
and offers her the money he brought with him in order to pay off Shylock. Portia declines
the gift and says that having delivered Antonio from Shylocks clutches is payment
enough. Bassanio insists that she take some token from him, and she eventually agrees.
Portia asks Antonio for his gloves and Bassanio for his ring, which she herself gave
Bassanio on the condition that he never part with it. Bassanio pulls his hand away, calling
the ring a trifle and claiming that he will not dishonor the judge by giving him such a
lowly gift. Instead, Bassanio offers to find the most valuable ring in Venice, but Portia
remains firm, and demands the trifle or nothing. When Bassanio admits that the ring was
a gift from his wife, who made him promise never to part with it, Portia claims that the
excuse is convenient and used by many men to hold onto possessions they would rather
not lose. With that, she takes her leave. Antonio urges Bassanio to let the law clerk have
the ring, saying that he should value Antonios love and the gentlemans worth more than
his wifes orders. Bassanio gives in and sends Gratiano to run after Portia and present her
with the ring. Antonio and Bassanio then leave for Antonios house to plan their trip to

Summary: Act IV, scene ii

Meanwhile, Portia sends Nerissa to Shylocks house to ensure that Shylock signs
the deed that will leave his fortune to Lorenzo and Jessica. Portia observes that Lorenzo
will be happy to have this document. Once they complete this task, the disguised women
plan to leave for Belmont, which will ensure their arrival a full day before their
husbands. Gratiano enters, offers Bassanios ring to Portia, and invites her to dinner.
Portia accepts the ring, but declines the invitation. Portia asks Gratiano to show Nerissa
to Shylocks house, and Nerissa, before leaving, tells Portia that she will likewise try to
convince Gratiano to part with his ring. The plan satisfies Portia, who imagines how
Gratiano and Bassanio will swear up and down that they gave their rings to men, and
looks forward to embarrassing them. Nerissa turns to Gratiano and asks him to lead her to
Shylocks house.

Julius Ceaser
Summary of Act III Scene 2

Outside, assembled Plebeians demand an explanation forCaesar's death. Cassius

leads half of them away while Brutus stays to address the others. Brutus explains that he
loved and honored Caesar, but loved Rome more, and killed Caesar rather than let every
Roman become a slave. The people are persuaded by his rhetoric and proclaim Brutus a
hero. One even cries "Let him be Caesar" (3.2.47)

Antony has entered with Caesar's body in a coffin. Brutus departs, turning the
pulpit over to Antony. The crowd denounces Caesar and continues to laud Brutus.

Antony regains his composure, and says he has no intention of wronging the
honorable Brutus and Cassius, or inciting the mob to riot. He mentions that he's found
Caesar's will, which would make the people venerate Caesar if they knew its contents,
but that he dare not read it. The Plebeians clamor to hear it. Antony descends to stand
over Caesar's coffin.
Antony describes Caesar's murder in graphic terms, and then uncovers Caesar's
body. The crowd is ready to hunt down and kill the conspirators, but Antony bids them
stay. He maintains that he does not wish to incite them to violence, and that he is not as
well-spoken as Brutus.

Antony finally reads Caesar's will, which promises a sum of money to every
citizen, and announces the conversion of Caesar's property into public parks. The crowd
leaves in a frenzy, intending to kill the conspirators and burn their homes. A servant of
Octavius enters to say that Octavius has arrived in Rome, and is waiting for Antony with
Lepidus at Caesar's house. He adds that Brutus and Cassius have fled Rome.

Sonnet 116
Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Admit impediments. Love is not love

Which alters when it alteration finds,

Or bends with the remover to remove:

O no! it is an ever-fixed mark

That looks on tempests and is never shaken;

It is the star to every wandering bark,

Whose worths unknown, although his height be taken

Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeks

Within his bending sickles compass come:

Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,

But bears it out even to the edge of doom.

If this be error and upon me proved,

I never writ, nor no man ever loved.

Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;


This sonnet attempts to define love, by telling both what it is and is not. In the first
quatrain, the speaker says that lovethe marriage of true mindsis perfect and
unchanging; it does not admit impediments, and it does not change when it find
changes in the loved one. In the second quatrain, the speaker tells what love is through a
metaphor: a guiding star to lost ships (wandring barks) that is not susceptible to storms
(it looks on tempests and is never shaken). In the third quatrain, the speaker again
describes what love is not: it is not susceptible to time. Though beauty fades in time as
rosy lips and cheeks come within his bending sickles compass, love does not change
with hours and weeks: instead, it bears it out evn to the edge of doom. In the couplet,
the speaker attests to his certainty that love is as he says: if his statements can be proved
to be error, he declares, he must never have written a word, and no man can ever have
been in love.

Along with Sonnets 18(Shall I compare thee to a summers day?) and 130(My
mistress eyes are nothing like the sun), Sonnet 116 is one of the most famous poems in
the entire sequence. The definition of love that it provides is among the most often quoted
and anthologized in the poetic canon. Essentially, this sonnet presents the extreme ideal
of romantic love: it never changes, it never fades, it outlasts death and admits no flaw.
What is more, it insists that this ideal is the only love that can be called trueif love is
mortal, changing, or impermanent, the speaker writes, then no man ever loved. The basic
division of this poems argument into the various parts of the sonnet form is extremely
simple: the first quatrain says what love is not (changeable), the second quatrain says
what it is (a fixed guiding star unshaken by tempests), the third quatrain says more
specifically what it is not (times foolthat is, subject to change in the passage of
time), and the couplet announces the speakers certainty. What gives this poem its
rhetorical and emotional power is not its complexity; rather, it is the force of its linguistic
and emotional conviction.

The language of Sonnet 116 is not remarkable for its imagery or metaphoric range.
In fact, its imagery, particularly in the third quatrain (time wielding a sickle that ravages
beautys rosy lips and cheeks), is rather standard within the sonnets, and its major
metaphor (love as a guiding star) is hardly startling in its originality. But the language is
extraordinary in that it frames its discussion of the passion of love within a very
restrained, very intensely disciplined rhetorical structure. With a masterful control of
rhythm and variation of tonethe heavy balance of Loves not times fool to open the
third quatrain; the declamatory O no to begin the secondthe speaker makes an almost
legalistic argument for the eternal passion of love, and the result is that the passion seems
stronger and more urgent for the restraint in the speakers tone.

Questions on Oscar Wildes

The Model Millionaire Summary


The Model Millionaire is a short story by Oscar Wilde. He was a gifted poet,
playwright and wit. He had written a number or short stories, the charm of which can
never fade. This story picturises a kind hearted millionaire and gives a surprise ending.

A misfit in money making:

Hughie was handsome with crisp brown hair, clear cut profile and good grey eyes.
he was liked by everybody. He had tried everything with his well learned ability, to earn
money. He was unsuccessful in his attempts to gain a profession.

Marriage, a costly business:

Hughie wanted to marry Laura Merton, who was the daughter of a retired colonel.
But the colonel told him that unless Hughie face had ten thousand pounds of his own, he
could not marry Laura. Hughie was dejected. He realized that being good looking is not
enough to be successful in life.

The painter friend:

Hughie met a friend who was a painter, on his way to Holland Park. His name was
Alan Trevor who was strange and rough, with a freckled face and a ragged beard. But he
was a real master in his profession and his pictures were liked by all.
Trevors model, the beggar:

When Hughie went in to see Trevor, he found him giving finishing touches to a
wonderful life size painting. The model was an old beggar standing on a platform in the
corner of the studio. The beggar had a very sad expression. his face was wrinkled and dry
like crushed paper. His rough clothes were full of tears. His thick boots were patched
roughly. He was leaning on a stick and he held out his battered hat for alms.

Hughies sympathy for the beggar:

Hughie told Trevor that his model was amazing. Trevor replied that such models
were hard to find every day. Hughie said that the beggar looked miserable but his face
was his fortune. He asked Trevor how much the models were paid for their job. Trevor
replied that they got a shilling an hour. A servant came and told Trevor that the frame
maker had come to meet him. Trevor left, asking Hughie to stay back. The beggar sat on
a bench. Hughie saw his lonely look. He felt pity for the poor old fellow. he took out a
sovereign (a gold coin equal to one pound ) and gave it to the beggar. The beggar thanked
him. When Trevor came back Hughie bade good bye and left.

The beggas identity revealed:

The next day Hughie visited Trevor again. Trevor told him that the beggar kept on
asking the details about Hughie. Trevor, informed Hughie that he had explained Hughies
condition to the beggar in detail. Hughie got very angry that his private affairs were
revealed to a beggar. Trevor told Hughie the fact that the beggar was the richest man in
Europe, Baron Hausberg.

Hughie upset by his act:

Hughie exclaimed that he had given the beggar a sovereign as alms. Trevor burst
into loud laughter. He told Hughie that he was able to understand why the old man
wanted to know all about him. Trevor joked that the rich old man would invest Hughies
one sovereign and pays him the interest every six months.

A Surprise gift:

The next morning while Hughie was having his breakfast an old gentleman came
to meet him. He had a card bearing the name Baron Hausberg. Hughie understood who
the Baron was. He stammered an apology and asked the gentleman to pass it on to the
Baron. The old gentleman smiled and said that the Baron had sent him with a job of
giving a letter to him. The sealed envelope he gave had the following words written on it.
A wedding present to Hugh Erskne Hughie and Laura from an old beggar. Inside
the envelope was a cheque for ten thousand pounds.


Trevor commented that Millionaire Models are rare but Model Millionaires
are rarer. By these words he meant that millionaires should be kind-hearted like the
Baron. The story also points out the fact that an honest, good heart is always rewarded.

The Selfish giant


The story it is about a selfish giant which has a very beautiful garden. Every
afternoon the children used to play in the giants garden because the giant stayed with a
friend for seven years. When the Giant came back he saw the children playing in his
garden, the Giant got angry and throw them away. He didnt allowed anybody to play in
his garden. So he built a high wall around it and he put a notice-board. The spring came
and only in the giant garden it was winter.

But the spring never came, nor did the summer come in the giant garden. One
morning the Giant was lying awake in bed until he heard some lovely music. It was a bird
singing and then the spring came. And the spring came because the children through a
hole in the wall and the children crept in. The giant understood that he was selfish and
that was the reason why the spring didnt come. When he saw a poor little boy crying and
wanted to climb up on a tree. Then the giant put the poor little boy on the top of the tree.
The giant knocked the wall and the giant garden was the children playground.

The giant was really sorry for what he had done. When the children saw him they
were so frightened that they ran away but, the little boy didnt ran away. The children
came back and played with the children and in the evening they came to say good-bye to
the giant. The giant loved the little boy since he kissed him. The Giant ask the children if
they could tell the little boy to come tomorrow but the children had never seen the boy
before and the giant felt very sad. Every afternoon the children played with the Giant. But
the little boy was never seen. The Giant grew old and he couldnt play so, he watched the
children playing.
One day, the giant found the little boy. On the palms of the childs hands it was
sign of two nails. And it was sign of two nails on the little childs feet.

And the child said: You let me play once in your garden, now you shall come with
me to my garden, which is Paradise. Then they found the Giant lying dead under the tree,
all covered with the white blossom.

Dr.Karl Paulnacks

Music The Hope Raiser SUMMARY:

Dr. Karl Paulnack, Pianist and Director of the music division at The Boston
Conservatory (University of Music) is hailed as the Firecracker of a Pianist and
Master of his instrument by The Boston globe, the famous American daily. He has
partnered in nearly a thousand concerts. This lesson is the fantastic welcome address
given by him to the parents of the incoming students at The Boston on September 1,

Music as a career :
Dr. Paulnack feels his parents feared that if he chose music as his career, society
would not appreciate him. Being good in mathematics and science, he had very good
grades ( marks) and they thought that he would do better as a doctor or a research chemist
or an engineer. When he revealed his decision to apply to music, they were not clear
about its value or function. Society has classified music as part of art and
entertainment. According to him serious music is the opposite of enterainment.

How music really works:

Dr. Paulnack says that the Greeks clearly expressed in words how music really
works. Anient Greeks said that music and astronomy were the rwo sides of the same coin.
Astronomy was seen as the study of relationships between observable, permanent,
external objects and music was seen as the study of relationships between invisible,
;internal hidden objects. Paulnack claims that music has a way of finding the invisible
moving pieces inside the hearts and souls and helping us understand ourselves.

Art, a part of human spirit :

Dr. Paulnack refers to the touching story of Oliver Messiaen who composed one of
the most famous master works in repertoire. He was a prisoner of war in a German
prisoner of war-camp in 1940. This 31 year old Frenchman composed his quartet for a
cellist, a violinist and a clarinetist, who were fellow prisoners. In 1941 the music was
played for the four thousand prisoners there and became famous. This instance shows that
music was created even in Nazi camps where starvation, beating and torture curshed the
prisoners, body and spirit. Not one enthusiastic oliver Messiaen, but even in
concentration camps many people created art. These were the places where people were
people were focused on survival. The camps were without money, recreation or hope but
not without art. It is because art is part of survival. Art is part of the human spirit which
expresses who we are, and that we are alive and our lives have meaning.

Music, a way to express feelings :

Dr. Paulnack was in Manhattan when the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre,
New York were destroyed by terrorists. It happened on September 11, 2001. The next
day, he sat to play the piano as it was his daily routine. But his mind was clouded by
uncertainty. He felt that playing music soon after the sorrowful event was irrelevant and
irreverent. He did not play the piano that day. He even thought he would never play
again. But on the very evening of September 11th , he saw people singing around fire
houses, We shall overcome and America the Beautiful. The first organized public
event was a concert with the New York Philharmonic. Military brought security but the
hope to live and the will to go on were given by music.
Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Music is a basic need of human survival :

From these experiences, Dr.Paulnack realized that music is not just entertainment
or pastime. Music is the basic need for human survival. Music gives meaning to our lives,
gives expression to our feelings and makes our hearts understand when our minds fail us.

Music, the Ultimate way to peace :

As a teacher of music Dr. Paulnack asks his students not only to master music but
also to save the earth with it. Military force or religion has failed to bring peace. True
peace can be achieved only through music. In the concentration camps or in the evening
of 9/11, only the artists helped people in bringing order in their internal, invisible lives.

Conclusion :
Thus Dr. Paulnack emphasizes the need for music in human lives.

Motivational Essays for comprehension

Gopala Krishna Gokulaes speech


Krishna Gokhale was a great freedom fighter of our country. He delivered a

speech in response to the address presented to him by students. On 25th July 1911 at an
open air public meeting near Victoria Hall, Mumbai.

My first duty on rising is to tender my most sincere and grateful thanks to the
students of Madras for their address which they have just now presented to me. There
is no doubt whatever in my mind that if I could now go back once again to the days of my
student hood, I would do so at once with pleasure. The life of a student is comparatively
speaking, a sheltered life. There are, of course, certain responsibilities; they are definite
and they are assigned to you by those who are willing to take care of you and there is not
much need to be constantly exercising your own judgments. You know that in later life
the position is reversed; instead of others helping you, you have in the first place to help
yourself Gentlemen, because this is the happy part of your life, there are certain
responsibilities attached to it which must be well discharged by you, because no privilege
in life is worth having, unless it is attended by corresponding duties and there are certain
duties, which those who placed you in your present privileged position expect our to

I will consider these duties under four heads. First of all, the duty which you owe
to yourselves; then there is the duty which you owe you fellow- students; the third duty is
the which you owe to those in authority over you, and the last duty is a duty which you
owe to those who are around you, not students, but people of the wider world.

Duty to yourselves
The duty to you is twofold. You have first of all to lay by a stock of knowledge
that will suffice you not sincerely for your examinations but will be helpful to you in later
life. Knowledge is an exacting mistress; she needs devotion, whole- hearted, on the part
of the person who seeks her. Such whole0 hearted devotion is possible only in the days of
student hood. Therefore, the first part of the duty towards yourselves is to take the utmost
advantage of your present position, to lay by a stock of knowledge that will be useful to
you in later life.

Importance of character
But it is not merely knowledge that will help any class of human beings by itself.
Along with that knowledge there is another requisite that you must secure and that is
character. It is almost a truism to say that more depends for success in life on character
than on knowledge. It is an invidious thing to distinguish between comparative values of
knowledge and character. But since both are indispensable, I would urge on you that you
should attach as much importance to character as to knowledge. This character must
show itself in earnestness, in energy of action and in high and generous sentiments being
brought to bear upon the discharge of your duties and in recognizing what is due to
yourselves. You have to acquire a character which will raise the whole life of the people
amidst whom you move and for whom you are expected to work.
As character will naturally have to act on those around you, the stronger, the
firmer and nobler it is, the better work you will do for the country. Even if you acquire a
fairly high character while you are at school or college; it may not always be easy to
retain that character in the struggles of later life, because you are sure to be acted upon by
those who are around you. But if you begin by acquiring a strong character for yourselves
and when you in course of time, occupy the place of the present seniors, then the students
or the younger men of the succeeding generation will find that the forces that act on them
are more helpful for retaining a good character than possibly what you may be able to
find today. This is the twofold duty which you owe to yourselves - the acquiring of
knowledge (I use knowledge in its widest sense) not only knowledge from every
quarter which will be useful to you in later life- and acquiring character which will enable
you to achieve success in whatever work you may take on hand. That, in brief, is the duty
to you.

Duty to follow-students
Your duty to follow-students will teach you in later life and will secure for you the
habit of co-operation. The foundation of the habit of co-operation is really laid in our
student days, because you are trained to be together in your class, and you cannot have it
all your own way, if you want to get on with your class. Therefore, if your use your
opportunities properly, you will know exactly how to get on with them by sometimes
giving in to them and sometimes standing out for your own view, being regardful of the
feelings and considerations of other people. This habit of co-operation once acquired will
continue with you all your life. It is not easy to acquire it in later life if you have not
already acquired it in your student days.

Duty to parents and teachers

Your third duty is towards those in authority over you. Obedience to parents,
especially during the time of studenthood and reverence for teachers while you are
studying under them these are two of the most essential conditions necessary for
acquiring knowledge and for taking the fullest advantage of those opportunities which are
placed within your reach while you are students.

While you are young men and students, while parents have to care for you and
find means wherewith to enable you to prosecute your studies, it is necessary that their
wishes should prevail with you in all matters, but when once your education is
completed, and the struggle of life commences and when you are able to stand on your
own legs, you owe it to yourselves and to your country, that you should use your own
judgement as to what work you should do.

Reverence towards teachers

In the same way you owe reverence to your teacher while you are at school or
college. Unless your whole attitude in the college and the school is founded upon a
proper feeling of reverence for the teacher, you will miss one of the principal lessons of
the school or college life, viz., the appreciation of discipline. Remember that in later life,
along with the spirit of co-operation, what you need most and what you need most public
life is a true spirit of that discipline the true spirit of that discipline which voluntarily
subordinates your judgement, your convenience and personal gain to common good.
Unless you acquire this habit at school or college, it will not be possible for you to
acquire it in later life.

Duty of government
In addition to that, you owe a duty to the rulers, the Government which is the
supreme authority over us all. Students with their generous mind and unsophisticated
hearts naturally fall an easy prey to stirring up emotion. But that very circumstance unfits
them in some instances to exercise independent judgement on current affairs. In any case,
as long as they are students, not standing on their own feet, it is not their business to do
so. While they are students, their attitude towards the Government of the country, such as
it may be good, bad or indifferent, should be one of acquiescence, loyal acquiescence.
You should do nothing whereby your relations with the authorities will be disturbed. You
should, no doubt, study public questions, but wait for the time. But while you are students
you should give no cause to anybody to say that your attitude towards the authorities is
one of greater or loss hostility.

Duty to wider world

The last duty that you owe to those who are in the wider world is to acquire a
knowledge of their needs, observe their conditions and observe their struggle, and to
acquire an attitude to mind, so as to sympathies with those who are struggling, even
though you are not immediately able to give them redress. There is a great deal of
injustice and suffering in the wider world requires to be remedied and when it comes to
you to play the part of grown-up men, it is expected you will contribute your share to
remove these things. In the meantime you must not enter the wider world without
knowledge. Observe and study the conditions carefully, as you are bound to do.
Basic English Grammar

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KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
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English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Success does not mean the absence of failures

It means the attainment of ultimate objectives

It means winning the war, not every battle

-Edwin C Bliss

The road to success is not a bed of roses. It is full of thorns, pitfalls and gins. Only
those who wade through the hazards and hurdles with grit and determination could smell
success. That is how Gandhi became a leader par excellence; that made Churchill the
greatest and the most successful war time leader. These traits and qualities have paid rich
dividends to Sachin and made him persona grata. After all, winners dont do different
things. They do things differently. Have you the determination to succeed? Are you
willing to devote the time and energy necessary to achieve success?

Here are some proven techniques that will help you to achieve success and
happiness in life.

The first step is to set yourself clear goals, to define precisely what you want to
achieve. Goals provide direction to your behavior and guide your thoughts and actions to
the desired outcomes. Goal plans enable you to go beyond momentary influences and
organise your behavior over extended periods of time. Goals should be an extension of
your values, your most important fundamental beliefs.

Specific goals are better than general ones. Self-chosen goals are better than
assigned ones. Choose goals that are challenging but reachable. Write down your short
term and long term goals. This will help you in establishing priorities and deciding on the
actions that you must engage in. Form a very intense, extremely vivid mental picture of
what you want. Verbalise your mental picture with a brief, concise, forceful GOAL
COMMAND Repeat it everyday to make it easier for your sub conscious mind to
embrace them. As Swami Vivekananda says, Take up one idea. Make that one idea
your life think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, every part of
your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to

Prepare an Action plan outlining the specific steps needed to accomplish the
result you want. You must get timely feed-back on your progress and be able to modify
your strategies when changes occur. Sometimes, even if the goals are not attained the
resultant consequences, feed-back or reinforcement can be beneficial.

There are literally millions of things in this world which are right and which need
to be done-but to which you must mentally, if not vocally say No!

No person has the time and the ability to do any but a few things which need to be

The proven success method is this:

1) Say No generally

2) Say yes very, very selectively

You simply concentrate your thought, time and effort on your one main goal. You
cannot possible do all of the things you will be asked to do. So, you are going to have to
say No to a lot of desirable and worthwhile things, simply because they are
incompatible with the necessary work you must do to reach your main goal.

Dont be afraid of failure. Failure is an accepted procedure in experimenting,

research, testing and all scientific forms of finding out. Failure is simply the means of
finding out what will not work so that it can be eliminated in the search for what will
work. So there is no need to think of failure as something to be feared and avoided.

Edison and his staff conducted 17,000 experiments which failed before they
succeeded in the one experiment which enabled them to extract latex in substantial
quantities from just one variety of plan, which was worth the 17,000 failures! Besides,
failure is good for your character and personality. It is a challenging experience.

The next step is to develop proper self-concept. What you think about yourself is
very important. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique, competent, secure, empowered
and connected to the people around them. Whereas people who have poor self-concept
feel insecure, lack self-confidence and become withdrawn. To improve your self-esteem,
become aware of your hidden potentialities and activate them. Take note of your
shortcomings and drawbacks and try to overcome them. You can prepare a Weed list
and a Seed list. Believe firmly that you can improve. As the Bhagavad Gita says, one
should lift oneself by ones own efforts and should not degrade oneself; for ones own
self is ones friend, and ones self is ones enemy.
aspect of self-development is Time Management. Time is your most valuable
resource. Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently. They find time
for everything; reading newspapers, jogging and even occasional visits to the cinema.
Since they have planned everything, they feel relaxed and do their efficiently. What about
you? Do you make optimum use of your time? To know this, write down all you did
yesterday with the amount of time spent on each activity. Then you will realise how
much time is being wasted on useless activities and why you are not able to achieve your
targets in time. Draw a time-table for your daily activities and try to stick to it. Keeping a
dairy is another useful habit which you must cultivate. This will help you review and
monitor your progress.

Many people make themselves miserable by trying to imitate others. Mrs.Edith

Allred was one such person. She remained unhappy even after she married into a poised
and self-confident family. A chance remark by her mother-in-law transformed her life.
While talking about how she brought her children up, her mother-in-law said, No matter
what happened, I always insisted on their being themselves. In a flash Mrs.Allred
realized that she had brought misery on herself by trying to fit herself into a pattern to
which she did not conform. She changed overnight. She started being herself. She tried to
make a study of her own personality. Now she is the happiest person.

The renowned psychologist, William James was speaking of people who had
never found themselves when he declared that the average person develops only ten
percent of his or her abilities.

You and I have such abilities. So, do not waste a second worrying because you are
not like other people. Remember you are unique. There never was and never will be
anybody exactly like you. Make the most of what nature gave you. For better or for
worse, you must play your own instrument in the orchestra of life.

As Emerson says, Envy is ignorance and imitation is suicide . No real benefit

will come to you except through your own toil. Nature has given you the power. You
only know what you can and cannot do. So, find yourself and be yourself.

There are people who keep on grumbling and complaining. For them here is the
story of Harold Abbott who used to worry a lot. One day, he happened to see a man who
had no legs but looked cheerful and happy. He greeted him with a grand smile. At that
moment, Harold Abbott felt ashamed of his self-pity. He realized how rich he was. He
had two legs and he could walk. This realization changed his mind. That was a turning
point in his life.
If we want to be happy, all we have to do is to concentrate on the ninety percent
things that are right in our lives and ignore the ten percent that are wrong.

Think of all we have to be grateful for and thank God for all our boons and
bounties. Would you sell your eyes for a billion dollars? What would you take for your
legs? Your hands? Your hearing? Your family? Add up your assets and you will find that
you wont sell what you have for all the gold amassed by the Rockfellers, the Fords and
the Morgans combined. So, Count your blessings, not your troubles.

Make the best of your time. Be optimistic. Plan your work and work your plan.
Success will knock at your door. Adieu!


India is a nation of a billion people. A nations progress depends upon how its people
think. It is thoughts which are transformed into actions. India has to think as a nation of a
billion people. Let the young minds blossom full of thoughts, the thoughts, and the
thoughts of prosperity.

Nations are built by the imagination and untiring enthusiastic efforts of

generations. One generation transfers the fruit of its toil to another which then takes
forward the mission. As the coming generation also has its dreams and aspirations for the
nations future, it therefore adds something from its side to the national vision; which the
next generation strives hard to achieve. This process goes on and the nation climbs steps
of glory and gains higher strength.

The first vision: Freedom of India

Any organization, society or even a nation without a vision is like a ship cruising
on the high seas without any aim or direction. It is clarity of national vision which
constantly drives the people towards the goal.

Our last generation, the glorious generation of freedom fighters, led by Mahatma
Gandhi, and many others set for the nation a vision of free India. This was the vision, set
by the people for the nation. It therefore went deep into the minds and the hearts of the
masses and soon became the great inspiring and driving force for the people to the
collectively plunge into the struggle for freedom movement. The unified dedicated efforts
of the people from every walk of life won freedom for the country.
The second vision: Developed India
The next generation (to which I also belong) has put India strongly on the path of
economic, agricultural and technological development. But India has stood too long in
the line of developing nations. Let us, collectively, set the national vision of developed
India. I am confident that it is very much possible and can materialize in 15-20 years

Developed status
What does the developed nation status mean in terms of the common man? It
means the major transformation of our national economy to make it one of the largest
economies in the world, where the countrymen live above the poverty line, their
education and health is of high standard, national security reasonably assured, and the
core competence in certain major areas gets enhanced significantly so that the production
of quality goods, including exports, is rising and thereby bringing all-round prosperity for
the countrymen. What is the common link needed to realize these sub-goals? It is the
technological strength of the nation, which is the key to reach this developed status.

Build around our strength

The next question that comes to the mind is, how can it be made possible? We
have to build and strengthen our national infrastructure in an all-round manner, in a big
way. Therefore, we should build around our existing strengths including the vast pool of
talented scientists and technologists and our abundant natural resources. The manpower
resources should be optimally utilized harness health care, services sectors and
engineering goods sectors. We should concentrate on development of key areas, namely
agriculture production, food processing, materials and also on the emerging niche areas
like computer software, biotechnologies and so on. The common link required to bring
this transformation is the human resources. Therefore, adequate attention needs to be paid
to development of special human resources cadre in the country to meet these objectives.
Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
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English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

Beyond 2020

The attainment of a developed status by 2020 does not mean that we can then rest
on our laurels. It is an endless pursuit of well-being for all our people. Our vision of a
developed nation integrates this element of time within it as well. Only people with many
embody skills and knowledge, and with ignited minds can be ready for such a long-term
vision. We believe that it is possible to the reach such a state, provided we can follow a
steady path and make available to the people the benefits of change all through their
lives. They should see their lives and those of others improving in actual terms, and not
merely in statistical tables.


This means the vision should become a part of the nation, transcending
governments the present and the future. To make this happen, several actions are
required. An important element of these efforts is to develop various endogenous
technological strengths. After all, technologies are primarily manifestations of human
experience and knowledge and thus are capable of further creative development, under
enabling environments.

We have often asked ourselves and other why India in its several thousand years
of history has rarely tried to expand its territories or to assume a dominating role. Many
of the experts and others with whom we had a dialogue referred to some special features
of the Indian psyche which could partly explain this: greater tolerances, less discipline,
the lack of a sense of retaliation, more flexibility in accepting outsiders, great adherence
to hierarchy, and emphasis on personal safety over adventure. Some felt that a
combination of many of these features has ability to pursue a vision tenaciously.

We believe that as a nation and as a people we need to shed our cynicism and
initiate concrete action to realize the second vision for the nation. The first vision, seeded
around 1857, was for India to become politically independent; the second one is to
become a fully developed nation. Our successful action will lead to further action,
bringing the vision much closer to reality. Perhaps in a decade from now we may even be
judged as having been cautious and conservative! We will be happy if the action taken
proves that they could have been still bolder in advocating a faster march towards a
developed India!
We had written this chapter before the nuclear tests on 11 may 1998. The details
of the numbers projected in the tables and figures may change but our belief in what we
say there remains unchanged. In any case, they are meant to be indicative of directions
for change. We have seen the reactions to the tests within the country in the Indian and
foreign media. We have also had the benefit of private of private conversation with many
Indian. In all these, I observed one striking features: a number of persons in the fifty-plus
bracket and especially those who are in powerful positions in government, industry,
business and academia, seem to lack the will to face problems. They would like to be
supported by other countries in every action we have to take in the country. This is not a
good sign after fifty years of an independent India which has all along emphasized self

We are not advocating xenophobia nor isolation. But all of us have to be clear that
nobody is going to hold our hands to lead us into the developed country club. Nuclear
tests are the culmination of efforts to apply nuclear technology for national security.
When we carried out the tests in May 1998, India witnessed issuing of sanctions by a few
developed countries. In the process, the same countries have purposely collapsed their
own doctrine of to evolve its own original economic policy, as well as development,
business and marketing strategies.

It is not just that the Indian nuclear tests are resented. If tomorrow Indian software
export achieves a sizable share in the global market, becoming third or fourth or fifth in
size, we should expect different types of reactions. Today, we are a small percentage of
the total trade in software or information technology. Similarly, if Indian becomes a large
enough exporter of wheat or rice or agro food products to take it into an exclusive club
of four or five top food grain-exporting nations, various new issues would be raised
couched in scientific and technical terms ranging from phyto-sanitary specifications to
our contribution to global warming. Multilateral regimes it these effects exist in terms of
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and other environment-related
multilateral treaties. India cannot afford not to sign these treaties, though we could have
done our homework a little better during the negotiations. We have to face what we have
with us. We need to play the multilateral game, attract foreign investments, have joint
ventures and be an active international player. Still, we have to remember that those who
aim high have to learn to walk alone too, when required.

There are economic and social problems in South-East Asia and Japan. Each
country is trying to tackle them in its own way. There is a variety in the approaches.
Some may overcome the difficulties and some way not. We believe India can emerge a
major developed country and all its people can contribute to and share in the prosperity.
Our hope lies in the fact that even in the older generation, there are a number of persons
who are ready to face the challenges. Most of the people are proud to see an india that is
bold. In addition, the younger generation is ready to take action in such a complex
environment. Many of them have to contend with difficult with hierarchical structures in
the Indian systems, whether in the private or public sector, in government or in academia.
They are ready to rough it out. That is where our hopes lie for the realization of the
second vision.


By Deepa Agarwal

The storm raged all night. Lighting crackled and the wind howled like a demon.
Saruli cowered under the covers and clung to her mother when she heard the thunder. A
peculiar crack-crack-SNAK, followed by a tremendous crash, as though a giant had fallen
to the ground.

What is that? she asked her mother.

The trees, her mother replied. The wind is blowing them down.

The trees! saruli was shocked. The wind was strong, very strong. But was it
powerful enough to knock down those enormous pines-so straight and tall?

The next morning she saw it for herself. Row upon row of the lofty pines lay
stretched helplessly on the ground. Saruli was stunned. Half the jungles seemed bare.
Most of the people from the small hill village were there, foraging for branches and
dragging them away. But Saruli, a wiry girl of thirteen, stood there stunned.

Gripped with fear Saruli was thinking of the barren hillside across the valley. How
desolate it looked! A real contrast of the forest near their village, which was full of fresh
grass and shrubs. Suppose suppose all the trees fell down wouldnt the forest
disappear? With an effort she dismissed these thoughts and began to collect wood. Fuel
was always an important need. Saruli gathered a large bundle. On her way back, she
passed Diwan Singhs house. The old man was seated outside. you want some wood,
uncle? she asked. Without waiting for an answer she dropped part of her bundle in one
corner of the paved courtyard.
So you have been to the forest, girl?

yes, uncle, lots of trees fell down last night.

Old Diwan Singh was the headman of her village. it was to be expected, he said
slowly. The trees have been totally hollowed by the resin-tappers. Sarulis brown eyes
opened wide. I wondered how so many trees had fallen down. Diwan Singh said,
First they only made one cut on the tree to tap resin. Now they keep on making gashes
till the trees are utterly drained. Even a moderately strong wind can below them over,
they are so dry. Cant cant someone stop them? Saurli asked, horrified. Diwan
sighed. Who can stop them, girl? The contractors are rich, influential people. They pay a
lot of money to tap the trees.

Saruil got up go home. As she stood up, she glanced at Diwan Singhs strange
nursery. He was growing saplings. Not the baby pines which sprang up themselves in the
rains, but shoots of oak and deodar-the native trees of the hills. Diwan Singh told Saruli,
When I was a boy this was a forest of oak and deodar. The British Government cut them
down and planted pines.

But, Why? Saruli had asked.

Because pine trees can be tapped for resin and resin has many uses. But they
forgot that oaks bring rain and trap the water. Pines dry out the land.

It was a holiday for school. Saruli took her cow to graze in the forest. The sight of
the fallen trees-trunks was depressing. Many of the other village children were there too,
with their goats and cows. Come and play hide and seek! Jaman called. But Saruli
shook her head. She sat on a rock, thinking. How could they save their forest?

What is the matter? Jaman asked after a while.

I am scared, she replied, after a short pause. Suppose another storm comes
along and all the trees are blown down. What will we do then?

The contractors pay money to the Forest Department to tap the trees. They are
allowed to do it, said Jaman in a low voice.

But Saruli was rushing to the nearest pine tree. There she found several gashes
which had gone dry. At the end of one, there was a conical tin cup, into which the sticky
resin fell, drop by drop. She wrenched off tin cup and threw it away. That is what we
can do! She cried triumphantly. Jaman put some clay to seal the gashes.
The other children gathered around curiously. Saruli cried execitedly. Come on,
help to save our forest!

She raced around pulling the tin cups off the trees. And Jaman followed with the
clay. The others joined in enthusiastically.

A week passed. The little group managed to remove the tin containers from a large
portion of the jungle. Then, one morning, four men entered the forest to collect resin.
Sarulis hearty thudded suddenly. The showdown had come. But she had to stay calm.
She could hear their muttered exclamations of surprise which turned into anger to find the
trees devoid of the resin containers.

Finally, they came up to the children who were swarming up around a tree. Do
you know who has done this? one of the men demanded. Saruli had seen him around. He
was called Lal Singh.

The children looked at each other, not knowing what to say. Then Saruli jumped
down from the kafa/tree. We did it, She said.

wha-at? the man seemed unable to understand.

Yes, Saruli said quietly. we threw away the containers.

You brats! How dare you! Lal Singh exploded. His companions swore and
muttered angrily. Now we will have to put them again, Lal Singh continued. Dont
you dare touch the trees now?

He produced a chisel-like tool and began to scrape off the mud plaster the children
had applied.

Stop! Saruli cried, hurling herself at him. He pushed her aside roughly but
Jaman and the others joined it too.

Run, Radha! Saruli cried. Get help from the village. We have got to save the

Radha ran fast. But the taller man caught up quickly. He was about to grab her.
Suddenly, a jeep jerked to an abrupt half. What is going on? a voice spoke from inside.

Lal singh sprang forward eagerly. Jaman followed. Then his eye on what was
written on the number plate. The D.F.O. Sir! he muttered nervously.
The District Forest Officer jumped out of the jeep. One of the men had Radha by
the arm was gesticulating and pointing to the trees. Radha looked terrified!

What is the meaning of all this? the D.F.O. asked.

She is the ring leader, Lal Singh said accusingly.

Sir, we are only trying to save our forest! Saruli said vehemently.

Taken aback by Saruli impassioned outburst, the D.F.O. followed to the edge of the
forest. He stared at the fallen tree-trunks and frowned.

It is the resin-tapping, Sir, Saruil repeated. If all the trees fall down, what will
we do?.

But the D.F.O was lost in though. I shall have to think about it, he said finally.
Our job is to preserve the forests. Tell your contractor to talk to me.

Lal Singhs eyes almost fell out with shock, but the children clapped gleefully.
The D.F.O. got into his jeep and drove away.

A month went by. The resin-tappers did not come again and the children
continued to remove the containers. They had almost finished when the first monsoon
showers came down. That evening when Saruli went home, Diwan Singh called out to
her, Girl. The rains have come. Lets plant the deodhars.

She smiled happily up at him. Just then, they saw a familiar jeep. D.F.O. Sir!
said Diwan Singh.

The D.F.O. got off the jeep and smiled at saruli. Keep it up, he patted her back.
The resin tappers will not trouble you again.

Thank you, Sir, thank you! chanted a chorus of voices. The jeep sped down the
road. A breeze rustled through the trees making them sound like a distant waterfall. Saruli
sighed happily. They would continue to hear that sound. They had achieved their goal.
They had saved the forest.

Nothing would destroy their forest now.

Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;



By Brain Patten

What do you dream to be? Do you feel troubled by what other people think you
shouldnt be? Keep Your dreams! They make you who you are!

I told them:

When I grow up

Im not going to be scientist

Or someone who reads the news on TV.

No, a million birds will fly through me.

Im going to be a tree.

They said:

You cant be that, No, you cant be that.

I told them:

When I grow up, Im not going to be an airline pilot, a dancer, a lawyer, or an


No. huge whales will swim in me, Im going to be an ocean.

They said:

You cant be that. No, you cant be that.

I told them:

Im not going to be a DJ,

a computer proGrammar, a musician, or beautician

No, streams will flow through me, lll be the home of eagles;
lll be full pf nooks, crannies, valleys, and fountains.

Im going to be a range of mountains.

They said:

You cant be that. No, you cant be that.

I asked them:

Just what do you think I am?

Just a child, they said.

And children always become at least noe of the things we want them to be.

They do not understand me.

lll be a stable if I want, smelling of fresh hay.,

lll be a lost glade in which unicorns still play.

They do not realize I can fulfill any ambition.

They do not realize among them walks a magician.

Description of places


A Walk to the Milam Glacier on the edge of Tibet.

By Ahtushi Deshpande

A 24 hour journey in a UP Roadways bus is not the most comfortable way to get
to Munsiyari, I realize, as I count the numerous bumps on my head the morning after. I
had been rudely awakened, several times during the journey most notably around
midnight, when the bus followed in hot pursuit of a rabbit, the passengers cheering on the
driver. (The rabbit was eventually caught, put in a sack and locked up in the glove
But when I step off the bus in Munsiyari, all memories of the bizarre journey
vanish - the five mythological Pandavas stand proud before my eyes, their legend forever
ensconced in the five majestic peaks of the panchchuli range. Situated in a remote corner
of Kumaon bordering Tibet and Nepal, Munsiyari was once a bustling entrepot of trade.
On a trekking trail north-west of Munsiyari is the Milam Glacier, one of the longest in the
region. The four day trek to the village of Milam at the end of this old trade route to
Tibet is dotted with abandoned Bhutia villages. In the wake of the India- China war of
1962, trade came to a halt and the hardy Bhutia traders migrated to the towns and cities

I am eager to set off on the trek to the glacier, Mr. Rare, the KMVN (Kumaon
Mandal Vikas Nilgam) manager, is helpful and tells me that his father, Khem Nam, could
act as guide on my trek. Khem nam turns out to be fully 65 years old, a veteran of these
valleys. We make a list of provisions and set off shopping at the Munsiyari bazaar, a
stronghold of the bhutia traders. As I make my purchases, the shop-owner proudly tells
me that his daughter and son-in-law hold important IAS posts in Delhi. The bhutias, who
onec ruled the trade routes, may have lost their business, but they have retained their

It is heartening to meet Laxmi, our porter, the following morning. He is a sturdy

young man and seems likes just the support frail Khem Nam and I need. Rucksacks
loaded, we head straight down to the Gori river.

For three days our path first takes us upstream along the goriganga, and them into
the shrouded mailam valley where the narrow gorges afford few views. Abandoned
bhutia villages dot our path and I increasingly get the feeling that we are traversing a
long- forgotten route. On the fourth day we cross the ghost villages of Burfu and Bilju
before we reach milam

It is now our sixth day on the trek; it has rained the whole night, and the morning
brings even drearier weather. At over4000m, firewood is hard to come by. Keeping
warms is tough, and distractions is the best recourse. The sun plays truant for most of the
day, raising doubts about the feasibility of our venturing further up. Howling winds,
clouds, bright sunshine and hailstorms chase each other through the skies, and I spend the
day moseying in and out of our cave.

We are camped at Ragash kund, a little pond with a shepherds cave on a grassy
meadow above the glacier, where we sit out the bad weather for two days and nights.
From milam village it has taken us a day to get to our current position, en route to suraj
kund which(as I am later told) takes a detour via heaven because you gotta be dead first
before you get there. The rains of 1997 caused a lot of damage to the terrain and we are
told that no one ventured beyond the snout of the glacier that year. But khem nam is not
to be deterred. I know the glacier like the back of my hand, I will find us a way, he
insists. His confidence is heartening my map dose, after all, show a trekking trail, and I
am fascinated with the idea of seeing this sacred laked lake nestled in a far nook of the

On the slop opposite our eamp is the fascinating summit of mandayo, which
spirals up into the blue sky like a giant corkscrew.slapped with steep cliffs on all faces, it
looks every inch an insurmountable peak. To my immediate right the nanda pal glacier
slops down sharply. It could easily have been built up as a very challenging ski slope
except, of course, for the fact that it ends in a cold and menacing snout with icy waters
flowing beneath.

I feel as if I have trespassed on some hidden and forbidden world of beautiful

peaks and ominous glaciers. For the locals the glaciated region is one to be feared a
land of demons and spirits writing to devour the unholy, but for the avid trekker, a
journey into what is literally a no mans land can be the experience of a lifetime.

To see the cold snowy peaks coming to life with the first rays of the sun is simply
magical. Getting to suraj kund is now the task at hand. Entire slopes have, well, slid
down, taking with them the centuries old path. to my untrained eye, the glacier looks
impossible to walk on. Luckily, Khem Nam thinks otherwise he has done a recce the
previous evening and is now sure of our route.

After a big breakfast, we set off on the final leg of our pilgrimage to suraj kund. It
is not an easy path we hop over stones on landslides and delicately tread on the glacier
rubble. The majestic mountains towering all around still look surreal, offering distraction
from the fretful path. In all, nine smaller glaciers feed the Milam glacier system, each
with its own set of peaks from which they emerge.

Crevasses dot our route as Khem Nam line it with dark stone markers to help us
return. As we walk dead centre of the glacier, the 80m icefall starting from the best of the
Hardeoli and Trishuli peaks comes into fuller view. The last leg is up a landslide. I turn a
corner and there below, in a hidden nook sandwiched between two glaciers, stand the
twin ponds of dudh and suraj kund with the stunning icefall forming a magnificent
backdrop. I greedily bend down to drink some water from the holy pond it is the
sweetest I have ever tasted.
It is a long haul back and we reached our camp at Ragash kund only after
nightfall.The following morning we return to Milam; by afternoon, the skies are
showering down snowflakes the size of my palm. It snows continuously for the next three
days and nights, leaving us stranded in the civilisation of Milam. Patience is an art well
learnt when one is at the mercy of nature. Just when mine is beginning to wear thin, the
skies clear. The autumn landscape is turning wintry.

I am out on the path by six there is something I am keen to see. Three kilometers
down from Milam lie the ruins of Bilju. Icicles hang from abandoned roofs, and fields of
creamy snow line the tops. Facing the ghost village stand the twin peaks of Nanda Devi
main and Nanda Devi east. I am transfixed. It is like the view you get from Binsar, but
with an800mm zoom lens attached to your eyes!

I look deeply into its visage, trying to each in my mind every detail of the vast
expanse of the valley and the forlorn abandoned village, blessed by a goddess no less
then Nanda Devi herself. I pay my obeisance, Khem Nam and Laxmi arrive, and we head
back towards Munsiyari and traffic


By Manohar Devadoss

Sometimes, landscapes can speak to us. But they only talk if we are willing to
listen to them.

Manohar Devadoss loves his hometown Madurai. A scientist by profession, the

writer has produced some exquisite pen sketches of Maduri and its surroundings. One of
his sketches of Madurai and its surroundings. One of his sketches of yaanai malai has
been reproduced here for you. But what makes him extraordinary is not his versatility. It
is his indomitable spirit.

For more than thirty years, Manohar Devadoss has had retinitis pigmentosa, an eye
disorder that slowly but surely reduces vision. His wife Mahema, an immensely
courageous person in her in own right, was paralyzed below the shoulders following a
road accident 36 years ago. The love that they could bring to each other in the face of
great tragedy has been a source of inspiration to all who have known them. Read and
discover it!
Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;

The city of Madurai has been in existence for at least 2400 years. Throughout its
history the city has nurtured Tamil literature. Over the centuries, Madurai has become
famous for its temple complex. Rich in tradition, this ancient temple town has acquired
its temple town has acquired itsnvey own mythologies, evolving own customs and

A dominant landmark of the north-eastern outskirts of Madurai is Yaanai malai, a

solid rocky hill. When seen or approach from Madurai, this hill has a rather striking
resemblance to a seated elephant hence the name Yaanai Malai (Elephant Hill). Dotted
with starkly beautiful palmyra trees, this part of rural Madurai has had a character all its

The paddy field here were nourished by monsoon rains, supplemented by water
from large wells called Yettrams, which have all but vanished from the rural scene today.
Yettrams were extensively used during my boyhood to draw water from these large,
square, irrigation wells. A yettram well had long casuarinas poles tied together with a
rope, a large bucket made of leather at one end and a counterpoise at the other, enabling a
man to single handedly draw large volumes of water.

On a cool in October, in the early 1950s, a school friend and I, on an impulse,

decided to take a cross-country trek to Yaanai Malai, climb up the hill and stand on its
head to look at Madurai and the surrounding country. At one stage the hill seemed close
enough but as we walked on it seemed to move further away. Suddenly an idyllic rural
scene presented itself. We saw watery field being ploughed. There was a large, square
yettram well from which a wiry old man was drawing water. Yaanai Malai was an
imposing and silent backdrop.

Monsoon clouds began to gather, darkening the upper sky and softening the light
falling on the austere scene. The landscape was placid but the sky was in turmoil. And
yet, there was perfect harmony between land and sky. The sky became darker and light
played games on the hill. A large drop of water hit my head. Almost immediately, a
heavy downpour tore open the sky and the sky and hill instantly disappeared behind
curtains of water. As we walked back to Madurai thoroughly drenched, my friend
complained with chattering teeth that rain had ruined our plan.

I thought that what we had witnessed moments earlier was a rare visual gift and
that we could always climb Yaanai Malai some other day. But my destiny decreed that, in
this life, I was to capture in ink on paper, the magic of the moment, of that distant
afternoon, before lashing rains obliterated the serene landscape.

During my adolescence, Yaanai Malai inspired in me a sense of mystique. Though

I gave a premium to rationalism then, I had difficulty thinking of Yaanai Malai as a non-
living, huge chunk of stone.

To me the hill seemed like a silent witness to all that was happening in Madurai,
through its history. To this day, I dream of this hill in ways that relate to visual pleasure.
In 2001, at a time when my vision due to an incurable visual syndrome, Retinitis
pingmentosa had declined to a level when I was hardly able to see any details of a
distant landscape, I dreamt that my wife, Mahema who became paralysed below her
shoulders, following a road accident in 1972 was in her wheelchair and that I stood by
her side on top of Yaanai Malai. In this vivid dream, I showed her some of the important
landmarks of Madurai, the tower of the large Vandiyoor temple tank, the cupolas of the
historic palace called the mahal, the great gateway towers of the temple and many his
hills far and near. I told Mahema in my dream that had Thirumalai Nayak the ruler who
had built the mahal three and - a half centuries earlier, climbed up the hill then, he
would have had a view not vastly different from the one we were looking at.

The monolith, Yaanai Malai looks like an elephant only when it is viewed from
the southwest. Happily, Madurai sits to the southwest of Yaanai Malai. What appears
from Madurai to have a pyramidal shape is in actuality a very elongated hill. The Melur
road from Madurai runs many miles parallel to the southeastern slope of the hill. When
viewed from here, the hill has a different yet dominant appeal, as one can see from this
drawing of the hill that I completed in june 2002 and have pleasure in presenting below.
The broad band of paddy field ends not far from the hill and then the hill is enriched by
discrete downward steaks of rust red stains.

During the cool winter months, before the emerald of the paddy field slowly turns
into a wealth of gold, small flocks of lily white egrets alight here to feast upon the tiny,
silvery fish that stray into the shallow waters of the fields.

The egrets slow, flapping take off and the gentle swoop of soft-landing - as they
hop from one part of the field to another are as graceful as the movements of ballerinas.

The borders of the paddy field are often lined with rows of palmyra trees. Small
bushes grow wild rows of palmyra trees. Small bushes grow wild at the foot of the foot of
the trees. During the winter season, these plants burst into thousands of yellow flames of
The Brihadeesvarar Temple or The Big Temple as it is commonly called by the
natives of Thanjavur, is an architectural marvel of immense glory, that has astounded the
world with its stupendous proportions and grandeur. Built in the year 1010 by King Raja
Raja Chola, this monument of World Heritage has, for a thousand years, stood as a
symbol of the flourishing sculptural expertise and rich culture of ancient India.

Thajavur, the Granary of Tamilnadu is also the home of Carnatic music, dance
and traditional handcrafts. Thanjavur was the ancient capital of the Chola kings, and the
stylized bronze work for which the Chola period was famous, is still produced in this

Having overload myself with this and more information on thajavur, I reached the
palace in search of all the glory of the old Chola capital. The 16th century palace
complex was built by the Nayaks and later renovated by the Marathas. Situated close to
the old bus stand, the first of the museums I visited here was the Royal Museum. Is this
the might and valour of the Cholas I heard of? What am I seeing here? I wondered; a
scantily lit room with drums, urns, perfume bottles, wooden boxes, manuscripts, gifts,
jewellary, weapons and other belongings of the Marathas.

A painting of a Maratha King welcomes you to the Durbar Hall. On the rear side
of the painting an array of Pallava and Chola statues throws light on the craftsmanship of
their era. The Art Gallery at the palace has an impressive line-up of granite and bronze
monolithic statues, with details of excavation and the century of origin clearly displayed.
The goddesses and other statues take you to a different era. The magnificent monolithic
statues evince energy and life; the aura in their eyes beam a story of fine craftsmanship
and effort. Vishnu, Ganesha or Nataraja look exactly the same as the look in todays
images and statues. I also did notice a Buddha statue statue from the pallava era here.

From the palace, I moved to the Brihadeeswara Temple. The structure of the
temple looks majestic. The temple occupies an area measuring about 750 feet by 400 feet,
in a fort surrounded by a moat. It is a marvel of engineering, considering the technology
of those ancient times. The towering vimanam is built up with stones with bonding and
notching, without the use of mortar. The topmost stone, weighing about 80 tons, is still a
matter of discussion for engineers who are baffled as to how the builders lifted it to that
height without the help of modern contrivances. A charming tale is told about a ramp
being built from a village Sarapallam- four miles away, from where the giant stone was
pulled up by elephants. The details of the stone work of this imposing vimanam are
representative of the masterly craftsmanship of South Indian artisans. The Shilpi
(sculptor) and the sathapathi (architect) came together to create their fanciful abode for
Shiva. Naturally, the shape had to echo the divine Mount Kailash. In its perfect geometry
and distinct of lines, this tower is unbeatable.

The shrine for Lord Muruga is an integral part of the temple. It is a beautiful,
elaborately carved stone structure, a desingners delight. To copy the unrepeated designs
on each of the short pillars of this shrine would take an artist weeks if not months. One
can just imagine how long the stone chiseller would have taken to complete each piece.

I stood in awe, astonishment and reverence when I saw a walled fortrees inside a
standing testimony of the Cholas opulence and vision. The enormity of the deities reflect
the staunch reverence of the King to Lord Shiva. Rajaraja, his sister and queens donated
their possessions of gold and silver to this temple. The gold the king donated came from
his treasury.

The intricate carvings on the pillars and the inscriptions on the walls the temple a
delight for a historians senses. The script used in the inscriptions resemble Tamil, Thai
or some of the South East Asian languages. The huge (8.7 m height) Shiva Linga in the
Sanctum Sanctorum and Nandhi Statue reflect the munificence of the Cholas. The
pillared cloisters beside the main structure have a series of deities and Shiva lingas,
worthy to be admired. The muralas narrate the story of Shivas might.

Among the things visible are the interlocks of the granite stones. The rocks so
perfectly fitted into one another at a height of 10 meters seems to share a harmonious
bonding, not unnerved by the rains, winds and heat. Very well maintained, this structure
will leave you with thoughts like, Was it actually built in the 11th century?

Unlike many temples, here the 58 m tall and 13-storeyed Vimanam makes the
Gopuram. The inscriptions of the Vimanam talk about Raja Raja Cholas gifts to the
temple. In its magnanimous idea, its grandiose vision, its display of the Herculean effort
in construction, its portrayal of their glorious past of the Chola rgime and their patronage
for arts and culture, this temples stands as testimony for all and ever.

One can spend a whole day in the Big temple, and still want to come back to
marvel at every detail of its beauty. Many kings had built temples to Shiva on the banks
of the kaveri. Many saints have sung in praise of these deities. But there is only one
temple to Brihadeevarar , and it stands tall, a thousand years after a devotee-king climbed
a ladder with a copper pot(kalasam) anointed with holy water from all the sacred rivers,
to dedicated it to history. Our history!
British English American English

British English American English

Accommodation Accommodations
Action Replay Instant Replay

Aerofoil Airfoil
Aeroplane Airplane
Agony Aunt Advice Columnist
Allen Key Allen Wrench
Aluminium Aluminum

Aniseed Anise
Anticlockwise Counterclockwise
Articulated Lorry Tractor-Trailer
Asymmetric Bars Uneven Bars
Aubergine Eggplant
Baking Tray Cookie Sheet
Bank Holiday Legal Holiday
Beetroot Beet(S)
Bill Check
Biscuit Cookie; Cracker

Black Economy Underground Economy

Blanket Bath Sponge Bath
Blind (Window) Shade
Block Of Flats Apartment Building

Boiler Suit Coveralls

Bonnet (Of A Car) Hood
Boob Tube Tube Top
Boot (Of A Car) Trunk
Bottom Drawer Hope Chest

Bowls Lawn Bowling

Braces Suspenders
Brawn (The Food) Headcheese
Breakdown Van Tow Truck
Breeze Block Cinder Block

Bridging Loan Bridge Loan

Bumbag Fanny Pack
Candyfloss Cotton Candy
Car Park Parking Lot
Casualty Emergency Room

Catapult Slingshot
Central Reservation Median Strip
Chemist Drugstore
Chips French Fries
Cinema Movie Theater; The Movies

Cling Film Plastic Wrap

Common Seal Harbor Seal
Consumer Durables Durable Goods

Cornflour Cornstarch
Cos (Lettuce) Romaine
Cot Crib
Cot Death Crib Death
Cotton Bud Cotton Swab

Cotton Wool Absorbent Cotton

Council Estate (Housing) Project
Courgette Zucchini
Court Card Face Card
Crash Barrier Guardrail

Crisps Chips; Potato Chips

Crocodile Clip Alligator Clip
Cross-Ply Bias-Ply
Crotchet (Music) Quarter Note
Current Account Checking Account

Danger Money Hazard Pay

Demister (In A Car) Defroster
Dialling Tone Dial Tone
Diamante Rhinestone
Double Cream Heavy Cream

Draughts (Game) Checkers

Drawing Pin Thumbtack
Dressing Gown Robe; Bathrobe

Drink-Driving Drunk Driving

Drinks Cupboard Liquor Cabinet
Drinks Party Cocktail Party
Driving Licence Drivers License
Dual Carriageway Divided Highway

Dummy (For A Baby) Pacifier

Dust Sheet Drop Cloth
Dustbin Garbage Can
Earth (Electrical) Ground
Engaged (Of A Phone) Busy

Estate Agent Real Estate Agent, Realtor (Trademark)

Estate Car Station Wagon
Ex-Directory Unlisted
Faith School Parochial School
Financial Year Fiscal Year

Fire Brigade/Service Fire Company/Department

First Floor Second Floor
Fish Finger Fish Stick
Fitted Carpet Wall-To-Wall Carpeting
Flannel Washcloth

Flat Apartment
Flexitime Flextime
Flick Knife Switchblade

Flyover Overpass
Football Soccer
Footway Sidewalk
Fringe (Hair) Bangs
Full Board (In Hotels) American Plan

Full Stop (Punctuation) Period

Garden Yard; Lawn
Gearing (Finance) Leverage
Gear Lever Gearshift
Goods Train Freight Train

Greaseproof Paper Wax Paper/Waxed Paper

Green Fingers Green Thumb
Grill (Noun) Broiler
Grill (Verb) Broil
Ground Floor First Floor

Groundsman Groundskeeper
Hairslide Barrette
Hatstand Hatrack
Hen Night Bachelorette Party
Hire Purchase Installment Plan

Hoarding Billboard
Hob Stovetop
Holdall Carryall

Holiday Vacation
Holidaymaker Vacationer
Homely Homey
Hosepipe (Garden) Hose
In Hospital In The Hospital

Hot Flush Hot Flash

Housing Estate Housing Development
Hundreds And Thousands Sprinkles (For Ice Cream)
Ice Lolly Popsicle (Trademark)
Icing Sugar Confectioners Sugar

Indicator (On A Car) Turn Signal

Inside Leg Inseam
Jelly Babies Jelly Beans
Joe Bloggs Joe Blow
Joe Public John Q. Public

Jumble Sale Rummage Sale

Jump Lead Jumper Cable
Jumper Sweater
Junior School Elementary School
Kennel Doghouse

Ladybird Ladybug
A Lettuce A Head Of Lettuce
Level Crossing Grade Crossing

Lift Elevator
Lolly Popsicle (Trademark)
Lollipop Lady (Or Man) Crossing Guard
Loo (Toilet) John
Loose Cover Slipcover

Lorry Truck
Loudhailer Bullhorn
Low Loader Flatbed Truck
Lucky Dip Grab Bag
Luggage Van Baggage Car

Maize Corn
Mangetout Snow Pea
Market Garden Truck Farm
Marshalling Yard Railroad Yard
Maths Math

Metalled Road Paved Road

Milometer Odometer
Minim (Music) Half Note
Mobile Phone Cell Phone
Monkey Tricks Monkeyshines

Motorway Expressway; Highway

Mum/Mummy Mom/Mommy
Nappy Diaper

Needlecord Pinwale
Newsreader Newscaster
Noughts And Crosses Tic-Tac-Toe
Number Plate License Plate
Off-Licence Liquor Store; Package Store

Opencast Mining Open-Pit Mining

Ordinary Share Common Stock
Oven Glove Oven Mitt
Paddling Pool Wading Pool
Paracetamol Acetaminophen

Parting (In Hair) Part

Patience Solitaire
Pavement Sidewalk
Pay Packet Pay Envelope
Pedestrian Crossing Crosswalk

Peg Clothespin
Pelmet Valance
Petrol Gas; Gasoline
Physiotherapy Physical Therapy
Pinafore Dress Jumper

Plain Chocolate Dark Chocolate

Plain Flour All-Purpose Flour
Polo Neck Turtleneck

Positive Discrimination Reverse Discrimination

Postal Vote Absentee Ballot
Postbox Mailbox
Postcode Zip Code
Potato Crisp Potato Chip

Power Point Electrical Outlet

Pram Baby Carriage; Stroller
Press Stud Snap
Press-Up Pushup
Private Soldier GI

Public School Private School

Public Transport Public Transportation
Punchbag Punching Bag
Pushchair Stroller
Pylon Utility Pole

Quantity Surveyor Estimator

Quaver (Music) Eighth Note
Queue Line
Racing Car Race Car
Railway Railroad

Real Tennis Court Tennis

Recorded Delivery Certified Mail
Registration Plate License Plate

Remould (Tyre) Retread

Reverse The Charges Call Collect
Reversing Lights Back-Up Lights
Right-Angled Triangle Right Triangle
Ring Road Beltway

Room Only European Plan

Roundabout (At A Fair) Carousel
Roundabout (In Road) Traffic Circle
Rowing Boat Rowboat
Sailing Boat Sailboat

Saloon (Car) Sedan

Sandpit Sandbox
Sandwich Cake Layer Cake
Sanitary Towel Sanitary Napkin
Self-Raising Flour Self-Rising Flour

Semibreve (Music) Whole Note

Semitone (Music) Half Step
Share Option Stock Option
Shopping Trolley Shopping Cart
Show House/Home Model Home

Silencer (On A Car) Muffler

Silverside Rump Roast
Skeleton In The Cupboard Skeleton In The Closet

Skimmed Milk Skim Milk

Skipping Rope Jump Rope
Skirting Board Baseboard
Sledge Sled
Sleeper Railroad Tie

Sleeping Partner Silent Partner

Slowcoach Slowpoke
Snakes And Ladders Chutes And Ladders
Solicitor Lawyer
Soya/Soya Bean Soy/Soybean

Splashback Backsplash
Spring Onion Green Onion
Stag Night Bachelor Party
Stanley Knife Utility Knife
Starter Appetizer

State School Public School

Storm In A Teacup Tempest In A Teapot
Surtitle Supertitle
Swede Rutabaga
Sweet(S) Candy

Takeaway (Food) Takeout; To Go

Taxi Rank Taxi Stand
Tea Towel Dish Towel

Terrace House Row House

Tick Check Mark
Ticket Tout Scalper
Tights Pantyhose
Timber Lumber

Titbit Tidbit
Toffee Apple Candy Apple
Touch Wood Knock On Wood
Trade Union Labor Union
Trading Estate Industrial Park

Trainers Sneakers
Tram Streetcar; Cable Car
Transport Cafe Truck Stop
Trolley Shopping Cart
Twelve-Bore Twelve-Gauge

Unalike Unlike
Underground Subway
Vacuum Flask Thermos Bottle
Verge (Of A Road) Shoulder
Vest Undershirt

Veterinary Surgeon Veterinarian

Wagon (On A Train) Car
Waistcoat Vest

Walking Frame Walker

Wardrobe Closet
Water Ice Italian Ice
Weatherboard Clapboard
White Coffee Coffee With Cream

White Spirit Mineral Spirits

Wholemeal Bread Wholewheat Bread
Windcheater Windbreaker
Windscreen Windshield
Wing (Of A Car) Fender

Worktop Countertop
Yale Lock Cylinder Lock
Zebra Crossing Crosswalk
Zed (Letter Z) Zee
Zip Zipper
Basic English Grammar

TNPSC F&g; NjHtpy; nghJ Mq;fpyj;jpw;fhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;

KjyhtJ jiyg;ghd ,yf;fzj;jpy; cs;s midj;J
gpupTfSf;Fk; Fwpg;Gfis Mq;fpyj;jpy; ngw vq;fsJ Basic
English Grammar vd;w ,ytr mg;spNfrid lTd;NyhL
nra;Aq;fs;. ,e;j mg;spNfridg; ngw fPo;fz;l ypq;fpidf; fpspf;