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Amanda McQuade

Mr. Jason King

A.P. Seminar

INTRO
Scientific Lens
Hook:
In 2015, it is estimated that there were about 218 million licensed drivers in the United States,
but an estimate of 27,000 car accidents occur every day.
Address Compelling Question:
With so many accidents occurring daily, should mandatory driving examinations be given at
every license renewal in order for individuals to continue holding their license?
Identify Perspectives:
There are factors of aging to be considered when discussing the possibility of retesting all
drivers. There are various viewpoints on the science behind the changes in the human body as
age-related issues arise for drivers as they get older. It is often argued, that only elderly drivers
should be retested, but this question is not only considering problems that elderly driver face,
but these are also factors to consider for all drivers. This is important, because any driver has
the ability to be involved in accidents, or to cause accidents. The following information will
source from the unique points of views from doctors,regular drivers, scholarly professors, and
scientists who have conducted experiments that follow the questions needed to answer the
given compelling question.
Thesis:
As each perspective is considered, it must always be kept in mind that each individual driver
have different variables, such as certain medical conditions and different experiences with
other drivers. However, if each individual must retest, there must be factors pertaining to all of
the presented issues that connect to every driver.
Transition:
All of these individual components answer minor questions needed to explore every ultimate
possibility for the scientific lense of this ultimate question. Perspectives of the academic (study
of the topic based on statistical information), experimental (actually testing variables to assess
the outcomes correlation with the questions line of reasoning), and situational (verified by a
real life experience with the issue) information are provided in the following discussion to
answer the question provided. There should not only be concrete facts to create the questions
foundations, but the beginnings to this study will be based on the experiences and situations of
those who have had first hand experiences with this issue.
Sources:
https://www.statista.com/statistics/198029/total-number-of-us-licensed-drivers-by-state/

Other Drivers Perspective Doctors perspective


Claim/Perspective 2: Claim/perspective 1:
For drivers who have witnessed the effects of All drivers should remediate every time they
aging while driving, there are conflicting get their license renewed, because as human
viewpoints of whether or not all drivers bodies age, there is a greater chance that
should be remediated when it comes to driving complications, such as vision or
renewing their licenses. hearing loss, will make driving much more
Supporting Details: dangerous not only for the individual with
According to one witness from ABC News, an impairments, but for other drivers and
elderly woman was driving on the wrong side pedestrians.
of the highway, causing disruption in the flow As these renewal tests occur, drivers should
of traffic, and caused accidents. not only be comfortable driving, but should be
Address Limitations: safe for others around them.
However, there are some who do not believe Supporting Details:
that they should be remediated due to their Of course, visual and hearing impairments are
own personal conditions, and their satisfactory not the only concerns, but other conditions
driving that should not need proof. South such as cardiovascular disease, memory loss,
Africa has also established a law that requires back pain, and decrease in fine motor skills
all citizens to be retested. But according to should also be considered when retesting. Not
Masood Boomgard, it is a waste of time to only are conditional impairments important,
retest drivers that are not impaired in any way. but to explore how medications affect our
Conclude Claim: driving, and how as we age, our driving
Among the people who internalize their improves, or it becomes worse.
opinions based on their own experiences, the Address Limitations:
question is often in conflict. While some It should be considered that renewal tests will
citizens consider this to be a justified way to help people as they age, especially when they
keep roadways much safer, there are concerns begin developing impairments later in life.
with individuals who do not have many Not only will it provide more safety for the
changes over time as they age. individuals around them, but it will make
Transition: driving a lot more comfortable for them as
As it has been looked at from both a well. Of course there are many factors to be
professional standpoint and an onlooker considered for each individual, especially for
standpoint, there will be information provided prescribed medications and other
by the results of experiments that will add complications that could impair drivers.
more perspectives around the question. Conclude Claim:
Sources: For the medical reasonings of an individual
Retaking Drivers Tests: Bad Idea aging over time, remediation should be
Drivers Could Have to be Retested for validated for everyone. There is a direct cause
License Renewal effect relationship for highway accidents to a
If all Elderly Drivers were Retested, My Son driver who is impaired.
would be Alive Transition:
As described from the viewpoint of trained
doctors and experts in the medical field, there
are also valid sources and retellings by
witnesses and other drivers who have had real
life experiences with the question.
Sources:
Aging: What to Expect
Impaired Vision and other Factors Associated
with Driving Cessation in the Elderly: Blue
Mountain Eye Study
Age Page: Older Drivers

N/A N/A

Claim/Perspective 3:
There have been both medical and civilian
evaluations to this question, but there is still
important information that is found when
experimenters and scientists use the scientific
method. This is effectively used to test
important theories and factors that affect
drivers and their quality of driving over time.
Supporting Details:
As there have been proven changes in
medications and physical developments,
experiments help when proving data and
statistics to see how much of the population is
affected by these problems. Three
experiments are mentioned in this portion of
the paper, each having information on fine
motor skills, blurry vision, and hearing loss.
Address Limitations:
Information from the studies show age-related
impairments found in young individuals,
which makes young and old demographics
liable to be tested.
Conclude Claim:
Information from the studies conclude that
there are indeed, hidden dangers found in the
healthiest of individuals, that can cause
serious driving impairments. Research from
these studies conclude that not only are
elderly people affected by decrease in fine
motor skills, hearing loss, and visual
impairments, but younger people show signs
of this as well, which can make any age
required to retake their drivers examinations.
Sources:
Older Age Relates to Worsening in Fine
Motor Skills: A Population-Based Study of
Middle- Aged and Elderly Persons.
Impaired Vision and other Factors Associated
with Driving Cessation in the Elderly: The
Blue Mountain Eye Study

CONCLUSION
Restate Compelling Question:
There are many different perspectives to consider when asking, Should all drivers be retested
when renewing their licenses?.
Restate Perspective:
Scientific research has made correlations between conditions of the human body that develop
over time, and the dangers of driving, such as vision and hearing problems. This raises
important social issues, such as the overwhelming damage that is caused from accidents, such
as a mother who had lost her son due to a confused elderly driver, and the 90 year old woman
who drove on the wrong side of the highway, featured on ABC News. On the other side of the
spectrum, there are major concerns involving the experiments and tested variables that tell a
very different tale. Three studies: a fine motor skill, vision loss, and a hearing impairment
examination concluded that not only are elderly drivers struggling with these impairments, but
there are signs of these disorders found in a much younger demographic.
Introduce Solutions/ Limitations:
All in all, there should be funding put in to retesting all drivers regardless of age, due to the
overwhelming positives over the negatives, especially in the scientific perspective. As more
precautions are taken at younger ages, better decisions will be made when these young drivers
age. A possible solution would be to always include eye tests, auditory exams, and fine motor
skill screenings to be included in remedial driving programs, to decide whether the individual
is fit to drive or not.
Synthesize:
In conclusion, scientific research has proven that all people do take risks when they drive.
Certain individuals could be driving without knowing that they have begining stages of ocular,
auditory, and motor skill diseases. This is a serious problem, that can be solved up to a certain
extent, if all drivers were required to retake their examinations, as science has proven that it is
beneficial, and can be further improved by including more medical evaluations in drivers
programs.