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11/1/2017

Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

11/1/2017 Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Derivatives:definitions,notation,andrules

Aderivativeisafunctionwhichmeasurestheslope. Itdependsuponxinsomeway,andisfoundby differentiatingafunctionoftheformy=f(x). Whenxissubstitutedintothederivative,theresultisthe slopeoftheoriginalfunctiony=f(x).

Therearemanydifferentwaystoindicatetheoperationofdifferentiation,alsoknownasfindingortaking thederivative. Thechoiceofnotationdependsonthetypeoffunctionbeingevaluatedanduponpersonal preference.

Supposeyouhaveageneralfunction:y=f(x). Allofthefollowingnotationscanbereadas"thederivative ofywithrespecttox"orlessformally,"thederivativeofthefunction."

f'(x)

f'

y'

df/dx

dy/dx

d/dx[f(x)].

[HINT:don'treadthelastthreetermsasfractions,readthemasanoperation.

Forexample,read: "

dx/dy

As:

"thefunctionthatgivestheslope

=

3x"

isequalto 3x"

Let'strysomeexamples. Supposewehavethefunction: y=4x 3 +x 2 +3.

Afterapplyingtherulesofdifferentiation,weendupwiththefollowingresult:

dy/dx=12x 2 +2x.

Howdoweinterpretthis? First,decidewhatpartoftheoriginalfunction(y=4x 3 +x 2 +3)youare interestedin. Forexample,supposeyouwouldliketoknowtheslopeofywhenthevariablextakesona valueof2. Substitutex=2intothefunctionoftheslopeandsolve:

dy/dx=12(2) 2 +2(2)=48+4=52.

Therefore,wehavefoundthatwhenx=2,thefunctionyhasaslopeof +52.

Nowforthepracticalpart. Howdoweactuallydeterminethefunctionoftheslope? Almostallfunctions youwillseeineconomicscanbedifferentiatedusingafairlyshortlistofrulesorformulas,whichwillbe presentedinthenextseveralsections.

Howtoapplytherulesofdifferentiation

Onceyouunderstandthatdifferentiationistheprocessoffindingthefunctionoftheslope,theactual

applicationoftherulesisstraightforward.

First,someoverallstrategy.Therulesareappliedtoeachtermwithinafunctionseparately. Thentheresults fromthedifferentiationofeachtermareaddedtogether,beingcarefultopreservesigns.[Forexample,the sumof3xandnegative2x 2 is3xminus2x 2. ].

Don'tforgetthatatermsuchas"x"hasacoefficientofpositiveone. Coefficientsandsignsmustbe correctlycarriedthroughalloperations,especiallyindifferentiation.

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Therulesofdifferentiationarecumulative,inthesensethatthemorepartsafunctionhas,themorerulesthat havetobeapplied. Let'sstartherewithsomespecificexamples,andthenthegeneralruleswillbepresented

intableform.

Takethesimplefunction: y=C,andletCbeaconstant,suchas15. Thederivativeofanyconstanttermis 0,accordingtoourfirstrule. Thismakessensesinceslopeisdefinedasthechangeintheyvariablefora givenchangeinthexvariable. Supposexgoesfrom10to11;yisstillequalto15inthisfunction,anddoes notchange,thereforetheslopeis0. Notethatthisfunctiongraphsasahorizontalline.

Now,addanothertermtoformthelinearfunctiony=2x+15. Thenextrulestatesthatwhenthexistothe powerofone,theslopeisthecoefficientonthatx. Thiscontinuestomakesense,sinceachangeinxis

multipliedby2todeterminetheresultingchangeiny. Weaddthistothederivativeoftheconstant,whichis

0byourpreviousrule,andtheslopeofthetotalfunctionis2.

Now,supposethatthevariableiscarriedtosomehigherpower. Wecanthenformatypicalnonlinear functionsuchasy=5x 3 +10. Thepowerrulecombinedwiththecoefficientruleisusedasfollows:pull

outthecoefficient,multiplyitbythepowerofx,thenmultiplythattermbyx,carriedtothepowerofn­1.

Therefore,thederivativeof5x 3 isequalto(5)(3)(x) (3­1) ;simplifytoget15x 2 . Addtothederivativeofthe constantwhichis0,andthetotalderivativeis15x 2 .

Notethatwedon'tyetknowtheslope,butrathertheformulafortheslope. Foragivenx,suchasx=1,we

cancalculatetheslopeas15. Inplainerterms,whenx isequalto1,thefunction(y=5x 3 +10)hasaslope

of15.

Theserulescoverallpolynomials,andnowweaddafewrulestodealwithothertypesofnonlinear functions. Itisnotasobviouswhytheapplicationoftherestoftherulesstillresultsinfindingafunction fortheslope,andinaregularcalculusclassyouwouldprovethistoyourselfrepeatedly. Here,wewantto focusontheeconomicapplicationofcalculus,sowe'lltakeNewton'swordforitthattheruleswork, memorizeafew,andgetonwiththeeconomics! Themostimportantstepfortheremainderoftherulesisto properlyidentifytheform,orhowthetermsarecombined,andthentheapplicationoftheruleis

straightforward.

Forfunctionsthataresumsordifferencesofterms,wecanformalizethestrategyaboveasfollows:

Ify=f(x)+g(x),thendy/dx=f'(x)+g'(x). Here'sachancetopracticereadingthesymbols. Readthisrule as:ifyisequaltothesumoftwotermsorfunctions,bothofwhichdependuponx,thenthefunctionofthe slopeisequaltothesumofthederivativesofthetwoterms. Ifthetotalfunctionisfminusg,thenthe

derivativeisthederivativeoftheftermminusthederivativeofthegterm.

Theproductruleisappliedtofunctionsthataretheproductoftwoterms,whichbothdependonx,for

example,y=(x­3)(2x 2 ­1). Themoststraightforwardapproachwouldbetomultiplyoutthetwoterms, thentakethederivativeoftheresultingpolynomialaccordingtotheaboverules. Oryouhavetheoptionof

applyingthefollowingrule.

Giveny=f(x)g(x);dy/dx=f'g+g'f. Readthisasfollows:thederivativeofywithrespecttoxisthe

derivativeoftheftermmultipliedbythegterm,plusthederivativeofthegtermmultipliedbythefterm.

Toapplyittotheaboveproblem,notethatf(x)=(x­3)andg(x)=(2x 2 ­1);f'(x)=1andg'(x)=4x. Then dy/dx=(1)(2x 2 ­1)+(4x)(x­3). Simplify,anddy/dx=2x 2 ­1+4x 2 ­12x,or6x 2 ­12x­1.

Thequotientruleissimilarlyappliedtofunctionswherethefandgtermsareaquotient. Supposeyouhave thefunctiony=(x+3)/(­x 2 ). Thenfollowthisrule:

Giveny=f(x)/g(x), dy/dx=(f'g­g'f)/g 2 . Again,identifyf=(x+3)andg=­x 2 ;f'(x)=1andg'(x)=­2;

andg 2 =x 4 . Thensubstitutein:dy/dx=[(1)(­x 2 )­(­2)(x+3)]/x 4 .Simplifytody/dx =(­x 2 +2x+6)/x 4

.

Now,let'scombinerulesbytypeoffunctionandtheircorrespondinggraphs.

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Typeoffunction Formof function

Graph

Rule

Interpretation

y=constant

y=C

Horizontalline

dy/dx =0

Slope=0;

y=linearfunction y=ax+b

Straightline

dy/dx=a

Slope=coefficient

 

onx

y=polynomialof

y=ax n +b

Nonlinear,oneor

dy/dx=anx n­1

Derivativeisa

order2orhigher

moreturning

function,actual

points

slopedependsupon

location(ievalueof

x)

y=sumsor

y=f(x)+g(x) Nonlinear

dy/dx=f'(x)+

Takederivativeof

differencesof2

g'(x).

eachtermseparately,

functions

thencombine.

y=productoftwo y=[f(x)g(x)] Typically

dy/dx=f'g+g'f.

Startbyidentifying

functions,

nonlinear

f,g,f',g'

y=quotientorratio y=f(x)/g(x) Typically

dy/dx=(f'g­g'f)/

Startbyidentifying

oftwofunctions

nonlinear

g

2 .

f,g,f',g',andg 2

Not­so­basicrulesofdifferentiation

Therearetwomorerulesthatyouarelikelytoencounterinyoureconomicsstudies. Thehardestpartof theserulesisidentifyingtowhichpartsofthefunctionstherulesapply. Actuallyapplyingtheruleisa simplematterofsubstitutinginandmultiplyingthrough. Noticethatthetworulesofthissectionbuildupon therulesfromtheprevioussection,andprovideyouwithwaystodealwithincreasinglycomplicated functions,whilestillusingthesametechniques.

Thepowerfunctionrule:

Inthepreviousrules,wedealtwithpowersattachedtoasinglevariable,suchas x 2 ,orx 5 . Suppose, however,that yourequationcarriesmorethanjustthesinglevariablextoapower. Forexample,

y=(2x+3) 4

Inthiscase,theentireterm(2x+3)isbeingraisedtothefourthpower. Todealwithcaseslikethis,first identifyandrenametheinnertermintheparenthesis: 2x+3=g(x). Thentheproblembecomes

2x+3=g(x). Thentheproblembecomes

Now,notethatyourgoalisstilltotakethederivativeofywithrespecttox. However,xisbeingoperatedon bytwofunctions;firstbyg(multipliesxby2andaddsto3),andthenthat resultiscarriedtothepowerof four. Therefore,whenwetakethederivatives,wehavetoaccountforbothoperationsonx. First,usethe powerrulefromthetableabovetoget:

.
.

Notethattherulewasappliedtog(x)asawhole. Thentakethederivativeofg(x)=2x+3,usingthe appropriaterulefromthetable:

.
.

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Notethechangeinnotation. "g"isusedbecausewewerefindingthechangeing,withrespecttoachangein x. Now,bothpartsaremultipliedtogetthefinalresult:

x. Now,bothpartsaremultipliedtogetthefinalresult: Recallthatderivativesaredefinedasbeingafunctionofx.

Recallthatderivativesaredefinedasbeingafunctionofx. Replacetheg(x)intheabovetermwith(2x+3) inordertosatisfythatrequirement. Thensimplifybycombiningthecoefficients4and2,andchangingthe

power(4­1)to3:

power(4­1)to3: Now,wecansetupthegeneralrule.

Now,wecansetupthegeneralrule. Whenafunctiontakesthefollowingform:

Whenafunctiontakesthefollowingform: Thentherulefortakingthederivativeis: Thechainrule:

Thentherulefortakingthederivativeis:

Thentherulefortakingthederivativeis: Thechainrule:

Thechainrule:

Thesecondruleinthissectionisactuallyjustageneralizationoftheabovepowerrule. Itisusedwhenxis operatedonmorethanonce,butitisn'tlimitedonlytocasesinvolvingpowers. Sinceyoualready understandtheaboveproblem,let'sredoitusingthechainrule,soyoucanfocusonthetechnique.

Giventhesameproblem:

Giventhesameproblem: renamethepartsoftheproblemasfollows: and

renamethepartsoftheproblemasfollows:

Giventhesameproblem: renamethepartsoftheproblemasfollows: and Thentheentireproblemcanbeexpressedas:

and

renamethepartsoftheproblemasfollows: and Thentheentireproblemcanbeexpressedas:

Thentheentireproblemcanbeexpressedas:

and Thentheentireproblemcanbeexpressedas: Thistypeoffunctionisalsoknownasacompositefunction.

Thistypeoffunctionisalsoknownasacompositefunction. Thederivativeofacompositefunctionisequal tothederivativeofywithrespecttou,timesthederivativeofuwithrespecttox:

specificallyinourproblem:

specificallyinourproblem:

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

11/1/2017 Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable Recallthataderivativeisdefinedasafunctionofx,notu. Substitutein2x+3foru:

Recallthataderivativeisdefinedasafunctionofx,notu. Substitutein2x+3foru:

Substitutein2x+3foru: andtheproblemiscomplete. Theformalchainruleisasfollows.

andtheproblemiscomplete. Theformalchainruleisasfollows. Whenafunctiontakesthefollowing form:

Whenafunctiontakesthefollowing form: Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

form: Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas: Updatedtableofderivatives

Updatedtableofderivatives

Let'saddthesetworulestoourtableofderivativesfromtheprevioussection:

Typeoffunction Formoffunction Graph

Rule

Interpretation

y=constant

y=C

Horizontalline

dy/dx =0

Slope=0;

y=linear

y=ax+b

Straightline

dy/dx=a

Slope=coefficient

function

onx

y=polynomialof

y=ax n +b

Nonlinear,oneor

dy/dx=anx n­1

Derivativeisa

order2orhigher

moreturning

function,actual

points

slopedependsupon

location(i.e.value

ofx)

y=sumsor

y=f(x)+g(x)

Nonlinear

dy/dx=f'(x)+g'(x).

Takederivativeof

differencesof2

eachterm

functions

separately,then

combine.

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

y=productof

y=[f(x)g(x)]

Typically

dy/dx=f'g+g'f.

Startbyidentifying

twofunctions

nonlinear

f,g,f',g'

y=quotientor

y=f(x)/g(x)

Typically

dy/dx=(f'g­g'f)/g 2 .

Startbyidentifying f,g,f',g',andg 2

ratiooftwo

nonlinear

functions

   

y=generalized

y=generalized Nonlinear Identifyg(x)

Nonlinear

y=generalized Nonlinear Identifyg(x)

Identifyg(x)

powerfunction

y=composite

y=composite Nonlinear yisafunctionofu,

Nonlinear

y=composite Nonlinear yisafunctionofu,

yisafunctionofu,

function/chain

anduisafunction

rule

 

ofx.

Specialcases

Therearetwospecialcasesofderivativerulesthatapplytofunctionsthatareusedfrequentlyineconomic analysis. Youmaywanttoreviewthesectionsonnaturallogarithmicfunctionsandgraphsandexponential functionsandgraphsbeforestartingthissection.

Naturallogarithmicfunctions

Whenafunctiontakesthelogarithmicform:

Whenafunctiontakesthelogarithmicform: Thenthederivativeofthefunctionfollowstherule:

Thenthederivativeofthefunctionfollowstherule:

Thenthederivativeofthefunctionfollowstherule:

Ifthefunctionyisanaturallogofafunctionofy,thenyouusethelogruleandthechainrule. Forexample, Ifthefunctionis:

Forexample, Ifthefunctionis: Thenweapplythe chainrule ,firstbyidentifyingtheparts:

Thenweapplythechainrule,firstbyidentifyingtheparts:

Thenweapplythe chainrule ,firstbyidentifyingtheparts:

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Now,takethederivativeofeachpart:

11/1/2017 Now,takethederivativeofeachpart: Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable Andfinally,multiply accordingtotherule.

Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Andfinally,multiply accordingtotherule.

Andfinally,multiply accordingtotherule. Now,replacetheuwith5x 2 ,andsimplify

Now,replacetheuwith5x 2 ,andsimplify

accordingtotherule. Now,replacetheuwith5x 2 ,andsimplify Notethatthegeneralizednaturallogruleisaspecialcaseofthe

Notethatthegeneralizednaturallogruleisaspecialcaseofthechainrule:

chainrule : Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

chainrule : Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas: Exponentialfunctions

Exponentialfunctions

Takingthederivativeofanexponentialfunctionisalsoaspecialcaseofthechainrule. First,let'sstartwith asimpleexponentanditsderivative. Whenafunctiontakesthelogarithmicform:

Whenafunctiontakesthelogarithmicform: Thenthederivativeofthefunctionfollowstherule: .

Thenthederivativeofthefunctionfollowstherule:

.
.

No,it'snotamisprint! Thederivativeofe x ise x .

Ifthepowerofeisafunctionofx,notjustthevariablex,thenusethechainrule:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxisdefinedas:

Forexample,supposeyouaretakingthederivativeofthefollowingfunction:

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Definethepartsyandu,andtaketheirrespectivederivatives:

Definethepartsyandu,andtaketheirrespectivederivatives: Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxis:
Definethepartsyandu,andtaketheirrespectivederivatives: Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxis:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxis:

Thenthederivativeofywithrespecttoxis: Updatedtableofderivatives

Updatedtableofderivatives

Nowwecanaddthesetwospecialcasestoourtable:

Typeof

Formoffunction

Graph

Rule

Interpretation

function

y=constant

y=C

Horizontal dy/dx =0 line

Slope=0;

y=linear

y=ax+b

Straight

dy/dx=a

Slope=coefficient

function

line

onx

y=polynomial

y=ax n +b

Nonlinear,

dy/dx=anx n­1

Derivativeisa

oforder2or

oneormore

function,actualslope

higher

turning

dependsupon

points

location(i.e.valueof

x)

y=sumsor

y=f(x)+g(x)

Nonlinear dy/dx=f'(x)+g'(x).

Takederivativeof

differencesof2

eachtermseparately,

functions

thencombine.

y=productof y=[f(x)g(x)] twofunctions,

Typically

dy/dx=f'g+g'f.

Startbyidentifying

nonlinear

f,g,f',g'

y=quotientor y=f(x)/g(x) ratiooftwo functions

Typically

nonlinear dy/dx=(f'g­g'f)/g 2 . Startbyidentifying

f,g,f',g',andg 2

y=generalized

y=generalized Nonlinear identifyg(x)

Nonlinear

y=generalized Nonlinear identifyg(x)

identifyg(x)

powerfunction

y=composite

y=composite Nonlinear yisafunctionofu,

Nonlinear

y=composite Nonlinear yisafunctionofu,

yisafunctionofu,

function/

anduisafunctionof

x.

chainrule

   

y=naturallog

y=naturallog Naturallog Specialcaseofchain

Naturallog

y=naturallog Naturallog Specialcaseofchain

Specialcaseofchain

function

rule

y=exponential

y=exponential Exponential Specialcaseofchain

Exponential

y=exponential Exponential Specialcaseofchain

Specialcaseofchain

function

rule

Higherorderderivatives

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

Justasafirstderivativegivestheslopeorrateofchangeofafunction,ahigherorderderivativegivesthe rateofchangeofthepreviousderivative. We'lltakmoreabouthowthisfitsintoeconomicanalysisina futuresection,[link:economicinterpretationofhigherorderderivatives]butfornow,we'lljustdefine thetechniqueandthendescribethebehaviorwithafewsimpleexamples.

Tofindahigherorderderivative,simplyreapplytherulesofdifferentiationtothepreviousderivative. For example,supposeyouhavethefollowingfunction:

For example,supposeyouhavethefollowingfunction:

Accordingtoourrules,wecanfindtheformulafortheslopebytakingthefirstderivative:

Takethesecondderivativebyapplyingtherulesagain,thistimetoy',NOTy:

Ifweneedathirdderivative,wedifferentiatethesecondderivative,andsoonforeachsuccessivederivative.

Notethatthenotationforsecondderivativeiscreatedbyaddingasecondprime. Othernotationsarealso basedonthecorrespondingfirstderivativeform. Herearesomeexamplesofthemostcommonnotationsfor derivativesandhigherorderderivatives.

Function Firstderivative Secondderivative

Thirdderivative

Function Firstderivative Secondderivative Thirdderivative      
Function Firstderivative Secondderivative Thirdderivative      
Function Firstderivative Secondderivative Thirdderivative      
Function Firstderivative Secondderivative Thirdderivative      
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nowforsomeexamplesofwhatahigherorderderivativeactuallyis. Let'sstartwithanonlinearfunction andtakeafirstandsecondderivative. Recallfromprevioussectionsthatthisequationwillgraphasa parabolathatopensdownward[link:graphingbinomialfunctions].

Function

Firstderivative

Secondderivative

Function Firstderivative Secondderivative
Function Firstderivative Secondderivative
Function Firstderivative Secondderivative

Inordertounderstandthemeaningofderivatives,let'spickacoupleofvaluesofx,andcalculatethevalue

ofthederivativesatthosepoints.

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Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable

11/1/2017 Rulesofcalculus­functionsofonevariable Valueofx Valueoffunctionat firstderivativeatx secondderivative

Valueofx Valueoffunctionat firstderivativeatx secondderivative

 

x

atx

x=0

x=0
x=0
x=0

x=1

x=1
x=1
x=1

x=2

x=2
x=2
x=2

So,howdoweinterpretthisinformation? Whenxequals0,weknowthattheslopeofthefunction,orrate ofchangeinyforagivenchangeinx(fromthefirstderivative)is6. Similarly,thesecondderivativetellsus thattherateofchangeofthefirstderivativeforagivenchangeinxis­2. Inotherwords,whenxchanges, weexpecttheslopetochangeby­2,ortodecreaseby2. Wecancheckthisbychangingxfrom0to1,and

notingthattheslopedidchangefrom6to4,thereforedecreasingby2.

Tosumup,thefirstderivativegivesustheslope,andthesecondderivativegivesthechangeintheslope. In economics,thefirsttwoderivativeswillbethemostuseful,sowe'llstoptherefornow.

[ Index ]