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MODUL KD 8

Topic: Teks lisan dan tulis untuk menyatakan dan menanyakan tentang pengandaian jika terjadi suatu
keadaan/
kejadian/peristiwa di waktu yang akan datang.

Lembar Kerja
Task 1: Read the text carefully

"The Last Leaf" by O. Henry


adapted to audio by Don Kisner

Synopsis of the play


In May of 1899, in a small Greenwich Village restaurant, Sue and Johnsy meet. They
become friends and rent an apartment together to share expenses.

In November, Johnsy becomes ill with pneumonia. Her illness lingers. She becomes frail
and loses hope of recovering. Outside her window is an old ivy vine on which only a few
leaves remain. Johnsy has become so disheartened that she refuses to fight her way back
to health and convinces herself that when the last leaf falls off the vine, she will die.

It is the day of "house calls" for doctors, and the doctor tells Sue that if Johnsy is to get
well, she must get her mind on something other than her sickness. Sue is worried; she
goes downstairs and reveals her fears to Mr. Behrman, a grizzled, unsuccessful artist
who dreams of one day painting a masterpiece. Only one leaf remains on the vine now,
and even Mr. Behrman is worried that tonight it will fall victim to the wind and rain.

The next morning, when Sue and Johnsy look out the window, the last leaf is still there.
Johnsy thinks about her situation and convinces herself that fate caused the leaf to stay
on the vine so that she would not die. With this change in attitude, Johnsy gradually gets
well. The doctor comes and verifies Johnsy's recovery. The doctor also tells Sue that Mr.
Behrman has pneumonia and is beyond help. He dies that same day.

Later that day, Sue discovers how Mr. Behrman became ill. She tells Johnsy that on the
stormy night when the last leaf was about to fall, Mr. Behrman took a ladder, climbed
the wall, and painted a true masterpiece--a picture of the last leaf on the brick wall.

Source:www.balancepublishing.com
Task 2:
Answer the questions
1 What would you do if you became ill?
2 Would you fight your health?
3 Would you lose your hope for recovery?
4 Who shared the apartment?
5 Why did they share it?
6 What illness did Johnsy suffer?
7 How did she face her illness?
8 Why did her illness linger?
9 What superstition did she have?
10 Why did the leaf fall?
11 Did the leaf fall?
12 Knowing that the leaf didnt fall, how was Johnsy?
13 Who was Mr. Behrman?
14 What was he?
15 What happened to him?
16 How was his illness?
17 What caused his illness?
18 Why did he paint the leaf?
19 How did his painting influence Johnsys life?
20 What message do you learn from the story?

Task 3: Observe the dialogues, find the meaning of each sentences, and write a formula

Task 4: Observe, question and make conclusion from the following picture

I. See the picture above. What is happening? Write down at least 4 things.
1. The child is very naughty.
2. .......................................................................................................
3. .........................................................................................................
4. .........................................................................................................
5. .........................................................................................................
II. Do you think the events could end differently if the things above went
differently?
1. If the child werent so naughty, the father wouldnt shout at him.
2. ............................................................................................................
3. ............................................................................................................
4. .............................................................................................................
5. ............................................................................................................

III. Take a look at these sentences:


If you cross an international date line, the time changes.
Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air.
If I wake up early, I go jogging.
If you add two and two, you get four.
If I have enough time, I'll watch the football match.
If my son gets worse tonight, Ill take hime to hospital.
If I were a millionaire, I would buy a castle.
If I had a lot of money, I would travel around the world.
If he had been careful, he wouldn't have had that terrible accident.
If hed arrived on time, we could have caught the plane.
Now try to discuss and answer the questions; you may consult your
dictionary, books, or
browse the internet:
1. What are these sentences called?
2. Is there any particular rule?
Present your finding in front of the class.

Task 5: Complete the sentences using the formula you have got from Task 3

Task 6: Complete the sentences

1. If I were offered the job, I _______ (take) it.


2. If they had left the house earlier, they ________ (be; not) so late
getting to the airport that they could not check their baggage.
3. If I finish the dress before Saturday, I _______ (give) it to my sister for
her birthday.
4. If I had seen the movie, I ______ (tell) you about it last night.
5. Had Bob not interfered in his sister's marital problems, there ________
(be) peace between them.
6. He would give you the money if he _________ (have) it.
7. She would call you immediately if she _________ (need) help.
8. Had they arrived at the sale early, they _________ (find) a better
selection.
9. I you have enough time, please ________ (paint) the chair before
you leave!
10. He would understand it if you __________ (explain) it to him
more slowly.

SHARING KNOWLEDGE

The zero conditional is used when describing situations which have automatic or habitual results.
Using this conditional suggests that we are 100% sure of the result.

If you heat ice, it melts. (will melt is also possible)

If there is a shortage of any product, prices of that product go up.

My parents get angry if I come home late.

As you can see, both the main clause and the if-clause are in the Present Simple.

The zero conditional is often used to give instructions:

Press the button if you want a receipt.

If you want to leave a message, speak after the tone.

We use the First Conditional to talk about a future situation that is possible.

The verb in the if-clause is in the present tense; the verb in the main clause is in the Future
Simple. It doesn't matter which comes first. There is usually a comma between the two clauses.

If you try very hard, you'll see the difference.

John will be late, if you don't lend him your car.

This type of sentence implies that the action is very probable.

Note that the meaning here is present or future, but the main verb in the if-clause is in a present,
not future tense.

1 . Possible variations of the basic form

Sometimes instead of if + present + future, we may have:

a) if + present + may/might (possibility)


If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming.

b) if + present + may (permission)or can (permission or ability)

If your documents are in order, you may/can leave at once. (permission)

If it stops raining, we can go out." (permission or ability)

c) if +present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice

if you want to look slim, you must/should eat less meat.

if you want to look slim, you had better eat less meat.

if you want to look slim, eat less meat.

d) When if is used to mean as/since, a variety of tenses can be used in the main clause

2. Variations of the if-clause

Instead of if + present tense, we can have:


a) if + present continuous, to indicate a present actions or a future arrangement."

If you are waiting for a bus (present action), you'd better join the queue.

If you are looking for Peter, you'll find him upstairs.

If you're staying for another night (future arrangement), I'll ask the manager to give you a
better room.

b) if + present perfect

if you have finished dinner, I'll ask the waiter for the bill.

If has written the letter, I'll post it.

If they haven't seen the museum, we'd better go there today.

We use the Second Conditional:

to give advice

to talk about a future situation that is unlikely to happen

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE


If he did that, would leave him.

The verb in the if-clause is in the past tense; the verb in the main clause is in the conditional
tense.
If someone stole my bag, I would immediately contact the police. (But I don't think that
anyone will try to steal the bag. The meaning here is future.)

Note

There is no difference between the first and second conditionals as far as time is concerned. The
first conditional, like the second conditional refers to the present or future. The past tense in the
if-clause is not a true past but a subjunctive, which indicates improbability or unreality.

Use
1. When the supposition is contrary to known facts
"If I lived in New York, I wouldn't have to commute there each day." (But I don't live in New
York.)
"If I were you, I would plant some trees in your garden." (But I'm not you.)
2. When we don't expect the action in the if-clause to happen:
"If I saw a zombie, I would run as fast as I could." (But I don't expect to see a zombie.)
"If I bought a car like this, everyone would admire me." (But I don't intend to buy the car.)

Possible variations of the basic form


Variations of the main clause might or could may be used instead of would:

If you tried again, you would succeed. (certain result)

If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result)

If I knew her number, I could ring her up. (ability)

If he had a permit, he could get a job. (ability or permission)

The continuous conditional form may be used instead of the simple:

Peter is on holiday; he is touring Italy. ~ "If I were on holiday I would/might be touring


Italy too."

On this page, you will learn about the Third Conditional. We use it when talking about a past
condition that cannot be fulfilled, because the action in the if-clause didn't happen.

For example, imagine that you missed a train (and as a result you were late for an important
meeting). You could say:

If I hadn't missed the train, I wouldn't have been late for the meeting.

Do you know what tenses each of the clauses is in? Let's see:

The verb in the if-clause is in the Past Perfect Tense

The verb in the main clause is in the Perfect Conditional

If-clause (Past Perfect) Main clause (Perfect Conditional)


If I hadn't missed the train, I wouldn't have been late for the meeting.

More examples:
If I had known that you were coming, I would have met you at the railway station. (But I
didn't know that you were coming so I didn't come)

If he had tried to leave the country, he would have been stopped at the frontier. (But he
didn't try)

Variations

The form of the conditional can be a little different.

a)couldor might may be used instead of would:

If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they could have saved his life. (ability)

If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they might have saved his life. (possibility)

If we had the necessary documents, we could have left at once. (ability or permission)

b) The continuous form of the Perfect Conditional may be used:

If I had had any money I would have been watching the film with my girlfriend that
evening.

c) We can use the Past Perfect Continuous in the if-clause:

I wasn't wearing a seat belt. If I had been wearing one, I wouldn't have been seriously
injured.

d) A combination of types 2 and 3 is possible:

The airplane I intended to catch crashed. If I had caught that airplane, I would have been
killed or I would be dead now(type 3)

If he had worked harder at school, he would be working in a comfortable office now; he


wouldn't be sweeping the streets. (But I didn't work hard at school and now he is
sweeping the streets.)

e) Using inversion, we can place "had" before the subject, omitting the "if": For example, instead
of saying:

If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.

we can say:

Had you told me about your problems, this disaster would not have happened.

EVALUATION
Task 1 : Complete the sentences
1. He would have good salary if he (work) in a private company
2. The irrigation system will be useless if the river (be) dry
3. If you had come here earlier, you (not, miss) the opening ceremony
4. If she (be) a dentist, she would have many patients
5. The wife would have collapsed if she (know) her husbands accident
6. They (tell) us if they arrive safely
7. You would have met an old friend of yours if you (come) over
8. The thief (not, steal) your car if you had parked in the right place
9. If a beggar (ask) you for money, will you give him any?
10. You (find) the book if you had opened your bag

Task 2: Choose the best answer to complete the sentences

1. If I ______ the flu I would have gone with you.


A. hadn't
B. didn't have
C. have
D. hadn't had
E. wouldnt have had

2. 'Will you come to the meeting?'


'If you come, I ________.'
A. come C. do E. too
B. will D. am

3. If you took the clothes to the laundry now, they ______.


A. had washed D. will wash
B. has been washed E. would be washed
C. will be washed

4. If he prepared his lesson, he ______ his examinations.


A. passed D. would have passed
B. would pass E. would be passed
C. had passed

5. He ________ if I had not reminded him.


A. may forget C. may forgot E. might have forgotten
B. must forget D. should forget

6. We ____ the work if we had been given enough time.


A. finished D. could have finished
B. would finish E. could be finished
C. could finish

7. He didn't pass his exams. If he had studied harder, he _______.


A. can pass D. can passed it
B. could pass E. will pass it
C. could have passed

8. If someone had taken her book, she _____ the teacher.


A. would have told to D. had told it
B. would have told E. would told it to
C. will have told it

9. 'I didn't know that Tuti was at home.'


'_________.'
A. If I did, I would come and see her
B. If I had known, I would have come and seen her
C. If I knew, I came and saw her
D. If I have known, I have come and seen her
E. If I know, I'll come and see her
10. It rained very hard this morning, but mother didn't have an umbrella
with her.
We may conclude that ______.
A. If she had an umbrella, she didn't get wet
B. If she had an umbrella, she could not get wet
C. If she has an umbrella, she will not get wet
D. If she has an umbrella, she would not be wet
E. If she had had an umbrella, she would not have been wet

11. I could never have finished my work if my brother _____ me.

A. didn't help D. hadn't helped


B. wasn't helping E. doesn't help
C. hasn't helped

12. When the little boy saw the dog, he ran away and was bitten.
We can conclude that _________.
A. If he hadn't ran away, he wouldn't have been bitten
B. If he doesn't run away, he won't be bitten
C. If he ran away, he wouldn't be bitten
D. If he hasn't run away, he would be bitten
E. unless he run away, he wouldn't be bitten

13. They climbed higher so that they got a better view.


We can also say ________.
A. If they had not climbed higher, they would not have got a better view
B. If they didn't climb higher, they wouldn't get a better view
C. If they didn't climb higher, they didn't get a better view
D. If they don't climb higher, they won't get a better view
E. If they won't climb higher, they don't get a better view

14. 'It is good that Ann reminded me about Prabu's birthday.'


_______________.
A. I would have forgotten if she hadn't reminded me
B. I will forget it if she doesn't remind me
C. I might forget it if she doesn't remind me
D. I would forget it if she didn't remind me
E. I could not forget it if she hadn't remind me

15. 'I am sorry our football team has lost.'


'______________.'
A. You wouldn't, if you trained harder
B. You won't, if you train harder
C. You wouldn't, if you would train harder
D. You wouldn't have, if you had trained harder
E. You don't, if you have trained harder

16. If the mechanic had done his work properly, you _____ no problems
with your car yesterday.
A. would have had C. would have E. will have
B. have had D. had had

17. 'If they had known that the flood was coming, they wouldn't have been
stayed in their house.' Means ______________.
A. They knew that the flood was coming; therefore, they stayed in
their house
B. They decided to stay in their house although the flood was coming
C. They couldn't stay in their house because they knew that the flood
was coming
D. They didn't know that the flood was coming; therefore, they stayed
in their house
E. They didn't want to stay in their house because they knew that
the flood was coming

18. Rudi would have lost his way in London if he hadn't been able to speak
English well.
The above sentence means '___________.'
A. Rudy lost because his English was poor
B. Although Rudi's English was good, he got lost
C. As Rudi could not communicate in English, he got lost
D. In spite of his good English, Rudi did not get lost
E. Rudi didn't get lost because his English was good

19. It's beginning to rain.


_______, we won't be able to finish the ball game.

A. If it stops D. If it didn't stop


B. Should stop E. Had it not stopped
C. Unless it stops

20. My younger brother thinks that everybody can become a teacher. He often asks
himself . What . if I were a teacher?
A. do I do D. am I doing
B. will I do E. am I going to do
C. would I do
21. Had I realized that Tony was a bad driver. I . my car.
A. would not lend him
B. did not lend him
C. will not lend him
D. would not have lent him
E. had not had

22. If she works harder, she .. her paper in time.


. will finish
B. would finish
C. has finished
D. will be finishing
E. will have finished

23. If my car were in the better condition, I


would make a long trip now.
It may be concluded that I .
A. have to stay at home
B. are enjoying the trip
C. prefer staying at home
D. enjoyed the trip
E. stayed at home