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Notes - 2/15/17

WWI Tensions Rise -

Austria/Hungary was worried nationalism would cause rebellions among the

minorities in the empire.

Balkan Wars - Slavs were trying to drive Ottoman Turks out of the Balkans, based

on nationalism called Pan-Slavic. Russia was the largest Slavic nation. They

supported all efforts to defend the Slavs.

Britain felt threatened by Germanys rapid growth after their unification. British

factories were getting old, German factories were brand new. Germans used their

industry to increase their weapons. France and Britain resented Germanys

attempts at imperialism. This common interest made them allies against the


Militarism, a buildup or readiness for war, which stemmed from Darwinism,

begins. Industrialized countries became engaged in an arms race.

The Hague Tribunal was a meeting of many nations leaders to try and avoid war

with a world court. This was meant to settle disputes among nations. )League of

Nations - United Nations) It could not enforce the rules or suggestions.

Causes of World War I

1. Imperialism

2. Nationalism

3. Militarism

4. Alliances

Notes - 2/17/17 -
The Sparks that sets off the war:

June 28, 1914 - Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie visit Bosnia. It

was their 14th anniversary and also the day Serbia was 28-1912 when the Turks

freed themselves from Turkish Rule, but the democracy he was considering

making some concessions to the Slavs. This causes him to have enemies on both

sides. The assassination of the Archduke by a Serbian nationalist group called the

Black Hand created the Spark necessary for the war.

After his nephews murder, the Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph blamed Serbia

and issued them an ultimatum (a set of demands). The demands were almost

impossible to meet in the time they were given. Serbia tried to satisfy Austrias

demands. With the encouragement of Germany, Austria declared war on Serbia,

July 28, 1914.


Germany (William II) promised Austria they would support them.

Serbia turned to another Slavie country, Russia for support.

Russia turned to France because they knew that France was anxious to avenge

their loss against Austria in the Franco-Prussian War. Germany demanded France

remain neutral, when they refused, Germany declared war on France too.

Triple Entente-France, Russia and Great Britain, When the U.S joins it will

become the Allies.

Triple Alliance - 1882 Germany, Austria/Hungary, Italy, After Italy switches sides

it is known as the Central Powers. Ottoman Empire joins in 1914 and Bulgaria in

Return From Vacation
Notes - (2/28/17)

Guns Of August -

Germany is afraid of launching a two front war. Their greatest fear was that

Russia would attack from the east and France would attack from the west.

They developed the Schlieffen Plan to avoid that situation.

Schlieffen Plan - Genera Schlieffen had developed a plan to avoid fighting a two

front war. This plan called for Germany to attack France first then get the German

troops across Germany on railroad and attack Russia before they could even

mobilize their armies. The plan was to attack France through Belgium and not

right across Germanys border to France. The decision to invade through Belgium

drew Britain into the war. Belgium had been guaranteed neutrality, when

Germany invaded Britain declared war on Germany.

Problems with the Schlieffen Plan - 1. Russia mobilized faster than Germany

had considered. 2. Belgium put up a fight which slowed the Germans down in

their march in France. 3. German tanks had trouble getting through the forests in

Belgium. 4. Germany was forced to move some of their troops to the eastern front

to fight the Russians.

Western Front - French and British troops fought Germans in trenches that

stretched hundreds of miles across France. For four years the troops dug in and

more than a few hundred yards.

Eastern Front - Death tolls were even higher on the eastern front and the battles

swung back and forth between the Russians and the Germans. Russia was poorly

equipped since they were the least industrialized.

Notes (3/1/17) -

Russian Revolution - Russians were in a bad economic state when the war began

after three years of fighting rebellions in Russia. After the Romanovs were

assassinated, Lenin came to power. He signed a peace treaty with Germany called

the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. This early withdrawal from the war will

cause Russia to lose war reparations (payments) after the war is over.

U.S Entry - Early in the war Britain and France had set up naval blockades to

stop any shipments to Germany. The U.S. was not thrilled with the interruption of

trade, but the rest of Europe was buying up U.S. products U.S. economy was


Germany had developed the U-Boat or submarine and began sinking

British ships. In 1915 Germany sank the British ship the Lusitania, which was

carrying weapons as well as passengers. More than 1,000 civilians were killed

along with 139 Americans. U.S. demanded Germany halt submarine warfare.

Germany relaxed its efforts to avoid drawing U.S. into the war. In 1917 Germany

became convinced they could starve Britain into surrender if they cut off supplies

to the island. They returned to submarine warfare and began annihilating British

merchant ships. President Wilson addressed Congress, German submarine

warfare against commerce is a war against mankind. U.S. enters the war in April


Most Americans supported the Allies, but German Americans supported

the Central Powers. So did Irish Americans who didnt want to align themselves

with England.

Zimmerman Telegram - In 1917 Britain intercepted a message from the German

foreign minister. Arthur Zimmerman, to his ambassador in Mexico. Zimmerman

had promised Mexico that in return for their support in the war the return of

Mexican land from the U.S. This telegram caused intense anti-German feelings in

the U.S.

Social Impact - The demand for workers led to higher wages and poor people

were actually better off financially than before the war. Rationing and food

shortages existed, especially in Germany where many people starved to death.

The producing for the war continued.

Women were needed in factories and also as merchants, bankers, and

police officers. For the first time in history women became highly visible. Their

contributions to the war effort were recognized by their countries. Britain,

Germany, and Austria all granted women the right to vote immediately following


Homefront - Thanks to the industrial Revolution WWI produced many new

weapons. Mechanized war also meant

Notes (3/3/17) -
Total War - an entire nation's commitment is needed to produce weapons and

contribute financially to the war effort. Total war also meant controlling public

opinion a conscription (draft) and rationing (conserving goods).

Propaganda - To spread ideas or promote a cause; cartoons, songs, or poems can

be used. Propaganda is often graphic and racist and sometimes is completely


Notes (3/7/17)

Germanys Defeat - After Russias withdrawal, Germany turned her attention to

the Eastern Front, but faced a united France, Britain and fresh U.S. forces. They

were quickly defeated by the western Allies at the second Battle of the Marne.

Germans knew they had lost, but the emperor refused to surrender.

After Austrias surrender on Nov. 3 the people of Berlin revolted and demanded

peace. The emperor was forced to abdicate and fled to Holland.

Socialist leaders declared Germany a republic on Nov. 9 and agreed to the terms

of the Allies.

Nov. 11th 1918 the armistice went into effect and the war was over.

Great War -

France mobilized 8.5 million men

Britain mobilized 9 million men

Russia mobilized 12 million men

German mobilized 11 million men

United States mobilized 2 million men

1 out of every 4 did not return.