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Operating system

Computer operating system(OS) is a piece of computer software which has


collection of various programs to perform computing device operation. The major
task for OS is to manage the resources of the computer system. OS is the system
software that controls the hardware and other application softwares. example:
UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Windows/NT, Chicago, OS/2, MacOS, VMS, MVS,
and VM.

History Operating System

Windows 1.0 November 1985. MS-DOS Executive.


Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel,
Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
Windows 2.0 was released in October 1987
keyboard-shortcuts and use of expanded memory.
Windows 3.0 (1990) and Windows 3.1 (1992)
Windows 95 was released in August 1995,
A new user interface, long file names of up to 255 characters, ability to
automatically detect and configure installed hardware (plug and play), 32-bit
application
Windows 98 in June 1998 second version in May 1999, Windows 98 Second Edition
Windows 98 SE.
February 2000, Windows 2000
Windows Me in September 2000
System Restore,
Windows NT in 2000
Windows XP that was released in August 2001
Windows Server 2003, in 2003
Windows Vista was released toward the end of 2006
Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008.
Windows 7 in July 22, 2009,
Windows CE (Windows Embedded Compact) phone
Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7 usb 3.0 run os in usb

Functions of Operating System


Process Management
Processor Management
Memory Management
Input output Management
Free space Management
Device Management
File Management
Resource Management
Communication Management
Types of Operating systems:

Batch
Batch os is os which analyzes our input and groups them into batchs .That is
data in each batch is of similar characteristics. And then it performs operation on
each individual batch. In a batch processing operating system interaction between
the user and processor is limited or there is no interaction at all during the
execution of work. Data and programs that need to be processed are bundled and
collected as a batch and executed together.
Batch processing operating systems are ideal in situations where:
- There are large amounts of data to be processed.
- Similar data needs to be processed.
- Similar processing is involved when executing the data.
The system is capable of identifying times when the processor is idle at which time
batches maybe processed. Processing is all performed automatically without any
user intervention.
Example:- DOS, IBM OS/2 , Windows 1,2,3 95, 98 and ME

Multi-programming Operating System


In this type of OS several applications maybe simultaneously loaded and used
in the memory. While the processor handles only one application at a particular
time it is capable of switching between the applications effectively to apparently
simultaneously execute each application. This type of operating system is seen
everywhere today and is the most common type of OS, the Windows operating
system would be an example.

Time Sharing
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among
many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking.

Real-time
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at
executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized
scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior.
The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable
response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often
aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their
priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks
based on clock interrupts. Three types of real time operating systems: Hard, Firm
and Soft.
Hard real-time: Degree of tolerance for missed deadlines is negligible. A
missed deadline can result in catastrophic failure of the system..
Soft real-time: Deadlines may be missed occasionally, but system doesnt
fail and also, system quality is acceptable
Multiprocessor system
The term also refers to the ability of a system to support more than one
processor and/or the ability to allocate tasks between them. There are multiple
cores on a die. Multiprocessing sometimes refers to the execution of multiple
concurrent software processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any
one instant

Distributed Operating System


In a distributed system, software and data maybe distributed around the
system, programs and files maybe stored on different storage devices which are
located in different geographical locations and maybe accessed from different
computer terminals. While we are mostly accustomed to seeing multi-tasking and
multi-user operating systems, the other operating systems are usually used in
companies and firms to power special systems.

OS as resource manager
Sharing memory
i/o management

Booting Process
POST (Power On Self Test)
ROM BIOS all h/w connected to PC
Check BIOS from where to boot
Bootstrap Loader selection of OS
BIOS copies its files to memory