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The Art of Chess Analysis

Jan Timman
First published in 1997 by Gloucester Publishers pic, (formerly Everyman Publishers
pic), Northburgh House, 10 Northburgh Street, London, EC1V OAT

Copyright 1997 Jan Timman

Reprinted 2003

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Contents

Editor's Foreword 5
Preface 6

1 Portisch-Smyslov, 3rd Match Game, Portoroz 1971 9


2 Polugaevsky-Mecking, Mar del Plata 1971 13
3 Gligoric-Portisch, Amsterdam 1971 20
4 Fischer-Larsen, 1st Match Game, Denver 1971 26
5 Taimanov-Stein, Leningrad 1971 33
6 Fischer-Petrosian, 1st Match Game, Buenos Aires 1971 38
7 Fischer-Spassky, 4th Match Game, Reykjavik 1972 47
8 Fischer-Spassky, lOth Match Game, Reykjavik 1972 56
9 Spassky-Fischer, 19th Match Game, Reykjavik 1972 69
10 Bronstein-Ljubojevic, Petropolis 1973 78
11 Karpov-Spassky, 9th Match Game, Leningrad 1974 88
12 Korchnoi-Karpov, 11th Match Game, Moscow 1974 92
13 Gulko-Timman, Sombor 1974 107
14 Gligoric-Portisch, Wijk aan Zee 1975 114
15 Geller-Spassky, Moscow 1975 120
16 Ljubojevic-Andersson, Wijk aan Zee 1976 128
17 Karpov-Timman, Skopje 1976 136
18 Timman-Karpov, Amsterdam 1976 142
19 Spassky -Korchnoi, 4th Match Game, Belgrade 1977 149
20 Korchnoi-Karpov, 21st Match Game, Baguio City 1978 154
21 Kasparov-Polugaevsky, Tbilisi 1978 168
22 Spassky-Timman, Montreal 1979 176
23 Timman-Tseshkovsky, Bled/Portoroz 1979 185
24 Karpov-Hort, Waddinxveen 1979 194

Index of Players 206


Index of Openings 207
Editor's Foreword

This renowned work by Jan Timman was first published in 1 980 by RHM, but
never reprinted in English due to the subsequent collapse of the publisher.
A second, updated edition was published in 1 993, but this appeared only in
Dutch. The current edition includes all the new analysis which appeared in the
1 993 edition, together with some further minor corrections.
The Art of Chess Analysis remains one of the best examples of painstaking
analytical work ever written. It is very unusual for a leading player such as Jan
Timman to take on the difficult task of giving detailed annotations to the games of
other players. He has succeeded magnificently. The book is particularly instruc
tive in that Timman not only gives detailed analysis when required, but also cov
ers the plans and counterplans available to both sides, illuminating many of the
general principles governing chess strategy.

Petra Nunn
Chertsey, June 1 997
Preface

In the winter of early 1 97 1 , at the Hoogoven tournament, I achieved my second


master result and thus obtained the title of International Master. That summer my
first Grandmaster tournament - the IBM - was on the program. The list of partici
pants was an impressive one, and I decided to be as well prepared as possible. But
how? During my high school years I had spent useful afternoons training with
Bouwmeester, but that period was now definitely behind me; if I was to continue
to grow and make progress, I would have to depend entirely on myself.
Not surprisingly, I turned to Botvinnik. The first chess book I had ever seen
was Muller's biography of him, Zo speelt Botwinnik, and now I owned an English
translation of Botvinnik's work, One Hundred Selected Games. In his Foreword,
Botvinnik asks the rhetorical questions, 'How do I prepare?' , and he immediately
answers, 'That has never been any secret' : fifteen to twenty days in the fresh
country air, prescribes Dr Botvinnik.
So it was that Hans Bohm and I, among others, bid farewell to our carefree life
style and began a long retreat at a house in the Friesland countryside. For three
months we lived like health fanatics. Our luggage contained little more than chess
literature and track suits.
The tournament began . . . and the first five games were lost. I remember exactly
how I felt. During play my body was overflowing with so much energy that I
could hardly stay seated in my chair. After each game I still had enough energy to
run several times around the Vondel Park. But why bother?
This painful start drove me to a firm decision. I threw all my Spartan habits
overboard and indulged myself in everything that had been declared unhealthy. In
short, I went back to my old lifestyle. And lo and behold, immediately everything
went wonderfully. Thanks to a good winning streak, a total catastrophe was
averted and I managed a reasonable result.
So much for that part of the wisdom I had hoped to find in Botvinnik's work.
The only lesson I really learned is that you must never change your normal
rhythm just because you are faced with an important tournament. As Botvinnik
says a little later in the same Foreword: 'Possibly some of my suggestions will not
be of much benefit to some players; each must consider them critically and apply
them with caution, taking his own individual capacities and habits into account.'
Far more useful was Botvinnik's advice to analyse games at home and then
publish the analysis. As he put it: 'During play your analytical work is continually
Preface 7

being tested against your critically-minded opponents, but in home-analysis it is


very easy to be unobjective. To fight this tendency and to get away from poor
analysis it is useful to publish your individual analytical work. Then you are sub
ject to objective criticism.'
So I began to analyse games. Luckily, there was an independent magazine in
Holland, Schaakbulletin, which was eager to publish this analytical work. In the
framework of 'The Game of the Month,' a more-or-less thorough analysis was
published in every issue. I limited myself to games between top players, hoping
for as much critical comment as possible. In that respect the result was disap
pointing: only after the game Fischer-Petrosian, which I had worked on for about
forty hours all told, did two reactions arrive (both of which have been gratefully
worked into this book)
Even more disappointing was the reaction to my book about the Fischer
Spassky match, which appeared a year later. To put it plainly, the reactions were
very enthusiastic and full of praise. But that was just the trouble ! There had been
a lot of competition to bring out the quickest books on the match. Commerce had
run riot, and countless rushed works had appeared in a colourful variety of lan
guages. In a way, my book stood out: despite its fairly quick appearance, it con
sisted of analysis over which some care had been taken. It was inevitable that a
number of experts would declare it the best book on the match. But good heavens,
imagine what would have happened if they had examined all the variations criti
cally ! A new book would have been necessary to accommodate all the mistakes
and inadequacies in the analysis. I actually considered writing such a book, but it
very quickly became apparent that not a single publisher had the slightest interest
in it. There remained no other course for me but to completely revise the most in
teresting games from that match for this collection. The only real support in this
respect was the Icelandic book on the match written by Fridrik Olafsson. It did
not appear until a year after the match, and only in Icelandic, so it fell quite out
side the commercial book category. Modestly, but with my heart at peace, I can
say that there is no doubt which is the best book of that match.
The match in Reykjavik signalled the end of the Fischer era. His sudden indo
lence had a chaotic effect on the chess world. The number of chess enthusiasts the
world over, particularly in the United States, had increased frighteningly, and al
though countless numbers of people were interested exclusively in Fischer's
games, there was no fresh supply. My own state of mind was adversely affected.
My analytical work was put aside a little. In the summer of 1979 I completely re
vised my analysis of Bronstein-Ljubojevic (game 10 in this book), trying to show
that interesting play was still taking place in the interval between the eras of Fischer
and Karpov.
8 The Art of Chess Analysis

We must learn to live with Karpov as World Champion. His games are gener
ally less absorbing than Fischer's, but on the other hand, the title has had a bene
ficial effect on Karpov. He has continued to play, and his games have even begun
to show a little more colour. Games 17 and 1 8 are good examples.
My own play underwent a ripening process, and the analysis of games 1 4- 1 8
(game 1 3 was done later) flowed from my pen with great ease. There is a definite
difference between the analysis of games 1 -6 and that of games 14- 1 8.
During the last two years I have published little detailed analysis. But on those
few occasions I received more response than ever before- a happy phenomenon.
Four of the last five games in this book are brand new. I gave them a great deal of
attention and tried for the greatest possible precision. Obviously, imagination
takes its own course, like time and tide. Not only play itself but also analysis must
be fed by inspiration. My hope is that you will feel free to make critical com
ments.

J. H.1imman
Amsterdam, August 1 9, 1 979
Game One
Portisch - Smyslov
Can didates play-off Match (3), Portoroi 1971
Dutch Defence
In chess it is customary to play off ties for reserve places in the candidates
matches. Portisch and Smyslov, who had shared seventh place in the Interzonal
tournament in Palma de Majorca 1 970, played a six-game match which ended in
a tie, 3-3. Since none of the eight candidates withdrew to make room for a reserve,
the match stopped at that point instead of continuing to a decision.
Though it was in effect only a practice match, Portisch-Smyslov left us with
some interesting games, particularly this one. Smyslov played the Leningrad
Variation of the Dutch Defence very unconventionally. Portisch, who is known
for his methodical opening play and rather dogmatic handling of the middlegame,
was evidently thrown into confusion. Instead of striving for a small positional ad
vantage, he entered complications which Smyslov seems to have evaluated better.

1 d4 f5
This in itself is already a surprise.
As far as I know, Smyslov has never B

played this before.


2 g3 c!Ot'6
3 i.gl g6
4 li:)f3
Also somewhat surprising. One
would have expected Portisch to fight
the Leningrad in the manner popular
ised by Taimanov; namely, 4 c4 i.g7 5
lLlc3 0-0 6li:)h3 , as was shown in the
Championship of the Netherlands 6 i.bl d5!?
1 97 1 , among other tournaments. A very unusual move in this posi
4... i.g7 tion. Known is the continuation 6 . . . d6
5 b3 (D) 7 0-0 and now:
A fairly unknown move, first used 1 ) 7 .. a5 8 a3 c6 9 lLlbd2 lLla6 10 e3
.

in 1 960 by Trifunovit against Matu i.d7 1 1 1i'e2 1i'c7 1 2 a4 with slightly


lovif. better play for White (Bolbochan-Gar
5 0-0 cia, Mar del Plata 1 966).
10 The Art of Chess Analysis

2) 7 . . . lle4 8 'ii'c 1 e6 9 c4 1i'e8 1 0 An unfortunate square for the


llc3 llxc3 11 .txc3 lld7 1 2 c 5 'ii'e7 queen in certain cases. 1 1 l:.c 1 comes
1 3 cxd6 cxd6 14 'ii'a3 llf6 1 5 l:.fe1 strongly into consideration, although
lC!d5 1 6 .td2 .tf6 and the position is the consequences of 1 l . . .dxc4 are not
balanced (Garcia-Petersen, Lugano so easy to foresee. White gets the ad
1 968). vantage after 1 2 llxf7 1kxf7 1 3 bxc4
3) 7 . . . llc6 8 d5 lla5 9 llfd2 c5 10 1hc4 14 lld5 'ii'x a2 1 5 llc7 lla6 1 6
a4 .td7 11 c3 and now 1 1 . . .tCle8 (in llxa8 1kxb2 1 7 d5 ! due to the poor co
stead of 1 1 . . .l:.c8) is good (Larsen ordination of the black pieces. In other
Reyes, Lugano 1 968). cases White can develop his queen
Perhaps Smyslov passed over 6 . . . d6 elastically to e2 after 12 e3.
because of 7 d5 ! ?, an interesting field 11 h6
for further research. 12 li'Jxf7 'ii'xf7
7 c4 c6 13 f3 lC!bd7
8 0-0 .te6!? When you see the continuation of
If this was his intention, 8 . . . <iii'h 8 the game, you wonder why Black did
might have been considered, with the not play 13 . . . dxc4 first and then
idea of being able to retreat the bishop 14 . . . lC!bd7 . After 1 5 e4 llb6 the same
later from e6 to g8. The curious text position as in the game would arise,
move is somehow typical of Smyslov but White would have the better 1 5
he sometimes has a definite preference lla4, s o as to meet 1 5 . . . l:.ad8 strongly
for knights over bishops. with 16 'ii'b 3. With the text, Smyslov
9 lC!gS .tf7 hopes for the move Portisch now
10 llc3 'ii'e8 (D) plays, a move that looks good and was
undoubtedly played without much
thought; otherwise, Portisch would
have realised the dangers involved.
14 e4?
Now the unusual position of the
black queen on f7 becomes optimally
justified. The correct move is 14 cxd5
and then:
1) 14 . . . cxd5 ? 15 e4 e6 16 e5 llh7
(unfortunately, 16 . . . lle8 fails after 1 7
.ta3) 1 7 llb5 and wins.
2) 14 . . . llxd5 15 e4 llxc3 ( 1 5 ... llb4
1 6 'ii'd 2 l:.ad8 1 7 lla4 ! and Black
The last 'strange' move. loses time) 16 .txc3 l:.ad8 1 7 l:.ad1
1 1 1i'd3 with a slight advantage for White.
lAjos Portisch - Vasily Smyslov 11

14 dxc4 16 lL'lc4
15 bxc4 li'lb6! (D) 17 .tel l:.ad8
18 l:tb 1 (D)
After 1 8 exf5 gxf5 1 9 1i'xf5 l:txd4
Black has too many squares; e.g., 20
w l:r.b1 e6 21 1i'c2li'ld5.

White is suddenly in great difficul


ties. The pawns on c4 and d4 are weak
and the queen is uncomfortably situ
ated on d3.
16 cS? 18 .. c!Od7
Portisch goes wrong again, but now 19 dS
this was very difficult to foresee. 1 6 White was probably relying on this
exf5 is even worse on account of move, but Smyslov's reply strikes at
1 6 . . . 1hc4, but 1 6 d5 seems to be the core of the position with an iron
White's best practical chance. After fist.
1 6 . . li'lfd7
. White can play: 19 ... bS!
1 ) 1 7 f4? fxe4 ! (not 17 . . li'lc5
. 18 Actually very logical . The strong
1i'e2 .txc3 1 9 .txc3 li'lxe4 20 .txe4 knight must be maintained on c4 .
fxe4 2 1 dxc6) 1 8 .txe4li'lc5, etc. 20 dxc6
2) 1 7 1i'e2 .td4+ 1 8 h 1 li'le5 1 9 After 20 cxb6li'ldxb6 White has no
l:tad 1 c5 ! and White loses a pawn more play at all ; e.g. 2 1 f4 fxe4 22
without much compensation; e.g., 20 i.xe4 .txc3 23 1i'xc3 cxd5 .
li'lb5 .txb2 2 1 1t"xb2li'lexc4 22 1t"c3 20 ... ll:'JxcS
1i"f6. 21 'ii'c2 a6 (D)
3) 1 7 li'ld 1 ! li'la4 ! 1 8 .txg7 'flxg7 Everything is as strong as it is sim
19 li'le3 li'lac5 20 1i'd2 fxe4 2 1 fxe4 ple. White is at an impasse: after either
l:txfl + 22 l:txfl l:tf8 and White can 22 a4 or 22 f4 Black exchanges off his
hold the game although Black has a other bishop.
positional advantage. 22 f4 .txc3
12 Th e Art of Chess Analysis

S myslov plays the concluding


moves in the most efficient manner.
w 26 axb5 axb5
27 .i.b2 ltf6
28 .i.al 1i'c5+
29 h 1 1i'xc6
30 ltbd1 e3+
31 gl ltd2
32 ltxd2 exd2
33 1i'd3 ltd6
34 'ifc3 e5
35 ltd1 1Wc5+
23 1i'xc3 .fue4 36 h 1 1i'e3
24 .i.xe4 fxe4 37 fxe5 ltd3
25 a4 1i'd5 0-1
Game Two
Polugaevsky - Mecking
Mar del Plata 1971
Engli sh Opening, Slav Fo rmation
Polugaevsk.y has a very clear style: somewhat classical, enterprising, and not very
dogmatic. In the following game we see him go to work turning a well-known
type of positional advantage into victory. He was rather helped by Mecking's
eighteenth move, after which he only once strayed from the best path. The bishop
endgame contains study-like continuations. The game is a convincing whole,
which, like the rest of the tournament, Polugaevsky played with great power. He
allowed only four draws and finished first, three points ahead of his closest rival.
Perhaps he was inspired by the manner in which Fischer was making himself at
home in tournaments of the same calibre around that time.

1 c4 c6
2 lL:!f3 dS
3 e3 lL:!f6 B

4 lL:!c3 e6
More active is 4 ...lL:!bd7 to answer 5
b3 with 5 . . . e5 . After 4 . . . lDbd7 5 d4 e6
the game follows Slav paths, but with
5 cxd5 cxd5 6 d4 White can try a sort
of Exchange Variation where the black
knight does not stand very well on d7 .
5 b3 lDbd7
6 i.b2 i.d6
7 d4 (D) The correct way to equality. Black
The point of the white set-up. In the wants to answer 9 0-0 with 9 . e5 ,
..

normal S l av opening the fianchetto when 1 0 cxd5 does not work because
of the white queen's bishop is hardly of 10 . . e4. Therefore White's follow
.

possible because b2-b3 can always be ing move.


answered by . . . i.b4. Whether this set 9 'ii'c2 eS
up actually promises much is doubt 10 cxdS cxdS
ful. 1 1 dxeS lOxeS
7 0-0 12 lOxeS .*.xeS
8 .*..d J :e& 13 lOe2. (D)
14 Th e Art of Chess Analysis

White wants to prevent Black from 1) 14 :d1 or 14 f4 then 1 4 ... 1i'a5+


dissolving his isolated pawn with etc . In general the possibility of this
. . . d5-d4 and practices Reti's dictum: check ensures the correctness of
castle only if there are no better Black's play.
moves. 2) 14 e4 and now:
2a) 1 4 . . .tbxe4 1 5 .txe4 d3 1 6
'i.xd3 .txb2 1 7 .txh7+ h8 1 8 1i'xb2
and Black has insufficient compensa
tion for the pawn (this and subsequent
annotations, also to other games in
this book, stem from Dvoretsky, pub
lished in New in Chess, and also from
a private letter).
2b) 14 . . . tbg4 . A good suggestion
by Dvoretsky. After 15 h3 1i'h4 16 g3
1i'h6 17 tbxd4 he gives 17 . . . 1i'b6, but
then Black does not have adequate
compensation for the pawn after 1 8
13 1i'd6 tbf3 . Much stronger is 1 7 . . .:d8, after
Black should have tried to exploit which White is in trouble. This means
the position of the white king in the that he probably cannot capture the d
centre. The most obvious continuation pawn.
was 1 3 . . . 1i'a5+, but after 14 .tc3 ! 3) 14 0-0-0 .td7 ! and the situation
.txc3+ 1 5 1i'xc3 1i'xc3+ 1 6tbxc3 the is critical for White; e.g.: 15 exd4 :c8
move 1 6 . . . d4 is not good, due to 1 7 16 .tc4 .tb8 or 16 .tc3 .td6.
lbb5 dxe3 1 8 tbc7 exf2+ 1 9 xf2. 4) 14 exd4( ! ) .txd4 1 5 .txd4 1Wxd4
(Precisely this line was later played in 1 6 0-0 1Wb6 with an equal position.
Makarychev-Chekhov, USSR Team The text-move, by the way, is also not
Championship 1 981. Black lost with so bad.
out having a chance after 19 ...lbg4+ 14 .txeS 'ii'xeS
20 g 1 :d8 21 lfu a8 :1xd3 22 h3 15 0-0 .td7
lbf6 23 h2 .td 7 24 '13.hd 1 :Xd 1 25 Here Mecking had perhaps in
:Xd 1 f8 26lbc7 .t c6 2 7 : e1 etc.) tended 1 5 . . .tbg4, which was probably
Therefore 16 . . . .td7 is best, but after stronger. Great complications may
1 7 0-0 :ac8 1 8 l:tac 1 White keeps a arise, such as:
small positional advantage. However, 1 ) 1 6 g3? 1i'h5 1 7 h4 and now
there has to be something here, and 1 7 . . . g5! is strong, but not 1 7 . . . c!De5 18
that 'something' is 1 3 . . . d4!, a move l0f4 l0f3+ 1 9 g2 1i'g4 20 l:h 1
that is easily missed. My analysis: (Dvoretsky).
Lev Polugaevsky - Henrique Mecking 15

2 ) 1 6 l0g3 h5 ! 1 7 l:r.fe 1 h 4 1 8 l0fl 4) 1 6 i.xh7+. Dvoretsky suggests


and Black has an excellent position. that White has to seriously consider
He can perhaps even continue 18 . . . h3 playing this way, since the alternatives
19 g3 1i'f6. are unsatisfactory. After 1 6 . . . 'iii>h 8 1 7
3) 1 6 l0f4 and now (D): l0g3 g 6 1 8 i.xg6 fxg6 1 9 'ili'xg6 l:r.g8
20 'fih5 + he finds the position diffi
cult to evaluate. It seems to me that
White's chances after 20 . . . 1i'xh5 2 1
lLlxh5 i.e6 22 h3 lLle5 2 3 lLlf4 have to
be assessed as somewhat better. Prob
ably slightly more precise is 1 6 . . . 'iii> f 8,
in order after 17 lLlg3 to continue
17 . . . g6 18 i.xg6 fxg6 1 9 1i'xg6 'iff6.
If White then exchanges queens,
Black can cover his d-pawn more se
curely, while his king is rather more
central.
16 lLld4
3a) 1 6 . . . d4 1 7 i.xh7+ 'iii>h 8 1 8 h3 Now all complications are out of
dxe3 ! ( 1 8 ...lLlxf2 19 1t'xf2 dxe3 20 'ifh4 the way and a simple position with a
g5 2 1 'iWh6 ! 'fig7 22 1i'xg7+ 'iii> x g7 23 slight plus for White has arisen.
lLlh5+ ltxh7 24 l0f6+ and 1 8 . . . l0f6 16 l:r.ac8
1 9 i. g6 ! ! dxe3 20 i. xf7 'fixf4 2 1 17 'ifel 1i'd6
i. xe8 lLlxe8 2 2 fxe3 ! 1i'xe3+ 2 3 'iii>h 1 18 1i'b2 a6? (D)
are winning for White) 1 9 hxg4 1i'xf4
with a roughly equal position. Black
also has no problems after the con
tinuation 1 7 l:r.ae 1 g5 1 8 h3 gxf4 1 9
hxg4 i.xg4.
3b) 16 ... g5 1 7 h3 gxf4 1 8 exf4 'fixf4
1 9 hxg4 i.xg4 with excellent play for
Black.
3c) 16 . . . lLlf6 and it is difficult for
White to arm himself against the neu
tralising 17 . . . d4, because after 1 7lLle2
Black can get a draw by repetition
with 1 7 . . . lLlg4 . Perhaps he can try 1 7
i.b5 l:r.d8 1 8 'fic5 , possibly followed It was difficult to see at this mo
by 1 9 'ili'd4. ment that this move would be the root
16 The Art o f Chess Analysis

cause of Black's defeat. The fact is, with the moves b3-b4 and f2-f4), the
however, that it violates the general position would be won because White
positional rule against placing one's could then play e3-e4 at the right mo
pawns on the same colour squares as ment.
one's bishop. S till, Black would have great draw
19 l:lacl g4 ing chances by playing 28 . . . l0e6 here;
Now this is only an innocuous dem- e . g . , 29 xe6 (otherwise White can
onstration. not make progress : 29 f5 is an
20 l0r3 'ii'b6 swered by 29 . . . 5) 29 . . . fxe6 30 f4
21 l:lxc8 l:lxc8 fl 3 1 f2 h6.
22 l:lcl
White can ignore the ' threat'
22 . . . xe3 because after 23 l:lxc8+
i.xc8 either 24 We 1 or 24 1We5 wins. B
22 l0r6
23 l:lxc8+ i.xc8
24 'ii'c3 .td7
25 4 lDe8
26 a4!
White is going to fix the black
queenside pawns on squares the same
colour as Black's bishop, the result of
Black's eighteenth move.
26
'ii'c7 28
... ?
Black can prevent the fixing of his 29 n
queenside pawns with 26 . . . a5, but the The immediate 29 e4 rJ/;e7 ! prom
cure seems worse than the disease be ised little.
cause after 27 i.b5 i.xb5 28 xb5 29
e7
both White pieces have optimal possi Again, Black should try 29 . . . h6 fol
bilities. lowed by 30 . . . e6.
27 'ii'xc7 xc7 30 e2 g6
28 aS (D) Another pawn on the wrong colour,
Black now has not only the weak but this was difficult to avoid because
ness on d5 but also a more serious if 30 . . . 6 3 1 f5+.
weakness on b7 . If the knights were 31 d2 lDe6 (D)
not on the board and White's king 32 e6?!
could reach d4 (which should be pos I think a better idea is 32 c3 c5
sible because White could keep the 33 i.e2 ! (not 33 f3 d3 34 xd3 d6
black king off the squares e5 and c5 35 b4 g5 ! and the winning chances are
Lev Polugaevsky - Henrique Mecking 17

play 35 i.c2 whereupon there can fol


low 35 . . . d6 36 c3 .ie2 37 j.b1 !
(White first tempts the black bishop to
f1 where it stands less well) 37 . . . .tfl
(Black has nothing better) 38 b4 d4 !
39 exd4 exd4 40 .te4 c7 4 1 c5 d3
42 d4 d2 43 .tf3 b6 ! (D) and White
has these choices:

nil. White must keep his bishop o n the


board for the time being ; it is unim
portant that Black can win the f2-
pawn, because then the white king can
penetrate. ) 33 . . . e4+ (33 .. .'d6 is
safer, but then White can strengthen
his position with 34 f3 possibly fol
lowed by 35 g4, 36 h4, 37 g5, and
bringing his bishop to c2) 34 b4
xf2 (again, 34 . . . d6 is safer) 35 1 ) 44 b4 bxa5 45 bxa5 d6 46
c5 and now: c3 c5 and Black wins the aS-pawn
1 ) 35 . . . 4+ 36 b6 6 37 c7 with an easy win.
g5 38 j.f3 j.e6 39 g4 and 40 f5+, or 2) 44 axb6+ xb6 45 <lwc3 <lwc5 !
37 . . . f5 38 .tf3 .te6 39 e2, and in 46 xd2 <lwd4 and Black can hold the
either case both d5 and thus also b7 draw thanks to the strong position of
fall. his king.
2) 35 ... d8 36 xd5 ! rl;c7 37 ri;e5 3) 44 c3 ! bxa5 45 xd2 .tb5 !
with a great spatial advantage for 46 .l.d 1 ! (White must prevent 46 . . . a4
White. dissolving the doubled pawn) 46 .. .'d6
32
... fxe6 47 c3 d5 ! 48 .tc2 .td7 with the
33 f4 e5 threat 49 . . . .tf5, and White has no real
34 g3 d6? winning chances.
Strange as it seems, this may be the 35 c3 .te6
losing mistake. 34 . . . .ib5 ! is impera Now the pawn endgame after
tive because the pawn endgame after 35 . . . .tb5 is lost: 36 .txb5 axb5 37
35 .t xb5 axb5 is drawn; e.g., 36 c3 b4 d4 38 fxe5+ (this is the differ
e6 37 b4 d4 ! . White must therefore ence: if the black king were on e6 this
18 The Art of Chess Analysis

capture would not be with check)


38 .. .'i>xe5 39 exd4+ etc.
36 b4 (D)
When a top player makes a mistake
in a purely technical position, it often
results from being too hasty. This is
the case here. White wishes to capture
on e5 and then invade with his king
via c5 . However, he should have pre
pared the execution of this plan.
The right move was 36 .i.e2, in or
der firstly to play the bishop to f3 and
only then move the king to b4. is a serious concession in that White
Black then has no good defensive gets the d4-square for his king. Black
set-up, as can be seen from the follow should have played the move given by
ing variations: Dvoretsky: 36 . . . d4 ! . This thrust is
1 ) 36 . . .d4+ 37 exd4 exd4+ 38 xd4 fully in accordance with the demands
.i.xb3 39 .i.f3 <l;c7 40 c5 .i.e6 4 1 g4 of the position: Black holds on to the
and White's majority on the kingside centre for as long as possible.
is decisive. 'I don 't think it would have saved
2) 36 . . . .i.d7 37 .i.f3 .i.c6. Black the game ' , Dvoretsky remarked with
has defended as well as possible against regard to 36 . . . d4. But in my opinion
the threatened incursion of the white he is too pessimistic about the conse
king. After 38 <i;b4 d4, however, quences of his own recommendation.
White wins the pawn ending : 39 First of all it should be established that
.i. xc6 bxc6 40 exd4 exd4 4 1 c4 c5 37 e4 achieves nothing after 37 . . . .i.d7,
42 b4 cxb4 43 xd4 c6 44 c4 and followed by 38 . . . .i.c6. By virtue of his
now White remains one tempo ahead (for the time being) protected passed
in the race after 44 . . . h5 45 xb4 d5 pawn on d4 Black runs no risk of los
46 c3 e4 4 7 c4 f3 48 c5 ing.
g2 49 b6 xh2 50 xa6 <l;xg3 5 1 White's best attempt to win here
b6 h4 5 2 a6 and B lack has the mis begins with 37 exd4 exd4 38 h4. The
fortune to have his pawn stopped by threat of 39 h5 compels Black to be
White's promotion on a8. very alert in defence. My analysis:
36 exf4 1 ) 38 . . . .i.f5 39 .i.xf5 gxf5 40 c4
Black fails to take advantage of d3 4 1 xd3 c5 (or 4 1 . . .d5) 42 h5 !
White's slip. B y the exchange of and the pawn ending is won for White.
pawns he is able to keep White's king 2) 38 . . . c6 ! The only defence.
away from c5, but in another respect it The point of the move with the king
Lev Polugaevsky - Henrique Mecking 19

becomes evident after 39 h5 gxh5 40 47 .if7 hS


.ie4+ (on 40 .ixh7 at once Black has 48 .ie8 .ic2
the strong centralisation 40 . . . d5) 49 .if7
40 . . . .id5 4 1 .ixh7 b5 ! . In this way 49 b5 also wins, but less con
Black sets about isolating the enemy vincingly; for example, 49 . . . axb5 50
king so that his bishop has a free .ixb5 .ie4 5 1 .ia4 .i f5 5 2 .ib3 .ie4
game. He is just in time with this; on 53 .ia2 c6 54 e5 c5 .
42 .ig6 he now has 42 . . . .if3, while 49 .ie4
White makes just as little progress so rs! .ixrs
with 42 axb6 b6 43 .ig6 a5+ 44 Or 50 . . . gxf5 5 1 .ixh5 e6 5 2 .ie2
>a3 .if3 . followed by h5-h6 and possibly .ixa6
37 gxf4 .ig4 and b4-b5 .
38 c3 .if3 51 .ixd5 .ic8
39 d4 .ig2 52 e4
40 h4 .if3 The crowning of White's refined
41 b4 .ihl manoeuvres: Black is in zugzwang.
If 4 1 . . . .ig4 42 .ifl .ie6 43 .ig2 52 e7
followed by 44 e4 would win even 53 eS gS
more quickly. 54 hxg5 h4
42 .ie2 .ig2 55 g6 h3
43 .ig4 .ie4 56 g7 h2
44 .ic8 c7 57 g8'ii' h11i'
45 .ie6 d6 58 'ii'f7+ d8
46 .ig8 h6 59 'ii'f8+ 1-0
Game Three
G l igoric - Portisch
IBM Tournament, Amsterdam 1971
Grunfeld Defence
Neither Gligoric nor Portisch had a good start in this IBM tournament. A tense
duel was therefore expected in their fifth-round encounter, as indeed occurred. The
Yugoslav showed his most inventive side; his three pawn sacrifices were reminis
cent of the two occasions when he showered Hort with a total of four exchange
sacrifices. There were relatively many mistakes for grandmasters of this class, but
no one can take this amiss. Such complicated problems can hardly be solved in
the limited two and a half hours available for thinking. Indeed, the players are to
be complimented for not fearing to enter such dense thickets, even against each
other. This was certainly the most interesting game of the tournament.

1 d4 lLlf6 1) 6 cxd5 lLlxc3 7 bxc3 'ii'x d5 8 e3


2 c4 g6 cxd4 ! 9 'ii' xd4 1i'xd4 1 0 cxd4 e6 ! and
3 lLlc3 d5 practice has shown that Black has at
4 J.g5 lLle4 least equal chances . On 1 1 J.f6 there
5 J.h4 (D) comes 1 1 . . . J.b4+ followed by 1 2 . . .0-0.
2) 6 e3 ! and now:
2a) 6 . . . J.g7 7 cxd5 lLlxc3 8 bxc3
1i'xd5 9 'iff3 'ii'd 8 (bad is 9 . . . 'ifxf3 1 0
8
lLlxf3 cxd4 1 1 cxd4 lLlc6 1 2 J.b5 J.d7
1 3 0-0 e6 14 :ab 1 , Taimanov-Uhl
mann, USSR- 'World' 1 970) 1 0 .ib5+
lLld7 1 1 lLle2 and Black has a choice:
2a 1 ) 1 l . . .cxd4 1 2 exd4 0-0 1 3 0-0
a6 1 4 .id3 1i'c7 1 5 'ii'e 3 e5 1 6 f4
exd4 1 7 cxd4 lLlf6 1 8 :ae 1 1i'b6 1 9
h3 drawn (Forintos-Witkovsky, Wijk
aan Zee 1 97 1 ) . 1 5 J.g3 comes into
consideration as an improvement for
5 lLlxc3 White.
Fischer also preferred this to the 2a2) 1 1 . . .a6 ! ? 1 2 J.d3? (better
more usual 5 . . . c5 . White has two pos seems the continuation 1 2 J.xd7+
sibilities in that case: 1i'xd7 13 0-0) 12 . . . lLle5 ! 1 3 dxe5 1i'xd3
Svetozar Gligorit - Lajos Portisch 21

1 4 ltd 1 1Wc4 1 S 'ti'dS 'ti'xdS 1 6 ltxdS 1 8 ltb2 ! with some advantage for
b6 with advantage to Black (Mititelu White (Taimanov-Fischer, Vancouver
Hort, Luhaovice 1 97 1 ). 1 97 1 ).
2b) 6 ... lLlc6 ! ? 7 cxdS lLlxc3 8 bxc3 8... .i.g7
'ti'xdS 9 'ti'f3 'ti'xf3 10 lLlxf3 cxd4 1 1 9 lLlf3
cxd4 e6 and Black gets the same sort Very interesting positions can arise
of play as in variation 1 . In this case 7 after 9 ltb1 .i.dS and now:
lLlf3 seems the correct method. I) 1 0 f3 fS l l lLlh3 h6 1 2 l0f4 gS
2c) 6 . . . 1i'aS 7 tli'b3 cxd4 (stronger 13 lLlxdS "it'xdS 14 i.. f2 or 1 4 'ti'a4+
than 7 . . . lLlc6 8 l0f3 cxd4 9 exd4 lLlxc3 'ti'd7 1 5 'ti'xd7+ lLlxd7 1 6 .i.g3 0-0-0
10 bxc3 .i.e6 1 1 .i.e2 .i.g7 1 2 0-0 0-0 17 i.. xc4 eS ( 1 8 i.. e6 lthe8 !) and
1 3 cS with the better chances for Black does not stand badly in either
White, Taimanov-Filip, Wijk aan Zee case.
1 970) 8 exd4 .i.h6 ! 9 ltd 1 (9 lLlf3? gS ! 2) 1 0 .i.f3 c5 ! ? ( 1 0 . . . 0-0 1 1 e4
1 0 .i.g3 g4) 9 . . . 0-0 1 0 cxdS . So far i.. c 6 1 2 lLle2 is good for White) 1 1
Donner-G. Garcia, Cienfuegos 1 973, 'ti'a4+ .i.c6 1 2 .i.xc6+ lLlxc6 1 3 l::tx b7
and now, according to Donner, 10 ... lLld7 'ti'c8 and now 14 ltxe7 f8 1S lte4
1 1 .i.d3 lLlxc3 1 2 bxc3 lLlb6 1 3 lLle2 leads to intricate complications which
'ti'xdS leads to an equal game. This ap are probably not unfavourable for
proach by Black is probably the main Black.
reason many players with White now 9. 0-0
play 4 l0f3 .i.g7 before continuing 10 0-0 c5
with S .i.gS . Perhaps too sharp. If Black wants to
6 bxc3 dxc4 keep the pawn he can also try 10 ...c6 1 1
7 e3 i.e6 lOgS bS . White would then have to de
8 .i.e2 cide whether to capture on e6 or to
Two games with Fischer as Black bring his knight later to cS via e4.
continued with 8 ltb1 b6: 11 lOgS! (D)
1 ) 9 l0f3 .i.g7 10 lLld2 0-0 1 1 This leads forcibly to advantageous
lLlxc4 i.. d 5 1 2 'ti'd2 1i'd7 1 3 l0a3 cS play for White.
1 4 f3 'ti'a4 1 S lLlb5 with equal chances 11 i..d5
(Mecking-Fischer, Buenos Aires 12 e4 i..c6
1 970). The alternative is 1 2 . . h6. In the
.

2) 9 .i.e2 .i.h6 (seems strange at tournament bulletin Gligoric then


first, but it is directed against both 1 0 gives the variation 1 3 exdS hxgS 1 4
.i. f3 c6 1 1 lLle2 and 1 0 lLlf3 followed .i. xgS cxd4 1 S i.. xc4 dxc3 1 6 h4 with
by a later lOgS) 10 lLlf3 c6 1 1 lLleS a strong attack for White. I find this
.i.g7 1 2 f4 .i.dS 1 3 0-0 lLld7 1 4 lLlxc4 unclear because Black can build a
0-0 1 S a4 cS 16 lLleS lLlxeS 17 dxeS f6 sturdy position with 1 6 . . . lLld7 1 7 hS
22 The Art of Chess Analysis

White's plan is the natural f2-f4 fol


lowed by e4-e5 or f4-f5 , but first he
B must defend c3 . Both 1 5 .l:r.c 1 and 1 5
1i'c2 (perhaps followed b y .l:r.ad 1 ) are
possible. The move Gligori chooses
is weak as the unprotected queen on d2
gives Black a chance for counterplay.
15 'ii'd2 e6
Another manner of profiting from
the unprotected position of the queen
is 1 5 . . . e5 , intending an immediate
blockade. In that case White opens the
lbe5 1 8 i.b3 1i'd6 ( 1 9 f4llk4 !). How position at once with 1 6 f4; e.g.,
ever, White has the much better 1 6 16 . . . lDd7 1 7 f5 h6 18 f3 g5 1 9 i.f2
.l:r.e 1 ! , as 1 6 . . .l:r.e8 17 d6 lDc6 1 8 1i'f3 and White's prospects are more fa
wins easily. Black must play 1 6 . . . 1i'c7, vourable.
but even then his position is hardly 16 l0!3 'ifd6
playable after 1 7 1i'b3 lDd7 1 8 l:.xe7. If Black knew what awaited him,
13 dS i.bS maybe he would have played 16 ... 1We8,
14 a4 i.a6 (D) where the queen covers many vital
Black has taken the necessary squares. White would then have three
trouble to hold the c4-pawn, but the possibilities:
price has been high. White has a great 1) 1 7 d6 lDc6 18 d7 1i'b8 and White
preponderance in the centre and the has achieved nothing. After 1 9 i.g3
black bishop on a6 cannot help in the 1i'd8 20 i.d6 Black sacrifices the ex
defence. change with 20 . . 1Wxd7.
.

2) 1 7 e5 exd5 1 8 1Wxd5 lDc6 and it


is Black who stands better.
3) 1 7 .l:r.el ! llXI7 1 8 i.fl and Black
has a problem with his queen vis-a-vis
the rook on the e-flle. He would do
best to close the file with 18 . . . e5.
17 eS! (D)
White correctly feels nothing for 1 7
i.g3 e5 but offers a pawn which can
be accepted in two ways. One of them,
l7 . . . i.xe5 18 xe5 1Wxe5 1 9 i.f3 ,
leads to a n uncomfortable position, s o
Black actually has n o choice.
Svetozar Gligoric - Lajos Portisch 23

l:td6 'ii'c7 2 1 l:tad 1 lDb6 22 a5lDd5 23


.l:l 1 xd5 ! exd5 24 f6.
B White certainly has a dangerous at
tack here, but I am not sure whether it
breaks through after the strong defen
sive move 24 . . . l:fe,8 ! . Perhaps it is still
better for White to continue, as in the
game, with 20 e7 (instead of 20 l:d6)
in order to bring the bishop to d6. In
that case, however, I think the queen is
better placed on e3 .
18
17 ... 'ii'xdS 19 l:fd1
18 'it'e3 20 e7 (D)
White had the difficult choice be White is going to overprotect his e5
tween 1 8 'ii'e 3 and 1 8 'ii'f4 . Gligoric outpost. 20 .l:ld6 'fkc7 2 1 .l:lad 1 is not
wrote that he did not play 1 8 1i'f4 be good because of 2 1 . . .lDb6 followed by
cause of 1 8 . . . lDd7 1 9 l:fd 1 xe5 . 22 . . . lDd5 . If White frrst tries 20 a5
This is astonishing: either 20 'ii'e 3 then Black replies 20 . . . 11Vc7, and the
(which Gligoric gives) or 20 l:xd5 e5-square is difficult to defend; on 2 1
xf4 2 1 l:txd7 wins a piece. e7 Black again offers the exchange
Such notes for the bulletin are with 2 1 . . . lDxe5, and after 22 d6 !
sometimes written in great haste. The lDxf3+ 23 xf3 'W'c8 24 xf8 xf8
question remains whether 1 8 1i'f4 is the position is roughly in balance.
better than the text-move. In my origi
nal notes I gave the variation 1 8 . . . lDd7
1 9 l:fd 1 'ii'c 6 20 f6 lDxf6 2 1 exf6
e5 22 lDxe5 'ii'xf6 23 'ii'xf6 xf6 24 B
lDd7 xc3 25 l:ac 1 d4 and evalu
ated the ending as tenable for Black.
This is certainly true; if anything, he
stands slightly better. An attempt to
strengthen this line with 19 l:ad 1 'ii'c6
20 l:txd7 'ii'xd7 2 1 f6 would fail, be
cause Black has the reply 2 1 . . .l:fd8.
These two variations demonstrate how
little I understood such positions at
that time. Twenty years later I ana 20 :res
lysed it as follows: 1 9 l:tfd 1 'W'c6 20 21 d6 f6
24 The Art of Chess Analysis

22 h4 :ads
The players strengthen their posi
tions in the prescribed manner. w

23 hS
Probably an inaccuracy, which, how
ever, is not taken advantage of. With
23 a5 ! White can prevent Black's pos
sible knight manoeuvre and thus also
his counterplay.
23.. gxhS
The tendency to take such pawns
has been seen in Portisch's games be
fore. This time he misses the chance, White can win here in an intricate
prepared by his last two moves, to fur manner with 27 i.c7 ! . Here is the
ther undermine the configuration e5- analysis:
d6 with the strong 23 . . . ltlb6 ! 24 hxg6 1) 27 . . . i.xf3 28 exf6 'ft'xc4 (or
ltld5 ! (not 24 . . . hxg6 25 ltlh4 ltld5 26 28 . . . i.xd 1 29 i.xe6+) 29 'ft'xf3 and
Wg3 g5 27 ltlg6 ! ) 25 gxh7+ h8 26 then continuing as in the game.
We 1 (White must keep c3 defended) 2) 27 . . . ltlxe5 28 :xd8 ltlxc4 29
26 . . . :xd6 ! 27 exd6 f5 and Black has 'it'xe6+, etc.
good play in the centre for the ex 3) 27 . . . 'ft'xc4 28 :xd7 ' with a de
change. cisive attack' , I wrote in the frrst edi
24 :d2 tion of this book. S ome further
Now White has some control over explanation is called for. After the
the game again because 24 . . . ltlb6 is continuation 28 . . . :xd7 29 :xd7 'it'e4
bad on account of 25 exf6 ltld5 26 White has the crushing 30 :xg7+ !
Wg5 . xg7 3 1 exf6+ and the black king has
24 ... b6 no good escape.
25 :adl i. b7 27 ... 1Wxc4
One c an understand that Black is 28 i.e7 .i..xf3?
losing patience. Whatever he does, his Black will finally come out of the
position will worsen. The pressure on complications an exchange behind
e5 must not be eased, so his knight and without compensation. 28 . . . 'it'g4 !
must remain on d7. As a result, the keeps the struggle alive; e.g., 29 i.xd8
squares e7 and c7 must remain pro and now:
tected . I cannot give a reasonable al 1) 29 . . . ltlxf6 30 ltle1 Wg6 3 1 i.xf6
ternative to the text-move. 'it'xf6 with rough equality.
26 .i..xc4 ..,xa4 (D) 2) 29 . . . .i.. x f3 . This move, which I
27 exf6 gave in my original notes, loses on the
Svetozar Gligoric - Lajos Portisch 25

spot, on account of 30 t7+! xt7 3 1 and 34 :c t . Even better is 33 11fxf8+


:xd7+, followed by 3211bf3. and mate. Relatively best, according
29 1i'xf3 J.xf6 to Gligoric, is 32 . . . 11fg4, even though
30 J.xd8 :xd8 White must win eventually after 33
31 :Xd7 :rs 'iid 3. After the text-move it ends
32 :Xa7 J.h4 (D) quickly.
33 :aS
The Dutch Master, Pliester, found
an immediate win here with 33 :ds!!
w J.xd8 34 1i'b7, followed by mate. An
attractive combination.
33 :xa8
34 'ifxa8+
35 :d7+ J.e7
36 1i'f3+ e8
37 :b7 1i'd5
38 1i'xd5 exd5
39 :Xb6
40 c4
Gligoric indicates that 32 ... J.xc3 41 e2 h4
does not work because of 33 'W'g3+ 1-0
Game Four
Fischer - Larsen
Semi-final Candidates Match (1), Denver 1971
French Defence, Winawer Variation
Despite the overwhelming manner in which Fischer accounted for Taimanov in
the first of the series of candidates matches, various experts thought that the ensu
ing match against Larsen could go either way. After all, Larsen had beaten Fischer
in the Interzonal. Larsen himself was, as usual, optimistic. Even before the candi
dates matches had begun, he was declaring that the next World Champion would
be named Bent Larsen. Fischer thoroughly awakened him from that dream.
The first game of the match was undoubtedly the most interesting one. Larsen
played uninhibitedly yet without being too reckless, but in the end he could not
match Fischer's precise, direct play.

1 e4 e6 might therefore have assumed that


An unusual choice for Larsen, and Fischer had still not found a reliable
the last time in the match that he devi weapon against the Winawer.
ates from his usual Sicilian. 4 7
2 d4 dS 5 a3 i.xc3+
3 lbc3 6 bxc3 c5
Larsen had undoubtedly reckoned 7 a4
on this. Fischer is the sort of fighting Like Smyslov, Fischer had always
player that never plays the Tarrasch much preferred the positional method
Variation. to the pawn snatch with 7 'ii'g 4.
3 . i.b4 7 . ltJbc6
4 eS 8 3 i.d7
This may have been a slight sur Larsen does not enter the system
prise for Larsen. Fischer always used with 8 . . 'iWa5 which the chief expo
.

to be willing to enter the Winawer nents of this variation, Uhlmann and


Variation, but when he returned to the Korchnoi, always use (see Game 1 9,
chess world in the tournament at Ro Spassky-Korchnoi).
vinj-Zagreb 1 970 he changed to the 9 i.d3 'fic7
treatment with 4 a3 i.xc3+ 5 bxc3 dxe4 Now 9 . . 'ii'a5 has less point because
.

6 'iWg4, at first with success against White does not have to defend the
Uhlmann, then with catastrophic con pawn: 1 0 0-0 c4 1 1 i.e2 \i'xc3 1 2
sequences against Kovaevic . Larsen i.d2 'iWb2 1 3 l:lb1 followed by 1 4
Bobby Fischer - Bent lArsen 27

l:xb7 and White has a dangerous in Again Fischer has the chance to
itiative. capture on f6, but he does not concern
10 0-0 c4 himself with this possibility.
In combination with the next move, 13 ..t a3
this plan carries great danger. The al According to Byrne, 1 3 g3 would
ternative is 1 0 . . . h6 followed by cas also give White a smal l advantage.
tling short and only then, perhaps, to But in that case Black could accept the
aim for . . . f7-f6, recapturing on f6 with pawn offer without too many prob
the rook. lems: 1 3 .. .fxe5 14 dxe5 xeS 15 ltlxe5
1 1 .tel f6 (D) 'ii'xe5 1 6 ..tg4 'ii'x c3 1 7 ..txe6 0-0-0
Obviously, Larsen had studied his and the position is far from clear.
opponent's rare losses well. Fischer 13 fxeS
lost a long game against Mednis in the 14 dxeS es
1 9 60/6 1 U . S . Championship after 1 2 15 eS xeS
..ta3 0-0 ! 1 3 l:e1 l:f7 1 4 exf6 gxf6 1 5 Capturing with the queen is hardly
..t n l:e8 1 6 h4 g6 1 7 '6'h5 l:g7 to be considered: 15 . . . 'ii' xe5 16 ..txc4
1 8 g3 'ii'a5 19 ..tb2 d8 20 l:e3 f7 'ii' x c3 17 ..txd5 0-0-0 1 8 ..tb3 and
2 1 h 1 d6 and B lack already had Black has no compensation at all for
the initiative. the pair of bishops.
16 '6'd4 (D)

w
B

12 l:e1 !
An important improvement. If The queen keeps an eye on both
Black now castles short, White can flanks from here. Larsen, in his notes
capture on f6 and answer the pawn re to this game, points out an interesting
capture with ..th6. Black must there opening finesse. If this position had
fore play to win the e5-pawn. come about in a slightly different way
12 ... g6 (the way that has repeatedly occurred
28 The Art of Chess Analysis

in practice up to Black's eleventh tougher) 25 l:tb1 + a6 26 .i.e? .i.b5


move) - namely, 7 ... 'flc7 (instead of 27 l:t5xb5 l:txc7 28 l:t5b2 l:tc5 29
7 . . . c!Llbc6) 8 c!Llf3 b6 9 .i.b5+ .i.d7 1 0 l:ta2+ l:r.a5 30 l:txa5+ xa5 31 l:ta1 +
.i.d3 c!Llbc6 1 1 0-0 c4 1 2 .i.e2 f6 1 3 and wins a rook.
l:te1 c!Llg6 1 4 .i.a3 fxe5 1 5 dxe5c!Llcxe5 2) 2 l . . .c7 was suggested in Eng
1 6 c!Llxe5 c!Llxe5 - then, because of the lish circles to make the black position
extra move . . . b7-b6, Black could have defensible. However, after 22 axb6+
taken the sting out of the text-move, xb6 23 .i.g4! Black has no satisfac
1 7 1i'd4, with 17 . . . 0-0-0. However, in tory answer (23 . . . l:the8 24 .i.b4 or
that case White would gain the advan 23 . . . l:ta8 24 .i.xe6 llhe8 25 l:teb 1 +).
tage in another way : 1 7 f4 c!Llc6 1 8 18 f4 (D)
.i.g4 0-0-0 1 9 .txe6 .i.xe6 20 l:txe6.
Now we see the drawback of Black's
extra move: his knight on c6 hangs if
Black takes on f4, and this ensures that B
White can maintain the initiative.
16
. c!Llg6
Actually, this is already the deci
sion to keep the king in the middle.
After 1 6 . . . 0-0-0 1 7 'ffxa7 c!Llc6 1 8 'fle3
White has a clear advantage because
of Black's damaged king's position,
and 1 6 . . . c!Llc6 1 7 .i.h5+ loses directly.
An alternative worth considering is
the curious 16 . . . h5 to prevent the 'Typical of Fischer's style,' is the
bishop check on h5, and then 17 . . . c!Llc6 accurate remark found in The Games
or 1 7 ... c!Llg4 to aim at castling long. of Robert J. Fischer. White seeks to
White, however, answers with the clear the centre in order to attack the
very powerful 1 7 'flh4! with danger black king on an open board. I assume
ous threats. that a player like Karpov or Roman
17 .i.hS ishin would continue less energeti
Black can force the exchange of cally with 1 8 l:te3 or even 1 8 lle5 to
queens by returning the pawn with continue the attack in a half-open po
17 . . . 0-0-0, but his king would not be sition purely on the dark squares after
much safer than in the game: 1 8 1Wxa7 a possible exchange on g6.
b6 19 1Wa8+ 1i'b8 20 1i'xb8+ xb8 2 1 18 l:t he8
a5 ! and now: The only answer. Black is forced to
1 ) 2 1 .. .bxa5 22 .i.d6+ b7 23 put his king on f6 where it will be ex
l:txa5 l:ta8 24 l:tc5 llhc8 (24 . . . l:ta7 is posed to some draughts.
Bobby Fischer - Bent Larsen 29

19 fS exfS h6 27 .i.f7! g6 (27 ... 1t'b6+ 28 fl


20 'iVdS+ <M6 1t'f6 offers no salvation because of the
20 . . . .i.e6 loses directly because of deadly pin after 29 1i'xf6+ gxf6 30
2 1 l:lxe6 l:lxe6 22 'ii' x f5+ l:lf6 23 l:ld l ) 28 l:r.d 1 'ffb 6+ 29 c;&;1fl 'iWe3 (the
'ii'd 5+ l:le6 24 l:lfl + and White is a only chance) 30 'iWxe3 fxe3 3 1 e 1
piece up. and Black must give up the exchange
21 .i.f3! with 3 1 . . .g7 32 J.e6 J.xe6. The
Once again correctly called typical endgame is then only a matter of tech
of Fischer's style in the above-men nique for White.
tioned book. Having converted a half These results are hardly satisfying for
open position directly into an open Black. But he has a far better defence
one, he continues his attack slowly but than 2 1 . . .l:lad8; namely, 2 1 . . .'ffb 6+ !
clearly. The sharp 2 1 g4, to immedi 22 J.c5 1i'c6. At first sight it appears
ately demonstrate the compromised that White's extra bishop move only
position of the black king, was recom makes things more difficult for Black,
mended in the Russian press. The vari but the point is that after 23 'ii'd4+ the
ations given after 2 1 . . .l:tad8 22 'ild4+ black king can go to g5 without the
(D) are attractive: white queen's decisive capture on g7
(but not 23 . . . f7 24 gxf5 J.xf5 25 l:lfl
and wins). Partly because of the cen
tralised position of Black's pieces,
B White cannot take direct advantage of
the position of Black's king; e.g., 23
'ii'd 4+ g5 24 h4+ xh4 ! 25 gxf5+
c;&;1xh5 . The white king has become as
exposed as the black one due to the
reckless push 2 1 g4.
Fischer's intuition - I assume he
chose the text-move mainly on intui
tive grounds - was thus (again) fault
less . The text-move, after a forest of
1 ) 22 . . . f7 23 .i.e7 ! l:lxe7 24 complications, ultimately gives him
l:lxe7+ xe7 25 'ii'x g7+ c;&;1ct6 26 'ii'f6+ the better chances in every variation.
and wins. 21 tOeS! (D)
2) 22 . . . g5 23 l:le7 ! (a nice dual Byrne gives this a question mark
with move 23 in variation 1) 23 . . . .!0xe7 without any reason at all ; as he points
24 'ii'e 3+ f4 25 .i.xe7+ l:lxe7 (not out, there are no decent alternatives.
25 . . . h6 26 .i. xe8 and the queen is Indeed, the endgame after 2 I . . .J.e6 22
immune due to 27 g5 mate) 26 'ii'xe7+ 'ii'x b7 'ii'x b7 23 J.xb7 l:lab8 24 l:lab1
30 The Art of Chess Analysis

24 1i'xd7 l:.ad8
Centralising the heavy artillery to
w the utmost.
25 'ii'xb7 (D)

would be discouraging to play, espe


cially against Fischer. The text-move
shows a sharp appraisal of the coming
complications and demonstrates how
lively and fresh Larsen's play still was
at the beginning of the match. 25
1i'e3+
22 'ii'd4 A difficult choice, but the conse
This looks like an unpleasant pin, quences are slightly more favourable
but Larsen shows that the conse than th ose following the alternative
quences are bearable. 25 . . . \i'xc3. That move looks over
22 'ili>g6 whelming at first; the white pieces do
23 l:.xeS not seem to be working together while
There is no more to be squeezed out the black ones are all itching to give
of the position; e.g., 23 i.xb7 "ii'xb7 mate. However, it seems the attack
24 l:.xe5 l:.xe5 25 "ii' xe5 l:.e8 and against Black's king still continues: 26
White has achieved nothing. An inter 'ifc6+ ! g5 27 i.c l + f4 (or 27 . . . h4
esting attempt is 23 h l to clear gl in 28 g3+ h3 29 i.g2+ g4 30 h3+
advance for the rook should the g-file xg3 31 'ifc7+ 'ife5 32 11fxe5+ l:.xe5
be opened by an exchange on f3 . 33 i.g5 ! and Black must lose material
However, B lack can see to it that if to avoid mate) 28 h4+ f5 (but not
there is an exchange, the kingside will 28 . . . xh4 29 h2 and the black king
remain closed: 23 . . . lDg4 ! and White is ensnared in a mating net) 29 g4+ !
has nothing better than repetition of (this energetic continuation o f the at
moves with 24 i.d6 'ilfb6 25 i.c5 1i'c7 tack was found by Zaitsev) 29 . . . fxg3
26 i.d6. 30 g2 (D).
23 'ii'xeS The black attack has been beaten
Naturally not 23 . . . l:xe5 24 i.d6. off and, although there are no direct
Bobby Fischer - Bent Larsen 31

28 ... llfl+
29 'iPgl llxg2+
Making the best of it.
30 'iPxg2 'ifd2+
31 'iPhl l:.xc6
32 i.. xc6 (D)

threats, he is in difficulties. Taking the


rook is too dangerous : 30 . . .1i'xa1 3 1
i.. g 4+ e5 (3 l . . .xg4 3 2 1i'f3+ and
mates) and now not 32 1i'b5 + d6 33
'ii' b 4+ d5 34 i.. a3 (as given by Zait
sev), because of the saving 34 . . . 'ii'e5 ! ,
but 32 'ii'c 5+ lld5 3 3 'ii'e 3+ d6 (or
33 . . . f6 34 'ii'x e8 with mating threats 32 'ifxc3?
on e6) 34 i.. a 3+ c7 35 'ii' x a7+ 'iPc6 Optimism or desperation? Know
36 'ii'a 6+ c7 37 'ii'xc4+ 'iPb8 (or ing Larsen, I choose the first. Having
37 . . . b6) 38 'ii'x d5 Wxa3 39 'ii' b5+. conducted an enervating defence
Brilliant teamwork by queen and bish with extraordinary strength, Black
ops on an open board. suddenly loses his way. A pity, really,
Still, the best for Black is 30 . . . 'iWd4 because one could expect a very inter
(instead of 30 . . . 1i'xa1 ), but after the esting fight after 32 . . . a5 . At first sight
calm 3 1 xg3 White has the better the white bishops seem supreme, par
prospects because his king is in just a ticularly with the possession of d4, but
little less danger. the black king can still find shelter
26 <t>n l:d2 behind the kingside pawns; e.g., 33
This looks threatening, but Fischer ..td4 h6 34 l:g1 g5 or 33 llg 1 + 'iPf7
must have seen it all long before and (33 ... h6 34 i.f8) 34 i.d4 g5 . It is
now comes up with the precise defence. difficult to j udge the position. A com
27 'ifc6+ lle6 parison with 'La Grande Variante' of
28 ..tcS! the Open Ruy Lopez is not out of
Improbable but true. The black at place. The theoreticians are still not
tack is refuted in the nick of time. The agreed on who stands better after 1 e4
following series of moves is forced. e5 2 00 c6 3 ..tb5 a6 4 ..ta4 6 5
32 The Art of Chess Analysis

0-0 lll xe4 6 d4 b5 7 i.b3 d5 8 dxe5 seems to be 35 h4 and only after


i.e6 9 c3 i.c5 1 0 lllbd2 0-0 1 1 i.c2 35 . . . 1i'xc2 36 i.e5 . After 3 6 . . . h5
f5 12 lllb 3 i.b6 1 3 lll fd4 lll xd4 1 4 37 i.xg7 (not 37 l:xf4 1i'd 1 + 3 8 g2
lll xd4 i.xd4 15 cxd4 f4 1 6 f3 lll g 3 1 7 1We2+) the black pawns have been
hxg3 fxg3 1 8 1i'd3 i.f5 1 9 1i'xf5 l:xf5 split, which ensures White's advan
20 i.xf5 1i'h4 2 1 i.h3 1i'xd4+ 22 h 1 tage.
1i'xe5 (D). 33 l:g1+ <M6
34 i.xa7 (D)

In the Encyclopedia of Chess Open


ings Korchnoi judges the chances to The white bishops come into their
be equal, but he gives a few examples own even more with a passed a- pawn.
to show that every seemingly trivial Black is helpless against its advance.
inaccuracy can swing the balance 34 . gS
strongly. The position after 32 . . . a5 in 35 i.b6 1i'xc2
the Fischer-Larsen game is perhaps a 36 aS '1Wb2
little better for White than in 'La 37 i.d8+ e6
Grande Variante,' but only if White 38 a6 1i'a3
can prevent the formation of the pawn 39 i.b7
duo f5-g5 . Therefore, the best appears Little by little, White's passed
to be 33 i.d4 h6 34 l:fl !, which pawn progresses toward promotion.
forces 34 . . . f4. White must still remain 39 'ii'cS
on his guard; e.g., 35 i.e5 g5 36 h4? 40 l:b1 c3
1i'e2 ! 37 hxg5+ g6 38 i.e8+ f5 41 i.b6 1-0
with win of material. A good move If 4 l . ..c2 42 l:e l +.
Game Five
Tai m an ov - Stein
39th USSR Championship, Leningrad 1 97 1
M odern Benoni Defence
Stein's sudden death in 1 973, just before he was due to travel to the European
Team Championship in B ath, England, shocked all genuine chess lovers. His en
terprising style had a very personal tint. Keene analysed sixty of the Ukrainian
grandmaster's games in his book, Master ofAttack. The book includes only games he
won, all the more clearly to emphasise Stein's impressive attacking skill.
The following game does not appear in the book. Though it is not really an at
tacking game, it does show his individual, enterprising style. Taimanov, who had
just recently lost disastrously to Fischer, is defeated in a difficult positional game.

1 d4 c!Df6
2 c4 cS
3 dS g6 B

4 c!Dc3 d6
s e4 i. g7
6 c!Df3 0-0
7 i.e2 e6
8 0-0 exdS
9 cxdS a6
The alternative 9 . . l:te8 is more cur
.

rent. After 10 c!Dd2 extensive com


plexes of variations begin after both
10 . . . c!Dbd7 and 10 . . . c!Da6. 1 1 . . . h6 ! ? 1 2 i.f4 ! l:te8 1 3 c!Dd2 i.xe2
10 a4 i.g4 14 'ii'xe2 c!Dh5 15 i.e3 c!Dbd7 16 'iii>h l
1 1 i.f4 (D) and White stands a little better. How
This position can also be reached ever, not 1 6 f4 f5 ! 17 exf5? .:.xe3 .) 1 2
via a different move order ( 1 d4 c!Df6 2 c!Dd2 i.xe2 1 3 'ii'xe2 l:te8 1 4 f4 ! 'ii'c 7
c4 c5 3 d5 e6 4 c!Dc3 exd5 5 cxd5 d6 6 15 'it'f3 c4 16 'iii>h 1 b6? ! 17 l:tae 1 h6 1 8
c!Df3 g6 7 i.f4 a6 8 a4 i.g7 9 e4 0-0 1 0 i.xf6 c!Dxf6 1 9 e5 with advantage to
i.e2 i.g4 1 1 0-0). The text-move is White (Gligoric-Hartoch, Amsterdam
not the sharpest. Alternatives are: 1 97 1 ). In the game Timman-Nunn,
1 ) 1 1 i.g5 c!Dbd7 ( l l . . .h6 ! ? 1 2 London 1 975, Black tried l6 . . . l:tb8
i. h4 i. xf3 ! with equal chances; (instead of 16 . . . b6), a slightly more
34 The Art of Chess Analysis

purposeful move but nevertheless not considered) 19 . . . xd2 20 .i.xd2 :r.ac8


satisfactory. After 17 :.ae1 b5 18 axb5 and Black had the advantage. Stein' s
axb5 19 e5 dxe5 20 f5 :.rs 21 de4 move is solid, but probably not better.
White had a known type of pressure IS :r.e7 (D)
on the black position.
2) 1 1 d2 .i.xe2 1 2 11fxe2 bd7
(not 1 2 . . . :r.e8? 13 c4, Donner-Hug,
Berlin 1 97 1 ) 13 4. w
11
.. :.eS
12 'ii'c2
1 2 d2 also comes into considera
tion here: 1 2 . . . .i.xe2 13 'ti'xe2 h5 1 4
.i. e3 d7 with chances for equal play.
Black has the same position as in vari
ation 1 after White's 1 1 th move, but
without the slight weakness at h6.
A well-known mistake is 12 h3?
due to 12 . . . xe4 (Uhlmann-Fischer, 16 g4
Palma de Mallorca 1970). An interesting idea. White wants to
12 1ic7 increase his influence on the centre
13 h3 .i.xf3 with his bishops on g2 and g3 and then
14 .i.xf3 bd7 to follow with f2-f4. The other side of
IS aS the coin is that the squares f4 and
Many games have taken an almost thereby e5 are weakened. In any case,
identical course. For example, after 16 :re t is a good alternative.
1 5 . . . :r.ab8 1 6 :re t we have the game 16 h6
Tal-Stein, Rostov 1 97 1 , by transposi 17 .i. g2 :.ae8
tion of moves. Black continued with 18 .i. g3 7
16 . . . b5 ? ! 1 7 axb6 :r.xb6 1 8 :.a2 :r.eb8 19 bl
1 9 .i.e2 a5 20 :r.ea1 and White stood a Why not 19 f4? If 19 . . . g5 then 20
little better. e5 is strong: 20 . . . dxe5 2 1 fxg5 hxg5
I played B lack against Portisch in 22 d6 or 20 . . . gxf4 2 1 exd6 'ii'xd6 22
Hastings 1 969nO and tried 15 . . . c4, .i.xf4 .i.e5. Black, however, has the
which led to the interesting continu stronger 19 . . . c4 with good play.
ation 1 6 bl ( 1 6 2 :.ac8) 16 . . .5 19 gS
( 1 6 . . . :r.ac8 ! ?) 17 'ii'xc4 ( 1 7 2 3 20 o!Odl s
1 8 .i.e3 tDe5 with chances for both 21 l:.a4
sides) 1 7 . . . tDfxe4 1 8 :.a2 f5 19 tDd2? ! A rather strange move but not a bad
(if 1 9 b4 tDe6 ! , but 1 9 :.c 1 ! should be one. White wants to prevent 2 1 . . .c4. If
Mark Taimanov - Leonid Stein 35

he does this with 21 Afc 1 , to simulta Also dubious: the queen becomes
neously free fl for his knight, there tied to the protection of the knight.
follows, for instance, 2 1 . . .ltlf8 22 ltlfl One gets the impression that Stein was
ltlfg6 23 ltle3 ltlf4 24 ltlf5 Ad7 and in time trouble. Still good is 26 . . . 'il'e7
Black stands satisfactorily. The imme 27 Ab6 Ad8 , after which there is little
diate f2-f4 may also be considered, wrong with the black position.
however. 27 Ab6 c4 ?!
21 liJr8 (D) 28 'il'a4!
Threatens to take on d6. The black
pieces are in one another's way.
28 :rs
w 29 'il'a3 AcS
30 .tfl
30 Axb7 ltlxg2 (30 . . . Axa5 3 1
.txh4) 3 1 xg2 Axa5 gives Black
counterplay.
30 AbS
31 Axd6 'it'e7
3 1 . . .1lg5 is no better, because of 32
.te3 1fe7 3 3 .txh6. Now, however,
the knight on h4 still hangs.
22 f4! 32 Ab6 'ii'xa3
Now or never. 33 bxa3 ltlxgl (D)
22 gxf4
23 Axf4 ltlfg6
24 :n
The alternative idea 24 Af5 , so as W
possibly to play the rook to h5 later,
springs to mind. A double-edged busi-
ness.
24 'iVd8!
A strong move, the prelude to a
regrouping.
25 A a3 Ac7?!
More accurate is 25 . . . Ad7 to over
protect d6, followed by 26 . . . 'il'e7 and
27 . . . Ac8 . The reason becomes clear in 34 Axb5?
the next moves. A mistake which hands the initia
26 Ab3 ltlh4 tive over to Black. After 34 xg2
36 The A rt of Chess Analysis

Black can hardly play the 34 . . . l:txa5


that Taimanov feared : 35 ..td4 ! l:txa3
(35 . . . ll:)xg4 36 ..txg7 ll:)e3+ 37 f2 w
ll:)xfl 38 ..txf8) 36 ..txe5 ..txe5 37
ll:)xc4 l:ta2+ 38 f3 f6 (the best) 39
l:td I ! l:tc8 40 ll:)xe5 fxe5 4 1 l:d3 and
the white king can reach h4 safely.
Black must therefore try 34 . . . c3 35
ll:)b3 ll:)c4 36 l:txb5 axb5, but then 37
..tc5 is very good (37 ... l:te8 38 d6).
34 axb5
35 ci>xg2 l:ta8!
Here lies the difference. Black im- and well founded because the a-file is
mediately becomes active. opened for the rook.
36 ..tb6 lt)d7 42 axb4 ..tb6
37 ..tc7 ..tc3 43 l:tf4 l:ta2+
38 lDr3 ..txa5 44 <i>r3 lt)d2+
Perhaps the prophylactic 38 . . . f6 is 44 . . . ll:)g5+ 45 ..txg5 hxg5 46 lle4
preferable to the text-move. The weak gives White counterplay.
ening is a lesser evil than the advance 45 ci>e3?
of the white centre pawns. The aS This loses in a prosaic fashion. With
pawn, as the saying goes, will not run 45 g3 he would pose a more trouble
away. some problem:
39 ..td6?! 1 ) 45 . . . c3 46 d6 c2 47 lt)e2 (not 47
White should lose no time in play ll:)xc2 l:txc2 48 d7 l:tc3+ and . . . l:td3) is
ing 39 ..txa5 l:txa5 40 e5 ! ; for exam holdable.
ple, 40 . . . b4? 4 1 e6 fxe6 (4 l . . .ll:)f6 42 2) 45 . . . ll:)b3 ! ? 46 ll:)xb3 cxb3 47
ll:)e5 <i>g7 43 ll:)d7 ! ) 42 dxe6 ll:)f6 43 l:tfl (the only move) 47 . . . b2 48 ..tf6 or
axb4 and White stands better. Black 47 . . ...td4 48 d6.
must therefore defend with 40 . . . ll:)f8, 3) 45 . . . l:ta3+ 46 ci>g2 l:td3 47 ..tc5 .
whereupon 4 1 g5 comes into consid 4) 45 . . ...txd4 ! 46 l:txd4 c3. This so-
eration. lution to the problem was given by
39 Starn. At first sight it seems improb
40 ..te7 able that it can be good, because
41 lt)d4 White queens with check. However,
The best chance. the black attack arrives first after 47
41 b4 (D) d6 c2 48 d7 c l 'ii' 49 d8'ii'+ <i>h7 ; the
It is clear that the time-trouble is question is whether it is a mating at
over. Black's last move is very strong tack. Assume that White plays 50 J.f6
Mark Taimanov - Leonid Stein 37

(D), the only possibility to create 46 lDxcS


counterthreats. 47 bxc5 .txcS
48 f3 llb2 (D)

B
w

Black now has various checks at his


disposal, but, since all the white pieces Thus the queenside pawns become
are protected, he must be all the more mobile while the bishop restrains the
careful that the white king does not es white d-pawn. The rest of the game is
cape to safety on the queenside; e.g., simple.
50 ... l:ta3+ 5 1 f4 lik4+ 52 e4 We3+ 49 l:e4 bS
5 3 d5 We6+ 54 c5 b6+ 55 b5 so tDfS l:fl+
and Black has no continuation. He 5 1 g3 l:d.2
need not let it get that far, of course. 52 l:e8+ h7
On the 5 1 st move, 5 I . . .lilf3+ is far 53 l:c8 l:xd5
stronger; but even that is not the nicest 54 4 .ta3!
or most forcing win. From the dia 55 l:c6 l:cS
gram position, that distinction is held 56 l:xh6+ g8
by 50 . . . lilfl + 5 1 h4 'ti'e l + 52 h5 57 l:a6 c3
and now the well-known smothered 58 tDd4 c2!
mate follows, in a very unusual part of 59 lDxc2 .tel+
the board : 52 . . . ltlg3+ 53 h4 lilf5+ 60 tDe3 l:tc3
54 h5 Wh4+ 55 .txh4 ltlg7 mate. 61 l:a8+ g7
45 lilb3 0-1
46 .tcS After 62 l:e8 b4 and 63 . . . b3 fol
Or 46 .tf6 c3 4 7 d3 .txd4 48 lowed by the exchange of pieces on
.t xd4 c2. e3, the black b-pawn queens.
Game Six
Fischer - Petrosian
Final Candidates Match (1), Buenos Aires 1971
Sicilian Defence, Ta i man ov Variatio n
The first game of the Fischer-Petrosian candidates match is, like the ftrst Fischer
Larsen match game, the most interesting one - in any case, it is the richest in con
tent. Fischer played a variation that he had earlier used with success against
Taimanov, among others. Petrosian obviously entered it willingly, and it appeared
that he and his seconds, Averbakh and Suetin, had prepared very well. Fischer had
no ready answer to their new approach.
I was in Moscow during the fust games of this match. The experts there
thought Petrosian had let winning positions slip in each of the frrst five games
(except the second, of course, which he had won). In this frrst game, in fact, I have
been able to prove, more or less, that Petrosian had obtained a virtually won po
sition after only fifteen moves. He missed his chance, and the struggle was wide
open again. In the continuation, it was Fischer who found his way best in a diffi
cult struggle, and just before the time control he achieved a decisive advantage.
This game was Fischer's twentieth successive victory over (strong) grandmas
ters, a record that has even found its way into the Guinness Book of World Re
cords.

1 e4 c5 1 2 . . . l'i:lxc2+ 13 e2 J.e6, as sug


2 lill3 e6 gested in Schaakbulletin 46, gives
3 d4 cxd4 White the advantage after 14 J.xe6
4 l'i:lxd4 l'i:lc6 l'i:ld4+ 1 5 fl l'i:lxe6 1 6 exf5 l'i:lf4 1 7
5 l'i:lbS d6 'iVf3 or 1 6 . . . l'i:ld4 1 7 l'i:ld2) 1 3 l'i:ld2
6 J.f4 eS l'i:lxc2+ 1 4 q;,e2 l'i:lxal (Bronstein
7 J.e3 l'i:lf6 Polugaevsky, 1 964 ), and now after 1 5
8 J.gS J.e6 l:lxa1 White stands better (Fischer).
The justiftcation of this move is to 2) 8 ... 1i'a5+ 9 1i'd2 l'i:lxe4 10 1i'xa5
be found in Black's eleventh, and so it l'i:lxa5 1 1 J.e3 q;,d7 1 2 l'i:l 1 c3 ! l'i:lxc3
must be regarded as the best reaction 13 xc3 and now:
to the system chosen by White. Two 2a) 13 . . . d8 14 l'i:lb5 J.e6 15 0-0-0
alternatives are, in brief: b6 1 6 f4 and White held the advantage
1 ) 8 . . . a6 9 J.xf6 gxf6 10 l'i:l5c3 f5 (Fischer-Taimanov, 2nd match game
1 1 'ii' h 5 l'i:ld4 1 2 J.c4 ! 'ilc7 (also 1 97 1 ).
Bobby Fischer - Tigran Petros ian 39

2b) 1 3 . . . e7 1 4 0-0-0 l:[d8 1 5 00 cases the bishop should stand on d3,


c6 1 6 b5, again with advantage to and it is therefore logical to postpone
White (Adorj an-Bobotsov, Amster making the choice between c4 and
dam-IBM 1 97 1 ). d3 by playing 15 l:[d l ! :
2c) 13 ... b6! 1 4 b5+ 6 1 5 0-0-0 1 ) 1 5 . . . d4? 1 6 dxe6 f3+ 1 7
b7 1 6 f4 l:[e8 ! and White's advan gxf3 l:txd2 1 8 xd2 and wins.
tage is small. 2) 1 5 . . . :hg8 16 d3 ! .
9 1c3 a6 3) 1 5 . . . xd5 1 6 xd5 l:[xd5 1 7
10 xf6 gxf6 'ii' x a5 l:[xd 1 + 1 8 xd 1 xa5 1 9 i.d3
1 1 tba3 d5! (D) or 17 . . . :xa5 18 c4; in either case
both sides' pawn structures have been
weakened, but White has the better
prospects as his light-squared bishop
w is stronger than the knight in this posi
tion.
4) 1 5 . . . b8 ! ? 16 e4 ! 'ii' x d2+ 1 7
l:[xd2 xd5 ! 1 8 xf6 xa2 1 9 l:[xd8+
l:[xd8 20 d3 with a slight advantage
to White (20 xh7? 4 21 .td3 f5).
5 ) 15 . . . e7 ! 16 d6 ! c6 17 e4
with a small advantage to White; for
example, 17 . . . 'ii'x d2+ 1 8 l:[xd2 f5 1 9
c5 l:[hg8.
The idea of this move is not new; it 15 l:[hg8
is also found in the Pelican Variation. In Schaakbulletin 47 the alterna
There it is insufficient for equality, but tive 15 . . . i.f5 is given, with the inten
here it is at least sufficient. tion 16 0-0 d4 17 i.d3 b8 1 8
12 exd5 xf5 1i'xc 3 . After 1 9 1i'xc3 2+ 20
On 1 2 xd5 xa3 1 3 bxa3 Black h 1 xc3 2 1 f4 ! White does not
has two good continuations: 1 3 . . .1i'a5+ stand badly in the ending; e.g., 2 1 .. .e4
1 4 1i'd2 1i'xd2+ 15 xd2 0-0-0 16 c4 22 l:[ae I or 2 1 . . .l:txd5 22 l:lf3 e4 23
f5, or directly 1 3 . . . f5 . :xc3 l:[xf5 24 g3.
12 xa3 The move Petrosian chooses holds
13 bxa3 'ti'aS the white position in a vice; White
14 1i'd2 0-0-0 cannot play 16 0-0 due to 1 6 . . . i.h3 .
15 c4 16 l:[d1 (D)
Unremarked upon everywhere, but A very critical point indeed. Before
in my opinion this is the mistake investigating the consequences of
which gets White into trouble. In most the much-discussed 16 . . . :xg2, I first
40 The Art of Chess Analysis
/

At that time I even suggested 1 8


i.b3 to answer 1 8 . . . lbd4 with 1 9 t0e4.
B M.Spanjaard, in his column in the
Utrechts Nieuwsblad, pointed out that
Black can then give mate immediately
with 19 . . . l:.xg2 20 'it'xa5 l:.e2+ 2 1 'iPfl
i.h3+ 22 '1Pg 1 tC!xf3 mate.
4) But why didn' t Petrosian play
1 6 . . . l:.xg2? (D) it is more difficult to
answer this question than to give vari
ations.

want to examine the following possi


bilities, most of which are also good
for Black:
1 ) 1 6 ... .l:.g4? 17 i.d3 ! ( 17 i.b3 l:.d4)
and Black has had his say.
2) 1 6 . . . lC!e7 . Given by O ' Kelly in
Europe Echecs. The threat is the ma
noeuvre . . . l:.g8-g4-d4. He gives the
following variation: 17 lC!e4 'fkc7 1 8
1i'c3 lC!xd5 1 9 i.xd5 i.xd5 20 1i'xc7+
q;xc7 2 1 lC!xf6 i.xg2 22 lC!xg8 i.xh 1
with advantage to Black. Indeed in this
case Black is even winning. Therefore 4a) First, let us look at 1 7 1i'e3,
White should play the better 17 i.b3 which in some columns was even
profiting from the fact that the black given as a refutation. After 17 . . . lbd4
knight can no longer go to the strong 18 q,n there can follow:
square d4. White has counterplay with 4a1 ) 1 8 . . . lC!f5 , here and there given
1 8 lC!a4 in answer to either 17 . . . l:txg2 as the best. After 1 9 1i'e 1 , l:.xf2+ ! is
or 1 7 . . . l:.g4. sufficient for a decisive attack. How
3) 1 6 . . . i. g4. A good suggestion by ever, O' Kelly showed that White can
Korchnoi and Furman in 64, with the force a draw as follows: 1 9 1i'a7 !
idea of playing 17 . . . i. f5 only after 1 7 xc3 20 i.xa6 ! bxa6 2 1 'it'a8+ q;c7
f3 . They give the variation 1 7 f3 i.f5 22 a7+, etc.
1 8 tOe4 l:.xg2 19 1i'xa5 lC!xa5 20 i.d3 4a2) 1 8 . . . lC!xc2 1 9 _.d3 ! (not 1 9
l:.xd5 2 1 tC!xf6 and now the exchange 'ikd2 i.h3 or 19 f3 l:.xf2+ ! with a de
sacrifice 2 1 . . .l:.xd3 22 cxd3 l:.xa2 is cisive attack) 1 9 . . . l:.g4 (now 1 9 . . . l:.xf2+
forced and strong. 20 '1Pxf2 c5+ 2 1 '1Pe2 J.g4+ 22 '1Pd2
Bobby Fischer - Tigran Petrosian 41

i s not sufficient) and now, besides 20 4b) 1 7 lLle4 (D). Black then has
1i'xc2 l:xc4 2 1 dxe6, which leads to three possibilities:
better play for Black after 2 l . . .'ili'xc3 !
22 Wxc3 l:xc3 ! 23 exf7 l:f8, White
can offer the queen with 20 dxe6.
Langeweg judges that Black runs no
risk with 20 . . . l:xd3 2 1 l:xd3 'ili'xa3,
but I cannot agree, because after 22
exf7 , 22 . . . l:xc4 fails to 23 l:g 1 , and
otherwise a white rook gains control
of the g-file; for example, 22 . . . .!Od4 23
l:g 1 l:xg 1 + 24 'it>xg 1 lLlf5 (to stop
l:g3) 25 e6+.
4a3) 1 8 . . . g4 ! . Although not men
tioned by anybody, this move is very
strong. The main variation runs: 1 9 4b 1 ) 1 7 ... l:tg6 18 'ti'xa5 lLlxa5 1 9
'it>xg2 f3+ 20 'it>h3 (otherwise he dxe6 lLlxc4 20 exf7 :.f8 2 1 l:d5 b6 and
loses the rook with a lost position) White stands a little better (Korchnoi
20 . . . 1i'c7 ! 2 1 l:xd4 (mate in two was and Furman).
threatened) 2 I . . .Wd7+ and now: 4b2) 17 . . . g4 18 'ii'xa5 (if 1 8 fl
4a3 1 ) 22 h4 'ili'f5 ! ! , threatening f3 ! ) 1 8 . . . lLlxa5 19 e2 xe2 20
23 . . . Wh5+ and 24 . . . l:g8 and mate. xe2 l:g6 21 lLlg3 e4 22 h4 with
B arendregt drew my attention to 23 chances for both sides.
'ili'h6 which, it is true, does avert the 4b3) 17 . . . 1i'b6 ! 1 8 1i'e3 ( 1 8 'ii'c 3
mate, but after 23 . . . exd4 24 l:g 1 dxc3 f5 19 fl xe4 20 'ii'h 3+ c;tb8 2 1
the black attack continues despite the xg2 xc2 and Black wins) and now
restored material equality. Black can get a decisive endgame ad-
4a32) 22 g3 xh 1 23 l:g4 f5 24 vantage with 1 8 . . . 1i'xe3+ 1 9 fxe3 g4
'ti'c5+ b8 25 l:g7 (25 l:g5 f6) followed by 20 . . . f3. Also 1 8 . . . .!0d4
25 .. Jlc8 and White cannot hold on to 1 9 fl g4 20 xg2 f3 + 2 1 'ti'xf3
his extra material; e.g., 26 1i'b4 f4+ 27 lLlxf3 22 xf3 f5 is good because
h4 1i'd8+ 28 h3 1i'f6 29 l:g4 Korchnoi and Furman 's suggested
1i'h6+ 30 l:h4 1i'g6 3 1 l:g4 11t'h5+ 32 23 tLld2 is met by 23 . . . 1i'd4, while the
l:th4 11t'f3 mate. more natural 23 lLlg3 is strongly an
White must therefore play 1 9 e2 swered by 23 . . . 11t'g6.
or lDe2, but in either case 19 . . . lLlf5 is I hope I have shown with these
strong, perhaps too strong. lines that Black could have obtained a
My conclusion is that 17 11t'e3 must winning position by 1 6 . . . l:xg2, which
be rejected and that White must play: was indeed quietly assumed by others.
42 The Art of Chess Analysis
I
The move played by Petrosian is 20 ... 1i'xa3
not bad either. 20 . . . l:lc8 is an important alternative.
16
.i.rs White gets the advantage after 2 1 lL!e4
17 .i.d3 .i.xd3 1Wxd5 22 c3 f5 23 .!Llg3 f4 24 cxd4
17 . . . l0d4 leads to the same position fxg3 25 fxg3. O' Kelly, however, points
after 1 8 .i.xf5 .!Llxf5 1 9 1i'd3 ( 1 9 0-0 out the exchange sacrifice 22 . . . l:lxc3
.!Llh4) 19 . . . l0d4, but Black can also try 23 1Wxc3 when Black has just enough
1 9 . . . .!Lld6. It is strange that Petrosian compensation.
limits his choices like this. 21 f4
1 7 ... e4 is a whole chapter in itself. In Schaakbulletin 47, 2 1 l'Oe4 is
White can react as follows : correctly given as better. However, the
1 ) 1 8 .i.xe4? .i.xe4 1 9 .!Llxe4 .l:ge8 possibility 2 1 . . .11ha2 is not men
20 0-0 l:txe4 21 'ikd3 f5 and Black tioned: 22 lLlxf6 Ag6 23 'ife4.
wins. 21
.. .l:c8
2) 1 8 .!Llxe4 .i.xe4 19 dxc6 fleS ! . 22 .!Lle4 11Vxd3
3 ) 1 8 .i.e2 ! l:lxg2 1 9 'it'e3 .!Lle5 20 22 . . . "ii'x a2 leads to nice continu
fl . White stands better, according to ations such as 23 .!Llxf6 l:lxg2 ! Then
the Deutsche Schachzeitung, because 24 .!Lld7+ a7 25 fxe5 l:lcxc2 26
2 1 .!Llxe4 is possible when the black 'it'xd4+ leads to the beautiful king ma
rook withdraws. However, Black can noeuvre 26 . . . a8 27 .!Llb6+ b8 28
play 20 . . . .!Llg4 2 1 .i.xg4 l:lxg4 22 h3 .!Lld7+ c8 29 .!Llb6+ d8 30 Wh4+
l:lh4 with a difficult position for White e8 and Black wins. White must
(23 'it'g3 l:th5 or 23 l:ld4 'it'c5 !). therefore play 23 l:ld2 ! ( Korchnoi
18 'it'xd3 .!Lld4 and Furman), after which Black has a
19 0-0 b8 draw with 23 . . . l:lxc2 24 l:lxc2 Wxc2
20 h1 (D) (24 . . . .!Llxc2 25 We2) 25 Wxc2 .!Llxc2
26 .!Llxf6 .!Lle3 ! 27 l:le 1 (27 l:lf3 l:lc8 ! )
2 7 . . . .!Llxg2 28 l:lg 1 l:lg6 29 .!Lld7+ c7
30 .!Llxe5 .!Llxf4 3 1 .!Llxg6 fxg6, as
shown by Kholmov. Perhaps 26 fxe5
is worth trying as a winning attempt.
23 cxd3 (D)
This has not been commented on
anywhere. Yet 23 l:lxd3, with the idea
of attacking the knight's position, is
interesting. A drawn position arises af
ter the long, practically forced con
tinuation 23 . . . l:lxc2 24 g3 l:lxa2 ! 25
.!Llxf6 l:lc8 26 fxe5 l:lcc2 27 .!Llg4 h5 28
Bobby Fischer - Tigran Petros ian 43

lbfl ! (28 lbe3 llxh2+ 29 ci>gl llh3) is happening: 29 d4 llxd5 and though
28 ... llxf2 29 llxfl llxfl 30 llxd4 llf5 ! the black kingside pawns are indeed
(3 1 d6 c;t.>cs 32 llc4+ ci>d8). weak, if White attacks them Black will
23
llc2 get the c-file. Furthermore, Black has
24 lld2 the advantage on the queenside. White
Now 24 g3 is bad due to 24 . . . llxa2 should occupy d6 with his knight by
25 lbxf6 llc8, etc. playing 30 llc5 lidS 3 1 lbc4.
24
:Xd2 28
lbd4
2s lbxd2 rs 28 . . . lbb4 was suggested here, with
S harply seen. Examine also these the idea 29 lbc4 lbxd3 30 e6 fxe6 3 1
lines : lbd6 lle7 32 llxf5? llf7. Better seems
1 ) 25 . . . lle8? 26 f5, etc. 30 g3 and White stands a little better
2) 25 . . . lld8 26 fxe5 fxe5 27 llxf7 . (30 . . . b5 3 1 lbaS).
3) 25 . . . llc8 ! ? 26 fxe5 llc2 (or 29 lle3 lbc2
26 . . . fxe5 27 llxf7 llc2 28 lbfl llxa2 30 llh3
29 g4 ! ) 27 lbe4 fxe5 28 g4 ! with Naturally.
slightly better play for White. 30
llxeS
4) 25 . . . exf4 26 llxf4 lle8 27 llxf6 31 lbr3 llxdS
with advantage to White. Disapproved of by Kholmov. He
26 fxeS lle8 gives 3 1 . . .lle2 as correct, with the
27 llel lbc2 (D) variation 32 llxh7 lbd4 33 llxf7 llxa2
28 lle2 34 h4 lbxf3 35 gxf3 lla4 ! , drawing .
28 llc 1 is recommended by Panov. But 33 llxf7 is ridiculous and must be
The luminous point is 28 . . . llxe5 ? 29 replaced with the immediate 33 h4 .
lbf3 lle2 30 d6 ! ci>c8 3 1 ci>g l ! ci>d7 32 Then the black f-pawns only make it
ci>fl winning a piece. After 28 . . . lbb4 more difficult to stop the h-pawn.
(28 . . . lbd4? 29 lbc4 b5 30 lbb6) little 32 llxh7 (D)
44 The Art of Chess Analysis

convincing. On the 35th move, worthy


of consideration is 35 7 + followed
by 36 l:xt7 . Kholmov however, shows
an even more convincing way to keep
White's advantage: 34 c!Llg5 ! f6 35
c!Llh3 and Black 's f-pawns again get in
the way of his pieces.
34 l:txf7
If 34 h5, 34 . . . c!Llg4 follows. Then 35
l:bt7 is too '\ate : 35 ... lld l + 36 c!Llgl
.!Llf2+ 37 h2 c!Llg4+, drawing.
34 l:tdl+
32 llxd3 A little better is 34 . . . c8 to offer
It is possible to say that this is the the exchange of rooks after 35 h5
decisive mistake. It is much more logi l:td l + 36 h2 l:td7. But after 37 l:tf8+
cal to mobilise the majority on the ri;c7 38 g3 or 37 . . . l:td8 38 l:txd8+
queenside immediately with 32 . . . b5 . <i>xd8 39 g3 White keeps matters
In Schaakbulletin 47, a variation end frrmly under control.
ing in a draw is given: 32 ... b5 33 h4 a5 35 <i>h2 :at
34 h5 b4 35 l:txt7 a4 36 h6 lld6 37 h7 Perhaps still 35 . . . c8, though now
llh6+ 38 g l b3 39 axb3 a3 and 36 h5 can be replaced by 36 g3.
White has nothing better than repeti 36 hS (D)
tion of moves with 40 llf8+ and 4 1
llt7+. Foreign magazines again fail to
comment here.
33 h4 3 B
This is the move generally con
sidered to be the decisive mistake, and
it is also mentioned that 33 ... 4
holds the draw. This is correct as far as
the rook-endgame is concerned. Kor
chnoi and Furman analyse : 34 c!Llxd4
llxd4 35 h2 f6 36 g3 llg4+ 37
h3 llg6, or 36 h3 lld3+ 37 g3 f4 ;
also, 34 c!Lle5 lle3 35 c!Llxt7 f4 36 h5 f3
37 gxf3 c!Llxf3 38 g2 c!Llh4+ 39 fl. 36 f4
llf3 + 40 e2 llf6 4 1 h6 c!Llf5 leads to A critical moment. Petrosian is
a draw, according to them. The vari seized by panic and plays a move that
ation is rather long and thus not quite loses quickly. In Both Sides of the
Bobby Fischer - Tigran Petrosian 45

Chessboard Byrne states that Petro Also winning for White is 39 . . . a4 40


sian should have played 36 . . . l:txa2. It 'ii;l xf5 ll'le3+ 4 1 e4 ; for example:
is then unclear whether White has real 4 1 . ..l:te2 42 'iPd3 a3 43 'itxe2 a2 44 h6
winning chances. Originally I gave 37 a rii' 45 l:tg8+ r:/;a7 46 h7 and promo
lLlh4 in reply, but then B lack gets an tion cannot be prevented.
immediate draw with 37 . . . f4 ! 38 l::t x f4 2) 37 . . . a5 . Another suggestion by
.:ta5 39 g4 lLlxg4+ and White has no Kasparov, and one which contains a
pawns left. A better try is 37 l:g7 (D). beautiful idea. After 38 h6 lLlg4+ 39
Black then has the following possibili l:txg4 fxg4 40 h7 gxf3 41 h81i'+ a7
ties: 42 1i'd4+ a8 43 1i'd5 l:txg2+ 44 h3
l:tg6 B lack is going to build an im
penetrable fortress. However, White
can also strengthen this variation,
namely with 3 8 ll'le5 . Then it is not
easy to see how B lack is going to stop
the h-pawn.
3) 37 . . . f4. This move, given by
Byrne, is easily the best. Black gets
ready to stop the h-pawn via a5. More
over, the white king is deprived of the
g3-square. After 38 h6 l:ta5 39 h7
l:th5+ 40 g1 a7 there is no win for
White. If the worst comes to the worst,
1) 37 . . . lLlg4+. This move is given Black can give up his rook for the h
by Kasparov in the Encyclopaedia of pawn, for his queenside pawns are
Chess Endings. He concludes that then far enough advanced. B yrne
Black should be able to get a draw af elaborates on this as follows: 4 1 ll'lg5
ter the long variation 38 g3 a5 39 a5 42 l:tg8 a4 43 h81i' l:txh8 44 l:txh8
lLld4 a4 40 lLlxf5 lLlf6 41 h6 a3 42 h7 a3 45 l:tc8 a2 46 l:tc 1 ll'lc2 with a draw.
lLlxh7 43 l:txh7 l:tb2 44 l:th l a2 45 A more subtle attempt to win for
.:tal b5 46 ll'ld4 b4 47 lLlc6+ c7 48 White is 38 l:tg5 , in order to keep the
ll'lxb4 l:txb4 49 l:txa2 .d6 50 l:e2 black rook at bay. Here Byrne gives
l:tb8 when a theoretically known end the following variation: 38 . . . l:tc2 39
game has arisen. However, White can lLle5 l:tc7 40 h6 l:th7 4 1 lLlc6+ bxc6 42
strengthen this variation considerably l:tg8+ c7 43 l:tg7+ l:txg7 44 hxg7
with 39 f4 ! (instead of 39 ll'ld4 ). The ll'lg4+ 45 h3 ll'lf6 and B lack even
point is that 39 . . . l:txg2 is not playable, wins. The move 4 1 ll'lc6+ is a nice
because of 40 h6 and the h-pawn runs study idea, but there is little sense in
on to queen without being troubled. playing it, since Black has a more than
46 The Art of Chess Analysis

adequate defence. Much stronger is 40 38 l:le4!


h3 (instead of 40 h6), after which Fischer has played the whole sec
White does indeed threaten to win in ond half of the game very accurately.
this study-like manner and, besides, he The text-move prevents .. .l:lxg2+ be
throws his king forward in support of cause the black knight is hanging.
the h-pawn. Black then has difficulty 38 g2
in reaching the safe haven of a draw. 39 g3 :laS
37 l:lxf4 l:lxa2 40 5 1-0
Game Seven
Fischer - Spassky
World Championship Match (4),
Reykjavik 1972
Sicil ian Defence, Sozin Variation
Fischer had unnecessarily lost a drawn position in the flrst game of this world
championship match and had failed to show up for the second, while Spassky had
not put up much resistance in the third game, although he was playing the white
pieces. It was not until the fourth game that we saw both players in their element.
Just as Petrosian in the first game of his match with Fischer had found an im
portant improvement on Taimanov's handling of the Sicilian, so Spassky im
proved on Larsen's play in another Sicilian variation. He clearly took matters
under control and even increased his advantage when Fischer evidently underes
timated the seriousness of his situation. However, in the flfth hour Spassky failed
to crown his work and Fischer succeeded in reaching a draw with precise defen-
sive manoeuvres.

1 e4 cS castle short and the move a7-a6 would


2 lbf3 d6 just be a lost tempo. We will see that
3 d4 cxd4 Spassky has a different opinion about
4 lbxd4 lbf6 this.
5 lbc3 lbc6 9 0-0
6 .i.c4 The first signiflcant decision.
The system Fischer had always About flve years before this game,
used. This would be the main reason Fischer had begun to prefer 9 'ii'e 2, in
for Spassky's choosing to enter an un tending to castle long. Then he lost to
usual (for him) Sicilian. Larsen in the above-mentioned game,
6 e6 which went 9 'ii'e 2 a6 10 0-0-0 'ii'c 7 1 1
7 .i.b3 .i.e7 g4 lbd7 1 2 h4 lbc5 1 3 g5 b5 1 4 f3
8 .i.e3 0-0 .i.d7 1 5 1i'g2 b4 1 6 lbce2 lbxb3+ 1 7
Larsen, who also castled at this axb3 a5 and the black attack came
point in his game against Fischer in first. The cause was mainly White's
the 1 970 Interzonal tournament, re twelfth move, which, as indicated by
marks in his book, lch spiele aufSieg, Velimirovil:, should have been 12 g5 .
that he did not want to play 8 . a6 be
. . Nevertheless, a year later Fischer re
cause he feared that White would then turned to the old system with kingside
48 The Art of Chess Analysis

castling in two games of his match 10 lL!xd4


with Larsen, and he won both of them. 11 .txd4 bS (D)
9 ... a6
Spassky sees . . . a7 -a6 as a waiting
move rather than a tempo-loss. Other
possibilities in this much-played posi
tion are:
1 ) 9 . . . lL!a5 (Botvinnik's move) 1 0
f4 b 6 1 1 e 5 (White must play sharply
because after 1 1 'ili'f3 .tb7 the threat
of the exchange sacrifice . . . l:.a8-c8xc3
is strong) l l .. .lL!e8 12 f5 dxe5 1 3 fxe6
lL!xb3 1 4 lL!c6 ! 'ili'd6 1 5 'ili'xd6 .txd6
16 axb3 .txe6 1 7 lLlxa7 and the end
game is a little better for White (Kos
tro-Doda, 1 957). 12 a3
2) 9 ... .td7 10 f4 and now: Little can be achieved by such re
2a) l O . . . lL!xd4 1 1 .txd4 .tc6 1 2 strained play. Fischer apparently still
'ili'd3 b5 1 3 e5 dxe5 1 4 fxe5 lL!d7 1 5 wishes to play his favourite advance,
lL!e4 .txe4 ! 1 6 'ikxe4 lL!c5 1 7 .txc5 f4-f5 . However, the most suitable
.txc5+ 1 8 <ili>h l 'ikd4 and Black stands method to exploit White ' s opening
a little better (Jimenez-Lein, 1 972). advantage at this point, as shown by
White should play 1 2 'ife2. later practice, is 12 e5 . After 12 . . . dxe5
2b) 10 . . .'ii'c 8 1 1 f5 lbxd4 1 2 .txd4 1 3 fxe5 lLld7 14 lL!e4 .tb7 15 lL!d6
exf5 1 3 'ili'd3 ! and White obtains rea .txd6 1 6 exd6 'ikg5 a difficult posi
sonable compensation for the pawn tion arises with chances for both sides,
(Fischer-Larsen, 5th match game but White's credentials are probably
1 97 1 ). slightly better. An example from prac
3 ) 9 . . . lLlxd4 1 0 .txd4 b5 l l lLlxb5 tice is 17 'ife2 e5 18 .te3 'ifg6 19 llad l
.ta6 12 c4 .txb5 1 3 cxb5 lL!xe4 1 4 h8 20 c3 .te4 2 1 'iff2 and Black
'ifg4 lL!f6 1 5 'ife2 lL!d7 and now White stood well (Hamman-Gligorit, Skopje
can gain the advantage with 16 l:.ac l . 1 972). However, 17 llf2 ! is stronger.
1 0 f4 12 ... .t b7
After this move Black can subject 13 'ii'd3 aS! (D)
the e4-pawn to constant pressure. The rea l point of Black's ninth
However, if White makes a waiting move, undoubtedly the fruit of home
move (say, 10 a3) in order to support work. B lack has now definitely lost a
the e-pawn later with f2-f3, then tempo, but this is exactly the reason
lO . . . lL!a5 is good for Black. White runs into some difficulty. There
Fischer - Spassky 49

Fischer preserves his 'Sicilian


bishop' with the text-move, but he gets
little j oy from it. The black bishops
will exert a paralysing effect.
17 J.xcS+
18 c;11b 1 'ikgS (D)

is no longer time to advance the f


pawn, so Fischer decides to push the
e-pawn.
14 eS dxeS
15 fxeS lDd7
16 lDxbS
White must carry on. If 16 lLle4, then
after 1 6 . . . J.xe4 1 7 Wxe4 lLlc5, a posi Initially it was thought that this
tion arises similar to that in variation move indicated Spassky 's intention to
2a after Black's ninth move. play for a win, but a closer analysis
16 lLlcs shows that the alternative, exchang
17 J.xcS ing queens, is no guarantee of an easy
After this, Black has two mighty draw: 18 . . .1t'xd3 19 cxd3 and now:
bishops raking the board . Although it 1 ) 1 9 ... J.a6 20 lLlc7 J.xd3 2 1
is true that after 17 'il'e2 lLlxb3 1 8 cxb3 l:fc l ! with advantage (2 l . . .l:lab8 22
J.a6 19 l:lad1 'ikd5 20 a4 'ii'x b3 White's lLlxe6, or 2 l . . .J.e3 22 l:c3 l:lad8 23
position collapses, Olafsson's sug l:lad 1 ).
gestion 1 7 'il'e3 keeps White's feet 2) 1 9 . . . J.c6 2 1 l:fc 1 J.xb5 2 U lxc5
more frrmly on the ground. The point J.xd3 22 lld 1 with a small but lasting
is that White suffers no material loss advantage for White.
after 17 ... lLlxb3 18 11'xb3 a4 1 9 1t'd3, al 19 'it'e2
though Black would keep good com A very passive move by Fischer's
pensation for the pawn; e.g., 1 9 . . . 1t'd5 standards, which shows that he under
20 l:lf2 l:lac8 (prevents 2 1 c4 and estimated the dangers facing his posi
threatens 2 l . . .J.a6) 2 1 lLlc3 'il'c6 and tion. Otherwise he would have chosen
White's pawn preponderance on the 19 'il'g3, to head for a draw; for exam
queenside is of little significance. ple, 19 . . . 1i'xg3 20 hxg3 and now:
50 The Art of Chess Analysis

1 ) 20 . . . a4 2 1 .i.c4 l:ta5 . Black now


has the strong threat 22 . . . .i.a6 which
indirectly threatens the pawn on e5 . W

White can save himself with 22 b4


axb3 23 cxb3 .i.a6 24 a4.
2) 20 . . . .i.a6 2 1 .i.c4 .i.xb5 22 .i.xb5
.i.d4 23 c3 .i.xe5 and, although the
situation is virtually balanced, Black
stands just a little better because of his
centre pawns.
19 l:tad8
Spassky thought about this for
nineteen minutes. His judgement is (24 ....i.xg2+ was threatened) 24 ...1i'c l +
correct and based on the following 2 5 .i.d 1 .i.d5 with more than enough
grounds: compensation for the pawn. However,
First: White will be compelled to it is an open question whether it does
move his rook from the f-file due to more than merely win back a pawn on
the threat 20 . . . l:td2, and thus White's d4 after 26 1i'c2 'iff4 27 'ife2.
pressure against n will be reduced. 2) 2 l . . . .i.e3 . This direct move
Second: The bishop on b7 has the with the dual threats 22 . . .1i'xe5 and
square aS available in answer to a pos 22 ... i.f4 puts White in great difficul
sible .!Db5-d6. ties. If he tries to resist with 22 .!Dd6
Third: The d-file which White ob i.c6 23 :n .i.f4 24 1i'f2 he faces
tains is of only secondary importance 24 . . . 1i'g4 ! (Olafsson) with the crush
because the struggle will take place ing threat 25 . . . 'ii'h 3. More stubborn is
mainly on the kingside. 23 .!Dc4 (instead of 23 l:fl ) 23 . . . .i.f4
20 l:tad1 l:xd1 24 c;t>g l . After 24 . . . a4 25 i.a2, 25 . . . h5
21 l:txd1 h5 (D) follows with even stronger effect than
An almost thematic continuation. in the game.
Black threatens to advance the pawn 22 .!Dd6
to h3 and thereby strengthen the grip Reshevsky rejects this move and
his bishop-pair exerts on White's posi feels that White should use the knight
tion. Nevertheless, there are good al for defence with 22 .!Dd4. With hind
ternatives: sight, there is certainly something to
1 ) 2 1 . . .l:td8, recommended by Nei. be said for it; for instance, after 22 ... h4
22 .!Dd6 is not possible now because of 23 .!Df3 1i'f4 24 h3 White stands pas
22 ... .i.xg2+ 23 1i'xg2 1i'xe5 and Black sively indeed, but there is no immedi
wins. Nei gives the continuation 22 ate way to exploit that situation. The
l:txd8+ 1i'xd8 23 c3 'iVg5 24 .!Dd4 text-move can be j utified from a
Fischer - Spassky 51

practical point of view: i n many lines gives him the advantage in the end
White has the possibility of sacrificing game.
on f7, and the knight also has the pos 24 h3
sibility of returning to the defence via Although not as bad as was gener
e4. On the other hand, the strongpoint ally thought, this move is clearly an
on d6 can become shaky, as will be example of superficial calculation.
come apparent. Other moves:
22 i.a8 1) 24 .l:.d3 . This is refuted simply
23 i.c4 with 24 . . . .ixg2+ 25 ...xg2 1Wc l +,
Fischer must have played this winning the exchange.
strong defensive move, which protects 2) 24 ltle4 1Wxe5 25 ltlxc5 1Wxc5
the queen on e2 and in general brings 26 h3 (D).
the bishop back into the game, purely
by intuition. Attempts to re-exert pres
sure against f1 fail: 23 .l:.fl h4 24 lilxf7
h3 ! (even stronger than 24 . . . l:txt7 25 8

i.xe6 h3) 25 ltlxg5 hxg2+ and mate


next move.
23 h4 (D)

Opinions are divided on this posi


tion. Some find that Black has a great
advantage, others that White does not
stand much worse. Indeed, it is not
easy to find the best plan for Black.
After much searching, I think the solu
tion lies in 26 . . . 1Wf5 ! After 27 c;i;lgl
Once again 23 . . . .ie3 comes into l:tc8 White is faced with the threat
consideration. White would have no 28 . . . ...c5+ and must make the con
better than 24 .id3 .if4 25 .ie4 ,..xe5 cession of choosing a square for his
(but not 25 . . . 1i'h4 26 g3 .ixg3 27 bishop at this unsuitable moment. Af
i.. xa8 .l:.xa8 28 ,..g 2 and White wins) ter either 28 .ib3 .ie4 or 28 .id3 ...g5
26 g3 ! .ixe4+ 27 1i'xe4 xe4+ 28 followed by the advance of the e-pawn
ltlxe4 .ie5 and Black's strong bishop (with White's bishop no longer on the
50 The Art of Chess Analysis

1 ) 20 . . . a4 2 1 .i.c4 l:ta5 . Black now


has the strong threat 22 . . . .i.a6 which
indirectly threatens the pawn on e5 . W

White can save himself with 22 b4


axb3 23 cxb3 .i.a6 24 a4.
2) 20 . . . .i.a6 2 1 .i.c4 .i.xb5 22 .i.xb5
.i.d4 23 c3 .i.xe5 and, although the
situation is virtually balanced, Black
stands just a little better because of his
centre pawns.
19 l:tad8
Spassky thought about this for
nineteen minutes. His judgement is (24 ....i.xg2+ was threatened) 24 ...1i'c l +
correct and based on the following 2 5 .i.d 1 .i.d5 with more than enough
grounds: compensation for the pawn. However,
First: White will be compelled to it is an open question whether it does
move his rook from the f-file due to more than merely win back a pawn on
the threat 20 . . . l:td2, and thus White's d4 after 26 1i'c2 'iff4 27 'ife2.
pressure against n will be reduced. 2) 2 l . . . .i.e3 . This direct move
Second: The bishop on b7 has the with the dual threats 22 . . .1i'xe5 and
square aS available in answer to a pos 22 ... i.f4 puts White in great difficul
sible .!Db5-d6. ties. If he tries to resist with 22 .!Dd6
Third: The d-file which White ob i.c6 23 :n .i.f4 24 1i'f2 he faces
tains is of only secondary importance 24 . . . 1i'g4 ! (Olafsson) with the crush
because the struggle will take place ing threat 25 . . . 'ii'h 3. More stubborn is
mainly on the kingside. 23 .!Dc4 (instead of 23 l:fl ) 23 . . . .i.f4
20 l:tad1 l:xd1 24 c;t>g l . After 24 . . . a4 25 i.a2, 25 . . . h5
21 l:txd1 h5 (D) follows with even stronger effect than
An almost thematic continuation. in the game.
Black threatens to advance the pawn 22 .!Dd6
to h3 and thereby strengthen the grip Reshevsky rejects this move and
his bishop-pair exerts on White's posi feels that White should use the knight
tion. Nevertheless, there are good al for defence with 22 .!Dd4. With hind
ternatives: sight, there is certainly something to
1 ) 2 1 . . .l:td8, recommended by Nei. be said for it; for instance, after 22 ... h4
22 .!Dd6 is not possible now because of 23 .!Df3 1i'f4 24 h3 White stands pas
22 ... .i.xg2+ 23 1i'xg2 1i'xe5 and Black sively indeed, but there is no immedi
wins. Nei gives the continuation 22 ate way to exploit that situation. The
l:txd8+ 1i'xd8 23 c3 'iVg5 24 .!Dd4 text-move can be j utified from a
Fischer - Spassky 51

practical point of view: i n many lines gives him the advantage in the end
White has the possibility of sacrificing game.
on f7, and the knight also has the pos 24 h3
sibility of returning to the defence via Although not as bad as was gener
e4. On the other hand, the strongpoint ally thought, this move is clearly an
on d6 can become shaky, as will be example of superficial calculation.
come apparent. Other moves:
22 i.a8 1) 24 .l:.d3 . This is refuted simply
23 i.c4 with 24 . . . .ixg2+ 25 ...xg2 1Wc l +,
Fischer must have played this winning the exchange.
strong defensive move, which protects 2) 24 ltle4 1Wxe5 25 ltlxc5 1Wxc5
the queen on e2 and in general brings 26 h3 (D).
the bishop back into the game, purely
by intuition. Attempts to re-exert pres
sure against f1 fail: 23 .l:.fl h4 24 lilxf7
h3 ! (even stronger than 24 . . . l:txt7 25 8

i.xe6 h3) 25 ltlxg5 hxg2+ and mate


next move.
23 h4 (D)

Opinions are divided on this posi


tion. Some find that Black has a great
advantage, others that White does not
stand much worse. Indeed, it is not
easy to find the best plan for Black.
After much searching, I think the solu
tion lies in 26 . . . 1Wf5 ! After 27 c;i;lgl
Once again 23 . . . .ie3 comes into l:tc8 White is faced with the threat
consideration. White would have no 28 . . . ...c5+ and must make the con
better than 24 .id3 .if4 25 .ie4 ,..xe5 cession of choosing a square for his
(but not 25 . . . 1i'h4 26 g3 .ixg3 27 bishop at this unsuitable moment. Af
i.. xa8 .l:.xa8 28 ,..g 2 and White wins) ter either 28 .ib3 .ie4 or 28 .id3 ...g5
26 g3 ! .ixe4+ 27 1i'xe4 xe4+ 28 followed by the advance of the e-pawn
ltlxe4 .ie5 and Black's strong bishop (with White's bishop no longer on the
52 The Art of Chess Analysis

a2-g8 diagonal, the f7-square is no


longer so weak), Black is clearly in a
position to control matters.
24 . .te3 !
At last, and now with even greater
effect. Destruction is threatened with
25 . . . .tf4 and 25 .. .'ii' g 3. White has less
to fear from 24 . . . 1Wg3 25 ltle4 (but not
25 l:.d3 .txg2+ 26 1i'xg2 We l + 27
h2 1Wxe5+ and wins) 25 .. .'ii' xe5 26
ltlxc5 1Wxc5 and the same position as in
the above variation B arises, but with
White having an extra move. 26 . . . .tg5 27 'ike l (not Nei's suggested
25 'ii'g4 'ii'xeS 27 1i'd4 which leads to a very favour
Black correctly keeps the queens on able ending for Black after 27 . . . \i'xd4
the board . The ending after 25 . . . 1i'xg4 28 l:.xd4 .tf6) achieves little, but
26 hxg4 does not offer much: Olafsson's recommendation, the bold
1 ) 26 . . . h3 27 .tn .tf4 28 ltlc4 and pawn-grab 26 . . . 1Wxb2 ! is very strong.
White keeps his head above water. Black meets the direct attack 27 ltlxf7
2) 26 . . . .t f4 (the knight is pre with the counteroffer 27 . . . .txg2+ !
vented from going to c4) 27 .te2 ! (D).
(much stronger than 27 Ae l h3 28
.tn f6 with overwhelming play for
Black) 27 . . . .txe5 28 ltlc4 followed by
29 .t f3 and the white position holds w

together.
26 'ii'xh4 (D)
For the moment, White holds his
extra pawn. 26 ltlxt7 is again incorrect
since after 26 . . . xf7 27 .txe6+ f6 !
(not 27 . . .'ti'xe6 28 l:.d7+) 28 l:.fl +
e7 White has nothing for the piece.
26 gS
With gain of tempo, this frees a
square for the king so that the rook The bishop cannot be taken, but af
may be used for an attack along the ter 28 h2 1i'xc2 29 1i'h8+ (the white
half-open h-file. On the other hand, knight is in the way ! ) 29 . . . xf7 30
the position of the black king is weak l:.d7+ e8 3 1 l:.d8+ xd8 32 1i'xf8+
ened, which White can exploit. Also, c7 White has no perpetual check and
Fischer - Spassky 53

the black king escapes to the queen White has the opportunity to play the
side. knight back to c4 and to further neu
What better move does White have tralise the position with .if3. As Black
after 26 . . . 'ifxb2? The attacking at would have pawns on only one wing,
tempt 27 .td3 is easily brushed aside his winning chances would be limited.
with 27 . . . .th6. The best is 27 .tb3 !, 28 g7
defending c2, maintaining the threat Threatening the decisive . . . l:.f8-h8-
28 lbxf7, and at the same time allow h4 . The knight must return to the de
ing the knight to spring to c4 . How fence.
ever, B lack has regained his pawn and 29 lbd4 .:th8 (D)
can keep a solid positional advantage
with 27 . . . g5 .
27 'ifg4 .tcS
Black correctly saw that after w
27 . . . .:d8 White could force a draw
with 28 lbxf7 . After 28 . . . Axd 1 + 29
1kxd 1 Black can try:
1 ) 28 . . . xf7 29 1kd7+ with an im
mediate draw by perpetual check.
2) 28 ... 1kg3?? 29 lbh6+. All(!) com
mentators thought that White had a
perpetual check here - all except Don
ner, who after initially making the
same mistake, discovered that Black The first reports and analyses from
gets mated after 29 . . . g7 30 'ifd7+. Reykjavik all mentioned that Spassky
3) 28 ... 'ffe4 ! 29 .tn xfl 30 'ifd7+ had missed a win here. Not with
f6 3 1 'ifd8+ e5 32 'it'e7, and de 29 . . . .id6, when 30 lbf5+ draws at
spite everything, Black cannot avoid once. The important alternative is
a draw. 29 . . . .:td8. Now 30 lbxe6 fxe6 3 1 .:txd8
28 lbb5 1ke 1 + and 30 lbf5+ f6 ! don ' t work,
Fischer again takes his knight out so the knight must be defended. After
of play and thereby lands in a hope 30 c3 Black has these possibilities:
less situation. Instead, he can use the 1) 30 . . . .:th8 (with the thought that
weakened position of the black king now White can't exchange queens on
by showing that the knight was not re c3, as he can in the game) and now:
ally threatened after all : 28 b4 ! . After 1 a) 3 1 .id3 . The intention is to
28 . . . axb4 (the point is that 28 . . . .txd6 meet 3 1 . . . .:th4 by the constantly re
29 .:txd6 'it'xd6 30 'it'xg5+ leads to curring 32 lbf5+. However, Black sim
perpetual check) 29 axb4 .txb4 30 .te2 ply plays 3 1 . . .g8 (Nei's suggestion
54 The Art of Chess Analysis

of 3 l . . .i.b6 is also good, but 3 1 . . . f8 37 'iff4+ 'it'g5 38 1Vf3 with good win
is weaker because of 32 llfl with ning chances for Black.
counterattack) and the threat 32 . . . l:th4 2) 30 . . . i.d6 3 1 g 1 1i'e3+ 32 fl
is even stronger than before. (after 32 h 1 :th8 33 llJf3 i. f4 34
1 b) 3 1 llfl . First given by Smys :d7 g6 the threat 35 . . . f5 is deadly)
lov in 64. The idea is the same as in 32 ... i.g3 33 1i'e2 1Vf4+ 34 g1 i.h2+
variation 1 a but the execution is more 35 h 1 :h8 and now not 36 :n
refined. It is nevertheless hardly suffi :xh3 37 :xf4 i.xf4+ 38 g1 i.e3+
cient after 3 1 . . .l:th4 32 llJf5+ 'ilxf5 33 and wins, but 36 llJxe6 fxe6 37 :d7+.
l:[xf5 l:txg4 34 :xeS :xg2 35 :xaS Here the weakened position of the
(the showy 35 i.d5 leads to a lost black king again plays a role.
pawn endgame after 35 . . . i.xd5 36 3) 30 . . . 1i'e3 . Given by Donner.
.z:r.xd5 exd5 37 xg2 a4 !) 35 . . . i.f3 36 Black keeps the more direct attempts
b3 (Byrne's 36 i.fl :xb2+ is cer in reserve and maintains his grip on
tainly not better) 36 . . . g6 and pene the position. It is difficult to find a de
tration by the black king cannot be fence to the threatened . . . :d8-h8-h4.
stopped (37 :a7 f6 !). White can just survive, however, by
1c) 3 1 i.xe6 ! i.xd4 3 2 cxd4 (this playing 3 1 i.e2 with the neutralising
is where the advantage of c2-c3 shows) threat 3 2 i.f3 . After 3 l . . .i.xd4 32
32 . . . 1i'xe6 33 1i'xg5+ 'ii'g 6 34 'iie 5+ :xd4 f5 ! 33 'ii'h 5 :xd4 34 cxd4 g4
(D) and although three pawns are in White is again obliged to offer a piece:
sufficient compensation for a piece in 35 hxg4 'ii'xe2 36 'it'g5+ f7 37 gxf5 .
this position, an eventual win for His drawing chances are better here
Black is problematical. than in variation 1c.
All things considered, there is no
reason to fault Spassky's continuation.
His mistake comes two moves later.
8 30 llJf3 i.xf3
30 . . . 1Vf4 is an interesting try. After
3 1 1i'xf4 gxf4 32 i.e2 Black has more
than sufficient compensation for the
pawn, and 3 1 1i'xg5+ 'ii'xg5 32 llJxg5
seems no more attractive because after
driving the knight back Black can cap
ture on h3 with great force. However,
White still has a way out:
1 ) 32 . . . :th5 33 llJxe6+ fxe6 34
Olafsson now gives 34 . . . h7 . Nei i.xe6 and White has four pawns for
gives 34 . . . f6 35 'ifc7+ h6 36 d5 :tg8 the piece while h3 is defended.
Fischer - Spassky 55

2) 3 2 . . . <;ilf6 3 3 :le i (Donner) and 32 'ii'c3


White saves himself. This queen exchange removes all
3 1 'ifxf3 i.d6? danger. The resulting ending is a dead
In slight time trouble, Spassky must draw. That the players still continued
have overlooked the spoiling answer for so long indicates the fighting spirit
to this. The many-sided 3 1 . . ..l:h4 is re that characterised the whole match.
quired to continue the attack. Whereas 32 'ii'xc3
White can force the exchange of a pair 33 bxc3 .te5
of heavy pieces with 3 2 :n .l:f4 33 34 .l:d7 f6
1fe2, this would hardly stop the attack: 35 g1 .txc3
3 3 . . . .l:xfl + 34 'ii' x fl i.d6 35 g i (35 36 .te2 .te5
'ii' g i is even worse) 35 . . . 'ii'h2+ 36 <;iJf2 37 n :tcS
.tc5+ 37 r.Pe i 'ii'e5+ and Black wins 38 .th5 .l:c7
two queenside pawns, obtaining a 39 .l:xc7 .txc7
passed a-pawn, for if 38 'ii'e2 'ii'xb2 39 40 a4 q;e7
a4? 'ii'c i + 40 'ii'd i i.f2+ 4 I e2 'ii'e3+ 41 e2 f5
42 fl i.g3 43 'ii'e 2 'fie I + and mate. 42 d3 .te5
You can see how dangerous the black 43 c4 <;ild6
attack remains despite the reduced 44 .tf7 .tg3
material . 45 cS+ lfz-1/z
Game Eight
Fischer - Spassky
World Championship Match (1 0),
Reykjavik 1972
R u y Lopez, B reyer Variation
Perhaps influenced by Spassky's strong handling of the opening in the fourth
game, Fischer decided to open with 1 c4 the next two times he had the white
pieces. And with success: he won both games. Having thus built up a 5 112-3 112
lead, in the tenth game he returned to his old, trusted 1 e4. Spassky answered it
classically, and after an interesting opening phase they went into a middlegame
full of unclear combinational twists and turns. Fischer, as usual, pressed on very
purposefully, and, when Spassky failed to play with absolute accuracy, he con
verted his small material advantage into victory in a virtuoso endgame perform
ance.
The game is fascinating throughout all its phases, and in my opinion it is the
best game of the entire match.

1 e4 eS
For the first time in the match - and
not unexpectedly - Spassky plays an B
' open' defence. Just as he usually re-
plies to 1 d4 with an orthodox defence,
so he often answers 1 e4 with l . . .e5 .
2 lLlf3 lLlc6
3 i.bS a6
4 i.a4
I n game sixteen of this match,
Fischer reverted to the Exchange Vari
ation with which he had beaten Por
tisch, Jimenez, and Gligori quickly 7 d6
and convincingly in the 1 966 Havana In S anta Monica 1 966, Spassky
Olympiad. prepared the way for the Marshall At
4 lLlf6 tack against Fischer with 7 . . . 0-0. The
5 0-0 i.e7 result was a draw after 35 moves: 8 c3
6 l:tel bS d5 9 exd5 lLlxd5 10 lLlxe5 lLlxe5 1 1
7 i.b3 (D) l:txe5 c6 1 2 g3 lLlf6 1 3 d4 i.d6 1 4 l:tel
Fischer - Spassky 57

.i.g4 15 1i'd3 c5 16 dxc5 .i.xc5 17


1i'xd8 l%axd8 18 .i.f4 h6 1 9 lba3 g5 20
.i.e3 .i.xe3 2 1 l%xe3 l:d2 and Black's B
initiative endured into the endgame.
Spassky used the Marshall fre
quently as an attacking weapon in his
younger years. Now he plays the
Breyer Variation almost exclusively,
as in this game.
8 c3 0-0
9 h3 lBb8
10 d4 lBbd7
1 1 lBbd2 At this point White has the choice
Fischer always used to play 1 1 of bringing the lBd2 to the kingside
lBh4, an immediate attempt to ques with 1 3 lBfl or beginning an immedi
tion the efficacy of Black's time-con ate action on the queenside. The text
suming knight manoeuvre. According move initiates the latter plan.
to Byrne, the game Byrne-Spassky in 13 .. .i.f8 (D)
Moscow 1 97 1 was probably Fischer's A direct reaction with 13 . . a5 only
.

reason for trying something else this leads to difficulties after 14 lBb3 axb4
time. The then World Champion at 15 cxb4 l:ab8 16 lBaS c6 (or 16 . . ..i.a8
tained comfortable equality with Black 17 d5 ) 17 lBxb7 l:xb7 18 .i.b3 and
in that game: 1 l . . .exd4 12 cxd4 lBb6 White has gained the pair of bishops at
1 3 lBd2 cS 14 .i.c2 cxd4 15 lBhf3 l:e8 no cost (Suetin-Tringov, Titovo Uzice
1 6 lBxd4 .i.f8 17 b3 .i.b7, etc. 1966).
Fischer also once tried the other di
rect method against the Breyer, 1 1 c4,
versus Portisch in S anta Monica 1 966.
It was a gripping game in all its
phases, though it finally ended in a
draw. After 1 1 c4 c6 1 2 cS 1i'c7 1 3
cxd6 .i.xd6 1 4 .i.g5 exd4 1 5 .i.xf6
gxf6 1 6 1i'xd4 lBe5 1 7 lBbd2 :d8 1 8
1i'e3 3 ! 1 9 'ikh6 .i.f4 20 1fxf6 dif
ficult complications arose.
11 .i.b7
12 .i. c2 (D)
12 l:e8
13 b4 14 a4
58 The Art of Chess Analysis

After this game, this immediate at l:e4 24 'ii'f3+ lLlf6 25 j,xf6 l:r.el + and
tack became fashionable. Formerly, Black just managed to save himself
White always aimed for c3-c4. (Geller-Portisch 1 973).
14 lLlb6 15 aS lLlbd7
And this is currently the most com 16 j,b2
mon reply. Black tempts the a-pawn to In Savon-Vogt, Skopje 1 972, White
advance farther and will later aim for let his opening advantage slip away
. . . c7-c5 . Alternatives are: entirely with 16 l:r.bl d5 ! . White must
1 ) 1 4 . . . c5 1 5 bxc5 exd4 1 6 cxd4 pay attention first of all to the centre.
dxc5 and White stands better, though 16
... 'it'b8
it is not entirely clear (Balashov-Pod Black prepares . . . c7-c5 by indi
gaets, Moscow 1 966). rectly protecting the e-pawn. This
2) 14 . . . d5 . In principle Black's does not work badly here, but later ex
pieces are ideally placed to justify this perience brought Spassky around to
advance. After 1 5 dxe5 lLlxe4 1 6 lLlxe4 playing 16 . . . l:r.b8 . A sharp struggle de
dxe4 1 7 j,g5 ! f6 1 8 j,xe4 j,xe4 1 9 veloped against Planinc (Amsterdam
l:r.xe4 lLlxe5 2 0 l:r.d4 lLlxf3+ 2 1 'ifxf3 1 973) after some preparatory ma
'ii'c 8 White has not achieved much noeuvring: 17 l:r.bl j,a8 1 8 j,at g6 1 9
(Vasiukov-Zuidema, Wijk aan Zee c4 exd4 2 0 cxb5 axb5 2 1 lLlxd4 d 5 22
1 973). More enterprising is 1 5 lLlxe5 lLl4f3 dxe4 23 lLlg5 e3 ! 24 i.b3 and
dxe4 1 6 f4 as in Vasiukov- Kholmov, now, instead of 24 . . . j,d5, Black could
Dubna 1 97 3 . White stood a tiny bit have played 24 . . . exf2+ 25 xf2 j,dS,
better after 16 . . . exf3 1 7 lLldxf3 lLlxe5 as given by Keene.
1 8 lLlxe5 j,d6 1 9 j,f4. This variation does not seem unfa
3) 1 4 . . . a5 . This other way of form vourable for Black. Nevertheless, Smej
ing a square of pawns seems strange at kal varied on the 1 9th move against
first sight. It was popular for a while Browne at Wijk aan Zee 1 976 with
until it was discovered that 15 bxa5 19 . . . bxc4 . White had some advantage
l:r.xa5 1 6 l:r.b 1 leads to advantage for after 20 dxe5 lLlxe5 2 1 lLlxe5 dxe5 22
White in all variations; e.g . : i.c3 j,c6 23 'ife2 j,b5 24 lLlxc4 c5 25
3a) 1 6 . . . j,a6 1 7 d 5 'ifa8 1 8 j,a3 c5 bxc5 j, xc5 26 i.b3. Six months later,
1 9 dxc6 'ifxc6 20 j,b4 (Belyavsky-A. Karpov reached full equality against
Petrosian 1 973). Browne, in Amsterdam 1 976, with
3b) 1 6 ... 'ii'a 8 1 7 axb5 exd4 1 8 25 . . . l:r.c8 ! - a theoretical novelty on
cxd4 lLlxe4 1 9 lLlxe4 j,xe4 20 l:r.xe4 ! the 25th move - with the idea of cap
l:r.xe4 2 1 lLlg5 l:r.h4 and now 22 g3 ! is turing on c5 with the rook.
the correct reply to maintain the ad 17 l:r.b1 (D)
vantage, according to Geller. Instead, A very logical move . White covers
White played 22 lLlxf7 xf7 23 i.g5 b4 and at the same time places his
Fischer - Spassky 59

20 lDxeS
In 64, Polugaevsky recommends 20
B c4, which would achieve excellent re-
sults after 20 . . . i.d6 2 1 lDh4 . Better,
however, is 20 . . . lDxf3+ 2 1 1Wxf3 l:r.e6
and Black does not stand badly.
20 'ilxeS
21 c4 'iff4
22 i.xf6 (D)

rook vis-a-vis the black queen. Yet it B

is not the most energetic continuation.


White can get a big advantage with 1 7
c4 ! . The point i s that he will not waste
time recapturing after 1 7 . . . bxc4 but
will continue sharply with 1 8 i.a4 and
Black has difficulties: 1 8 . . .c6 1 9 lDxc4
'ilc7 20 dxe5 dxe5 2 1 'iWb3 (Savon
Mukhin, USSR 1 973), or 1 9 . . . exd4 20
'ifxd4 d5 2 1 exd5 l:r.xe 1 + 22 lDxe 1
lDxd5 23 lDd3 (Kavalek-Reshevsky, The most easy-going solution of
Chicago 1 973). In both cases the black the problems of the position. White
position is shaky. gives up control of many dark squares
17 cS and thus can no longer hope for ad
18 bxcS vantage. Interesting and more enter
A fundamental decision. In a game prising is 22 e5 ; e.g. :
played not very much earlier, Fischer 1 ) 22 . . . llad8 23 exf6 ! (D) (the po
decided to close the centre with d4-d5 , sition is too sharp for the quiet 23 l:te3,
which focused the play entirely on the which threatens nothing and gives
kingside. In that case he did not Black the chance to get an excellent
achieve very much; i.e., 1 8 d5 g6 1 9 square on d5 for his knight with
i.a3 (threatens 20 c4 with a spatial ad 23 . . . bxc4). Black now has a choice of
vantage on the queenside) 1 9 . . . c4 20 captures:
lDfl lDh5 and the thematic attacking 1 a) 23 . . . l:txd2 24 'ii' x d2 ! 1Wxd2 25
push g2-g4 was no longer feasible. l:txe8. The brilliant point is 25 . . . 'ilfxc2
18 dxcS 26 fxg7 'ifxb 1 + 27 'il>h2 and Black is
19 dxeS lC!xeS lost. White has only a few pieces left
60 The Art of Chess Analysis

but their position makes mate un letter-writers from three different


avoidable. Also 25 . . . i.c6 loses im countries, including S . Pederzoli (It
mediately: 26 fxg7 i. xe8 27 i.xh7+ aly) and M. Rayner (England), have
'itxh7 28 gxf81W, etc. pointed out to me that Black has a ven
The only move is 25 . . . gxf6. I origi omous riposte here: 29 . . . i.e4 ! ! . As a
nally thought that White must con result of this tactical turn of events
tinue elegantly with 26 l:r.be 1 1Wxc2 27 Black is able to utilise his bishop for
l:r. 1 e3 g7 28 l:r.g3+ h6 29 i.xf6, his defence, something which White,
but it does not offer many chances; of course, should prevent. First of all
for example, 29 . . . 1Wb 1 + 30 h2 i.d6 29 l:d 1 is indicated. On 29 . . .1We7 a
3 1 i.g7 + h5 32 i.e5 1We4 ! 33 f4 f6, very strong continuation is 30 cxb5
followed by 34 . . . i.xe5 and White has axb5 3 1 i.f5 , for after 3 l . . .i.c6 32 a6
little chance of saving himself. 26 Black is powerless against the further
i. c 1 is stronger, simpler, and actually advance of the a-pawn. Critical is
more aesthetic than the fantastic 26 29 ... 'ilc7 and now certainly 30 l:r.d3 .
l:r.be 1 ? . Again, 26 . . . 1Wxc2 fails: 27 After 30 . . . 1Wxa5 3 1 l:r.g3+ h8 3 2
i.h6 1Wxb1 + 28 h2 with unstoppa i.g7+ g8 3 3 J.xf6+ f8 3 4 i.xh7
ble mate. The only way to avoid this e8 35 i.f5 f8 it looks as if White
mate is 26 . . .1Wd7 (D), but then White should have a quick decisive finish.
breathes new life into the attack with However, closer examination shows
an exchange sacrifice: that there is no mating attack here.
27 l:r.xf8+ xf8 28 i.h6+ g8 . Certainly 36 J.g7+ e7 37 l:r.e3+
The black king has to go back and is d6 3 8 h4 is very strong, since it is
now awkwardly shut in. Initially I not easy to see how Black can oppose
thought that White could take advan the further advance of the h-pawn.
tage of this with 29 l:r.b3 . Then there 1 b) 23 . . . l:r.xe 1 + 24 1Wxe1 1Wxd2
certainly are some terrible threats, but (stronger than 24 . . . l:r.xd2 25 J.c 1 1Wg5
Fischer - Spassky 61

2 6 'ii'f l an d Black does not get enough here. Black has great influence over
c ompensation for the exchange) 25 the whole board because of his control
fxg7 (or 25 .te4 'ii' x e l + 26 l:r.xe l of the dark squares .
.i. xe4 27 l:xe4 l:d2 28 .i.e5 b4 ! and 23 :ec1s
Black can hold the position thanks to It was clear which rook had to be
the finesse 29 fxg7 l:r.d 1 + 30 <t>h2 moved, because after 23 . . . l:ad8 24
.i.d6) 25 . . . 'ifxe l + (with queens on the 'ifc l 'ii'c 3 25 bxa6 .txa6 White has
board, the black king's shattered posi the riposte 26 .i.a4 ! with great advan
tion would be a factor) 26 l:r.xel .i.xg7 tage.
27 .i. xg7 <J;xg7 28 l:e7 l:d2 ! and Polugaevsky, however, thinks that
Black can just hold the balance. 23 . . . axb5 is Black's best. After 24
2) 22 . . . l:ed8 23 l:r.e3 ! (naturally, 23 llxb5 .i.a6 White has two rook moves:
exf6 is now pointless) 23 . . . lDe8 24 1) 25 l:b6 'ii'c 3 and White is in big
'ife2 and White has a great advantage. trouble. On 26 lL!b3 there can follow
3) 22 . . . lLld7 and now both 23 .i.e4 Polugaevsky's recommended 26 . . . c4
.i. xe4 24 l:xe4 'iff5 25 'iWe2 and 23 or the strong 26 . . . lled8 27 'ii'c l c4 28
lLlf3 llad8 24 .t e l 1Wxc4 25 .i.b3 are l:r.e3 'ii'e 5 . The attempt to keep the po
favourable for White. sition in balance by 26 l:r.b3 'ii'xa5 27
It is clear that Black must look in .id3 fails to 27 . . . lled8 (28 'ii'c 2 c4 or
variation 1 for any chance to maintain 28 'ife2 l:txd3 29 l:txd3 l:td8).
the balance. It is much easier for him 2) 25 l:tb3 . Surprisingly enough,
after the text-move. this move holds the white position to
22 'ifxf6 gether. Black does indeed win a pawn
23 cxbS (D) after 25 . . . c4 26 l:tf3 1i'd8 (or 26 . . . 'ilt'd4)
27 lL!fl , but his advantage is not great.
24 'ii'c l
Of course, the queen must get out
B of the pin.
24 'ii'c3
The beginning of an ambitious
plan. Other possibilities:
1) 24 . . . 'ii'f4. Aiming to exchange
queens . After 25 lL!f3 'ii' x c 1 26 l:texc l
axb5 27 l:txb5 .i.a6 28 l:tb6 .i.e2
White has achieved nothing. There
fore 25 lL!c4 !, with the intention of
sacrificing the exchange, comes into
White is a pawn ahead for the mo consideration: 25 . . . \i'xc l 26 l:texc l
ment but that is of minor importance axb5 27 l:txb5 .ta6 28 .ta4 .txb5 29
62 The Art of Chess Analysis

i.xb5 with the positional threat of At this late moment it would be un


transferring the bishop to d5 via c6. In favourable for Black to capture on b5,
any case, White cannot lose. as we see after 25 . . . axb5 26 e5 ! (Less
2) 24 . . . axb5 . Later the same year, clear is 26 J:r.xb5 i. a6 27 e5, as given
Smyslov played this move against Va by Byrne. He continues his variation
siukov at Polanica Zdroj . The continu with 27 . . . 1i'xe 1 + 28 'ii'x e 1 i. xb5 29
ation illustrates the chances for both 'ifb l and now 29 . . . J:r.xa5 . But that al
sides: 25 J:r.xb5 i.a6 26 J:r.b6 1fc3 (The lows White a winning attack with 30
advantage over the text-move be i.xh7+ h8 3 1 g5 i.c4 32 i.g8,
comes clear: the black queen saves etc. Instead, 29 . . . i.c4 ! wins an impor
time by moving only when it is at tant tempo; e.g., 30 i.xh7+ <i>h8 3 1
tacked. Polugaevsky's notes - written g5 ? i.e7 3 2 i.g8? i.d3 3 3 xf7+
before the game in Poland was played xg8 and Black comes out best)
- gives 26 . . . 'it'f4 27 f3 'ii'x c 1 28 26 . . . g6 (not 26 . . . b4 27 l:.e3 and the
l:.xc 1 c4 and White keeps his advan queen has no retreat) 27 J:r.xb5 and
tage with 29 e5, although Black would Black is in trouble after both 27 . . . i.xf3
not necessarily lose.) 27 b3 g6 ! 28 28 l:tb3 1fxa5 29 J:r.xf3 and 27 . . . i.a6
e5 (if 28 J:r.e3 1fe5) 28 . . . i.h6 29 'it'b 1 28 J:r.b6 'ii'x a5 29 'ii'b 2.
c4 30 c5 'it'xa5 (winning the pawn Another ltry to maintain the initia
back, but now the initiative reverts to tive is 25 . . . c4 . The threat is 26 . . . i.a3 ;
White) 3 1 4 i.c8 32 d6 J:r.a6 3 3 e.g., 26 b6 .ta3 27 l:te3 J:r.d3 ! with ad
J:r. b 8 i. e 6 34 J:r.e4 i.f8 35 J:r.xd8 'it'xd8 vantage to Black. Olafsson, however,
36 xc4 'it'c7 37 i.d3 l%c6 38 'ii'f l gives something more powerful: 26
i. f5 39 l:tf4 i.e6 40 1fe2 i.g7 and in bxa6 i.xa6 27 e5 g6 28 e6 and White
this equal position a draw was agreed. has an attack.
25 f3 1i'xa5 (D) 26 i.b3
Spassky must have underestimated
this. White suddenly goes on the attack,
and it is a surprisingly dangerous one.
26 . axbS
There is no useful alternative.
27 'ii'f4 J:r.d7 (D)
An important decision. This move
is objectively not worse than the sim
pler 27 . . . c4, but the obscure subtlety
required to justify it only makes
Black's task more difficult. After
27 . . . c4 his disadvantage would be
minimal : 28 i.xc4 bxc4 29 J:r.xb7 f6
Fischer - Spassky 63

(not 29 . . .'it'h5 30 g4) 30 e5 (the only 29 ... l:te7


way to try to take advantage of the Spassky chooses the worst of the
slightly weakened position of Black's two possibilities, but that was difficult
king) 30 ... 'ilt'd5 ! 31 l:tc7 fxe5 and now: to appreciate in advance. The sensa
1 ) 32 :txe5 :tal + 33 cJi>h2 .i.d6 and tional 29 . . . l:tad8 is necessary, adding
White must force a draw by perpetual yet another pin. As with the text
check with 34 l:txg7+ cJilxg7 35 'ilt'g5+ move, Black loses an exchange, but
cJi>f7 36 'ilt'f5+. the difference is that a pair of rooks
2) 32 ll:lxe5 .i.d6 3 3 'ii'xc4 (also 33 will be traded, and long variations
l:txg7+ cJi>xg7 34 'i!Vg5+ cJi>h8 35 'ilt'f6+ show that this helps Black.
only draws; but not 35 ll:lg6+ hxg6 36 After the forcing continuation 30
'ilt'xd5 .i.h2+ - Black always has this .txf7+ l:txf7 3 1 'ilt'xf7+ 'ffxf7 32 ll:lxf7
finesse in reserve.) 33 . . . 'ilt'xc4 34 l:txc4 l:txd l 33 l:txd l (D) the position be
.i.xe5 35 l:txe5 :tal + 36 cJi>h2 l:ta2 and comes very complicated as White will
Black must be able to draw. always have a problem holding back
28 ll:les Black's dangerous passed pawns. It is
Attacking f7 with a piece for the striking that not one of the authors of
third consecutive move. the many books on the match comes to
28 .. . 'ikc7 a well-founded judgement at this im
After long detours the black queen portant moment, although Olafsson
returns to the defence. But now White comes very close with some study-like
comes up with a sublime continuation variations. Their beauty and depth are
of the attack. the reasons I give them here at length.
29 l:tbdl (D) 1 ) 33 . . . b4. Nei considers this the
Fischer had this in mind on the 26th best. Without giving variations he
move. 29 . . . l:txd l fails to 30 .i.xf7+ claims that Black has good drawing
cJi>h8 3 1 ll:lg6+ hxg6 32 'ilt'h4 mate. chances . It is insufficient, however,
64 The Art of Chess Analysis

toughest; Black gives up his least ad


vanced pawn in order to get his king
8 into the game in time) 40 llxb4 d5
41 llbl c4 42 f2 c2 43 l:lc l <itd3
44 e1 ..td7 and White must be satis
fied with a draw.
It is remarkable that Olafsson, hav
ing got that far, did not get the idea
that White can win by giving up his
rook for the dangerous passed pawn.
The idea is 43 llg 1 (instead of 43 llc 1 )
4 3 . . . 'ii>d 3 44 f4 ..td7 4 5 g4 g6 4 6 f5 !
because of 34 llXI6. White threatens to gxf5 47 g5 and either the white passed
maintain the point d6 with 35 e5 ; pawn or candidate passed pawn will
Black can hardly avoid this threat, so stroll through to queen.
he must eliminate it directly with 3) 33 . . . ..txe4 ! . The correct deci
34 . . . ..txd6 35 llxd6 ..txe4. Black now sion. Black directly stops the forma
threatens to win with 36 . . . b3, so the tion of the strongpoint on d6. Most
rook must get behind the pawn imme commentators are satisfied to say here
diately: 37 llb6. Now White threatens that White wins after 34 lDg5 ; e.g.,
38 llb5 . Black is compelled to play 34 . .. ..tf5 35 lld5 g6 36 g4, or 34 . . . ..tc2
37 . . . ..td3, after which his king is cut 35 lld8 ..tb3 36 lDxh7 xh7 37 llxf8
off by 38 .l:tb7 ! . White now comes just and the black passed pawns are not
in time: 38 .. .';ilf8 39 f3 e8 40 f2 dangerous enough.
d8 4 1 e3 and if 4 I . . .<it.>c8, 42 llxg7 It is Olafsson once again who looks
is decisive. further than the rest by sacrificing, in
2) 33 . . . c4. This is Olafsson's draw total, a whole rook with 34 . . . ..tc2 35
ing line, to which he adds an exclama l:td8 b4 ! . His main variation runs: 36
tion mark. He gives the following lDe6 f7 37 lDxf8 b3 38 .l:tb8 c4 39
marvellous variation: 34 lDd6 ..tc6 lDd7 c3 (D).
(here Black allows White to support The passed pawns are exceedingly
d6; but not 34 . . . ..ta6 because of 35 dangerous now, but Olafsson thinks
l:al b4 36 llxa6 c3 37 lDc4 ! and White that White can just keep matters in
stops the pawns right at the gate) 35 e5 hand with 40 lDe5+ e6 41 lDc4 ..td l
c3 36 llbl (the requisite method of (Threatening to win with the c pawn.
holding the pawns) 36 . . . ..txd6 37 exd6 At first I thought that Black could
f7 38 f3 ! (a subtle move ; White save himself with the indefatigable
prevents 38 . . . c2 with the follow-up 4 1 . . . d5 to rush the king to the aid of
39 . . . ..te4) 38 . . . q;,e6 39 llb3 b4 (the the passed pawns; but then White wins
Fischer - Spassky 65

without comment, but it is precisely


this position that brings salvation for
w Black. He play s 35 . . . h6 !, forcing the
exchange of his queen 's bishop for the
knight. After 36 l:lxf5 hxg5 White has
no time for 37 l:lxg5 , on account of
37 . . . b4 and the queenside pawns can
not be stopped. So 37 fl and now
Black, in turn, should not react too en
ergetically, for after 37 . . . b4 38 e2
c4? 39 l:lxg5 b3 40 l:lb5 .te7 4 1 d l
f7 42 l:lb6, followed by 43 l:lc6, the
by attacking the c-pawn with his black pawns are blockaded, after
knight: 42 .!Ob6+ ! d4 43 .!Oa4 fol which White's material advantage on
lowed by 44 :d8+. ) 42 .!Oa3 c2 43 the kingside is decisive. The cautious
.!Oxc2 bxc2 44 :cs d5 45 fl d4 37 . . . .te7 is sufficient to hold the end
46 e 1 d3 4 7 l:td8+ c3 48 l:.xd 1 game; for instance: 38 e2 g6 39 l:.d5
and White wins the pawn endgame. f7 40 :d7 c4 and White doesn ' t
So far this is analysis by Olafsson. have a single winning chance.
Some further elaboration is not inap 30 .txf7+ l:lxf7
propriate here. After 48 . . . cxd l 'ilf+ 49 31 'ifxf7+ 'ilt':xf7
xd l d3 it is not so easy to drive 32 .!Oxf7 .txe4
the black king back. After 50 el g5 Spassky finds his best chance, de
5 1 d l d4 52 d2 h5 White has spite his time trouble, and reduces
only one winning move. The game is White's pawn preponderance on the
drawn after 53 g3 g4 ! and also after 53 kingside. 32 . . . c4, to immediately be
f3 h4 54 e2 e5 55 e3 f5 56 f4 gin dangerous actions with the pawns,
g4 ! 57 hxg4+ xg4 58 e4 g3 when was tempting. But with three rooks on
both sides queen at the same time. the board, the base at d6 after 33 .!Od6
However, the winning move is 53 g4 ! .tc6 34 e5 would be even stronger
and Black cannot maintain the opposi than in the variations after move 29
tion; e.g. : 53 . . . hxg4 54 hxg4 e4 55 that begin with the trade of rooks.
e2 f4 56 f3 e5 57 e3 or 53 ... h4 33 l:lxe4
54 f3 d5 55 d3 e5 56 e3 d5 There is no time to weaken the po
57 f4. sition of the black king with 33 .!Oh6+
In order to challenge Olafsson it is gxh6 34 l:lxe4 because it will be diffi
necessary to go further back in vari cult to stop the passed pawns after
ation 3. On the 34th move the natural 34 . . b4.
.

34 . . . .tf5 is dispatched with 35 l:td5 33


xf7
66 The Art of Chess Analysis

34 l:.d7+ 6 White reduces his opponent's space


35 l:.b7 because after 36 . . . f5 Black is in a
Fischer plays the ending purpose mating net - not with 37 l:.be6, as
fully and instructively right from the given by Olafsson, on account of
start. One rook behind the passed 37 ... l:.al + 38 h2 .td6+ 39 g3 b3 and
pawns, the other operating from the Black suddenly has all sorts of
flank - in short, the strategy that the chances, but with the laconic 37 f3
player with the rooks must adopt in (Nei), already threatening 3 8 h4, pos
the struggle against two connected sibly followed by 39 l:.be6. The retreat
passed pawns. 36 .. .'itf7 is thus forced. Olafsson now
35 l:r.al+ continues his variation with 37 l:.ee6
Black again faced a difficult choice: c4 38 l:.ec6 c3 39 l:.b7+ g8 40 g3,
on which side of the passed pawns but as a winning plan this is rather de
must his rook stand? The game con ficient. White's rooks are indeed as ac
tinuation shows that, due to the text tive as possible, but the black pawns
move, the position of his bishop have advanced far enough to pose a
becomes too insecure. The only draw permanent danger to White. Thus after
ing chance is 35 . . . b4, keeping his rook 40 . . . h5 , 4 1 . . .l:.a2 is already threatened.
on the back rank, as suggested by A more likely winning plan is given
Larsen during the game. Byrne con by Nei; after 37 f4 White will utilise
siders this insufficient because after his majority on the king de under far
35 . . . b4 36 fl l:.c8 37 l:.c4 l:.d8 38 more favourable conditions than in
e2 e6 39 l:.b5 Black's king cannot Byrne's variation. Whether this will
reach either d5 or d6 without losing a succeed in overrunning Black's posi
queenside pawn, so 'Fischer would tion if Black simply waits is an open
proceed then to win just as in the question. It is hardly possible to ana
game, by advancing his kingside lyse it to the end.
pawns.' 36 h2 .td6+
How did B yrne actually envisage Thus Black manages to post his
that? In the game, both of Fischer's bishop more actively but, as we will
rooks are positioned actively and so he see, it does not stand very sturdily.
can create a passed pawn on the king 37 g3 b4
side which, partly through tactical 38 g2 h5
means, forces the decision. But if the It is too committal to play the
rooks were to stand as passively as bishop to a stronger square with
B yrne has them, there would be abso 38 . . . .te5 . B yrne gives 39 f4 .td4 40
lutely no chance of this. g4 (the formation of the pawn duo is
Nei and Olafsson both give 36 already almost decisive) 40 . . . l:.a2+ 4 1
l:.b6+, which is clearly much stronger. fl l:.a3 42 h4 and there is no time to
Fischer - Spassky 67

advance the b-pawn (42 . . . b3 43 f5). f4-g4 . 40 . . . g5 was unanimously rec


Nei points out a method of playing the ommended afterwards, but it doesn't
bishop to d4 by preparing it with save Black either. White continues 4 1
38 . . .<.t>f5 , but this isn't good enough c;;,e 2 l:d5 42 g4 and after 42 . . . hxg4 43
either: 39 l:lh4 .te5 40 l:lh5+ ! (much hxg4 Black is in virtual zugzwang. He
stronger than 40 l:lxh7 .td4 as given must play 43 . . . c;;,f7, but then White
by Nei) 40 . . . c;;, e 6 4 1 l:lb6+ .td6 (or can improve the position of his rooks
4 1 . . . <iPd5 42 f4) 42 l:lxc5 . The rooks with 44 l:[b7+ f6 45 l:[d7 to make
work together beautifully. the zugzwang complete. Tougher is
39 l:lb6 l:ldl 44 . . . c;;, fs in order to exchange a rook.
40 c;;,n (D J But with the king cut off it is still
hopeless; e.g., 45 :e6 :e5+ 46 :xeS
.txe5 47 c;;,d 3 .td4 48 f3 c;;,es 49 c;;,c4
c;;, f8 50 l:[d7 .tf2 5 1 l:[d5 .te3 52 lle5
and Black's bishop must give up its
protection of one of the two pawns.
41 c;;,e2 :ds
42 f4 g6
43 g4
The pawn duo is formed.
43 ... hxg4
44 hxg4 g5 (D)

Fischer plays logically and per


fectly. First he tied the black rook
down, and now he will attack it while
at the same time centralising his king .
It is wrong to try to form the pawn
duo f4-g4 directly with 40 f4 since
Black can activate his king with
40 . . . c;;, f5 . Neither 4 1 l:lc4 l:ld2+ 42
f3 l:d3+ nor 41 c;;,f3 :n + 42 c;;, e 2
c;;, xe4 43 c;;, x n c;;,d 5 is unfavourable
for Black.
40 f7 Spassky 's seconds evidently found
The last move in time trouble, and this to be his best chance. If he doesn't
an unfortunate one. Spassky meekly play it, then 45 l:[b5 is even stronger
allows the formation of the pawn duo because Black would not have the
68 The Art of Chess Analysis

square e5 to give check on if White's The bishop cannot go to d4 because


rook took the b-pawn; e.g., 44 .. .'>f6 White gets a mating attack with 4 7
45 l:tb5 Wf7 (or 45 . . . g5 46 f5) 46 g5 ! l:tb7+ oi>f8 48 l:te6.
(certainly not 46 l:texb4? cxb4 47 47 l:texb4 .td4
l:txd5 .txf4 and the endgame is a Black still has a vague hope: play
theoretical draw even if White wins the king to f4.
the b-pawn) 46 . . . l:tf5 47 We3 and 48 l:tb6+ WeS
Black is outmanoeuvred. If 47 . . . l:td5 49 c;t>r3!
then 48 l:texb4 wins, or if, for exam Fischer winds it up very nicely.
ple, 47 . . .'g7 48 l:tb6 l:td5 49 l:te6 is Mate in one is threatened.
hopeless. The black king is systemati 49 l:d8
cally driven back. so l:tb8 l:td7
45 rs 51 l:t4b7 l:td6
Naturally White does not take the 52 l:tb6 l:td7
pawn. The protected passed pawn and 53 l:tg6 oi>dS
the squares it gains are mighty posses 54 l:txgS .teS
sions. 55 f6 oi>d4
45 .tes 56 l:tbl 1-0
46 l:tbS Wf6 If 58 .-txffi 59 l:td l + <k4 60 :XeS+.
..

\
Game N ine
Spassky - Fischer
World Championship Match (19),
Reykjavik 1972
Alekh i ne Defen ce
Undoubtedly the most dramatic game of the match was the thirteenth. Fischer
chose the Alekhine Defence and Spassky, after treating it rather inaccurately,
soon found he was forced to offer a pawn for vague attacking chances. Fischer, in
tum, played superficially. Spassky's attacking chances became very real and for a
long time it was unclear who had matters best in hand. It developed into a very un
usual ending which Fischer finally decided in his favour.
Both players seemed to have been affected by that far from faultless game. The
next two games, both finally drawn, were full of serious tactical and strategical
mistakes. Then the weight of all that tension seemed to lift, and both combatants
played freely again. The series of five draws that preceded the last decisive game
contained chess of the highest level. Fischer continued to experiment in the open
ing, with Black as well as with White: a Najdorf in the fifteenth game without the
capture on b2, a Pirc Defence in the seventeenth, and again an Alekhine Defence
in the nineteenth.
The nineteenth game is discussed here. It is a textbook example of attack and
defence balancing each other; as in the tenth game, one can identify mistakes only
after deep analysis. It was also Spassky's final, mighty attempt to keep the world
title from Fischer - the title which would bring Fischer to a state of total inertia.

1 e4 l0f6 7 h3
2 eS lOds Whether or not this move is played
3 d4 d6 will prove to be important later.
4 3 .tg4 7 .thS (D)
An older continuation than the Black cannot very well capture, as
4 . . . g6 played in the thirteenth game of shown by the game Vasiukov-Torre,
the match. It was popular for a while, Manila 1 97 4 (via a different move or
until the latest experiences showed der): 7 . . . .t xf3 8 .txf3 l0c6 9 c4 l0b6
that White has several ways to get the 1 0 J.xc6 bxc6 1 1 b3 0-0 1 2 l0c3 a5 ? !
advantage. 1 3 .te3 l0d7 1 4 'it'h5 ! with great posi
S .tel e6 tional advantage.
6 0-0 .te7 8 c4 l0b6
70 The Art of Chess Analysis

lC!xd5 1 2 1i'b3 lC!b6 1 3 l:lfd 1 1Wc8 1 4


d5 lC!xd5 1 5 lC!xd5 exd5 1 6 l:lxd5 and,
w according to Sznapik, B lack could
have minimised his disadvantage by
playing 16 . . .li)c6.

9 lbc3
The capture on d6 used to be played
here automatically. With the text
move, White intends to wait for Black
to play . . . lC!b8-c6.
9
. 0-0
9 . . . dxe5 10 lC!xe5 .i.xe2 1 1 1Wxe2 ! 11 .. .i.xf3
1Wxd4 1 2 l:ld 1 1Wc5 1 3 b4 1Wxb4 1 4 12 .i.xf3
lC!b5 is too dangerous. In Gaprindashvili-Kushnir 1 969,
10 .i.e3 dS the game that originated this s stem
The point of White's avoidance of (but without White's h3 and Black's
exd6 on his ninth move is that this .i.h5), White recaptured with the
push would be more favourable for pawn, forcing the black knight to re
Black if there were no pawns on c7 treat. The white doubled pawn signi
and e5. 10 . . .li)c6 is followed by 1 1 exd6 fies no disadvantage, as appears from,
cxd6 1 2 d5 and White keeps an endur among other games, Pokojowczyk
ing advantage after either 1 2 . . . .i.xf3 S chmidt, Poland 1 976 (again, without
1 3 .i.xf3 li)e5 14 dxe6 fxe6 15 .i.g4 or h3 and .i.h5): 1 1 gxf3 li)c8 12 f4 .i.h4
1 2 . . . exd5 1 3 lC!xd5 lC!xd5 14 1i'xd5 . 1 3 .i.d3 g6 ( 1 3 . . . lC!e7 is probably bet
1 1 cS (D) ter. Then Enklaar's 14 .i.xh7+ is not at
This leads to a great advantage in all convincing since White retains the
space. Although experience has shown bad bishop and Black is able to block
that White can certainly expect an ad ade the position. Better is 14 'ii'h5 lC!f5
vantage, a different move to gain the 1 5 .i.xf5 g6 1 6 'ii'g4 exf5 1 7 1i'f3) 1 4
upper hand has been tried more re f5 ! exf5 1 5 'ii'f3 c 6 1 6 h 1 h8 1 7
cently; e . g . , Sznapik-Schmidt, Polish l:lg 1 lC!e7 1 8 1i'h3 lC!g8 1 9 .i.xf5 ! with
Championship 1 977, went 1 1 cxd5 advantage. After 1 9 . . . gxf5 20 'ii'g 2
Spassky - Fischer 71

Black must return the piece to prevent 1 7 i.xc6 bxc6 1 8 'ii'g4 f5 and Black
mate. certainly does not stand worse. His
12 l0c4 doubled pawn is compensated for by
13 b3 his majority on the kingside.
A fter the match, the system used 2) 15 J.g4 and now:
by Fischer understandably became 2a) 1 5 . . . 1i'd7 1 6 exf6 (This is best
popular. Geller particularly, one of now that the black queen is on a less
Spassky's seconds in Reykjavik, made favourable square - as in the above
grateful use of improvements found variation, e7 is better. 16 e4 dxe4 1 7
during the match (see also the sixth exf6 gxf6 ! i s not good) 1 6 . . . i.xf6 1 7
match game); he introduced 13 i.f4 b4 with freer play for White.
against Hecht in Budapest 1 97 3 , and 2b) 15 .. .f5 1 6 i.e2 and White moves
achieved quick success after 1 3 . . . tlJc6 the bishop to d3. Again he stands a lit
14 b3 tlJ4a5 1 5 'ii'd 2 b6 1 6 l:lac 1 bxc5 tle better.
17 dxc5 i.xc5 ? I 8 lll xd5 i.d4 19 b4 Petrosian draws attention to the
exd5 20 bxa5 'ii'd7 2 1 l:lxc6 'fi'xc6 22 idea 14 . . . lllc6, a typical Petrosian wait
'ikxd4 :ads 23 l:lc 1 'ii' b7 24 i.g5, 1 -0. ing move. White's best is 15 l:lb1 fol
The latest example from practice lowed by 1 6 b4 (the immediate 1 5 b4
is equally discouraging : 13 i.f4 lllc6 is premature because of 1 5 . . . tlJxb4 1 6
14 b3 lll4a5 15 l:lc 1 b6 1 6 llla4 ! (after l:l b 1 tlJc6 1 7 l:lxb7 tlJa5); e.g. , 1 5 . . . b6
1 6 'ikd2 the improvement 1 6 . . . bxc5 17 16 b4 and 17 11fa4 with advantage to
dxc5 l:lb8 ! 18 i.xd5 exd5 1 9 lllx d5 White.
l:lb5 ! 20 b4 lll xb4 2 1 lll xb4 'ii'x d2 22
i. xd2 l:.xc5 is possible, with roughly
equal play, as in Geller-Timman, Wijk
aan Zee 1 975) 1 6 . . . i.g5 17 i.xg5 1i'xg5 w
1 8 'ii'd 3 l:lab8 1 9 i.g4 'ii'f4 20 l:lfd 1 f5
2 1 exf6 l:lxf6 22 'ii'e 3 with advantage
to White (Geller-Timman, Teesside
1 975).
13 lllxe3
14 rxe3 b6 (D)
This manner of attacking the pawn
chain is dubious. On the other method,
1 4 . . . f6, White has two reactions (the
direct solution with 1 5 exf6 i.xf6 1 6 IS e4
i.g4 11fe7 gains nothing): A strong answer. 1 5 b4 promises
1 ) 1 5 e4 dxe4 ! 16 i.xe4 (or 1 6 nothing after 15 . . . a5 16 a3 ( 1 6 11fa4
lll x e4 fxe5 1 7 dxe5 tlJc6) 1 6 . . .lllc 6 ! lll d 7) 1 6 . . . axb4 1 7 axb4 lllc 6 ! . White
72 The Art of Chess Analysis

must play 1 5 e4 immediately or the


pawn formation will become static.
15.. c6 w
He must keep the long diagonal
closed since 15 . . . bxc5 16 exd5 cxd4
17 dxe6 ! (this is much stronger than
1 7 d6 cxd6 1 8 .txa8 dxc3 with un
clear play) 17 ... c6 1 8 exf7+ :xn 19
clOe4 gives White a great positional ad
vantage.
16 b4
White need not fear . . . a7-a5 now
that Black has a pawn on c6, occupy- 18 .!OxdS (D)
ing a favourable square or Black's This attractive piece sacrifice leads
knight. to enormous complications. However,
16 bxcS White can keep a clear advantage by
Fischer must have done a lot of means of the quiet 1 8 1i'e l (Olafsson),
deep calculation and evaluation here. threatening 19 xd5 . Gligoric in his
He cannot free his game with 16 . . . a5 ; book gives 1 8 . . . .tg5, but, as Olafsson
e.g., remarks, after 1 9 exd5 cxd5 20 xd5
1 ) 1 7 b5. This method of increasing 1i'xe l 2 1 :axe l exd5 22 .txd5 a6,
the tension is inadequate; 17 ... bxc5 18 White does not continue with 23 l:xf7
bxc6 cxd4 and now both 1 9 xd5 and l:xf7 24 .txa8 f8 with an unclear
1 9 exd5 dxc3 20 d6 xc6 ! 2 1 dxe7 position, but with 23 e6 ! and Black
flxe7 are in Black's favour. has no defence; e.g., 23 . . .:ad8 24 :rs
2) 1 7 a3, and White keeps a spatial or 24 .tc4 followed by 25 e7, or
advantage on the queenside. It is true 23 ... fxe6 24 :xe6 :xn + (24 ... 7 25
that Black gets counterplay with :e8+ and mates) 25 xfl :rs+ 26
1 7 ... axb4 18 axb4 :xal 1 9 flxal :f6+ and wins .
.i.g5, but White plays 20 :e1 with ad Remarkably, Black has no satisfac
vantage. The black knight is still badly tory response to 1 8 'iVel . Olafsson fur
placed. ther points out 1 8 .. 1Wb4 19 :adl aS.
.

17 bxcS 1i'as (D) Black not only protects the queen with
The only possible follow-up to the this move but also opens an escape
previous move. If White were able to route for his queen's rook. White,
play 1 8 1Wa4 he would have the posi however, should not be discouraged;
tion well under control; for example, now he can sacrifice the bishop on d5 :
17 ... 7 1 8 11fa4 1Wc7 19 l:ab1 :ab8 20 exd5 cxd5 2 1 .txd5 ! exd5 22 xd5
20 1Wa6 with enduring pressure. 1Wb7 23 1We4 l:a7 24 :bt and White
Spassky - Fischer 73

has overwhelming compensation for play for Fischer, as is the provoking of


the piece. such a move.
After 1 8 ..e1 Black therefore can His reply confronts White with a
do nothing except retreat the queen difficult choice: either to play for at
empty-handed: 1 8 .....d8. It is true that tack or to try to hold the extra pawn
Black has prevented ..dl -a4 in a and if possible manoeuvre his knight
roundabout way, but only extensive to d6 via e3 and c4. I examine:
analysis is able to show this. 1 ) 1 9 ..d3 ltla6 (capturing on d5 is
still not good, but now it is threatened)
20 ..c4 (White must carry on because
20 ltle3 leads to complications favour
B able to Black after 20 . . . l:r.ad8; e.g., 2 1
ltlc4 ..xc5 22 ltld6 ltlb4. But the im
mediate 20 . . . ltlb4 is not so good be
cause of 2 l ltlc4 1i'xc5 22 ..c3 .ie3+
23 11fxe3 ..xc4 24 .ie2 ! ltlc2 25
.ixc4 ltlxe3 26 :re i l:E.fd8 27 fl and
White stands a little better). After 20
11fc4, inferior is 20 . . . cxd5 2 1 exd5
exd5 22 .ixd5 and the f-pawn goes
too; White's three centre pawns give
18 .igS him great influence on the board
Fischer did not hesitate at all with (22 . . . 1lc7 23 e6 !). The wonder is that
this reply, which cuts off the retreat Black need not capture the knight but
of the white knight. Such a quick re can get satisfactory counterplay with
sponse does not necessarily imply that 20 . . . 1lb5 ! . Exchanging queens with
the player had been waiting for his 21 ..xb5 cxb5 does not solve White's
opponent's previous move. In a game problem of how to maintain his strong
Botvinnik-Spassky, Moscow 1 969, central position.
Botvinnik at one point played a subtle, 2) 1 9 ..e2 ltla6 20 ltle3 ..c3 ! 2 1
unexpected move and Spassky replied ltlc2 ltlb4 and Black wins the pawn
immediately - 'so quickly,' wrote back with advantage.
Botvinnik, ' that I came to the conclu 3) 1 9 ..e1 ..d8 and White lacks a
sion that Spassky wanted to avoid cre useful move.
ating the impression that he had 4) 19 h4. A striking attempt. White
overlooked the move.' returns the pawn to temporarily limit
One is unlikely to come to the same the activity of Black's bishop. A sharp
conclusion in this case. Finding a position with mutual chances arises
flashy move like 1 8 ltlxd5 is child's after 19 . . . .ixh4 20 ..e2 (not 20 ltle3
74 The Art of Chess Analysis

1i'c3) 20 . . . lDa6 2 1 lDe3. In some cases the black king's shelter: 2 1 .txf7+
Black can sacrifice his knight on c5 :.xn 22 :.xf7. xf7 23 1i'h5+ g8 24
for three pawns. 1i'xg5 . At the moment, White has
19 J.bS ! three pawns for the piece and Black
Spassky 's decision to play for at cannot satisfactorily oppose them with
tack is fully justified, considering the his badly placed knight; e.g., 24 . . . 1i'c3
previous variations, and was probably 25 :.d 1 exd5 26 e6 lDc7 27 1i'e5 and
made when he played his last move. White controls the board.
White has many chances and Black 2) 20 . . . exd5 2 1 J.xf7+ l:.xf7 22
must defend carefully, as we shall see. l:lxf7 and now:
19 cxdS (D) 2a) 22 ... lDc6 23 1i'f3 ! (not 23 1i'h5
lDxd4 24 ltafl ? .th6 ! - but not
24 . . . lDe6? 25 ltxg7+ lDxg7 26 'it'f7+
and mate) 23 . . . 'ifb4 24 :n 1i'xd4+ 25
w h l 1i'xc5 26 l:.c7 ! and White is win
ning.
2b) 22 . . .li'd2 23 1i'g4 (D) (the dif
ference from the actual game is that
here the d4-pawn is protected; 23 l:.c7
achieves nothing because of23 . . . lDa6
24 ltb7 J.e3+ 25 h l 1Wxd4 26 1i'xd4
J.xd4 27 l:r.d l lDxc5 28 l:r.c7 lDa6 !)

B ad is 1 9 . . . g6 because White gets a


decisive attack with 20 lDf6+. 8
20 J.xf7+
White pushes on energetically, but
he overlooks an ingenious saving re
source. Interpolating 20 exd5 before
the sacrifice increases its strength:
1 ) 20 . . . lDa6 (Nei). Black's idea is
to save himself after 2 1 dxe6 fxe6 22
1i' g4 with 22 ... .te3+ 23 h 1 lDc7 .
The advance 2 1 d6 is nothing special
after 2 l . . .g6. The white pawn mass 23 . . . lDc6 (or 23 . . . xf7 24 l:r.fl +
looks impressive but can be destroyed e7 25 1i'f5 and Black is paralysed
at any moment by a countersacrifice, despite his two extra pieces) 24 l:r.d l ! !
so it remains White's task to destroy 1i'e3+ 25 h1 xf7 26 :.0 + and again
Spassky - Fischer 75

the black king would be unsafe after advantage: 22 :n ! . The white rooks
26 . . . e7 27 'ii'f5 . Black must there are connected so that the white queen
fore return the piece with 26 . . . g8 . can threaten to penetrate the black po
But after 27 1i'e6+ h8 28 Wxc6 l:tg8 sition destructively from either side:
29 Wxd5 White retains the better pros via a4, g4, or h5 . After 22 . . . lL!c6 23
pects as he can disarm the attacking 'iWg4 ! 'ii' x d4+ 24 h l 'ii'xe5 25 exd5
try 29 . . . .i.f4 with 30 1i'f3 . Black has no satisfactory way to re
If 28 . . . l:td8 (instead of 28 . . . l:tg8) 29 capture: if 25 . . . exd5 26 :ae 1 .te3 27
1i'b7 ! (much stronger than 29 1i'xd5 'iff3 or 25 . . . 'ii'xd5 26 l:tad 1 1i'e5 27
g6) and the white c-pawn is very dan l:ld6 (27 'ii'f3 'ii'x c5 and Black's f8-
gerous; for example, 29 . . . ti'xd4 30 c6 square is covered twice) and now:
'ii' b 6 (the same reply would follow 3a) 27 . . . l:tf8 28 'ii'x e6+ (surpris
30 . . . 1i'c4) 3 1 l:tb1 'ii'xb7 32 l:txb7 ! and ingly, 28 l:txf8+ xf8 29 'ii'f 3+ e7
wins. 30 :xc6 1i'e 1 + 3 1 h2 .i.e3 ! gives
Nevertheless, the text-move might Black dangerous threats, so White
also have led to a significant advan must take the perpetual check with 3 2
tage, as deep research has shown me. l:tc7+ d8 3 3 1i'f8+ xc7 34 'it'd6+,
20 ... :xn etc.) 28 . . . 'it'xe6 29 J:[xf8+ xf8 30
21 .:.xn 'ii'dll l:txe6 and the endgame is advanta
This brilliant defensive move geous for White;
forces a drawable endgame. Nearly all 3b) 27 . . . lL!e7 28 l:txe6 'it'd5 (or
other moves lose quickly: 28 . . . 1Wxc5 29 h4 and White wins) 29
1) 2 1 . . . .te3+ 22 h2 xf7 23 l:[fe 1 (threatening 30 J:[6e5) 29 . . .1Wf5
'ii' h 5+ e7 24 .:.n lL!d7 25 1i'f7+ (29 . . . h6 30 h4 wins) 30 'it'c4 h8
d8 26 c6 and wins. (30 . . .'ilt'd5 3 1 'ilt'xd5 lL!xd5 32 J:[6e5
2) 2 1 . . .lL!c6 22 'ii'g 4 (simpler than wins material) 3 1 l:txe7 .i.xe7 32 :xe7
Olafsson's 22 1i'h5 ) 22 . . . xf7 23 and White should win.
l:tfl + g8 24 'ii'x e6+ and White will With the queens on the board,
have no less than four pawns for the White has attacking chances because
piece. the black pieces are always hanging.
3) 2 1 . . .1i'c3 is the most reasonable 22 'ii'xd2
alternative. Black ties the white queen There is nothing better; 22 l:tc7
to the protection of the queen's rook. lL!a6 23 l:tc6 lL!b4 24 l:txe6 dxe4 leads
Nei now gives 22 exd5 exd5 23 J:[bl to a sharp position in which Black
lL!c6 24 l:tbb7 .th6 25 'ii'g4 1i'xd4+ 26 would have the better chances.
'ifxd4 lL!xd4 27 l:txa7 with a compli 22
.. .txdl
cated ending; as I see it, White has the 23 .:an
better chances. Olafsson gives a far The rooks are finally connected. It
more convincing way to maintain the seems like a whole game has been
76 The Art of Chess Analysis

played, but we are only just past move exd5 exd5 26 l%d7, since the black
twenty ! knight would stand too passively.
23 6 (D) However, as Olafsson points out, 24
l:c7 fails to an unexpected combina
tion, namely 24 . . . dxe4 ! 25 l:xc6 e3,
and all at once the e-pawn becomes in
credibly dangerous. On 26 l:txe6 there
follows 26 . . . e2 27 l:bl l:f8 ! with the
terrible threat 28 . . . :n + 29 l:xfl
i.e3+ and wins. Initially I thought
that White had a stronger riposte in 26
l:[f4, but subsequent investigation
showed me that White still does not
come out of it well after 26 . . . e2 27
l:e4 e l 'it'+ 28 J:[xe l .t xe l 29 l:txe6
l:d8 ! .
24 exd5 White's passed pawns are not
Spassky must have seen the forced strong enough, because his king is too
draw position already. The play would far away. After 30 l:d6 l:xd6 3 1 exd6
have remained more complicated after 'l;f7 the block of pawns is going to be
24 l:c7, which Byrne and Nei con swept away by Black. Somewhat bet
sider more dangerous for Black. The ter is 30 c6, but then Black continues
point is that after 24 . . . li)xd4 25 :en cold-bloodedly with 30 . . . f7 3 1 c7
i.h6 26 exd5 exd5 27 l:xa7 White :C8 32 l:c6 .ta5 and the c-pawn falls.
reaches the same position as in the So Spassky had seen that he had to
frrst line of variation 3 above (after avoid this variation.
Black's 2 1 st move), a complicated po 24 exdS
sition in which White nevertheless has 25 l:d7
the better chances. Byrne and Nei both The position still seems critical for
note, however, that the white attempt Black, but Fischer quickly dispels that
24 l:c7 would achieve nothing after illusion.
24 . . . lt)d8 25 l:e7 lt)c6 26 l:xe6 li)xd4 25 .te3+
27 l:e7 .te3+ 28 h l dxe4 29 l: l f7 26 hl .txd4
li)e6 ! and Black h as the advantage. Capturing with the bishop im
But this variation gives Black no more proves the co-ordination of his minor
than a draw if White decides to play pieces.
his rook back to c7 on the 26th move. 27 e6 .teS! (D)
Moreover, White can undertake a Fischer's defence is hair-fine. The
well-founded winning attempt with 25 squares d6 and c7 are taken away from
Spassky - Fischer 77

30 n
The safest solution. White would
be the only one with winning chances
after the continuation 30 . . l%xd6 3 1
.

cxd6 f8 32 l%c l 8 33 Ac8 e8


34 l%c7.
3 1 l1xc6 lbc6
32 :xeS f6
33 l%dS e6
34 l%hS h6
35 h2 l%a6
36 c6
White and at the same time the e-pawn Of course it was not possible to
is cut off so that it may be captured. keep both queenside pawns.
28 l%xdS l%e8 36 :Xc6
29 :ret :xe6 37 :aS a6
30 l%d6! 38 g3 f6
A finesse without which Spassky 39 <ifi>f3 :c3+
would have to fight for the draw. 1/z-1/z
Game Ten
Bronstein - Lju bojevic
Interzonal To urnament, Petro polis 1 973
Alekhine Defence
Bronstein and Ljubojevic are representatives of different generations, but their
styles have common elements: sharp, rich in ideas, and with a tendency toward
the bizarre . Neither of them, in the end, had an important result in the 1 973 Inter
zonal. When their game was played, however, Ljubojevic was leading with 7 112
out of 10 and Bronstein was somewhere in the middle with 5 112. Knowing this,
one must admire Ljubojevic's courageous and admirable choice of opening. Al
though he had the black pieces, his play was razor-sharp from the beginning, and
he certainly did not concern himself with trying for mere equality.
He found a worthy opponent in Bronstein. Grandmasters nowadays combat
the Alekhine Defence almost exclusively with the quiet 3 c!Llf3, which in most
variations guarantees White a slight but tangible advantage. Bronstein, however,
took off the velvet gloves and chose the Four Pawns Attack, the old main line of
this opening, which promises extremely sharp positions with mutual chances.
This indeed proved to be the case. I have analysed the opening fairly exten
sively, not only because it is interesting and still little researched, but also because
the game reached critical heights already in the opening stage.

1 e4 c!Llf6 A healthy developing move which


2 eS c!Llds also covers the e4-square. 8 d6 is pre
3 d4 d6 mature on account of 8 . . 'ii' h 4+ 9 g3
.

4 c4 c!Llb6 1i'e4+ 1 0 1We2 'ii'x h l 1 1 c!Llf3 l0c6 1 2


5 f4 dxeS c!Llbd2 c!Lld7 ! and White has n o good
6 fxeS cS way to win the black queen, as shown
This attempt to further sharpen a in the consultation game Nekrasov
sharp variation stems from the Rus and Tokar against Argunov and Yudin,
sian Argunov, who used it with suc USSR 193 1 .
cess in the 1 920's. Still, the most ...8 exdS
striking characteristic of the move is 9 cxdS c4
its riskiness. White gets a tremendous Mikenas' move. The alternative is
centre. 9 . . . 'ii' h 4+ 10 g3 'ii'd4 . Practically all
7 dS e6 standard theoretical works, including
8 c!Llc3 the Encyclopedia of Chess Openings
Bronstein - Ljubojevic 79

and B agirov's book on the Alekhine better to play energetically for attack
Defence (revised edition, I 979), give with the (most often temporary) piece
I I j,b5+ j,d7 I2 'ii'e2 as the refutation, sacrifice 1 6 liJe5 ! j,xb5 17 j,g5 and
citing the game Ljubojevic-Moses, the complications are probably in
Dresden I 969, which went: I2 ... liJxd5 White's favour.
1 3 e6 fxe6 I4 'ii'x e6+ !De7 I 5 liJf3 Nevertheless, the question remains
'ii' f6 I 6 1!i'e2 !Dc6 I 7 liJe4 'ii'e6 I 8 whether l i j,b5+ is a clear refutation
j,c4 with great advantage for White. of 9 . . . 1i'h4+. White has a much more
Adams points out in the British Chess solid approach in 1 I j,f4. The ending
Magazine, however, that all the theory after I l . . . g5 I2 j,g5 'ii'xe5+ I3 'ile2 is
books have forgotten an old game be clearly better for White.
tween Drogomiretsky and Kaiev from Now we return to the position after
the semi-final of the All-Russian Cham 9 . . . c4 (D).
pionship, S verdlovsk I 934, where
Kaiev improved Black's play with
I 5 . . . 1fb4 (D) (instead of I5 . . . 1ff6).
w

10 ll)fJ
Once again, sound development
above all. Estrin and Panov recom
Black gets a decisive attack after I 6 mend 10 a3 to keep Black's king's
j,xd7 + liJxd7 I 7 liJg5 0-0-0 I 8 ll)f7 bishop out of b4, but Black stands well
!Dc6 I9 !Dxh8? ( 19 !Dxd8 is a little after the simple IO . . . j,c5 . B agirov's
better, although Black still has many recommendation, I 0 d6, is again pre
chances after 1 9 . . c!Oxd8) 19 . . . lbd4 ! 20
. mature, because White w i ll have diffi
'ii'e4 liJf6 2 1 'ifg2 :e8+ 22 d l 1i'c4 culty defending the e-pawn after
- he does not even bother taking the 1 0 . . . !Dc6; e.g., 1 1 !Df3 j,g4 or 1 1 j,f4
time to capture the knight on h8 ! In g5 . Finally, 1 0 1i'd4 also promises lit
stead of helping his opponent to com tle after I O . . . !Dc6 1 1 1i'e4 liJb4 and
plete his development, White does now 1 2 a3 liJ4xd5 1 3 liJxd5 1i'xd5 1 4
80 The Art of Chess A111llysis

1i'xd5 lDxd5 15 .txc4 lDc7 leads to a A quiet continuation would not


roughly equal ending (Ciocaltea-Lju achieve so much this time because 1 1
bojevic, Malaga 1 97 1 ) . That was the .i.e2 would be followed by the annoy
first time Ljubojevic tried this system ing l l . . . .tc5 (but not 1 l . . . .tb4 1 2 0-0
for Black. 0-0 because of 1 3 lDg5 ! .txe2 1 4
10 .i.g4 (D) 1i'xe2 h 6 1 5 e6 ! with a strong attack,
as in Silyakov-Bagirov, Baku 1 969).
The text is a many-sided move. The
black queen's bishop is attacked, a later
w queen check on h4 is prevented, the
c5-square is taken away from the king's
bishop, and, finally, the c-pawn is at
tacked. White can also take the c-pawn
immediately with 1 1 .txc4, but that
gives him little chance of advantage
after 1 1 ...lDxc4 12 'ii'a4+ ltxi7 1 3 1i'xc4
.txf3 14 gxf3 lDxe5 1 5 We2 (or 1 5 1i'e4
'ii'h4+ !) and now not 1 5 . . 1i'e7 1 6 0-0 !
.

with advantage to White (Browne


The alternative is 10 . . . .tb4. Boles Nievski, Rovinj-Zagreb 1 970), but
lavsky then gives 1 1 .txc4 lDxc4 1 2 15 . . .1i'h4+ with good play for Black.
1i'a4+ lDc6 1 3 dxc6 .i.xc3+ 1 4 bxc3 11 .txf3
b5 15 1i'b4 ! a5 16 1i'c5 1t'd3 1 7 .tg5 12 gxf3 .tb4
with very dangerous threats. Ree 13 .txc4 0-0
showed in the Haagse Post, however, 14 :g1
that Black can offer an excellent pawn Before bringing his own king to
sacrifice with 1 l . . . .txc3+ 1 2 bxc3 safety, White launches an immediate
lDxc4 1 3 1i'a4+ lDd7 ! 14 1i'xc4 lDb6 attack, supported by his mighty pawn
15 'ii' b 5+ 1i'd7 . Black is guaranteed duo in the centre, against the enemy
equal play because of the opposite king. Remarkably, Ljubojevic already
colour bishops and his resulting pres had this position with White, at taak
sure on the light squares. 1 970. His opponent, Honfi, replied
White has better, however: 1 1 1 4 . . . 1i'c7 but was quickly mated after
.tg5 ! . Now 1 l . . .f6 1 2 exf6 gxf6 1 3 15 e6 f6 1 6 .i.h6 1i'xc4 1 7 :xg7+ h8
1i'e2+ would be disastrous for Black, 1 8 :g8 + ! xg8 19 'ii'g 1 +. Black's
while 1 1 . ..1i'xd5 1 2 1i'xd5 .txc3+ 1 3 counterplay in this game was very fee
bxc3 lDxd5 1 4 0-0-0 brings no relief ble. As we shall see, Black can get all
either. sorts of counter-chances against 1 4
1 1 1i'd4 :g l . Therefore i n Gonzalez-Bryson,
Bronstein - Ljubojevic 81

Lucerne 1 982, the staggering novelty


14 i.h6 ! ? was introduced. After the
interesting continuation 1 4 . . . lL!8d7 8
15 l:.g1 g6 16 e6 lL!e5 17 i.e2 i.c5 1 8
'ikxe5 'ikh4+ 1 9 l:.g3 'ikxh6 White
should have followed up with 20 d6 !,
which would have given him - with
his mighty, far-advanced passed pawns
- a winning game. In the German bi
ble on Alekhine's Defence - I refer to
the two-part work by Siebenhaar, Del
nef and Ottstadt which altogether runs
to more than 1 ,200 pages - 14 . . . lL!xc4 played a positional exchange sacrifice
is given as an improvement on Black's with 15 . . . ll:X:6! 16 'ii'e4 lL!xe5 and won
play. In my opinion this is no more smoothly after 17 i.xf8 'ii'xf8 1 8 i.b5
satisfactory after 1 5 1i'g4 g6 1 6 1i'xc4 'ii'c 5 ! 1 9 0-0-0 i.xc3 20 bxc3 'ii'x c3+
i.xc3+ 17 bxc3 l:.e8 1 8 0-0-0 ! (White 21 'ii'c 2 1Wa1 + 22 d2 lL!xf3+ 23 e3
does best to return the pawn immedi lL!xd5 + ! 24 xf3 'ii'f6+ 25 g3
ately) 18 . . . l:txe5 19 1i'd4 'ii'f6 and now 'ikg5+ 26 f2 1i'h4+ 27 l:g3 'ikxh2+
not 20 l:.he 1 , as given by the authors, 28 l:g2 1i'xg2+, etc.
but 20 f4 ltf5 2 1 'ii'x f6 l:[xf6 22 l:.he l 15 . "fic7
lL!d7 23 l:.e7, followed by 24 l:.de 1 , The correct square for the queen.
when Black has insuperable difficul After 1 5 . . . 'ikc8 16 i.b3 i.c5 1 7 1i'h4
ties. The move 14 i.h6 is probably re i.xg1 1 8 1i'h6, mate can only be de
ally critical for Black. ferred by 1 8 . . . i.e3 .
14 ... g6 16 i.b3 i.c5
After the above-mentioned game 17 'ii'f4 (D)
Ljubojevic must have asked himself
what he would do if faced with the
text-move. Bronstein's answer is ex
ceptionally deep and beautiful.
15 i.g5!
The introduction to a long-term
rook sacrifice. Bronstein undoubtedly
conceived the whole idea over the
board, although this position had oc
curred earlier, in the correspondence
game Gibbs-Stuart 1 97 1n2. That game
continued 1 5 i.h6? whereupon Black
82 The Art of Chess Analysis

17
.i.xgl Wxf6 29 lle l with good compensation
Black takes the rook, a much criti for the pawn.
cised decision. Hort gives this move a l c) 1 9 0-0-0. Zaitsev and Shashin
question mark in the Encyclopedia of now give a line which superficially
Chess Openings yes, we are still
- seems to give Black equal play ; i.e.,
very much in the opening - as do Ko 1 9 .. ..i.xgl 20 l:txgl 'ii'c 5 2 1 lle l l:tae8
tov, Blackstock, and Wade in their 22 .i.e? llxe7 . But Marovic goes fur
joint book World Championship lnter ther and concludes that White clearly
zonals 1973. Zaitsev and Shashin were has the better chances after 23 dxe7
the first to criticise the capture of the Wxe7 24 e6! fxe6 25 llxe6 h8 26
rook. They give two variations in 64: llxe7 llxf4 27 l0<15 llxf3 28 xb6
1 ) 1 7 . . . 8d7 1 8 d6 Wc6 and now: xb6 29 llxb7 . Let us underline this
I a) 1 9 llg4? xeS 20 Wxe5 l:tae8 judgement: White is in fact winning.
2 1 .i.e? .i.xd6 and Black wins. 27 . . . lld4 (instead of 27 . . . llxf3) would
1 b) 1 9 l0e4. This move was sug be tougher, but 28 a3 would best illus
gested by Ree during an informal trate the helplessness of Black's posi
analysis session with me when we first tion. While White quietly prepares to
saw the game. The point is that Black further strengthen his position, Black
runs out of moves after 1 9 . . . .i.xgl 20 cannot free himself.
.i. f6 ! xf6 2 1 exf6 llfe8 22 Wh6 2) 1 7 . . . 1le8. How treacherous the
llxe4+ 23 fl 1i'b5+ 24 xg l . Soon position is can be seen in the variation
after this variation was published in 1 8 d6 .i.xd6 1 9 b5 .i.xe5 20 xc7
Schaakbulletin, Marovic found a hole .i.xc7 + 2 1 'ii'e4 with the better ending
in it. In the Yugoslav magazine Sa for White, a variation originally given
hovski Glasnik he showed that Black by Ree and myself and unquestion
has the much stronger 23rd move ingly adopted by Kotov, Blackstock,
23 . . . lle l + ! He continues with 24 g2 and Wade in their book. However, it
lle2+ 25 xgl Wc5+ 26 h l llxh2+ ! fails to consider an important finesse
27 Wxh2 Wf5 with unclear play. I for Black. Adams gives 1 8 d6? .i. xd6
wonder whether he saw that 28 19 b5 (D) and now:
.i.xf7+ was possible - the bishop can 1 9 . . . 1lxe5 + ! ! 20 Wxe5 ..tb4+ and
be captured only on pain of mate. Black wins.
However, even after 28 . . . h8 White Therefore, after 1 7 . . . lle8 White
has achieved little. The bishop will be must resort to 1 8 ..tf6, the move ana
forced to retreat when Black captures lysed by Zaitsev and Shashin. After
on f6, and thus 28 .i.xf7+ seems to 1 8 . . . 8d7 there can follow:
be merely a wasted tempo for the win 2a) 1 9 d6 (Zaitsev and Shashin).
of a relatively unimportant pawn. However, Black comes out of it well
White's best seems to be 28 Wg3 after 19 . . . xe5 (not 19 . . . Wxd6? 20
Bronstein - l.Jubojevit 83

1 974 : 19 . . . lL!xe5 20 l:.xg6+ ! ! with a


crushing attack. 1 9 . . . l:.xe5 is better,
but White clearly has the better pros
pects after 20 .i.xe5 lL!xe5 2 1 e2.
In short, neither of Black's two al
ternatives, 1 7 . . . lLJ8d7 and 1 7 . . . l:.e8,
lead to satisfactory play. Even so, is
either of them a relatively better try
than the text-move? If you look at the
game superficially you might tend to
think so, but analysis proves that the
opposite is true .
.i.xf7+ xf7 2 1 .i.e7 + ! winning the 18 d6
queen) 20 fl .i.xd6 2 1 lLlb5 'ifc6 22 Black won quickly after 1 8 e2? in
lL!xd6 Wxd6 23 l:.d 1 Wc6 24 .i.xe5 Gheorghiu-Ljubojevic, Manila 1 97 3 :
Wb5+ 25 f2 Wxe5 26 .i.xt7+ g7 . 1 8 . . . Wc5 ! 1 9 l:.xg l 'ii'x g l 2 0 .i.f6
O ' Kelly tries to improve White's play 'ii'g 2+ 2 1 e3 'ii'x b2 22 d3 lLJ8d7
with 20 dxc7, but after 20 . . . lL!d3+ 2 1 23 lLle4 l:.ac8 24 'ii'h 6 lL!xe5+ 25 e3
fl lLlxf4 22 l:.g4 lL!e6 ! 23 lL!e4 .i.e7 l:tc3+ and White resigned.
24 l:.c I White by no means has the It is remarkable that this short game
better of it, as O' Kelly thinks; Black was played after Petropolis, puzzling
plays simply 24 . . . l:.ac8 with good that Gheorghiu, who also played in the
chances. Interzonal tournament, would deviate
2b) 1 9 lL!e4 ! (D). Very refined. from Bronstein 's play, and surprising,
too, that Ljubojevic would risk losing
with the same variation twice in a row.
All this rather confused some com
B mentators: Adams wrote that Gheor
ghiu-Ljuboj evic was also played at
Petropolis, and thus he created the im
pression that Bronstein had improved
White's play later in the tournament.
Bagirov, though correctly locating the
game in Manila, asserted that the In
terzonal had been held later, and thus
he too implied that Bronstein had pre
pared his novelty. But there is really
The subtle point came to light in no doubt that Bronstein had thought
Marj anovic-Filipowicz, Yugoslavia it all out over the board. Gheorghiu
84 The Art of Chess Analysis

probably remembered the line incor 2 1 . . .'iVxh2 22 'ii'g 4. Black then loses
rectly and Ljubojevic, the eternal op his bishop, and White has sufficient
timist, probably wanted to try the compensation for the exchange after,
system once more. e.g., 22 . . . h5 23 'iVxg l 'iVxg 1 + 24
18 ... 'ireS xg 1 8d7. I think the reason Ljubo
It was difficult to foresee that this is jevic repeated the variation against
the wrong square for the queen. Be Gheorghiu was that he had found
sides the text-move, I analyse the fol 19 . . . 'ii'd4 ! and felt that the resulting
lowing possibilities: possibilities were sharp enough and
1) 18 . . . 'iVc6. A suggestion of the not onesidedly in White's favour. A
Danish analyst Bo Richter Larsen. Af correct assumption, as later became
ter 1 9 .i f6 8d7 20 'iVh6 xf6 2 1 apparent. Against Grii nfeld at the Riga
exf6 .l:fe8+ White has nothing better Interzonal 1 979, after 20 .l:d 1 Ljubo
than 22 e4, after which the play is jevic did indeed play 20 . . . 'iVxb2 and
similar to that in variation 1 b above won relatively quickly after 2 1 e6
(after Black's 1 7th move). 1 9 0-0-0 is 8d7 22 e7 'iVxh2 23 exf8'iV+ .l:xf8
much stronger. White wins at least a 24 'ti'xh2 .ixh2 25 f6+ g7 26
whole rook back while maintaining a xd7 fud7 27 .ie7 .l:b8 28 cit>f2 .ie5
great positional advantage by 1 9 . . . .ic5 29 .l:c l c5 30 ltd 1 .if6 3 1 .ixf6+
20 e6 8d7 2 1 e7 ! . xf6 32 .ic4 .l:.d8 33 cit>g3 a6 34 .in
2) 1 8 . . . 'ii'c 5 . The commentators cit>e5 35 f4+ cit>e6 36 .ic4+ cit>f6 37
either did not mention this move or cit>f3 b5 and White resigned.
dismissed it with 1 9 e4 'ii'e 3+ 20 Meanwhile this variation has again
'ikxe3 .ixe3+ 2 1 .ixe3 with satisfac been developed further. In order to
tory play for White; if 1 9 . . . 'iVb4+ 20 pursue this, I again consulted the
cit>fl and White wins. But why should 'Alekhine bible ' . Instead of 2 1 e6
Black panic and give check? After the White should play 2 1 f6+ cit>h8 22
centralising 19 . . . 'iVd4, it seems White .l:d2. More than four pages, full of
generally does not have such danger analysis, then follow in the book. The
ous threats against the black king. If best move seems to me to be 22 ...1i'al +.
20 f6+ cit>h8, and 20 .l:d 1 'iVxb2 2 1 In a game Griinfeld-Wiemer, Tecklen
f6+ cit>h8 22 'iVh4 'iVxh2 also leads burg 1 984 (so Griinfeld tried it again !)
nowhere. this was followed by 23 cit>e2 c6 ! 24
After 1 8 . . . 'iVc5 19 e4 'iVd4, the in 'ii'h 4 h5 25 e6? t0d4+ 26 .:txd4 1i'xd4
dicated move is 20 cit>fl so that after and Black had a won game. The Griin
the virtually forced 20 . . . 'iVxb2 White feld variation has not brought very
has a choice of places to put his rook. much success. Siebenhaar et al give
The best is 2 1 .l:el with the idea of in 25 lbg4 as better, after which the wild
directly protecting the e-pawn after suggestion 25 . . .f5 is probably good.
Bronstein - Ljubojevit 85

But according to the authors White


c an play better earlier on, namely 23
.i.d 1 . This move was recommended
by J. Weidemann as long ago as 1 983.
A striking variation is 23 ... c!Ll8d7 24
'ifh4 'ifxe5+ 25 fl h5 26 c!Llxh5
gxh5 27 'ifxh5+ g8 28 .J:g2 with a
winning attack. However, in the posi
tion after 23 .i.d 1 Black has an amaz
ing escape which I found in 1 99 1 during
my preparations for the Candidates
match against Hubner: 23 . . . .i.e3 ! ! 24
'ifxe3 c!Llc4 and White cannot very Ljubojevic to find the strong reply
well avoid exchanging queens, after 19 . . . 1Wc5 ! . Bronstein gives that move
which it becomes quite difficult to himself, with the variations 20 e6
continue the attack. c!Ll8d7 and 20 lL!e4 1Wb5+, in both
19 e2 (D) cases with clear advantage for Black,
Bronstein errs too. His unconcern says Bronstein. But in the second vari
for the safety of his king might have ation (20 c!Lle4 'W'b5+), I don't think
cost him dearly. 1 9 0-0-0 is indicated, White should be worried if he contin
as Bronstein gave after the game. ues with 2 1 d2; e.g., 2 l . . .lLlc4+ 22
White would then be unable to make e l ! (not 22 c3 't!i'xe5+ 23 'ifxe5
immediate use of his knight in the at c!Llxe5 24 .J:xg l .J:c8+ and wins) and
tack against the black king with c!Lle4, now, although everything looks very
but, remarkably enough, Black would promising for Black, what should he
still not have time to set up a water play? After 22 . . . ..ie3 23 c!Llf6+ h8 23
tight defence. Bronstein's variation 1Wh4 the bishop on e3 is only in the
continues 1 9 . . .i.c5 20 e6 fxe6 2 1 1We5
. way (of 24 . . . 1Vxe5+).
.J:e8 22 .i.h6 1i'd7 23 c!Lle4 and White The best seems to be 22 ... 1Vxe5, al
wins. 1 9 . . . 1Wc5 is tougher, but even though White keeps clear compensa
then Black has hardly any survival tion for the exchange after 23 .i.xc4
chances after 20 e6 c!Ll8d7 (the stand 1Wxf4 24 ..ixf4.
ard move to cover f6 in this position) 20 lile4
21 exf7+ g7 22 bl (threatening 23 Now everything goes according to
lbe4) 22 . . . 1We5 23 .J:xg 1 , and White al White's desires.
ready has two pawns for the exchange. 20
lb8d7
19 ... .i.cS The most obvious. Yet 20 . . . c!Ll6d7
This gains nothing . It should have would have made heavier demands
been the easiest thing in the world for on White's attacking ability. O' Kelly
86 The Art of Chess Analysis

comes up with two variations, one


showing how not to continue, the other
an (alleged) route to victory: w

1 ) 2 1 l:c 1 (this move was given


with a question mark) 2 l . ..b6 22 if6
lDxf6 23 lDxf6+ g7 24 lDh5+ gxh5
25 'ii'f6+ g8 26 e6 'ti'e8 ! and White
must take a draw since 27 e7 is an
swered by 27 . . . lDd7.
2) 2 1 if6 (given an exclamation
mark) 2 l . . .lDxf6 22 lDxf6+ g7 23
lDh5+ gxh5 24 'ii'f6+ g8 25 e6 'ti'e8
26 'ii'g 5+ h8 27 1i'xc5 lDd7 28 S trangely enough, there is no clear
'ti'd4+ f6 29 e7 l:g8 30 ixg8 'ti'xg8 win for White here: 27 lDf6 fails to
3 1 f2 and wins. 27 . . . l:g7, and after 27 1i'f6+ h7 28
A rather unconvincing business. ixg8+ 'ii'x g8 29 'ii'e7+ h8 30 lDf6
How does White actually win? Not Black escapes with perpetual check
by attack, for the black king is safe after 30 . . . 'it'c4+.
enough. Admittedly, White's far-ad So, after 20 . . . lD6d7, how does White
vanced passed pawns keep the oppo win? The attentive reader must have
nent from making use of his material seen it by now: White plays the move
advantage, but beyond that, there is rejected by O' Kelly in variation 1 , 2 1
little to say. l:c 1 ! . Now after 2 1 . . . b6 2 2 if6 lDxf6
In variation 2 it makes sense for 23 lDxf6+ g7 White continues 24
White first to force a further weaken 1i'h4 ! (instead of 24 lDh5) 24 . . . h6 25
ing of the black king's position with lDh5+ c.ith7 26 1i'f6 l:g8 27 Wxf7+
23 Wh4 instead of rushing ahead with h8 28 'it'f6+ h7 29 ixg8+ 'ii'x g8
the showy knight sacrifice. Then 30 1i'e7+ ..ti>h8 3 1 lDf6 and wins as
23 . . . l:h8 fails to 24 lDh5+ g8 25 Black now has no saving check on c4 .
ixf7+ and mate, so 23 . . . h6 is the only Earlier, Black's possible queen check
possibility. Now White indeed offers on a6 never had any point because
the knight with 24 lDh5+, but now White could have met it with ic4.
Black can ' t take it on account of mate 21 l:cl "ikc6 (D)
after 24 . . . gxh5 25 'ii'f6+ c.itg8 (or Threatens to start checking on b5 ,
25 . . /.li>h7 26 ic2+ c.itg8 27 1i'xh6) 26 but White's following move removes
'ii' g 6+ h8 27 'ii'x h6+ g8 28 ic2. any possible sting from that.
Black must contort himself to avoid 22 l:xcS
direct mate; i.e., 24 . . . h7 25 'ii'f6 l:g8 White gets a proud knight on f6 by
26 'ii'x f7+ h8 (D). means of this exchange sacrifice.
Bronstein - Ljubojevi{: 87

has such a great advantage in material


that he can afford 26 . . . ltJel +.
And 25 c;t>e 1 is even worse because
of 25 . . . 1i'b4+, forcing the exchange of
queens.
25 h5
26 o!LJxh5 'ifxb3+
Black must give back quite a lot of
material in order to prevent immediate
mate.
27 axb3 o!LJd5+
28 <itd4
22 truceS The king is a strong piece.
23 o!iJf6+ <iifh8 28 lbe6+
24 'ii'h4 29 <itxd5 trucg5
Black is lots of material ahead, but 30 o!tJf6+ ctig7
he cannot prevent loss . He tries a few 31 1i'xg5
last checks. Now White has the material advan
24
1i'b5+ tage. Ljubojevi continued playing
25 <ite3 ! until the time control since Bronstein
The crowning point of White's at was in serious time trouble. The rest is
tacking play. Black's only reasonable not interesting.
check is 25 . . . 1i'd3+, but after 26 <itt2 31 :res
he has no more to say; e.g., 26 . . . h5 27 32 e6 fxe6+
ltJxh5 gxh5 28 J.f6+ <itg8 29 1i'g5+ 33 ctixe6 :.rs
and mate. 34 d7 aS
Note that the immediate 25 <itt2 35 ltJg4 l:a6+
(instead of 25 <ite3) only draws after 36 ctie5 l:f5+
25 . . . o!iJd3+ 26 <itg l 1i'c5+ 27 <iifh l h5 37 1i'xf5 gxf5
28 ltJxh5 'ift2 29 ltJg3+ <itg8 30 J. f6 38 d81i' fxg4
and Black has perpetual check with 39 'ii'd7+ <iifh 6
30 . . . 'ii'x f3+. The move 26 <itg2 (in 40 'ii'xb7 l:g6
stead of 26 <itg l ) is not better; Black 41 f4 1-0
Game Eleven
Karpov - Spassky
Semi-final Candidates Match (9),
Leningrad 1 974
Sici l ia n Defen ce, Scheveni n gen Va riation
When Spassky, with the black pieces, won the first game o f his 1 974 semi-final
match against Karpov, almost every expert considered Spassky the clear favour
ite. This was due primarily to the manner in which he won - that is, unmistakably
in the powerful style of his best years. But surprisingly, we saw little of the old
Spassky again. After a short draw in the second game, Karpov hit back hard in the
third. It was only the second time in his life that Karpov opened with 1 d4 and not
1 e4 - curiously, Fischer, too, regularly found alternatives to his favourite 1 e4
in his match against Spassky. When Karpov had built up a 2- 1 lead with five
draws after eight games, he again opened with the king's pawn. And with what
virtuosity !
' His play is dry, but very good,' declared Hort after the game. Hort was present
in Leningrad during the match, as I was. Nearly all the grandmasters in the press
room were deeply impressed. This is undoubtedly one of Karpov's best games
and is very typical of his style, although it is not to be found in his book of fifty of
his own games. The contours of the future World Champion were already becom
ing clear.

1 e4 cS 8 f4 /0:6
2 lDt"3 d6 9 .te3 J.d7 (D)
3 d4 cxd4
4 ttixd4 lDf6
5 lDc3 e6
6 .tel
In this match, Karpov employed the
modest 6 .i.e2 for the first time in his
life. In five earlier games he tried the
sharp Keres Attack with success: he
won all five, including a famous one
against Hort in Moscow 1 97 1 .
6 J.e7
7 0-0 0-0
Karpov - Spassky 89

In the first game, Spassky suc


ceeded with the then almost unknown
move 9 . . . e5 . After 1 0 li)b3 a5 1 1 a4 w
c!Llb4 1 2 .i. f3 i.e6 1 3 h 1 'fie? 14 l:lf2
l:lfd8 15 l:d2 .i.c4 1 6 c!Llb5 ? ! .txb5 1 7
axb5 a 4 1 8 c!Ll c 1 d5 ! complications
favouring Black arose. Geller, one of
Karpov' s seconds during the 1 974
match, strengthened White's play a
few months later in a game against
Spassky : 12 h 1 'fie? 1 3 l:c 1 ! and
White clearly had the better play after
1 3 . . . .te6 1 4 c!Lld2 exf4 1 5 c!Llb5 'ilkd8 now also play his king 's bishop to c4,
1 6 .i.xf4. the 17-square would be fatally weak.
10 c!Llb3 a5 17 . 'ii'c8
11 a4 c!Llb4 18 h3 (D)
12 i.f3 i.c6 A typical Karpov move. There was
An interesting novelty that could no actual threat of 1 8 . . . c!Llg4, because
be an important improvement over of the reply 19 .i. xg4 'flxg4 20 'ilkc4,
1 2 . . . e5 . After that move White gained but, just to make sure, he removes any
the advantage with 1 3 q.,h 1 i.c6 1 4 possibility of it. Perhaps he is dream
fxe5 ! dxe5 1 5 'fle2 'fie? 1 6 1i'f2 ll)d7 ing of getting his bishop to c4 and
17 l:ad 1 in Geller-Polugaevsky, 1 973. doesn't want to have to exchange it on
13 c!Lld4 g6 g4.
An idea connected with the pre 1 8 lld 1 should also be considered.
vious move: Black will give up the
bishop-pair in return for a strong cen
tral position.
14 llfl eS 8
15 c!Llxc6 bxc6
16 fxeS
A good move which Karpov must
have played with pleasure. He has a
great preference for positions with
fixed pawn structures.
16
dxeS (D)
11 1t'n
White concentrates his pieces on
the f-file, not the d-file. If he could 18 c!Lld7
90 The Art of Chess Analysis

And this is typical of the way i.c4, and Black does not have enough
Spassky played against Fischer two compensation for the sacrificed ex
years earlier. In the eighth game of the change.
1 972 match, Spassky played an in After 1 8 . . . g7 (or 1 8 . . . h5) 1 9 lLlb l
comprehensible tactical blunder with (to regroup), then Black can reply
1 9 . . . ltif6-d7 (Fischer-Spassky : I c4 c5 1 9 . . . 'fi'e6.
2 ltic3 ltic6 3 ltif3 ltif6 4 g3 g6 5 .tg2 19 .tg4
i.g7 6 0-0 0-0 7 d4 cxd4 8 ltixd4 Tal writes that Furman predicted
ltixd4 9 Wxd4 d6 lO i.g5 i.e6 l l Karpov 's moves here and on the 24th
'fi'f4 'ila5 1 2 l:.ac l l:.ab8 1 3 b3 l:.fc8 move. Indeed, Karpov's old teacher
14 'fi'd2 a6 1 5 i.e3 b5 1 6 .ta7 bxc4 1 7 always joined in the analysis when his
i. x b 8 l:.xb8 1 8 bxc4 i.xc4 1 9 l:.fd l pupil stood well, and at such times it
ltid7). Now in the ninth game o f this was impossible to remove the smile
match, he commits an equally incom from his face.
prehensible positional blunder with The text-move is actually very easy
1 8 . . . lLlf6-d7 . to find: it is the only way to prevent
The exchange of White's bad light Black's positional threat 1 9 . . . i.c5 .
squared bishop for the knight leads 19 hS
to a strategically ruinous position. The 20 i.xd7 1i'xd7
correct plan for Black is to force the 21 'ii'c4
exchange of White's other bishop; A consequence of White's 1 9th
for example, 1 8 . . . g7 (the immediate move. Black would have nothing to
1 8 . . . h5 is not bad either) 1 9 l:.c l (In complain about if he could play his
tending to bring the bishop to c4. Per queen to e6.
haps 1 9 l:.d l is better, but if 1 9 1i'c4 21 .th4
'fi'a6 .) 1 9 . . . h5 20 i.e2 lLlh7 and now 22 l:d2 'ii'e1 (D)
2 1 .tc4 is answered by the advance
. . . f7-f5, and other moves are answered
by 2 1 .. .i.g5.
In 64, Tal gives the line 18 ... 'fi'e6 1 9 w
A c 1 l:.ad8 20 i.e2 l:.d4 for Black. He
must have done this analysis in a great
hurry, because we had both concluded
in the press room during the game that
this attempt to keep the bishop out of
c4 was inadequate on account of 2 1 b3
l0xe4 (what else?) 22 i.xd4 exd4 23
l0xe4 (better than 23 i.c4 ltlxf2 ! 24
.t xe6 fxe6) 23 ... 'fi'xe4 24 i.d3 or 24
Karpov - Spassky 91

A nice move, a s now 2 3 .i.c5 1i'g5 32 l:txd8 .i.xd8 (D)


24 l:td7 is nothing due to 24 . . . xc2 25
:n 3 26 .i.xe3 'ii'x e3+ 27 h l
h8 ! ; for example, 28 l::tdxf7 l::txt7 29
1kxf7 l:tg8 ! . Of course, Karpov does
not have to enter this line.
23 .:n Afd8
Already the decisive mistake. The
black rook will have to return later to
protect the kingside. 23 . . . l:tad8 is cor
rect, not with the idea of offering the
queen after 24 .i.c5 l:txd2 25 .i.xe7
.i.xe7, which is refuted by 26 l:tfl l:td4
27 'ii'e 2, but to play 24 . . . 1i'b7 ! (Hort),
when White has nothing better than to While we in the press room were
exchange a pair of rooks. But even occupying ourselves with the spec
then White's advantage is unmistak tacular 33 lLlxe5 , which we thought
able. nicely decides matters after 33 . . . 1Wc7 !
24 b1 ! (Timman) 34 .i.f4 c5 35 1Wc4 fxe5
The other move prophesied by Fur 36 .i.h6+ xh6 37 l:txf8 lbd7 3 8
man. Now even the knight on b4 will l:th8+ g5 39 'ii'e6 ! f6 4 0 g3 ! (Tal),
be driven back, and the black position or 37 . . . .i.e7 38 1Wf7 1i'd6 39 l:th8+
goes rapidly downhill. g5 40 l:te8 .i.d8 4 1 h4+ ! xh4 42
24 1i'b7 l:txd8 'ii' x d8 43 1i'xg6 (Hort), Karpov
25 h2 mercilessly made his final, prosaic
A strong quiet move. moves.
25 g7 Later, our rushed analysis was in
26 c3 a6 deed shown to be faulty. Black wins
27 l:t e2 with 43 . . . 1Wg5 in the last position (af
Only Karpov's 1 8th move was de ter 43 1Wxg6). The right way is 40 'ii'fl
serving of some criticism; all his other (instead of 40 l:te8) with the crushing
moves are extraordinarily strong. The threat 4 1 h4+ g4 42 'ii'g 3 mate. Af
text-move maximises the pressure on ter the forced 40 . . . 1Wd3, White wins
Black's position. with 4 1 h4+ g4 42 l:tg8 11fxe4 43
27 :rs "ii'g 3+ f5 44 1Wxg6+ f4 45 'ii'f7 +.
28 .i.d8 33 l:td1 lObS
29 3 f6 34 .i.c5 l:th8
30 l:tdl .i.e7 35 l:txd8 1-0
31 1i'e6 l:tad8 If 35 . . .l:txd8 36 .i.e7 .
Game Twelve
Korchnoi - Karpov
Final Candidates Match (1 1) ,

M osc o w 1974
Queen's I n d ian Defence
The Karpov- Korchnoi match, the finals of the 1 974 candidates series - only later
did it become clear that it was actually for the World Championship - was greeted
by only lukewarm enthusiasm by the chess world. Karpov won two games with
White right in the opening; both times Korchnoi had deviated from his favourite
French Defence. Then Korchnoi won a game with White. Karpov won another
game when Korchnoi cooked his own goose in a horrible manner, and Karpov's
second loss came when he underestimated the dangers in a very clearly drawn po
sition. And it rained draws.
Yet there were no boring games, although the combinational possibilities only
rarely surfaced. One of these games is the eleventh.
The opening followed a traditional path and both players then undertook tradi
tional manoeuvres. Analysis shows that much hidden beauty did not come to the
fore; the game seemed to follow a gradual progression to an ending which, at frrst,
both players were trying to win. Korchnoi finally turned out to be the only one
with chances. Karpov, slippery as an eel, managed to trade dow11 to a rook end
game which seemed to be only a draw despite Korchnoi's two extra pawns.

1 d4 f6 which would appear after 6 . . . 4 7


2 3 e6 .td2. In the variation 7 . . . .t f6 8 'ifc2
3 g3 b6 xd2 9 'ifxd2 White can answer the
Black had the alternative 3 . . . b5 advance 9 . . . c5 with 1 0 d5 because af
available, to prevent White from form ter 1 0 . . . .txc3+ 1 1 'ifxc3 Black's g
ing a centre with c2-c4. Karpov, how pawn is unprotected.
ever, has a small opening repertoire 6
0-0
which he understands very thoroughly 7 'ii'd3 (D)
and from which he seldom deviates. An unusual square for the queen. In
4 .ig2 .tb7 the fifth game White placed his queen
5 c4 .ie7 on c2, which Karpov answered with
6 7 . . . c5 . That advance is unattractive
Earlier, 6 0-0 used to be played ex here, so Black is compelled to look for
clusively. The text conceals a finesse another way to challenge the centre.
Korchnoi - Karpov 93

10 0-0 lLld7
1 1 i.f4
The next time Korchnoi had White,
he deviated with 1 1 l:d 1 . The idea was
probably to answer 1 1 . . . c5 with 1 2
dxc5 bxc5 and immediately fianchetto
the queen's bishop with 1 3 b3 and 1 4
i.b2. After 1 1 . . .l:e8 1 2 i.e3 i.d6 1 3
l:ac l a 5 1 4 'ii'c 2 c 6 Black certainly
did not stand worse.
11
cS
12 dxc5 bxcS
7 d5 Black would not have enough com
More or less forced because of the pensation for the positional disad
threatened e2-e4 . Later, Karpov also vantage of the isolated pawn after
took to answering 7 0-0 with 7 . . . d5 . 1 2 . . . lLlxc5 1 3 'ii'd l . After the text
As Ree points out in the Haagse Post, move he has a reasonable version of
this was Botvinnik's method of play the hanging centre.
ing for a win with Black in the queen 's 13 l:fd1 tLlf6
Indian. The former World Champion 14 'ii'c2 1i'b6
would then meet 8 lLle5 by 8 . . . ti'c8 - 15 lLld2
but White can gain the advantage with White reveals his plans. After an
9 cxd5 exd5 10 i.g5 . undefined build-up typical of his style,
The present World Champion ap Korchnoi is ready for 16 e4, which
proaches it differently; after 7 0-0 d5 8 Black opposes with his following
lLle5 he plays 8 . . . lLla6, a move first move.
used in Smejkal-B yrne, B iel 1 976. It 15
. :res
i ntroduces an important area of open 16 1i'b3 (D)
ing theory, since the position can also This move received unanimous
be reached via the English or the Cata praise. Polugaevsky, in his notes in 64,
lan. called it Korchnoi 's best move of the
8 cxd5 lLlxdS first half of the match.
Seen in the light of the above com White indirectly increases the pres
ments, 8 . . . exd5 is a worthy alternative. sure on d5 ; for instance, 1 6 . . . l:ad8 is
White doesn' t have many choices prevented. This is a good tactic in this
other than 9 lLle5 , and then 9 . . . c5 can sort of position. The player opposing
be played, possibly followed by lLlb8- the hanging pawns must work mainly
a6-c7. with pin-pricks to entice an early . . . c5-
9 lLlxd5 exd5 c4 or . . . d5-d4 or to create disharmony
94 The Art of Chess Analysis

White has a small but enduring posi


tional plus. After 22 .id2 the position
B is more-or-less characteristic of many
positions with hanging pawns; Black
clearly has more space and pressure
against e2, but White has a nice block
ade and the good bishop, while he can
comfortably protect the e-pawn and
aim for e2-e4.
Korchnoi, however, continues cau
tiously.
17 .ic6
among the enemy pieces. The player 18 1i'c2 (D)
with the hanging pawns must try to be
ready for the crucial advance of one of
the pawns at the most unexpected mo
ment.
16 ... 'iia6
An understandable response. Black
must play this sooner or later. For in
stance, after 1 6 . . . .if8 1 7 e3 h6 1 8 h4
Black has little other than 1 8 . . . 'ifa6.
Then 1 9 l:ac 1 with the threat 20 .ifl
c4 21 xc4 comes into consideration,
so Black, just as in the game, should
play 1 9 . . . .ic6.
Polugaevsky shows also that Black The queen returns to its post, not
cannot profit from the position of the entirely empty-handed. The black queen
white queen's bishop ; e.g., 16 . . . h5 and queen's bishop are a little more vul
17 .ie5 .if8 18 .ixd5 .ixd5 19 'it'xd5 nerable than before. In seven moves
l:tad8 20 'ii'e4 'ii'e6 2 1 f3 f6 22 1i'h4 they will again stand on b6 and b7 .
followed by 23 .ic3 with advantage. 18 ... .ia4
17 e3 It is clear that Karpov still does not
1 7 fl comes strongly into consid know what to do with his position.
eration, in order to increase the pres The text-move loses at least a tempo,
sure on d5 via e3 . Polugaevsky says since the ensuing pawn move is cer
then 1 7 . . . .i.c6 1 8 'ii'c 2 l:lac8 1 9 e3 tainly not disadvantageous for White.
d4 20 .i xc6 'ii'x c6 2 1 c4 d5 gives Polugaevsky writes that the black
Black counterplay. In my opinion, position was already ripe for a pawn
Korchnoi - Karpov 95

advance: 18 . . . d4. After 19 .i.xc6 'Wxc6 king is in a sticky position; e.g., 24


20 exd4 d5 (D) he looks at two vari 'Wxc5 l:g6+ 25 c;j;lfl 'Wa6+ 26 Cite l
ations : .:e8+ 27 c;i;ld2 l:c6 28 'ii'h 5 l:d6+ 29
'iPc 1 1i'c4+ and the white king cannot
escape. However, after the better 24 f5
.:e4 25 h3 l:c4 26 1i'd3 the question is
whether B lack has sufficient compen
sation. His initiative is exhausted, and
on 26 . . . .tb6 27 l:ac l consolidates .
Therefore, after 23 b3, the indicated
move is 23 . . . 1i'f3 , aiming for perpet
ual check with 24 . . . 1i'g4+.
In any case, we may conclude that
this was a good moment to dissolve
the hanging pawns. B ut it was not yet
necessary, since Black had moves to
1 ) 2 1 .i.e3 xe3 22 fxe3 .tg5 23 strengthen his position: 1 8 . . . l:ac8,
fl .i.xe3+ 24 xe3 l:xe3 25 'ii'xc5 1 8 . . . l:ad8, 1 8 . . . h6, etc.
11Ve4 or 25 . . . 1i'h6 and Black has com The text shows, besides Karpov's
pensation for the pawn. One must cer uncertainty of the value of his posi
tainly agree with this. White's open tion, an unbridled optimism. K arpov
king position guarantees Black a draw. seems to think he can do whatever he
The Russian also mentions that this pleases. In the next few moves, Korch
direct attempt is not even necessary noi fumly strengthens his position and
and that 2 1 . . .l:ac8 with the intention gets a dangerous initiative.
2 1 fl c4 is possible. This is also cor 19 b3 .i.c6
rect, but it seems to me that 2 1 .i.e3 20 l:lacl .trs
hardly comes into consideration. The 21 f3
main variation is: One of the results of Black's unen
2) 2 1 dxc5 xf4 22 gxf4 .i.xc5 . At terprising play becomes clear; White
first sight it seems that Black has quite is ready to transfer his queen 's bishop
sufficient compensation for the pawn to the long diagonal.
with his strong bishop and the ragged 21
. .i.b7
white king position, but he will expe Polugaevsky thinks Black could still
rience some annoyance with the pin have kept White's bishop off the long
on the c-flle . 23 l:ac l l:ac8 24 b3 diagonal with 2 1 .. .7. In Schaakbul
1i'f3 ! achieves nothing for White, but letin 84, Enklaar writes that this at
it is not so easy after 23 b3 . Polu tempt is refuted by 22 d4 .tb7 23
gaevsky gives 23 . . . l:le6 since White's 1i'f5 , but this is hardly convincing
96 The Art of Chess Analysis

after the simple 23 . . . li)f6. Polugaev 25 . . . l:r.c8 available. This shows a cer
sky's variation continues with 23 li)f5 tain underestimation of the strength of
We6 24 .th3 Wc6, but now Black is White's position, since after 25 b4
squeezed in a bottleneck: the white .l:r.c8 26 .txe4 dxe4 27 li)d7 White
knight comes back with great force wins a pawn. If he were actually faced
(25 li)d4) and Black's prospects are with the problem of 25 b4, the future
gloomy. World Champion would probably
22 .tes lBe4 have solved it in another way, by ac
23 .tal :ads cepting the challenge with 25 . . . cxb4 .
24 tBes 'iVb6 (D) After 2 6 fie? Black has the following
This offers the possibility of a com possibilities:
plicated combinational twist, but one
which would not have turned out
badly for Black. His position is not en
viable, but Karpov is often at his very
best when he really stands badly and is
threatened by genuine danger.

I ) 26 . . . fixc7 27 .l:r.xc7 li)c3 28


.txc3 bxc3 29 li)xf7. Enklaar does not
agree with Polugaevsky's assessment
that White would now stand better, on
account of 29 . . . l:r.b8, after which he
thinks that Black perhaps even has the
25 .txe4 advantage in view of his dangerous
The critical moment of the game. passed c-pawn and the fact that the
White's pieces are optimally placed white knight is out of play. However,
and he has a subtle way of trying to White can eliminate these two perils
take advantage of this immediately: with a single stroke: 30 li)g5 . The
25 b4. According to Flohr in Schach threat is 3 1 .l:r.xb7, and at the same time
Echo, Karpov declared after the game the c-pawn is hanging. There is not
that he had not feared that sharp move much else than 30 . . . h6, after which
because he had the simple answer White continues with 3 1 .l:r.xb7 hxg5
Korchnoi - Karpov 97

32 .txdS+ h8 3 3 :xb8 :xb8 34 .te4 after 30 .!i)g6+ hxg6 3 1 'tlfxg6, but af


and retains good winning chances. On ter 3 l . . .a5 Black is not without coun
the other hand, 3 1 .!i)h3 would be bad terplay.
because of 3 l . . .:bc8 ! 32 :xb7 c2 and One can conclude, overall, that 25
White loses the exchange. b4 would definitely have led to an ad
2) 26 . . . :e7. This move is not men vantage for White. One cannot say
tioned in any annotation, but it is an that about the text-move. White gives
interesting attempt to fight back. The up the bishop-pair in the hope of win
point is that after 27 'it'xb6 axb6 28 ning the c-pawn. The whole plan is
.t xe4 f6 Black wins the piece back. called into question by a hidden fi
White can then maintain a solid cen nesse available to Black in a few
tral position with 29 f4. Undoubtedly moves; but, besides that, Black's solid
he has a big positional advantage here position is certainly not worse.
after, e.g., 29 . . . :ee8 (not 29 . . .fxe5 30 Korchnoi, however, seems to have a
.t xe5 :ee8 3 1 .tc7 etc.) 30 .tc2 ! different opinion about this . Compare
fxe5 3 1 .txe5 .tc5 3 2 f2. followed his frrst match game against Petrosian
by 33 .tb3. Therefore Black should in 1 977. The opening moves were 1 c4
play as sharply as possible in order to e6 2 g3 d5 3 .tg2 .!i)f6 4 ltlr3 .te7 5 0-0
retain counter-chances: 29 . . . fxe5 30 0-0 6 d4 dxc4 7 .!i)e5 .!i)c6.
.t xe5 :xe5 ! 3 1 fxe5 .tc5 32 g2
f7 and now it is Black who will gain
a central position. The weak pawn on
e5 and the bishop pair constitute no
mean compensation for the exchange.
However, White can improve on this
variation. Dvoretsky gives 29 .txh7+ !
xh7 30 .!i)d3 and White wins a pawn
without Black getting any compensa
tion for it.
3) 26 . . . f6. This is Black's best
chance. Polugaevsky now gives the
variation 27 1i'f7+ h8 28 .!i)d7 Wb5
29 .!i)xf6 ! .!i)xf6 30 .txf6 'ii'd7 3 1 :c7 Here Korchnoi decided on the sur
'it'xf7 32 :xf7 gxf6 33 :xb7 with a prising 8 .txc6 ! ? bxc6 9 'Dc3 . The
big endgame advantage for White. game continued 9 . . . c5 10 dxc5 .txc5
This looks gloomy indeed for Black. l l 1i'a4 lDd5 12 .!i)b6 1 3 11t'c2 .te7
However, he can play better: 28 ... 11t'd6 ! 1 4 'Dxc4 .!i)xc4 15 11t'xc4 '6'd5 1 6 1i'c2
(instead o f 28 . . . 1i'b5) 2 9 .!i)xf8 :e7 . .tb7 1 7 f3 'ifd4+ 1 8 g2 and now
Undoubtedly White has the advantage Petrosian simplified with 1 8 . . . .txe4
98 The Art of Chess Analysis

1 9 'ifxe4 'ii'xe4 20 fxe4 l:fb8 2 1 b3 pass this moment by (myself included,


-*.d6 22 -*.f4 1h- 1h. in my original notes).
Most experts discovered later that 26 'ilc7
Black could have obtained the advan 27 b4 (D)
tage with 1 8 . . . l:ad8, because the pair The consequence of the previous
of bishops was more important in that move. The black position seems pre
position than Black's shattered queen carious because 27 . . . l:xd 1 + 28 l:xd 1
side pawns. Korchnoi showed how l:xe5 29 -*.xe5 'ifxe5 fails to 30 l:d7.
much he disagreed with this by telling
Ree, his second, that he had seriously
considered preventing Petrosian's
drawing simplification by playing 1 8
lbt2 instead of 1 8 g2.
It would have been interesting to
see how Korchnoi would have done
against Fischer with the positions he
had against Karpov and Petrosian. Fis
cher, like no other player, knew how to
prove the strength of the bishop-pair
in all sorts of positions !
25 dxe4
26 1i'c4 27 l:xdl+?
The Dutch player J. Krans points Missing the chance to show that the
out here the possibility of 26 lbd7 in white initiative is not so strong after
order to exchange the bishop on f8 . all, and for the first time to gain the
On account of the chance that Black advantage based on the strength of his
has two moves later in the game, defensive pieces: 27 . . . -*.d6 ! 28 lbg4
viewed objectively this is probably the cxb4 ! (D).
best continuation. The position with This extremely subtle continuation
opposite-coloured bishops and major was overlooked by the grandmasters
pieces offers little chance of an advan in the press room and was discovered
tage; on the other hand, White runs no only later by Polugaevsky in his analy
risk at all. sis. The amazing point is 29 'ti'd4
It is understandable that Korchnoi, Le5 . Although many pieces are hang
in ambitious mood as he was, re ing, White has no fully satisfactory
frained from 26 lbd7 . Less under way out. The best is 30 l:xc7 l:xd4 3 1
standable is the fact that all the l:xd4 Lxc7 32 l:d7 (32 l:xb4 Lc8 is
commentators who mention Poluga even worse for White); still, Black
evsky's discovery two moves later keeps an advantage with 32 . . . Lc8 3 3
Korchnoi - Karpov 99

might come to the attention of the en


emy camp. One simply does not admit
w that one's powers failed at a particular
moment or weakened to such an ex
tent that a critical continuation was
overlooked.
28 l:txdl .tc8
29 bxcS .te6
Black cannot take the minor ex
change because his back rank is too
weak: 29 . . .lbe5 30 .txe5 'ii'xe5 3 1
ltd8, and now Ree says the counterat
lbh6+ ! hxg6 34 Axe? .th3. The white tack fails after 3 1 .. . 'ii'a l + 32 g2 .tg4
king is held more tightly in a potential 33 'ii'd4 ! (introducing the twist l:txf8+
mating net than the black king is. and 'ii'd 8 mate into the position)
Keene and Hartston, in their joint 33 . . . .tf3+ 34 h3 'ii'f l+ 35 h4 g5+
book on the match, mention that Kor (Black averts the mate of his own king
chnoi had seen 27 . . . .td6 when he was but allows White's to escape) 36 xg5
calculating 25 .txe4 but had assumed 'ii' h 3 37 'ii'd6 ! 'ii'g4+ 38 f6 'ii'g 7+ 39
that Karpov would not find it. Person f5 'ii'g4+ 40 e5 and the white king
ally, I do not attach much weight to will escape from the checks, after
this sort of pronouncement right after which the c-pawn will decide the
a game. Korchnoi very possibly did game in his favour.
see the move: he is well-known for his 30 'ii'a4
highly developed powers of calculat Korchnoi continually works with
ing sharp variations. But it seems to little twists to keep his pawn advan
me an unnecessarily great risk to have tage, at least temporarily.
assumed that K arpov would not see 30
. l:tc8
the same continuation two moves later 31 .td4 f6 (D)
- the more so since Korchnoi had an If the knight now goes to c4 it will
excellent alternative. The move 25 b4 block the c-file. But Korchnoi finds
would certainly have given his oppo yet another little something.
nent very difficult problems. 32 'ii'a6 .tdS
Korchnoi's comment to the two White can definitely keep the c
English chess players is analogous to pawn after this. Much stronger is
Karpov 's telling Flohr that he had not 32 . . . l:te8 ! with the point that White
feared 25 b4. The great tension of such loses his knight after 33 'ii'c 6 l:te7. So
a serious match does not permit one to he has nothing better than 34 lilc4,
show any sign of weakness which and with 34 . . . .txc5 Black finally wins
100 The Art of Chess Analysis

back the pawn with no problems. pressure along the a-file: 35 lL!a5 . The
' Roughly equal chances,' according rook must then retreat since 35 . . . l:ta6
to Polugaevsky ; but, in my view, the fails to 36 i.c3, after which the c
better chances are more likely Black's, pawn walks through unhindered. After
since he has the safer king position. It 35 . . . llc7 36 lL!b3 White has consoli
is important that 35 'ii' b 5, with the dated his extra pawn, but without hav
point 35 . . . l:tc8 ? 36 i.xc5 'ti'xc5 37 ing real winning chances. It is true that
l:.d8+ and wins, achieves nothing be Black cannot win the pawn back di
cause of 35 . . . l:td8, and Black's posi rectly with 36 . . . i.xb3 37 axb3 i.xc5
tion has already been strengthened. because in the bishop ending after
33 lL!c4 the continuation 38 llc l i.b6 39 llxc7
White has finally reached what he i.xc7 40 i.xa7 i.d6 4 1 i.d4 i.b4 42
had in mind: a solid extra pawn. Black f3 f5 White really does have winning
cannot capture the c-pawn because of chances. Not, however, by walking his
the same twist as in the previous note: king over to the queenside, because
33 . . . i.xc5 34 i.xc5 'ii'x c5 35 l:txd5 then he can make no progress: 43 fl
'ii'xc4 36 l:td8+ , etc. f7 44 fxe4 fxe4 45 e2 g6 46 d I
Another try to hold the pawn is 33 e6 47 c2 d5 , and Black comes
i. b 2, which would lead t o a con just in time. If 48 i.c3, then 48 . . . i.d6
vincing result after 33 . . . 'ii'xc5 34 49 i.d2 .i.e5 follows. The b-pawn
.ta3 !, but Black can parry the attack cannot advance because Black's king
simply with 33 . . . 'ii'b7 . gets to c4. The winning attempt, there
33 'ii'c6 fore, is 43 g2 f7 44 fxe4 fxe4 45
34 'ii'xc6 l:txc6 (D) h3 ; White plans to penetrate the
35 ::tel kingside in order to attack e4 and thus
Polugaevsky here gives a method to divert the black bishop from b4; for
prevent Black's rook from exerting example, 45 . . . h5 46 h4 ! g6 47 g4
Korchnoi - Karpov 101

i.e7+ 4 8 '1t h 3 and White will gain against 4 1 lLlxf3 and the plan of trans
ground. ferring the knight to d3 . He gives the
There is no hurry to win the pawn variation 4 l . . .i.xf3 42 xf3 c6 43
back, of course. Black keeps the bal e4 i.xc5 44 f5 d6 (Enklaar ac
ance with the simple 36 . . . f7. and tually gives 44 . . . d5, but then White
White has nothing better than to posi has the extra possibility 45 i.xc5 .:r.xc5
tion himself so as not to lose the c 46 e4+ followed by the exchange of
pawn. rooks) 45 l:txc5 l:txc5 46 i.xc5+
35 n xc5 47 e6 c4 48 f7 b3 49
36 a3 .:r.a6 xg7 xa3 50 xf6, and after the re
37 .:r.cJ e6 spective pawn marches, a queen end
38 lLldl d7 game arises which Enklaar judges is
39 f3 (D) drawn. In my view, however, it is won
With both players short of time, for White because of the bad position
Korchnoi forces his opponent to make of the black king. Instead of this line,
a small fundamental decision. Black has a far more sober continu
ation : 4 l . . .<li>c6 42 lLle l .ie4 and now
he can capture the knight without risk
if it moves to d3, as he could also if the
8 rook were on a4.
An acceptable explanation is that
Black had one move to play before the
time control and that 40 . . . l:ta5 was
careless. After 40 . . . l%a4 White would
certainly not stand better any longer.
41 e4 i.c6
The sealed move. All interim re
ports said that Korchnoi would be a
pawn ahead with slight winning
39 exf3 chances, according to Flohr in Schach
This adds some dynamism to the Echo. But, he added, Karpov had said
position, but it gives up space Black after adjournment that he considered
could have held with 39 . . . f5 . With this the position favourable for Black and
choice Karpov shows that he is not in would be playing for a win. ' A.. little
tent on simply insuring a draw. fairy tale from the Moscow woods,'
40 f2 :aS concluded the commentator jokingly
Why not 40 . . . .:r.a4 to prevent e3- - a childish way to treat a pronounce
e4? Enklaar explains in Schaakbul ment by a man about to become the
letin that the text-move is directed World Champion.
1 02 The Art of Chess Analysis

- should I play it? If I keep the position


as it is, I don't see how I can lose.'
w - -
z
Holding a position when one stands
B.t -
' '

,

I?
better is an art - or rather a technique -

- B - '
' !>.'
that many modern grandmasters have
mastered. But the power to hold a po
rl 8 . - sition that is slightly worse is pos
a o

!>.' !>.'
sessed only by the absolute greatest.

=
Among them, Fischer was a shining
!<:'
example. In a lost position against Ma
. - - tulovic in the 1 97 1 Interzonal tourna
ment, for instance, he avoided a draw
It is typical of Karpov's play, and by repetition of moves.
one of his strong trumps, that in posi The third player worthy of adding
tions where he can get the worst of it to this list is Korchnoi. Very often he
or already stands clearly worse, he has been willing to allow his position
continues indefatigably, neither per to become critical in order to keep an
mitting a further worsening of his po extra pawn. In this game, his position
sition nor losing sight of his possible at adjournment is not critical and his
winning chances. This is part of the extra pawn hardly matters. He would
profile of a real fighter at the highest not have doubted for a moment that he
level. A typical example was his game had good reason to play for a win. And
against Adorjan at Las Palmas 1 977. had anyone told him afterwards what
The Hungarian grandmaster had the Karpov had thought about the posi
advantage from the opening, but he tion, he would have reacted with little
could not consolidate his advantage more than a vague laugh. This is what
against the fast-moving World Cham makes their games against each other
pion and twice ran into time trouble. so hard, despite the often simplified
Just before the end, during his second positions.
bout of time trouble, he had a draw in 42 xf3 e6
hand but misplayed it, and Karpov fi In his book Anatoly Karpov, His
nally won. I watched the post-mortem. Road to the World Championship,
At one point, when he was still in dif Botvinnik writes that Karpov can head
ficulties, the World Champion could for a draw here with 42 . . . :a4 43 e3
have simplified to a drawn pawn g6 ! 44 i.xf6 :xa3 and adds:
down endgame. 'In this level position, Karpov plays
' Why didn' t you play it then?' for a win; dangerous tactics when a
asked Adorj an ' Didn ' t you see it?' pawn down.' Didn' t Botvinnik him
Karpov replied, 'I saw it, but why self use to do that in his days of glory?
Korchnoi - Karpov 103

43 e3 48 gxfS
Karpov's remark after the game is Flohr recommends 48 . . . xf5, but
characteristic : that 43 o!Dc4 followed after 49 J_f2 Black would face the
by 44 o!Dd6 is the safest way to the same problems as in the game.
draw here. 49 J_f2 J.. g7
43 l:a4 Karpov, apparently realising that he
44 J:.b3 g6 had played too adventurously, offered
45 <ili>d3 a6 a draw here. Korchnoi; according to
Preventing 46 tDc4. Flohr, answered only with a shrug of
46 j_eJ J_bS+ his shoulders.
47 c2 rs (D) so .l:.e3+ <ili>d7
51 .l:.f3 e6
52 l:te3+ d7
53 l:[f3 <ili>e6
White's repetition of moves not
only wins time on the clock but also
demonstrates that, at the moment, he
is the only player who can choose
whether to play for a win or a draw.
54 b3
After this king move, Black's rook
finds itself frequently in a compro
mised position. All this is a conse
quence of Black's 47th move.
But this is much too optimistic. 54 hS
Black opens the position at a time 55 .l:.e3+ d7
when White is ready for action and 56 ttJf3
thus White gets chances to realise his White's winning attempt is now be
extra pawn. The position would re ginning to gain momentum.
main balanced after 47 .. ,J_g7 . 56 J_f6
It is striking that Botvinnik is the Karpov continues as if nothing
only commentator who more-or-less much was going on. It is high time to
approved of the text-move, on the aim for further pawn exchanges to free
grounds that Black must somehow put the black rook. Better is 56 . . . f4 and
his initiative to use. This necessity, then 57 . . . J.. f6 only if White's rook re
however, seems totally absent. treats with 57 l:e l . The difference is
48 e:xfS+ that now White will be able to move
White thus effortlessly rids himself his rook laterally after the knight
of a weak pawn. reaches a more active post than f3 .
1 04 The Art of Chess Analysis

square vacated by the black rook:


6 1 . ...ta4+ 62 liPa2 :n and Black cer
w tainly does not stand worse.
There is, of course, no reason to
tempt the rook to improve its position
with gain of tempo. After 57 ltle5+
<iPc8 58 ll'lf7 f4 59 l:[f3 fxg3 60 .txg3
there would be real winning chances
for White - for the first and last time
in the game !
57 f4
58 ll'le5+
57 :et One move too late, says Botvinnik,
But after this, White's winning and he gives the variation 58 .td4 .txd4
chances are minimal. Korchnoi was 59 l:[d 1 <iPc6 (if 59 . . . .te2, 60 l:[d2 or
probably tempted by the positional 59 . . . fxg3 60 ll'lxd4 <iPc7 6 1 hxg3) 60
threat 5 8 .td4, but this can be ade :xd4 :xd4 6 1 ll'lxd4+ liPxc5 62
quately countered. The commentators ll'le6+, etc. However, as Ree noted in
unanimously gave the strong 57 + his comments for a Dutch news serv
here. B lack has only one reasonable ice, Black easily holds the draw with
square for the king : c8 (not 57 .. .Cc7 59 . . . fxg3 60 ll'lxd4 liPc8 6 1 hxg3 l:[c4
5 8 ll'lg6 and Black cannot offer the ex 62 ll'lxb5 axb5 63 l:[d5 h4, and on 64
change of rooks with 58 . . . :e4 due to gxh4 :xh4 65 l:[d6 the rook goes right
59 :xe4 fxe4 60 ll'lf4). After 57 .. .Cc8 back with 65 . . . :c4.
58 ll'lf7 f4, Polugaevsky, who prob It is remarkable that Botvinnik
ably spent little time on the analysis of overlooked this fairly simple possibil
this position, continues with 59 l0<16+ ity. Having taken it upon himself to
<iPd7 60 gxf4 l:[xf4 61 .tg3 with win write a book on Karpov's rise to the
ning chances for White. top, he would have been expected to
This piece of shoddy analysis was pay a great deal of attention to the
gratuitously repeated by Botvinnik analysis. As it turns out, unfortunately,
and was also printed in Chess Infor there is no evidence of that kind of at
mant, in Three Matches of Karpov and tention in the book.
in The Games of Anatoly Karpov. 58 c8 (D)
Once again we see how little trouble is 59 ll'lf7 fxg3
taken with the games of today 's top This is the same position that would
players. have arisen if Black had continued
Enklaar shows that Black can easily 56 . . . f4. In principle, it would now be
draw by placing his bishop on the favourable for White to recapture with
Korchnoi - Karpov 1 05

The black pieces are very well


placed. White cannot win because of
w his weak a-pawn.
66 l:lgS l:le4
67 g4 l:la4 (D)

the bishop to hinder a possible ex


change of kingside pawns, but if 60
xg3 then 60 . . . h4 gains space for
Black.
60 ltlci6+ d7
61 hxg3
If 61 xg3 then again 6 l . . .h4 fol 68 b2
lowed by 62 . . J:[g4 . Not, however, After the game Karpov showed that
6 l . . .d4? as given by Enklaar, be 68 l:lg8 also leads to a draw after the
cause the pawn endgame arising after continuation 68 . . . xc5 69 g5 l:lg4 70
62 l:le4 ! xc5 63 l:lxa4 xa4+ 64 g6 l:lg3+ 7 1 c2 c4 72 g7 l:lg2+ 7 3
xa4 .ixd6 65 xd6 xd6 66 aS d l b 3 74 a4 l:lg 1 + 7 5 d2 l:lg2+
is won for White: 66 . . . h4 67 xa6 76 d3 l:lg3+ 77 e4 and now the
c6 68 h3 ! c7 69 b5 and White white king is far enough from the
catches the h-pawn while the black queenside for Black to give up his
king cannot get back to f8 in time. rook: 77 . . . bxa4 78 l:lb8+ c2 79 g8'ii'
61 l:lg4 l:lxg8 80 l:lxg8 a3, etc.
62 lDxbS axbS Botvinnik gives another way to
63 l:lh1 draw : 70 . . . c6 (instead of70 . . . l:lg3+)
This looks awkward. Now, how 71 c3 b7 72 d3 l:ta4 73 e3
ever, in a rook endgame in which he is l:lxa3+ 74 f4 l:la1 75 l:le8 l:lgl 76
two pawns down, Karpov demon .l:e6 c7 77 f5 d7 7 8 .l:e5 b4 79
strates his great skill in defending bad f6 (79 l:lb5 e7) 79 . . . l:lfl + 80 g7
endgames. c6.
63 c6! Finally, Enklaar adds yet a third
64 l:lxhS d4 drawing method: 70 . . . b6 7 1 c3
65 .txd4 l:lxd4 b7 72 d3 b4; however, this needs
1 06 The Art of Chess Analysis

to be carried further: 73 axb4 J:bb4 74 Although a draw would still have


J:lf8 J:lg4 75 J:lf6 c7 76 ci>e3 ci>d7 77 been unavoidable, a sharper conclu-
f3 J:lg 1 78 f4 <i>e7 and Black is sion to the game would have been 74
just in time. <i>e6 J:lxa3 75 J:le5 J:lg3 76 g5 b4 77
It is striking that White has no real f7 b3 78 g6 b2 79 J:le1 xc5 80 l:lbl
winning chances at all despite his two J:lg2 8 1 g7 J:lf2+.
extra pawns. A rare case. 74 J:lxa3
68 J::r.f4 75 gS xeS
69 c2 l:lf3 76 g6 J:lg3
70 r.tb2 J::r.f2+ 77 J:lc8+ b4
7 1 c3 llf3+ 78 <i>f6 l:[f3+
72 d4 J:lf4+ 79 e6 J:lg3
73 eS l:.a4 80 f7 a3
74 l'Ig8 81 g7 lh . lh
Game Th i rteen
G u l ko - Ti m man
Internati onal To urnament, S omb or 1974
French Defence, Winawer Variation
When I was awarded the Grandmaster title during the 1 974 FIDE Congress, a
new world opened up for me. Previously I had grabbed with both hands every
conceivable opportunity to play in tournaments, even in Russia, where one re
ceives rubles that cannot be converted into another currency. Now a fairly varied
assortment of attractive tournaments awaited me. I made a quick selection and de
cided that I would spend a few months travelling from tournament to tournament.
The journey began in the United States, continued in Yugoslavia, and finally I ar
rived in Venice. One night, after having played in four tournaments in as many
months, a large part of my money was stolen in a bar in Florence, so I decided, af
ter due consideration, to go home. I had just enough money left for the return trip.
The game against Gulko was played in the second round of the tournament in
Sombor, Yugoslavia. Later it became clear that this game was a struggle between
the tournament winners. The play well reflected my lifestyle at that time: excit
ing, adventurous, and full of surprises.
Almost four years later I met Gulko again in Yugoslavia, in Niksic. The tourna
ment here was incomparably stronger than in Sombor, but we too had made pro
gress. Once again we shared the first prize. For both of us it signified a milestone
in our chess careers. I was very impressed with the fresh, imaginative play of the
likeable Muscovite and did not doubt that he would become one of the world's
top players. Things turned out differently. A year afterwards, on 1 5 May 1 979, he
applied for an exit visa to go to Israel. No reply came from the Soviet authorities,
but, together with his wife - one of the best female players in the Soviet Union
Gulko was removed from the national rating list. He was no longer permitted to
play in tournaments of any importance.
When I saw him again in Moscow on 24 April 1 98 1 he was in a bad way. He
had just come from the Emigration Office, where he had finally been given a re
ply to his application: a negative reply. With this reply, officialdom won - at least
for the time being - the unequal struggle against an incorruptible, imaginative
chess player.

1 e4 e6 3 t0c3 .i.b4
2 d4 dS 4 d2
1 08 The Art of Chess Analysis

An old variation in which White Black. I think this judgement is incor


temporarily offers two pawns. Boles rect as after 1 1 ltl l f3 ltlf6 1 2 'ii'f4 !
lavsky had a particular preference for Black has great difficulty protecting
it in the 1 950's. his c-pawn; e.g., 1 2 . . . e5 1 3 l:.e l , or
4 dxe4 1 2 . . . 'ii'e7 13 i.b5, or, finally, 1 2 . . . 'ii'b6
5 'ii'g4 'S'xd4 1 3 i.c4. In all cases White has excel
6 0-0-0 hS lent attacking chances for the pawn.
This move brought the variation 9 etlxe4 f6! (D)
into disuse. The queen must move to
another square at an inopportune mo
ment for White.
7 'ii'h4 (D) w

The point of the previous move. If


White withdraws the bishop, then
10 . . . g5 follows and the knight on e4
cannot be saved. After some thought,
A suggestion by Keres which had Gulko decides to make a virtue of ne
never appeared in practice, although, cessity and boldly offers a piece.
as Gulko told me, he had played the 10 ltlf3! fxgS
move in a number of speed games. In exchange for the piece, White,
The usual move is 7 1i'g3 , but Black of course, has a tremendous advantage
has the better chances after 7 . . . i.d6 8 in development and fine attacking
i.f4 h4 ! 9 1i'g5 (9 1i'g4 etlf6) 9 . . . 1i'f6 chances, especially due to the open
1 0 1i'xf6 ltlxf6 1 1 .i.xd6 cxd6 1 2 etlb5 centre. I put my faith in my pair of
ltla6 (Lundquist-Uhlmann, Marian bishops and my partial control of the
ske Lazne 1 96 1 ). dark squares. Later, however, I was a
7 ... .t e7 little unhappy that I had permitted
8 i.gS 'iVeS such a storm to break over my head.
Theory is 8 . . . 1i'c5 9 etlxe4 .txg5+ The alternative is 10 . . . 1i'f5, to offer
10 etlxg5 lDc6 with better play for the exchange of queens with 1 1 . . . 1i'g4
Gulko - Timman 1 09

and enter the endgame a solid pawn 2 1 lDe5 with a continuing White at
ahead. White cannot prevent this with tack, or gets mated after 1 7 . . .'fle7 1 8
1 1 h3 because Black then uses the 1i'c8+ 1i'd8 1 9 l:te 1 + lDe7 20 l:lxe7+
won tempo with 10 . . . fxg5 1 1 lDexg5 (the final sacrifice) 20 . . .xe7 2 1 1i'e6+
i.d6, again with the threat of ex f8 22 'ii'f7 mate.
changing queens. White is not without These variations give a good pic
chances after 1 1 i.d3 1i'g4 1 2 i.e3, ture of how strongly the white pieces
due to his centralised pieces and ad combine in the attack.
vantage in development; but Black's 13 i.c4 bS
compact pawn structure makes it diffi A necessary move. Black prepares
cult to find compensation. to develop his knight via a6 so that it
1 1 lDexgS 'iff6 may support the threatened e6-point
Now it is not possible to aim for the from c7 and may possibly go to d5 .
exchange of queens with 1 1 . . . 'ii'f5 be The immediate 1 3 . . . lDa6 fails because
cause White mates prettily with 1 2 the black position is too weakened af
i. d 3 1i'g4 1 3 i.g6+ f8 1 4 lDh7+ ter 1 4 i.xa6 bxa6. Gulko then in
l:txh7 1 5 l:ld8+ and mate next move. tended 15 'ii'c4 e5 16 l:ld2 ! with the
12 i.bS+! threat 17 lDxe5, and things remain ex
The correct way for White to make tremely difficult for Black after, say,
use of his chances. After 1 2 i.c4 lDc6 1 6 . . . lDh6 1 7 l:.e l with continuing
1 3 l:lhe 1 lDd8 Black is indeed some heavy pressure.
what cramped, but there are no really 14 i.xbS (D)
vulnerable points.
12
.. c6
This takes the c6-square from the
knight, but there is no decent alterna 8

tive, as the following shows: 1 2 . . . i.d7


( 1 2 . . . lDc6 1 3 1i'e4 i.d7 leads to vari
ation 1 ) 1 3 1i'e4 ! and now:
1 ) 1 3 . . . lDc6 14 l:lxd7 ! xd7 1 5
i.xc6+ bxc6 1 6 lDe5 + c8 17 lDgf7,
and although B lack is a full rook up,
his position is in ruins.
2) 1 3 . . . .txb5 14 1i'xb7 .tc6 1 5
1i'c8+ i.d8 1 6 l:lxd8+ (this game is all
sacrifices) 1 6 . . . 'ii'x d8 17 'ii'xe6+ and I must honestly admit that I had
B lack either loses his entire material completely overlooked this move; or,
advantage after 1 7 . . . lDe7 1 8 'ii'f7 + to put it less strongly, I had not consid
d7 19 l:ld 1 + c8 20 l:lxd8+ xd8 ered that White would slow his attack
1 10 The Art of Chess Analysis

to win this pawn. It is easy to under


stand that, in practice, you do not
worry at all about the loss of a pawn w
when you are in a precarious defen
sive position fending off an opponent
who is a full piece down. It is even one
of the principles of defence to return
material at the right moment. In this
case it occurred unconsciously.
Anyway, I had come to the conclu
sion that 14 J.b3 l0a6 15 1Ve4 e5 of
fered sufficient defensive chances
because of the threat . . . l0a6-c5 . in a wasp's nest while White's pieces
14 e5 combine perfectly; e.g . :
I was not at all shocked by my over 1 ) 1 8 . . . l0f6 1 9 .t f7 + f8 2 0 l0e5
sight and played the text-move fairly J.f5 2 1 J.e6 ! J.xe6 22 l0g6+ and the
quickly. But not too quickly: as I indi black position collapses.
cated in the notes to the 1 9th game of 2) 1 8 . . . l0h6 1 9 l0e6 J.xe6 20
the Spassky-Fischer match (game 9 in .:xe6 and Black is tied hand and foot.
this book), a too-quick response can 3) 1 8 . . . l0d7 . Perhaps the best. Af
be a sign of shock - to your opponent ter 1 9 l0f7 Black can return the ex
and to yourself. I did not like 14 . . . cxb5 change with 19 . . . l:r.h6. But with 1 9
1 5 'ife4 1Vf5 1 6 1Vxa8 J.xg5+ 1 7 l:r.d4 White can maintain the pressure.
l0xg5 1Vxg5+ 1 8 l:r.d2 ! 'ii'f4 1 9 l:r.hd l , 17 liJf7
and White has strong attacking possi This seems promising for White,
bilities. but now we see the point of Black's
15 J.c4 last move.
Back to an excellent post, but with 17

his next move Black can make strong 18 l0xh8


use of the won tempo. The white queen is trapped. Gulko,
15 J. g4 however, still finds a way out.
With the threat 16 . . . J.xf3 . Black 19 J.f7+
now takes the initiative for a while. Also winning the queen. Black's
16 'ii'g3 l0d7 ! (D) king has no good flight square : if
This required careful calculation. 1 9 . . . d8 then simply 20 'ii'xe5 , or
Just as he could have done on the 19 .. .'.t>f8 20 l0g6+ xf7 2 1 l0fxe5+
previous move, Black can exchange l0xe5 22 l0xe5+ e8 23 l0xg4 with
queens here, but after 1 6 . . .1Vf4+ 1 7 win of material.
1Vxf4 exf4 1 8 l:r.he 1 his king remains 19
1i'xf7
Gulko - Timman 111

20 &axr7 &axg3 24 q;e7


21 hxg3 xf7 (D) 25 l:.d3 i.fS
The first of a series of inferior
moves. Although this does not give his
advantage away, the square chosen for
w the bishop is not the most desirable
one. 25 . . . i.e6 is better.
26 l:.b3
White also does not take full advan
tage of his chances. The next move
shows that the text loses a tempo.
26 l:.c7
27 l:.a3 n
28 l:.aS g6 (D)

The dust has settled and Black has


more or less emerged the victor. White
is not without chances, however, since
Black has three isolated pawns and
White therefore has good squares for
his knight.
At this stage, each player had only
about twenty minutes left. It is not
usual for so many complications to
occur in only twenty-one moves, and
the nervous tension they have gener
ated is evident in the next part of the
game. Anticipating a possible f2-f4.
22 l:.he1 29 lLlc4 q;g7
Better is 22 l:.xd7 i.xd7 23 ltlxe5+ But this is really an important
e6 24 lLlxd7 xd7 25 l:.xh5 . White tempo loss. The correct 29 ... i.e6 gives
would then have three pawns for the Black the clearly better play.
piece, but no really strong majority on 30 ltld6
either wing (note the doubled pawns). Suddenly threatening to win a rook
22 i.f6 in broad daylight.
23 l:.d6 :ca 30 ... rs
24 lLld2 31 lLlxfS gxfS
White strives purposefully to hold White has finally achieved some
the initiative. thing concrete. Black's bishop-pair
1 12 The Art of Chess Analysis

has been liquidated and his pawns are 39 .i.b2+


hanging. But what now? 40 Wxb2 l:xd1
32 :h1 41 lba7 (D)
The wrong method. White wins a
relatively unimportant pawn in ex
change for two tempi. It is better to di-
rect his attention toward the queenside B

with 32 :e3 . After 32 . . . .i.e7 the play


remains sharp but probably balanced;
but not 32 . . . i.g5+ 33 f4.
32 f7
33 :ms g6
34 :h1 e4
Black has won valuable time. His
pieces co-operate excellently.
35 b3
White, in his haste, prevents Black 41 lDdS
from manoeuvring his knight to c4, The sealed move. The line I had in
but in so doing he further weakens his mind does not throw the win away, but
position. Better is 35 :d i lDb6 36 :a6 it makes it considerably more diffi
with a playable game. cult. In my exhaustion, it escaped me
35 ... .i.d4 that 4 1 . . .f6 wins outright. After 42
36 f3 fxe4 fxe4 43 l:h7 lDd5 (clearer than
Black thus gets a winning passed 43 . . . e3, when White starts checking
pawn, but the alternative 36 l:fl lDe5 on the h-file and Black's king will be
was just as unattractive. unable to penetrate the third rank be
36 .i.c3 cause of White's doubled g-pawns,
37 l:a4 lDb6 and if the king attacks the rook, White
38 l:a6 l:d7 puts it behind the e-pawn; e.g., 44
White has just managed to save his l:h6+ f5 45 l:h5+ g4 46 l:e5 l:e l
rook, but the text-move now cuts off - or 46 . . . lDd5 47 c4 - 47 a4 and the
his king and threatens to walk the win, if there still is one, is much more
passed pawn through unchallenged. difficult) 44 l:h6+ e5 45 l:hS+ d4
Less clear is 38 . . . e3 39 d l and the 46 l:h6 e3 4 7 l:e6 and now Black has
white king reaches e2. two ways to win: the prosaic 47 . . . l:d2
39 l:d1 48 c I lDb4 and the charming 47 ... lZX:3
In desperation White sacrifices the 48 l:d6+ e5 49 l:xd l lDxd l + 50
exchange. There was no alternative, of c I lDf2 5 1 c3 (otherwise . . . d4-c3)
course. 5 l ...f5 52 a4 g4 5 3 a5 xg3 54 a6
Gulko - Timman 1 13

l0d3+ 55 c2 e2 56 a7 e l111 57 a8111


'ire2+ and mates.
42 c4 e3 w

The point of the last move. Black


wins the rook for a few pawns.
43 cxdS el
44 l%e7 el'ii'
45 l%xel l:txe1
46 dxc6 l:.e6
The game is not without interest.
Black reduces the white pawn advan
tage to four, but now the b-pawn ad
vances with tempo. 52 a4 rj;d? 53 a5 l:txg2 54 e5 l%xg3
47 b4 l:.xc6 55 f4 l:tb3 with an elementary win.
48 bS :e6 51 q.,d6
The second-best square for the 52 aS l:.eS!
rook. Centralisation is in itself to be The simplest. The white king's route
recommended, but 48 . . . l%d6 is more to the kingside is definitely cut off.
suitable for this purpose. The position 53 c4 l%cS+
is still a win - by a hair. 54 b4 l%c2
49 c3 f6 (D) The rest is not difficult.
The king must of course be brought SS g4 fxg4
more into play before Black can start 56 fxg4 l%xg2
grabbing pawns. 57 a6 l%xg4+
SO d4 <3;;e7 58 aS c7
5 1 a4 59 b6+ c6
Loses without a chance. White 60 a7 b7
should continue his centralisation 61 bS l%g6
with 5 1 d5, but even then Black's 62 <t>cs l:th6
win is not very difficult after 5 1 . . .l%e2 0-1
G a m e Fo u rteen
Gligoric - Portisch
Ho og oven To urnament, Wijk aan Zee 1975
N i mzo-lnd i a n Defence
' I always watch their games with excitement, mainly because it is a battle of
ideas. They do not just play moves, there is something more involved - they know
how to raise their play to the highest level of classical chess.' So wrote Kavalek in
his introduction to this game in the tournament book. The praise is high but not
out of place. It is no accident that two games between these players are found in
the present book.
This time Portisch is the winner. He employs a carefully nurtured improve
ment on a game between them which Gligoric had won fourteen years earlier. The
novelty has the desired effect; although Black seems to become rather cramped,
in fact he slowly but surely gathers all the positional trumps. At one point he ac
celerates this process - unnecessarily, as Kavalek showed afterwards. The result
ing endgame contains unusually subtle manoeuvres. Gligoric soon goes wrong
and Portisch finishes the job with merciless precision.

1 d4 lilr6 8 .. .i.xn
2 c4 e6 9 'it>xn 'ii'xdS
3 lilc3 .i.b4 Capturing with the e-pawn would
4 e3 b6 give White the position he wants after
5 lile2 .i.a6 10 f3.
In a later round in this tournament I 10 'ii'd3 lilbd7
tried the controversial 5 . . . lile4 against The game mentioned in the intro
Donner. He answered with the surpris duction, Gligoric-Portisch, Torremo
ing 6 'ifc2 f5 7 g3 ! and after 7 . . . lilxc3 linos 1 96 1 , continued IO . . . lilc6 1 1 e4
8 lilxc3 .i.b7 9 d5 b5 ? he could have 1i'd7 1 2 .i.g5 lilg8 1 3 e2 f6 1 4 .i.c 1
gained a great advantage with 10 .i.d2 ! lilge7 with equal chances (Gligoric).
(instead of 10 .i.g2). Probably 6 . . . .i.b7 A possible improvement is 12 .i.a3 .
(instead of 6 . . . f5) is more accurate. With the text-move Black achieves
6 lilg3 .i.xc3+ a more harmonious development of
7 bxc3 dS his pieces.
8 cxdS 1 1 e4 'it'aS
An unusual but not unknown move The point of the previous move.
which probably does not offer much. 12 eS (D)
Gligorit - Portisch 1 15

play, time which Black gratefully uses


to direct his solid mass of pieces
B against the weakened White centre.
17 Wb7
18 l:e1
Threatening the push 19 d5.
18 ... l:fd8 (D)

Typical of the opportunistic play


of which Gligoric showed several
glimpses in this Hoogoven tourna
ment. (Compare Gligoric-Hort, for
example: I d4 d5 2 c4 c6 3 lbf3 lbf6 4
lbc3 dxc4 5 a4 lba6 6 e4 .tg4 7 e5 ?
11Jd7 8 .txc4 e6 9 0-0 .te7 10 h3 .th5
1 1 a5 lbb4 1 2 lbe4 0-0 1 3 .tf4 11Jd5
1 4 .th2 .tb4 and Black stood excel A nice line-up. If 1 9 d5 , then
lently.) Here too it gives him little sat 1 9 . . . exd5 20 cxd5 lbe7 2 1 e6 1i'xd5 ! .
isfaction. The simple 1 2 f3 followed White's actions are not dangerous so
by 1 3 ..tf2 is better, with roughly long as his king's rook is not partici
equal play. pating, which explains the next move.
12 5 19 h4 lbf8
13 c4 lbb4 20 l:e4 lbe7
14 Wb3 lbc6 21 h5 lbr5
15 .t b2 0-0 White is kept busy. Now his pawn
16 .tc3 Wa6 structure gets a little worse.
17 'il'b5 22 l:f4 lbxg3+
At first sight White seems to have a 23 fxg3 c5
lot of play. The exchange of queens 24 l:hh4 cxd4
with 1 7 . . . 1i'xb5 1 8 cxb5 lbe7 19 .tb4 25 l:xd4 h6
l:[fe8 20 .txe7 Axe? 2 1 e2 gives A little dubious. White gets a point
him comfortable pressure, and other to hit at, as we will soon see.
wise it seems Black will be driven back. 26 'ii'b 1
This is an illusion, however; White The queen was indeed a little out of
must lose time getting his b-rook into play.
1 16 The Art of Chess Analysis

26 lbd4 With the next move Black sacri


27 l:xd4 'ilc7 fices a pawn, which required sharp, in
28 'iVe4 l:c8 tuitive calculation.
29 i.b4 c&l7
30 i.d6 'iVc6
31 'iVe2 (D)
Exchanging queens would have dis B
astrous consequences. White's bishop,
after all, is reasonably placed only for
attacking purposes.
By refusing the exchange, White
prepares a subtle action which would
seem to find its best expression after
a slow move like 3 l .. .a6 (intending
32 . . . b5) and now: 32 g4 ! b5 33 g5 hxg5
(or 33 . . . bxc4 34 gxh6 gxh6 35 l:g4+,
etc.) 34 'iVg4 bxc4 35 'ii'x g5 'ii' b5 36 31
bS
l:g4 1i'b l + 37 f2 11fh7 38 l:xc4 and At the cost of a pawn Black's forces
White has all the play. will penetrate White's camp. Perhaps
In America, at about the same time, 3 l . . .a6 is more precise, as indicated
the analyst Lubosh Kavalek found the above, but Portisch's decision is an ex
s ame variation independently, but he cellent practical one.
also found in it a winning method for 32 cxbS 'iVcl+
Black. He writes in his book (Wijk aan 33 l:d1 1i'g5
Zee Grandmaster Chess Tournament 34 g4 t0b6
1975, published by R.H.M. Press) that 35 g1 l:c4 (D)
after 33 g5 ! White suddenly becomes
a tiger; Kavalek gives the variation
33 . . . hxg5 34 'iVg4 bxc4 35 'iVxg5 'iVb5
36 l:g4 ! 'iVbl + (the same as my analy w
sis) and all ends well for the white
king. However, Kavalek produces the
powerful move 34 . . . 'iVb6 ! (instead of
34 . . . bxc4) and White has no defence;
e.g., 35 c5 ! lWtc5 36 'it'xg5 t0b3 ! ! .
Lubosh gives other variations too, but
this is sufficient; he has examined the
position very thoroughly and analysed
it sharply.
Gligoric - Portisch 1 17

All three black pieces have sud


denly left their modest rearward posi-
tions and have landed on vital squares. W
36 i.. b8 l:.xg4
37 i..xa7 lOc:IS
38 l:.xdS
Forced, because Black's threats are
getting serious.
38 . exdS
39 e6
Again the best.
39 ... lte4
Black must watch out, as we can hellish task of examining this whole
see from 39 . . fxe6? 40 1Wxe6+ h8 4 1
. thing. The variations run 45 g3 l:.a4
"ii'e 8+ h7 4 2 1i'g6+ ! 'iixg6 4 3 hxg6+ 46 b6 (D) and now:
xg6 44 b6 l:.b4 45 a4 and Black can
just manage to draw.
40 exf7+ xf7
41 'ii'f3+ g8 B
42 i..f2
White must of course attend to his
safety.
42 ... 'ii'd +
43 h2 'iVf4+
Although this endgame should not
h ave led to a win for Black, it is his
best chance.
44 '1Vxr4 l:.xf4 (D)
45 i.cS? 1 ) 46 . . . l:.xa2 4 7 i.d4 ! . The differ
White immediately makes the deci ence from the game shows primarily
sive mistake - something of a surprise, in this variation. If 47 . . . 1ld2 48 i.e5 ,
since the time-trouble phase is over. or if 47 . . . l:.a4 48 i.c5 . In neither case
With the most natural move, 45 g3, can Black stop the dangerous march of
White keeps the choice of a square for the white king to e5 .
his bishop open while bringing the 2) 4 6 . . . f7 is more accurate. The
king closer to the e5 square, where it is black king rushes to the centre while
generally headed anyway, and thus he the rook is keeping the white bishop
would keep the draw in hand. Hans out of d4. Now is the time for White to
B ohm and I finally completed the play 4 7 i.. c 5 , after which Black must
1 18 The Art of Chess Analysis

manoeuvre very delicately : 4 7 . . . l:xa2 only drawn if White's g-pawn, ad


48 f4 e6 49 ..id4 l:a4 50 e3 vanced to g4, can be protected by the
f7 5 1 ..ic5 (5 1 ..ic3 loses quickly to king. In order to do this the white king
5 l . . .l:a3 52 d4 l:b3 5 3 ..ta5 l:b5 , must reach e4 in time, but this occurs
etc.) 5 1 . ..l:c4 ! 52 ..id6 l:c3+ and now: in practically no variation. Returning
2a) 5 3 d4 l:b3 and White now to the position after 55 ..if4 : 55 . . . d3
has three options: (on 5 5 ... e6 there may follow 5 6 g4
2a 1 ) 54 ..tc5 e6. The culmina with the idea of 57 g5) 56 c6 (now
tion of the manoeuvres principally there is no time for 56 g4 due to
devised by Hans Bohm. White is in 56 . . . l:b2 and 57 . . . d2) 56 . . . e6 57 b7
zugzwang and is out-manoeuvred af f5 58 ..te3 g4 ! 59 ..tb6 d2 60 b8'ii'
ter 55 g4 l:f3 56 ..tb4 l:tf4+ 57 c5 d l'ii' .
l:c4+ 58 b5 d7 59 ..ia5 c8 60 Originally I thought that this amaz
a6 b8. ing position was definitive for the as
2a2) 54 ..tc7 l:tb5 (the white king sessment of White's drawing chances
cannot be permitted to reach c5) 55 after 45 g3 . Black escapes from
e5 e7 56 f5 (an idea of Tabe White's checks in the nick of time: 6 1
Bas: 56 ..id6+ d7 57 ..t f8 is refuted W'c8+ xh5 62 'fi'f5+ g5 63 'ilff7+ (the
by 57 . . . d4+ and 58 . . . l:g5) 56 . . . d7 57 quiet 63 ..ic5 does not help after the
g6 d4 58 ..if4 l:txb6 59 xg7 d3 60 even more quiet 63 . . . l:d3 ! ! ) 63 . . . g4
g4 l:tb4 6 1 ..ixh6 l:xg4+ 62 f7 l:th4 64 'We6+ g3 65 'ii'h 3+ f4 66 ..ic7+
63 g6 l:h2 and Black is going to win 'it>e4 67 1We6+ 'it>d3 etc.
the endgame by one tempo, as can be A fantastic overall concept, but
verified without much difficulty. Black can win more prosaically. Dvor
Dvoretsky thought that White can etsky gives the variation 56 . . . l:tb2 (in
get a draw in this variation with 57 g4 stead of 56 . . . e6) 57 b7 d2 ! 58 ..ixd2
d4+ 58 e4 . Initially I thought that l:.c2+ 59 b6 l:xd2 60 b8'ii' l:.b2+ with
this was correct, until I found a con liquidation to a won pawn ending.
clusive winning line for Black. It runs Therefore White must pursue his
as follows : 58 . . . c6 59 xd4 l:tg5 60 hopes of a draw in another direction.
.idS l:xg4+ 61 'it>e5 g6 62 hxg6 l:xg6 2b) 53 f4 l:b3 54 ..ic5 e6 55
and, because the white king is cut off, g4 ! . Not 55 ..id4 l:b4 56 e3 f5 !
the h-pawn runs through . Only with a and White is driven back, as Hubner
bishop on f2 and a king on f3 would showed. But now Black cannot make
White hold the draw. further progress. Hans Bohm, who
2a3) 54 'it>c5 . In this line the pretti still tried to show that Black was win
est variations may arise: 54 . . . d4 ! 55 ning, could hardly produce anything
..tf4 . In passing it should be noted that else ; e.g., 55 . . . l:c3 56 ..tf8 l:c4+ 5 7
55 xd4 l:xb6 loses. This position is f3 'it> f7 58 ..id6, etc.
Gligoric - Portisch 1 19

3) 46 . . l%c4 . A last try by Bohm.


. The same losing line as in 2b above
Black wants to take both central arises after 5 1 ..id4 l:lb4 52 e3 f5 .
squares, c5 and d4, from the bishop, 51 l:lb1
but risks only danger after 47 ..iel . 52 e3 :n
45 l%a4 53 d4 l:lf4+
46 b6 :xa2 54 d3 :n (DJ
47 g3 l:lc2! (D)

w
w

A simple, efficient winning plan:


The difference from the variations b7 and g7 are held under control si
with 45 g3 now becomes clear. If 48 multaneously.
..id4 l:lc4 49 ..ie5 l:lb4 with an easy 55 d4 l:lb7
win. 56 e3 eS
48 ..id6 l:lb2 57 d3
49 ..ic5 7 If 57 ..id4+ d6, etc.
50 f4 e6 57 f4
5 1 g4 0-1
Game Fifteen
Geller - S passky
Alekhine Mem orial Tournament, Mosc o w 1 975
Sicilian Defence, Closed System
Geller had a great year in 1 975. Although he was already over fifty, he won the
very strong Alexander Memorial in Teesside with open-minded, fresh play. An
even stronger tournament began in Moscow a month later. All the prominent Rus
sian players except Karpov competed; for Korchnoi, it would prove to be his last
tournament on Russian soil. Geller won again, half a point ahead of Spassky - a
very respectable result for the latter when you consider that the Soviet Chess Fed
eration had not allowed him to play outside his home country for more than a
year.
The decisive game of the tournament began with an absorbing trench-warfare
type of positional battle which culminated in a hair-raising time scramble in
which Spassky made the last mistake.

1 e4 cS difference is that in the set-up without


2 tDf'3 e6 4 . . . d6 Black can answer 8 lLlh4 with
3 d3 the immediate 8 . . . d5, profiting by the
Geller rarely chooses a quiet sys- decentralised position of the white
tern. knight.
3 lLlc6 8
lL!f6
4 g3 d6 Remarkably, Spassky once again
One may call this a slight inac- plays inaccurately. The text-move de
curacy, and we will soon see why. lays the advance . . . f7-f5 , a vital move
s .i.g2 g6 for Black in many situations. Very sat
6 0-0 .i.g7 isfactory play can be obtained with
7 c3 eS 8 . . . lLlge7 ; e.g., 9 b4 0-0 10 .i.e3 b6 1 1
8 a3 'ii'd2 .i.a6 ! 1 2 :td l 'ffc7 1 3 .i.h6 l:tad8
Usually this is the move when Black 14 i.xg7 xg7 1 5 d4 d5 and Black
has played . . . lLlge7 instead of . . . d6. even has the advantage since White's
Under the present circumstances, 8 knight is still not developed (Kavalek
lLlh4 should definitely be considered; Timman, Teesside 1 975 ). Developing
for example, 8 . . . lLlge7 9 f4 exf4 10 the bishop on e3 is perhaps not the
gxf4 f5 1 1 exf5 lLlxf5 1 2 :te 1 + f8 13 best, but also 10 .i.b2 b5 ! followed by
lLlf3 and Black is in difficulties. The 1 l . . .a5 gives Black no problems. The
Geller - Spassky 121

correct treatment o f this system must by no less than Petrosian in an impor


probably begin with 10 l0bd2. tant game against Radulov in the last
9 b4 0-0 round of the 1 973 IBM tournament:
10 b5 (D) after 1 c4 c5 2 lLlf3 lLlc6 3 l0c3 e5 4 g3
g6 5 a3 i.. g 7 6 i.. g 2 ltlge7 7 l:[b1 a5 8
d3 0-0 9 i.. g5, Black did not allow
the exchange but reacted with 9 . . . f6,
B whereupon Petrosian, having provoked
a small concession, retreated the bishop
to d2.
What Geller does in this game is in
principle much the same, even though
at the moment the diagonal of his
king's bishop is closed: simply put, he
wants to get rid of his so that it will
not be in the way of his knights as they
manoeuvre and operate on the flanks.
With Black's king 's knight on e7, The loss of the dark squares does not
this advance would only have given weigh very heavily since in some in
Black the initiative after 10 . . . l0a5 1 1 stances there is the attractive possibil
c4 f5 , but here White gains space on ity of exchanging the light-squared
the queenside. The d5-square, which bishops and having a knight against
Black has voluntarily surrendered, will Black's bad bishop. Tarrasch's posi
thus become a sensitive weakness. tional rule applies, which is, freely
10 liJe7 translated, 'It isn 't what's removed
1 1 a4 a6 from the board that matters, but what
12 l0a3 axb5 remains.'
13 lbxb5 tOc6 15 ... i..xf6
14 i.. g5! h6 16 lLld2 (D)
15 i..xf6 The first results of the white strat
A s far as I know, this exchanging egy becomes visible: White threatens
idea was first tried in Andriessen-Tim 1 7 ltlc4 i.. e 7 1 8 f4 to take the initia
man, Dutch Championship 1 97 1 : I c4 tive all over the board. This cannot be
g6 2 ltlc3 c5 3 ltlf3 i.. g 7 4 g3 ltlc6 5 stopped by 1 6 . . . i.. e 6 because after 1 7
i.. g 2 e6 6 0-0 ltlge7 7 d3 0-0 8 i.. f4 e5 l0c4 i.. xc4 1 8 dxc4 i.. e 7 1 9 f4 White's
and now instead of retreating to d2 shattered pawns on the queenside are
White played 9 i.. g5 h6 10 i.. xe7 fol no disadvantage as the c3-pawn con
lowed by 1 1 lLld2 and preparation for trols important squares, as Botvinnik
b2-b4. Later, the same idea was used has shown in similar cases.
1 22 The Art of Chess Analysis

8 w

Spassky finds the only satisfactory 22 aS .ic6


answer. 23 5 h5
16
l0a7! 24 1i'b3
The exchange of knights would In combination with the following
considerably lighten Black's task, as move, this is a sharp attempt to add
here one may speak of a pair of tactical complications to what has
knights in tones normally reserved for been mainly a strategical game.
bishops. 24 .ih6
17 l0a3 25 f4 (D)
The active 1 7 llk4 seems good at
first sight, but it would lead to ad
vantage only if Black had to give up
the a-file after 17 . . . xb5 1 8 axb5 . He 8

does not have to give it up, however:


1 8 . . . .ie6 ! with the point 1 9 l:.xa8
'Wxa8 20 xd6? l:d8 and Black wins.
17 6
18 l:.b1 .ig7
19 l02c4 l:a6
Protecting the square b6 and indi
rectly the pawn on d6.
20 lDe3 lDe7
21 c4 .id7 (D) The time-trouble phase must have
Black has thus succeeded in finding been starting about now. I am always
a strong square for his queen's bishop, amazed when a player decides to go
but this has not closed all the holes in into action at just such a time. We will
his position. see later that White is throwing his
Geller - Spassky 1 23

strategical advantage away, but this


was determined only by dry analysis
after the game.
25 ... exf4
26 gxf4 .txdS!
Very sharply seen. Geller probably
thought he had taken all the force out
of this exchange by attacking the b
pawn on his 24th move, but Spassky
has weighed the loss of this pawn and
the consequent disintegration of his
whole queenside against the strong f5-
square he gets for his knight and from The high point of the struggle has
which he can unleash a strong offen been reached. The black rook cannot
sive on the kingside. The board will be retreat, and protecting it doesn 't help,
split in two ! for 3 1 . . .l:tfa8 is answered by 32 xd6.
27 exdS fS 31 l:te8?
28 .te4 This looks very strong, since White
White appreciates the strength of can't take the rook in view of Black's
the strongpoint f5 and defers the cap mating attack, but in fact it's a rather
ture on b7, which would give Black useless demonstration which only
the chance for a promising exchange weakens f7. Too bad, because his cou
sacrifice: 28 'ti'xb7 l:ba5 29 xa5 rageously begun counter-offensive
'it'xa5 and now 30 'ti'b2 (to be able to could have yielded a draw with
defend important weak points from 1 ) 3 1 . . .1i'xd3 ! . This move is far
d2 or c2) 30 . . . c4 ! , or 30 'ti'b3 'ti'd8 and from obvious: instead of protecting or
Black's queen threatens to penetrate moving away an attacked piece, he
into the kingside. The position is still puts still another one en prise. On the
not entirely clear, of course, but it is other hand, the d-pawn was a vital ele
understandable that White, having ment that held White's position to
earlier created weaknesses in the en gether, as the following two variations
emy camp in a fine manner, is not show:
willing to accept a complete reversal l a) 32 'it'xa6 'fi'xd5+ 33 'iiP g l
of roles. 'ii' g 5+ and i f White wishes to avoid
28 .. .txf4 the repetition of moves with 34 Cith I
The hand-to-hand fighting begins. 'ii'd 5+ he must allow 34 '.t>f2 .l:le8
29 .txfS 'it'gS+ (now indeed) and his king has little
30 h 1 'it'xfS chance of surviving.
3 1 'iVxb7 (D) l b) 32 l:txf4. The main variation.
1 24 The Art of Chess Analysis

White not only captures an important


attacking piece but also protects both
the d-pawn and the knight. One can W
certainly call it a miracle that Black
has sufficient counterplay despite his
large material deficit: 32 . . . .1::l a7 ! (D)
and now:

is met by 35 1Wc l 1Wh3 36 1Wg l with


consolidation, but 34 . . . l:fe8. White's
only answer is 35 l:bfl , which obvi
ously leads to perpetual check after
35 . . . l:e2 36 1Wc l (not 36 1Wb l l:xh2+
37 xh2 l:le2+, etc.) 36 . . . l:d2 ! 37
l:l4f2 'ii'e 4+ 38 gl 'it'g4+, as in all
other variations too. lt is amazing that
l b l ) 33 'ii'xa7 'ii'x b l+ 34 g2 the 'doomed' rook on a6 should play
1Wc2+ and White does best to accept such a leading role in this analysis.
the perpetual if he does not want to So much for the drawing line for
lose his knight. Black that I found myself. In Chess In
1 b2) 33 1Wb2. This move appears formant Volume 20 Marj anovic gives
to consolidate the white position be two other ways for Black to reach the
cause 33 . . . 1Wxd5+ is refuted by 34 safe haven of a draw. The frrst is very
1Wg2. But after 33 . . . l:e7 ! (D) the dis complicated, the second actually stag
organisation of the white forces is geringly simple.
clear. 2) 3 1 . . .l:aa8 32 lbxd6 1Wxd3 3 3
What should White do? The chief l:xf4 l:ab8 3 4 1Wxb8 1Wxd5+ 35 lbe4
threat is 34 . . . l:e2 intending to mate (the alternative 35 l:e4 gives Black the
by 35 . . . 1Wxd5+. White can prevent the opportunity, after 35 ... :Xb8 36 :Xb8+
execution of the frrst part of the threat h7 37 a6 1Wxd6 38 a7 'it'd l + 39 g2
only through heavy material loss, and 1Wd2+, to force a draw by perpetual
the second part only with 34 lbb6, check) 35 . . . l:lxb8 36 l:xb8+ g7 37
which is also his most important try. a6 1We5 38 a7 1Wxf4 39 lbd2 1Wxd2 40
Black must now demonstrate that his a81W 1We l + and Black forces a draw by
strongest threat is not 34 . . . l:e2, which perpetual check. This variation is not
Geller - Spassky 1 25

entirely watertight, for White can try probably intended, then 33 :bn ! set
37 :b2 (instead of 37 a6), though in tles the matter. The white pieces are
view of the undefended position of the joined again !
white king this attempt to win has lit 32 ... gS (D)
tle chance of success.
It is also interesting to examine ex
actly how the perpetual check comes
about in the final position. w

After 4 1 g2 'it'e2+ 42 Cil>g3 'ii'e l +


43 'iPf4 Black cannot allow the white
king to escape to e5 and the territory
behind the black c-pawn, because the
presence of that pawn would hinder
Black in giving check. Correct is
43 . . . g5 + ! , after which the white king
remains imprisoned on the kingside.
3) 3 I . . .:a7 . This direct rook sacri
fice is the most convincing way to ob Black is still trying to get all he can
tain a draw. White has to capture the out of the position, and he almost suc
rook, and then after 32 11xa7 11t'xd5+ ceeds . The text-move protects his
3 3 Cil>g1 'ii'g 5+ 34 Cil>f2 1i'h4+ 35 Cil>e2 bishop and allows his queen to move
1i'g4+ he is unable to run away from freely again.
the checks. 33 :gt?
This last variation is actually so Superficially, there seems nothing
simple that the question arises as to wrong with this move. It pins the g
whether Spassky was perhaps playing pawn and thus again restricts the black
for a win in the mutual time-scramble. queen's movements. Nevertheless it is
To be honest, I don' t think so. Spassky a serious mistake which throws away
once told me that if you are in good White's winning advantage. The cold
form the thought of offering only a blooded 33 11xa6 is correct. Black
draw should be alien to you. then can capture the pawns in two dif
It seems likely to me that the for ferent ways. The least promising is
mer World Champion, for lack of time 33 ... 11t'xd3, for after 34 :bn 'ilxd5+
to calculate concrete variations, in 35 gl Black has no more play. So he
stinctively chose a move that looked must try 33 . . . 11xd5+ . After 34 ci>g l
very active. 11xd3, I analyse:
32 :fl! 1) 35 .l:bfl . Initially I thought that
A sober defensive move. If Black this was the move that consolidates the
now continues 32 . . . 11xd3, which was material advantage. However, Gerding
1 26 The Art of Chess Analysis

(Haren) rightly points out that Black 36 "fkc7 l:txb6 37 11Vxb6 'Wxd5+ 38
in fact wins with 35 . . . ..te3 ! . The white l:lfg2 l:.a2 and Black wins.
queen cannot come to the rescue of the 2) 35 'it'd? "ii' x d7 36 o!Llxd7 'iiih 8 !
defence. 37 o!Llf6 l:.f8 ! (the only good square
2) 35 'ii' b 5 . The best move. After for the rook; for example, 37 . . .l:.b8 38
35 . . . l:.e2 36 l:.xe2 "ii'xe2 White gives a o!Llh5 ! ..te3 39 l:.xf7 ..txg1 40 .!Df6
knight back with 37 11t'b2 in order to with unstoppable mate) 38 l:.xf4 (the
get a strong passed a-pawn. only try to get something out of it)
33 l:lea8? 38 . . . gxf4 39 'iiig 2 (White can create
Time trouble is affecting both play mating threats only with the king's
ers . The imperturbable 33 . . . h4 ! is help) 39 ... l:ta2+ (Black makes no pro
necessary, instead of the somewhat gress with 39 . . . 'iitg 7 after 40 o!Lld7 fol
panicky text-move. Suddenly we see lowed by 4 1 f3+) 40 <iPf3 l:.xh2 4 1
the disadvantage of White's last move: l:r.g4 h3 42 xf4 l:r.f2+ 43 'iit g5 . White
his rook on g 1 takes an important finally threatens mate. However, Black
square away from the king, so Black has the sobering 43 . . . l:r.g2 and wins.
can calmly leave his rook on a6. If Ulf Andersson and I worked out this
White then still tries to justify his pre extremely adventurous variation to
vious move, he quickly ends up in a gether. We would very much have
hopeless position, as can be seen after liked to see the inventive white play
3 3 . . . h4 34 o!Llb6 l:lxaS (D) and now: bear fruit, but it was not to be.
The conclusion is that 34 o!Llb6
loses. After 33 . . . h4 White must try 34
l:tgfl (D). This is the correct square
for the white rook, as we also saw in
the notes to White's 32nd move. This
gives Black a free tempo for . . . h5-h4,
but the situation is not critical for
White. Again he threatens to capture
the rook on a6.
Now Black cannot continue his
counterattack, since 34 . . . 1i'h3 fails to
35 l:.g2 ! l:.e2 36 l:.xg5 + ! and White
decisively goes on the attack. The
1 ) 35 'Wc6 with the intention of variation continues 36 . . . !iii> f8 37 'i'b8+
meeting 35 . . . l:te3 with 36 'ii'x d6, with e7 38 'tli'c7+ <iPf6 39 'ii'd 8+ .l:te7 40
good prospects for White. Black has a l:tg2 and White wins.
better rook move, however: 35 . . Jlb8 Black is therefore forced to head
(threatening 3 6 . . . l:ta6 to win a piece) for an endgame with 34 . 'i'c8 . White
. .
Geller - Spassky 1 27

then maintains some winning chances Black's position would collapse very
because of his strong a-pawn which is quickly after 35 lLle4.
conveniently protected by the knight. 35 1i'xa8+ h7
But Black also has strong pawns, pro 36 c4
tected by the bishop, and an exchange Protects the d-pawn in a natural
sacrifice on a5 is a possibility. way.
34 lLlxd6 (D) 36 l%f6
Already the fatal blow. White not 37 'it'b7 1i'h3
only wins an important pawn, but the After 37 . . .'ii'x d3 the simplest win is
knight, which was posted soundly but 38 1i'e7 with the threat 39 l:lxf4. Black
not very actively on the queenside, sets a final trap with the text: he threat
now enters the skirmishes on the king ens 38 . . . .txh2 with at least a draw.
side with tempo. 38 'ii'b2
34 l%xd6 A simple preventive measure.
In desperation Black sacrifices the 38 . .tes
exchange without getting anything for 39 1i'e2 1-0
it. 34 . . .'it'f6 is only worse, however; (Black lost on time)
Game S ixteen
Lju bojevic - Andersson
Ho og oven To urnament, Wijk aan Zee 1976
Sici l ian Defence, Scheven ingen Variati o n
Kavalek once mentioned, with a mixture o f astonishment and admiration, how re
markable it is that Andersson and Ljubojevic can walk to the tournament hall to
gether laughing and joking and then, across the chess board, face each other in a
life-and-death struggle. That they do is fortunate, for otherwise the chess world
would be poorer by a lot of interesting games.
At Wijk aan Zee 1 976 Ljubojevic started tremendously with three wins in a
row. This is the third. A clash of styles is clearly apparent here. The actual course
of the game is extremely original, and the hidden possibilities that show up in the
analysis add extra refreshment. Seldom have I analysed a game with so much
pleasure and devotion.

1 e4 c5 9 f4 d6
2 lilf3 e6 10 'i!Vel 0-0
3 d4 cxd4 11 'i!Vg3 Jld7
4 lLlxd4 llX6 12 e5 (D)
5 lLlc3
Unusual for Ljubojevic. I have never
seen him use any system against the
Taimanov system other than the build
up of the Maroczy wall with 5 lLlb5 d6
6 c4, which he handles in his own
highly refined manner.
5 'i/c7
6 Jle2 a6
7 0-0 lLlf6
8 Jle3 Jle7
The game thus enters the paths of
the Scheveningen Variation. The char
acter of the Taimanov system can be A new idea which has had repeated
maintained with 8 . . Jl b4, but nearly
. success in recent years. The first time
all the lines arising from 9 l0xc6 bxc6 was in Geller-Timman, Hilversum
10 lLla4 are slightly better for White. 1973 (with the added moves l:tad l for
Ljubojevit - Andersson 1 29

White and . . . b7-b5 for Black). I re as in the present game: 14 . . dxe5 1 5 .

member being very surprised, but I fxe5 ltlxe5 1 6 .if4 (Mensch's vari
quickly realised that Black faced a ation does not work now as the black
hopeless task. After the picturesque b-pawn is sufficiently protected after
continuation 1 3 e5 ltle8 1 4 ltle4 dxe5 1 6 .ih6 ltle8 1 7 .if4 .id6) 1 6 . . . i.d6
15 fxe5 ltlxe5 16 .if4 f6 17 .ig4 I 17 :ad 1 and the threat of 18 ltlb3 is
managed to survive to the 70th move very unpleasant.
by sacrificing the e6-pawn. The fourth instance of this pawn
The second time it was played was sacrifice that I know of is a game Ma
in Tal-Hartston, Hastings 1 973n4. tulovi6-Janoevi6, with the additional
The difference from the diagram posi moves a2-a3 and . . . b7-b5 . There it was
tion was the added moves g 1 - h 1 and a real pawn sacrifice - as it is here in
. . . b7-b5, which did not seem to be a Ljuboj evi6-Andersson - and Janoe
great improvement for B lack. As the vi6 was wrong not to accept it.
Hoogoven chess player J. Mensch In the present encounter, Andersson
showed in Schaakbulletin 8 1/82, ac manages to show that the white action
cepting the pawn offer is a precarious is premature . And a good thing, too.
business here too: 1 3 e5 dxe5 14 fxe5 My first reaction when I played over
ltlxe5 1 5 .ih6 ! ltle8 1 6 .if4 f6 17 .ig4 this game was, ' If this is good, then
or 16 . . . .id6 17 .ixb5 ! , and in either Black can't play the Sicilian anymore.'
case White wins the pawn back with The game of chess has not yet reached
advantage. Hartston did not accept the that point.
pawn sacrifice, and this soon proved 12 ... dxe5
fatal: 14 . . . ltlxd4 (instead of 14 . . . ltlxe5) 13 fxe5 ltlxe5
1 5 J.xd4 ltle8 1 6 .id3 .ic6 1 7 'ifh3 Naturally.
g6 1 8 :ae 1 l:td8 19 'ife3 l:td7 20 .ib6 14 .if4 .id6
1i'c8 2 1 ltle4 .ixe4 22 .ixe4 h5 23 15 :ad1
1Wh6 ltlg7 24 l:txf7 ! . A quiet but very pregnant move.
In h i s game a s White against Kar The simple threat is 1 6 ltlb3, after
pov at Nice 1 974, Hartston showed which the various pins would cost
that he had learned something from Black material . He therefore frees the
his encounter with Tal . For unclear c7-square for the bishop.
reasons he did not play Tal 's 13 e5, but 15 'ifb8
first 1 3 a3 and after 1 3 . . . :ab8? only The only move. Other methods to
then 14 e5 . Karpov did not take the solve the problem of the pins fail ; e.g.,
pawn and ended up, as I did against 1 5 . . . ltld5 1 6 ltlf5 ! exf5 1 7 ltlxd5 'ii'c 5+
Geller, with a dismal position. The more 18 .ie3 'fi'c6 19 ltlf6+ h8 20 ltlxd7
so with a rook on b8, taking the pawn with complete destruction, or the fan
would have led to the same reaction tastic 1 5 . . . ltlf3+ 16 :xf3 e5 17 .ih6
1 30 The Art of Chess Analysis

h5 1 8 'iW g5 exd4 1 9 d5 'ii'c 5 20


f6+ and wins.
16 l:d3! (D)

rook is bad: after 1 8 . . . .tc6 19 g5 the


black kingside is short of defenders;
e . g . , 1 9 . . . h6 20 gxe6 fxe6 2 1 xe6
l:xf4 22 l:xf4 f7 23 xc7 'ii'xc7 and
A sparkling idea. I don ' t know how Black wouldn' t feel too bad if White
much of this Ljubojevic had prepared didn' t have a nice forced win : 24 J.c4
at home, but even if this manoeuvre 'ii' b 6+ (24 . . . ed6 25 l:xf7, etc . ) 25
was not found over the board, it is im l:e3 ! d6 26 J.xf7+ xf7 27 l:xf7
possible for me to suppress my admi c;itxf7 28 'ii'f2+ g8 29 l:e8+ and wins
ration for its originality. The main the queen. There are still some techni
threat is 17 l:e3 . cal difficulties because of 29 . . . l:xe8
16 tbe8 30 'ii'xb6 l:e2, but White can force the
The bishop on d6 needed more pro rook back with 3 1 1Wd8+ c;i(f7 32 'ii'c 7+
tection so that the attacked knight on and perhaps a few more checks. So
e5 could be moved away in answer to 19 . . . h6 is no good. The question is
1 7 l:e3 . White therefore tries another whether there is a playable move. The
approach. only one I can find is 19 . . . .1d6, to con
17 e4 c7 tinue frrmly protecting the knight on
18 l:c3 (D) e5 after White's impending knight
Attacks the bishop again ! This seems sacrifice on e6. But then White wins in
to be awkward for Black since 1 8 . . . f6 another pretty way: 20 'ii'h 3 h6 2 1
1 9 J.g4 is anything but attractive. dxe6 fxe6 22 'iVxe6+ followed by 23
18 6! J.xe5.
Andersson, like no other player, Andersson, it seems, did not even
knows which pieces to retreat and consider the move 1 8 . . . .i.c6. After the
where to retreat them to. The other game he showed it to Ree with a brief
way to interpose a piece against the comment which suggested that it was
Ljubojevit - Andersson 131

not an alternative at that point. A mat


ter of pure intuition.
19 i.xc7 liJxd4
Not 1 9 .. .'ti'xc7 because of 20 lLlf6+
'Ot>h8 2 1 flxc7 lLlxc7 22 lLlxd7 lLlxd4
23 llxc7 lLlxe2+ 24 c;ftf2 with the win
of the exchange.
20 i.d3
The best square for the bishop, di
rected toward the kingside where the
storm will soon break.
20 . fla7
21 lLlcs b6 24 lLlxd7 flxd7 25 lld3 . The knight
This shows that White still has the will never be able to reach the dream
initiative. It is remarkable that he can square e4.
complete the whole game without 22 i.eS
moving his king to h 1 . With a really nice hidden point,
21 . .
. i.bS? which is seen in the variation 22 . . .i.xd3
This mistake has no disastrous con 23 i.xd4 i.xfl 24 lLlxe6 fxe6 25
sequences, but it does show an under i.xa7 llxa7 and now 26 flb8 wins the
estimation of White's possibilities. rook.
With 2 1 . . .lLlxc7 22 flxc7 i.b5 Black 22 .. . lLlc6
c an hold the extra pawn and White 23 i.xh7+! (D)
would h ave little initiative for it; e.g., Beautiful ! This is what it's all about
23 l:.f4 i.xd3 24 llxd4 l:.ac8 followed - the manoeuvres on the queenside
by retreating the bishop to the kingside. were merely diversionary. White un
In Schach-Archiv Pachman gives a leashes his attack just when the black
really lovely hidden drawing possibil pieces are all bunched together rather
ity for White after 2 1 . . .lLlxc7 (D): uselessly on the queenside. Neverthe
22 i.xh7+ 'itxh7 23 flxg7+! 'itxg7 less, Black doesn 't have too much to
24 llg3+ and White checks freely on worry about, as we shall see.
g3 and h3. I doubt that the players saw 23 ... 'itxh7
this combination, and I doubt that An 24 l:. f4
dersson avoided 2 l . . . lLlxc7 because of Again a very good move. White is
it. obviously playing to win. Kavalek says
B lack can also try to hold his extra White still has the draw in hand with
pawn with 2 1 . . .lLlf5 , but then White's 24 i.xg7 lLlxg7 (24 . . . l:tg8? 25 flh4+
compensation takes on a more con 'itxg7 26 flg5+ f8 27 l:.xf7+ 'itxf7
crete form after 22 i.xf5 exf5 23 i.e5 28 llf3+ lLlf6 29 l:.xf6+ e8 30
1 32 The Art of Chess Analysis

8 8

l:.xe6+ and mate next move) 25 In his column 'Game of the Month'
'ifxg7+ q;xg7 26 l:.g3+ with perpetual which appears in many chess maga
check. zines the world over, Gligori refers to
24 f6 an analysis by chess enthusiasts from
Alternatives were: Bosanski Shamac in Yugoslavia. In
1 ) 24 . . . f5 . This is also a move that the last variation they continue with
creates a chance not considered by 29 . . . l:.f6 ! (instead of 29 . . . l:.d 1 +) with
Ulf. Yet it is not easy to refute. After the intention, after the too hasty 30
25 l:.h4+ q;g8 26 1V g6, play branches 1i'e7, of giving mate with 30 . . . l:.d 1 +
once again: 3 1 q;f2 :n + 3 2 q;g3 'ii' b 8+ and mate.
1 a) 26 ... ltlxe5 27 'ifxe6+ l:.f7 (not The move 29 . . . l:.f6 has no further
27 . . . ltlf7 28 l:.ch3 and Black cannot threat, however, so White can take the
stop the mate even though he can take time to play a quiet move: 30 c4 ! . Be
the knight with check) 28 'ifxe5 (D) sides the threat to capture the bishop,
(now not 28 l:.ch3, however, because this move also threatens the now
then Black can indeed save himself: crushing 3 1 1i'e7. I see no satisfactory
28 . . . 'ii'x c5+ 29 q;h 1 ltlg6 30 'ii'x g6 defence for Black.
q;f8 3 1 1i'e6 ltlf6 and Black has won 1 b) 26 . . . l:.f6. An interesting at
the game of cat and mouse). tempt to defend which was suggested
Now B lack has hardly any moves. by the German player K. Werner. The
He can still try 28 . . . l:.d8, but the idea is that after 27 xf6 c!Clxf6 White
threatened penetration of the rook cannot follow up with 28 l:.ch3 be
need not bother White, as we see in cause of 28 . . . 'ifxc5+ 29 q;h 1 q;rs 30
the line 29 l:.ch3 l:.d 1 + 30 q;f2 l:.fl + l:.h8+ q;e7 3 1 'ifxg7+ q;d6 32 l:.xa8
3 1 q;g3 f4+ 32 q;g4 c!Clf6+ 33 q;g5 1i'xc2 and Black has the advantage.
and the white king escapes while his Stronger, therefore, is 28 a4 ! , in order
colleague faces mate in a few moves. on 28 . . . e2 to continue with 29 b4.
Ljubojevi{: - Andersson 1 33

The transfer of the other rook to the Threatening mate in three. The
kingside cannot then be avoided . Also white knight plays a useful role in the
28 ... l:[d8, in order to begin a counter attack even though it's still pinned.
attack after 29 axb5 l:[d l + 30 f2 26 ltld8 (D)
axb5, is not quite sufficient on account
of 3 1 g3 1t'b8+ 32 h3 l:[h l 33 g3
and the white king is safe. Inciden
tally, it is important that White ftrst w

plays 28 a4. It would be precipitate to


play 28 b4 because of 28 . . . lLlxb4 ! 29
:xb4 :c8 and Black captures on c5
without coming to any harm.
2) 24 . . . ltlxe5 25 l:[h4+ g8 26
1Vxe5 1i'b6. This defensive method
was recommended by Velimirovic.
After 27 :ch3 f6 the pawn on e6 is
covered and the king makes his escape
under fairly safe circumstances. How During the post-mortem both play
ever, it is again much stronger firstly ers branded this typical Andersson
to attack the bishop: 27 a4 ! . On 27 . . . f6 move the decisive mistake, but sub
White now has the strong move 28 sequent analysis with Ree showed that
'fi'e3 . the mistake came later.
After 2 4 . . . ltlxe5 2 5 l:[h4+ g8 26 26 . . . f5 is possible, because after 27
1Vxe5 1i'b6 27 a4 Cvetkovic in Chess l:[h8+ n White has nothing better
Info rmant recommends 27 . . . i.xa4 ! than to force a draw with 28 1i'h5+
with the assessment that Black stands e7 29 'ii'g 5+ f7 (D) .
clearly better after 28 :xa4 'ii'x b2.
This is correct, and 27 . . . i.xa4 is in
deed Black's best chance, but White in
turn should react with 28 'fi'e4 (28 w

:ch3 f6 29 'ii' x e6+ 'fi'xe6 30 ltlxe6


.id7) 28 . . . f6 29 'fi'xa4 'ifxb2 30 'ii'd4 !
and the dominant position of the white
pieces guarantees more than adequate
compensation for the two pawns. The
main threat is 3 1 l:[h8+ xh8 32
l::t h 3+, winning the queen.
25 l:[h4+ g8
26 'ii' h 3
1 34 The Art of Chess Analysis

Attempts to keep the attack going S pain, where Raymond Keene and I
demand great sacrifices, but White were playing. The day before I re
cannot afford to make them because ceived the Hoogoven tournament bul
his knight is still pinned; e.g., 30 i.xg7 letin that contained this game, Keene
lilxg7 3 1 l:th7 l:g8 32 h i l:ad8 and gave me his striking opinion of Ljubo
now White must try to find a perpetual jevic's play. He said he did not see Yu
check. But not 32 . . . lile5 ? 33 lile4 ! goslavia's top grandmaster as a deep
with a decisive attack. Henk Jonker strategist, and not even as a player
tried to find good play for Black with with any sort of healthy ideas about
the queen sacrifice 26 ... 'ifxc5+ 27 l:xc5 chess - but this was precisely what
lilxe5 . The three minor pieces would made his play so successful and so dif
certainly compensate for the queen if ficult to counter; that is, it consisted of
White did not have an immediate way a series of tricks. Very deep tricks in
to win material, also later given by deed, he added : they can be twenty
Jonker: 28 l:h8+ f7 29 l:xf8+ xf8 moves long.
30 'ifa3 !, threatening both a crushing As far as this game is concerned,
discovered check and 3 1 l:xb5 . Keene was right on target. On the 1 2th
27 i.d4 b6 move Ljubojevic started a series of un
The weakness that this creates is clear complications, and now, eight
not at all obvious, but Ljubojevic must een moves later, Black seems to be
have spotted it immediately. lost: while his rook is hanging on one
28 lilxe6 lilxe6 side of the board, mate in one is threat
29 'it'xe6+ "ikf7 ened on the other. But it's still only a
30 "ike4 (D) trick.
If Black had not been in serious
time trouble, or perhaps if he had not
fallen so deeply under the spell of
White's play, he would undoubtedly
have found the courageous path to the
draw.
30 . gS?
Correct is 30 . . . 'ikxa2 ! , and the black
pieces seem to be co-ordinated again.
A very dangerous check is threatened,
and if White takes the bait he will be
in big trouble. On 3 1 "ikxa8 Black frrst
plays the calm 3 1 . . . g5 (D); White does
This tournament was played at the not have a queen check on d5 and the
same time as a tournament in Orense, white rook cannot leave the fourth
Ljubojevic - Andersson 1 35

l%g3 1i'g7 , but certainly not more


gracefully or more quickly than with
the text-move.
31 l:.a7
32 l%ch3 (D)

rank because of mate (32 l:.h6 'ii'b 1 +


33 f2 1i'fl + 34 e3 1i'f4 mate).
What can White do? If 32 l:.g4 6
33 'fi'f3 'ifb1 + 34 f2 1Wfl + 35 g3
lLlf5 + 36 <t>h3 f7 and it is all over
for him.
White ' s best after 30 . . . 'ii'xa2 is to Even Ulf Andersson cannot find a
play for a draw by perpetual check decent defence here.
with 3 1 1i'h7+ f7 32 'ii'h 5+. Black 32 ... 'ii'g7
cannot avoid it without exposing his 33 :tg6 :sr7
king to serious danger. 34 c4 1-0
31 l%h6 On behalf of Raymond Keene, Ken
A more immediate and more grace Rogoff, and Gudmundur Sigurjons
ful win is 3 1 l:l.g3 with the crushing son, who, when I showed them this
threat 32 l:bg5+, leaving the aS-rook game, followed it as avidly as I did
hanging. White was also in time trouble, when I first played it through, I want
however, and this is only a small blot to convey the feeling that overcame us
on the game. For that matter, in a final there in the Spanish town of Orense
check of the analysis I see that it is no that this was the best game of the last
blot at all . White indeed wins after 3 1 twenty years.
Game Seventeen
Karpov - Ti mman
International Tournament, Skopje 1976
S icilian Defence, Rauzer Variation
The sixth 'Sreba n a Solidarnesta' international tournament, i n Skopje, Yugosla
via, was the frrst time Karpov and I played together in a tournament since the Nei
meijer youth tournament of 1 967/68.
Karpov, it seems, having received the world title in 1 975 without a struggle,
immediately began carefully choosing tournaments to play in so as to achieve the
status of an active world champion. And, unlike many of his predecessors, he suc
ceeded. The tournament at Skopje was the frrst such tournament he won in a con
vincing fashion. There was great variety in his play: now an interesting attacking
game, then a dry, technical, endgame win. Our game took place near the end of
the tournament. It was a hard fight: a sharp opening developed into a middlegame
where both sides seemed to have attacking chances. White' s chances were more
immediate, but when Karpov missed the sharpest continuation at a certain point,
Black was able to save himself in a four-rook ending a pawn down.

1 e4 cS
2 l0t'3 lDc6
3 d4 cxd4
4 xd4 f6 w

5 lDc3 d6
6 i.gS e6
7 ..d2 a6
8 0-0-0 i. d7
9 f4 i.e7
10 f3 bS
11 .ixf6 gxf6
12 <i>b1 .. b6
13 i.d3 b4
14 2 aS Fischer-Spassky match. I spent a long
15 fS a4 time thinking about whether there
1 6 f4 ..cS (D) was an alternative to 1 6 . . . 11t'c5 , but I
After a slight transposition of moves could see nothing else against the
we have entered the 1 8th game of the threatened 1 7 fxe6 fxe6 1 8 i.c4. For
Karpov - Timman 1 37

instance, if 1 6 . . . l0e5 then 1 7 .te2, the


move White plays even after the text
1 6 . . . 11'c5 . w
17 .te2
A novelty in this position. Fischer,
after long thought, had played 17 Ac l
to close the queenside after 17 . . . l:ab8
18 c3 b3 1 9 a3 . Karpov's idea is to
employ the bishop in the siege of the
weak e6-point in Black's position. I
was very much impressed by the idea
- until ten days after the tournament,
when Sosonko, Tarjan, and I found that 23 . . . 1i'xe4 because of 24 1i'xe6 1kxe2
Black can force a draw. It sounds in 25 l:xd6, but that was an illusion; after
credible but, as we shall see, it is true. 25 . . . l:d8 White has no follow-up.
17 l:b8 White must therefore play 24 l:he l
18 fxe6 fxe6 (instead of 24 11'xe6). Black has only
19 lflel ! one answer to the triple threats (to take
A consequence o f White' s 17th the bishop or to check on b5 or h5)
move. The bishop now threatens to at and that is 24 ... 1i'f5 . Now it is a forced
tack the pawn from f7 or g4, and it is draw after 25 :n i.f8 ! 26 1kh4 .te7
fortunate for B lack that he can just because White would be better off not
cover both squares with his knight. to go into the endgame after 27 'ii' h 6
19 lfle5 .t f8 28 l:xf5 .txh6 29 l:tf6 <i/e7 30
20 lfled3 'ii'd4 l:xh6 l:bf8.
20 . . . 1i'b6 is bad because of 2 1 If 22 1i'xd4 (instead of 22 lflxe6)
i.h5+ d8 2 2 1i'e2 and the bishop 22 . . . exd4 23 .tg4 e5 24 lLle6 i.f6 ! 25
can no longer be kept out of g4 (if l:dfl rtle7 26 lflc7 .tc6; or, in this
22 . . . l:g8 23 lflxe5 and 24 .tf7). line, 23 i.h5+ d8 24 .tg4 e5 25
21 lflxe5 'ifxe5? (D) lfle6+ c8, with the threat 26 . . . l:g8
Now Black gets into trouble. Cor 27 .tf5 l:.g6 ! ; or, finally, if 24 .txd7+
rect is 2 l . . .fxe5 . During the game I (instead of 24 lfle6) 24 . . .'xd7 25 lfld5
was afraid of 22 lflxe6, threatening .td8 and the knight only looks strong.
mate in one, and after 22 . . .t xe6 23
. White's great problem is always
1i'h6 .txa2+ 24 xa2 b3+ 25 al that his king is kept in its corner by
1i'c5 (or 25 ... 1i'b6) 26 l:d5, White gets Black's far-advanced queenside pawns.
in first. 22 11Ve3! (D)
During my calculation of 2 l . . . fxe5 Very strong, and another illustra
22 lflxe6 .txe6 23 1i'h6 I rejected tion of why the player whose queen
1 38 The Art of Chess Analysis

ltal 'ii'b? White ' s queen returns with


tremendous force: 28 'ii'e 3 ! (D), and
8 Black can neither defend his e-pawn
nor prevent his position from crum
bling.

controls the most dark squares in this


type of Sicilian position often stands
better. Control of the g l -a? diagonal is
especially important.
22 ... b3
I decided to sound the emergency.
Black's situation is far from appetis If 28 . . . 'ii'e4 29 'ii'c 3 and 30 'ii'a5+,
ing and I did not feel like suffering or if 28 ... e5 29 tbe6+ ..txe6 30 1Wxe5
martyrdom after, say, 22 . . . 0-0. c;i;>d? 3 1 l:he l , etc . Yet this position is
23 cxb3 axb3 not so hopeless for Black. First of all it
24 a3 rs should be noted that B ohm's sugges
On the one hand, Black's 22nd tion 27 . . . 'ii'a8 is better than 27 . . . 'ii'b ? .
move has opened the c-file to White's The intention after 28 'ii'e 3 should not
advantage; on the other, Black threat be to follow up with 28 . . ...tf6, for then
ens to take the e-pawn with check. comes 29 tbxe6+ ..txe6 30 l:xd6+,
25 ..thS+ ltd8 winning. However, Black has a bril
26 l:hel? l iant combination to retain chances
For the first time in the game, Kar of saving the game: 28 . . . e5 29 tbe6+
pov thought for a long time. And the ..txe6 30 'ii'xe5 d? 3 1 l:he l .
longer he thought the more worried I I t looks like it's all over, but Black
became about 26 'it'a? . I originally can play: 3 l . .. 'Wxa3+ ! ! 32 bxa3 b2+,
thought that the threat of capturing on and now White has two possibilities:
e4 with check had eliminated that pos 1 ) 3 3 b 1 ..ta2+ 34 xa2 b l 'il+
sibility, and in fact this was the only 35 l:xb1 dxe5 and Black holds the
reason Karpov didn' t play it, as he ad draw without any difficulty because
mitted after the game. However, after 36 l:xb8 l:xb8 37 l:xe5 can be an
the continuation 26 'ila? 'ilxe4+ 27 swered by 37 . . . l:b2+.
Karpov - Timman 139

2) 3 3 'ii'x b2 l:.xb2 3 4 xb2 i.f6+ Another method of continuing, with


35 c2 l:.c8+ 36 'i\?d3 :tc3+ and after queens on the board, is unsatisfactory:
capturing the a-pawn Black has excel 26 . . . fxe4 is again answered strongly
lent chances of a draw. by 27 'ika7 d5 28 li)xd5 exd5 29 l:txd5
This fantastic escape is probably 1fc7 30 'ii'd4 llg8 3 1 l:td 1 l:.b7 32
Black's best option after 26 1i'a7 . Note i.g4 ! and White wins.
that 26 . . . i.f6 is .inadequate on account 27 'ilfxe4 fxe4
of 27 'ifxb8+ e7 28 'i!fxd6+ 'i!fxd6 28 .tg4 (D)
29 llxd6 xd6 30 :td 1 +, followed by
3 1 exf5 with a winning advantage for
White . The dour 26 . . . l:tc8 probably
merits consideration, though after 27 B
l0d3 1fxe4 28 llhe 1 'i!fa4 29 1fxa4
i.xa4 30 llxe6 White can reach a more
favourable ending than in the game.
26 'ii'xe4+
Despite the worry which had domi
nated my mind while White was
thinking about his previous move, I
did not hesitate longer than ten sec
onds here. Better an ending, I thought,
even against such an endgame artist as Naturally not 28 :txe4 e5, and 28
Karpov, than to expose my king any .tf7 also leads to nothing after 28 . . llf8
.

longer to lightning attacks. 29 li)xe6+ .txe6 30 .txe6 l:.f2 with


After the game I asked my oppo dangerous counterplay.
nent how he would have answered 28 . l:g8!
26 . . . i.f6. To my surprise, he said he The only move. Above all, Black
had planned to exchange queens after must not allow himself to be buried
27 lbd3 'fixe4 and to capture twice on alive with 28 . . . e5 29 li)e6+. In most
e4. Naturally he would have changed cases, the e-pawn would then only get
his mind if I had actually played in the way because Black's counter
26 . . . i.f6, since after 27 lbd3 1Wxe4 28 play is based on attacking White's b
'ifh6 ! is crushing. The sudden danger pawn with the bishop on f6 and a rook
now comes from the other side, which on White's second rank.
once again underlines the powerful 29 .txe6 .txe6
position of the white queen . After 30 e6+ d7
either 28 . . . Wh4 29 li)f4 or 28 . . . 'it'd4 29 31 ll)f4
li)e5 ! 'fixe5 30 llxe5 .txe5 3 1 'fig5+ 3 1 llxe4 llxg2 is worse for White.
followed by 32 llc 1 + it is all over. 31 .. .tgS
140 The Art of Chess Analysis

32 l:.xe4 37 l%c3+ d6
White must enter this four-rook 38 h3
ending as after 32 l0d5 l%ge8 B lack Typical Karpov. He has no real win
keeps his strong passed pawn on e4. ning chances and is not at all in a
32 .i.xf4 hurry.
33 l%xf4 l%xg2 (D) 38 l%e2
39 Acd3 ci?eS
40 a4 :.as
41 l%xb3 :Xa4
w 42 l%b8 ltd4
A nice finesse which makes things
a little less troublesome for Black.
43 l%e8+ d6 (D)

34 l%f7+ c6
35 l%xh7 ltbS
The draw can probably be held in
more than one way. With the text
move Black plans to hold his centre
pawn and exchange his b-pawn for
White's a-pawn.
36 l%h3 dS (D) The adjourned position. I expected
my opponent to seal 44 l%d8+ because
the king would then have to return to
e5 and thus White could reserve the
w choice of which rook to capture. It
matters little, though, because it is still
a draw.
44 l:txd4 AxeS
45 c2 lte3
The most active : Black is ready to
answer 46 l%d3 with 46 . . . l%e4. His
king is ideally placed in the centre.
46 l%h4 ci?cS
Karpov - Timman 141

47 llh8 lle2+ SO hS d3
48 b3 d4 51 h6 b6
49 h4 llh2 (D) I had calculated long before that the
king would arrive just in time.
52 c3 d2
53 c2 b7
w 54 b4 a7
SS bS b7
White cannot win the d-pawn un
less he can put Black in zugzwang. The
move h6-h7 is therefore necessary
sooner or later. After that, however,
Black doesn't need the pawn to draw.
56 h7 a7
57 dl b7
lf2.1fz
Ga me Eig hteen
Ti m man - Karpov
Euwe Tournament, Amsterdam 1976
N i mzo-ln d i a n Defen ce, Len i n g rad Va riatio n
In May 1 976 a four-player tournament in honour of Max Euwe was held for the
first time. The venue was uniquely situated in the Van Gogh Museum in Amster
dam, and the demonstration room.was no less unique: a tent of mirrors which for
a few months stood in the Museum Square. Professor Euwe turned 7 5 during the
tournament amid an appropriate setting. A phonograph record was even made,
with text added to music found in an old barrel-organ book from the time when
Euwe was World Champion: the 'Euwe March.' All together, a perfect 1 930's at
mosphere was created.
Karpov's participation was an extra attraction. The World Champion did not
have many tournaments on his schedule for the rest of the year, and many people
wondered whether he was taking too great a risk by playing in such a short tour
nament. After all, even a single 'accident' could seriously jeopardise his expected
first place. Karpov clearly felt this himself, for he played very cautiously. In the
first round he defeated Browne, who had actually achieved a drawn position but
went under in terrible time pressure. Four draws followed and in the last round a
win against Olafsson secured Karpov's first place.
He faced his most anxious moments in the fifth round, in the game given here.
After missing a win, I finally had to be satisfied with a draw.

1 d4 li:)f6 i.g5-h4, which have become fairly


2 c4 e6 automatic . In most variations it is very
3 M i.b4 important that White's bishop cannot
4 i.gS cS suddenly return to the queenside, but
s dS d6 that is an irrelevant nuance in this
6 e3 exdS game.
7 cxdS li:)bd7 11 ... c4! (D)
8 i.d3 'it'aS I saw this coming but was unable to
9 li:)e2 li:)xdS find a satisfactory divergence from the
10 0-0 i.xc3 usual continuation. The text-move is
11 bxc3 an important improvement for Black
This position is known with the in the Leningrad Variation.
inclusion of the moves . . . h7-h6 and 12 i.rs
Timman - Karpov 143

to judge, but it seems to me that White


has the advantage.
w 3) 1 2 . . . ttl7f6 is undoubtedly the
safest continuation. There can follow
13 i.xc8 l:lxc8 14 .ixf6 ttlxf6 15 'ii'xd6
'ii'c5 with equality.
13 c!i)d4 ! (D)
Played after long deliberation. I had
already used nearly an hour and a half.
Although White does not really stand
worse after 1 3 lll f4 lllxf4 14 i.xd7+
i.xd7 15 i.xf4, I did not find this pos
After 1 2 i.c2 Black can take the sibility attractive during the game.
time to quietly castle and maintain the Karpov likes positions such as the one
inevitable threat of l 3 . . . ttlxc3. A nice that would arise after 1 5 . . . d5 16 'ikh5+
variation is 1 2 . . . 0-0 1 3 ttlg3 ttlxc3 1 4 g6, with a worthless extra pawn and
ti' h 5 g 6 1 5 'ii'h 6 'ike5 1 6 lllh 5 and opposite-coloured bishops.
now Black defends successfully with
the Petrosian-like move l 6 . . . 'ilfh8 ! .
12 . f6
The fact that Karpov spent forty 8
minutes on this move shows that he
had probably not h ammered out the fi
nesses of the previous move himself
but had been shown them by his team
of helpers. The alternatives are:
l ) l2 . . . ttlxc3 1 3 ttlxc3 ! ( 1 3 i.xd7+
i.xd7 1 4 ttlxc3 'ii'x g5 1 5 ttle4 'ii'g6 1 6
ttlxd6+ e7 gives White n o advan
tage) 1 3 . . . 'ii'xf5 14 i.f4 and the threats
1 5 ttld5 and 1 5 i.xd6 can hardly be 13 &De7
met. I had quite overlooked this move,
2) 1 2 . . . ttl7b6 holds the pawn but which B lack played very quickly.
leads to a rather great concentration of Accepting the piece sacrifice is ex
black pieces on the queenside: 1 3 ttlg3 tremely risky, for example 1 3 .. .fxg5
0-0 14 e4 ! ttlxc3 15 'ii' h 5 i. x f5 1 6 14 'ii'h 5+ g6 15 i.xg6+ hxg6 1 6
ttlxf5 ttlxe4 1 7 i.f6 ! and Black must 'ii'x h8+ ttlf8 1 7 f4, and the f-file is
give up his queen with 17 . . . 'ii'xf5 1 8 opened with decisive consequences
1i'xf5 ttlxf6. This position is difficult ( 17 . . . g4 1 8 f5).
144 The Art of Chess Analysis

The slightly more subtle 1 5 . . .'d8 In the post-mortem, Karpov imme


(instead of 15 . . . hxg6) is not a saving diately replied to 14 f4 with 1 4 . . . ron .
move either: 1 6 11i'xg5+ t;)7f6 17 J.f7 !, Now direct attacking attempts have no
and the double threat 18 e4 and 1 8 chance of success; e.g., 1 5 'ifh5 J.xf5
J.xd5 cannot be effectively parried by (not 1 5 . . . g6 because of 1 6 J.xg6 hxg6
1 8 . . . l:tf8 because of 1 9 'flg7. 17 'ifxg6 with a very precarious posi
During the game, 13 ...l0e5 gave me tion for Black) 1 6 t;)xf5 g6 1 7 t;)g7+
the most headaches. Karpov said af f8 ! 1 8 t;)e6+ We7 and the white at
terwards that he had feared 1 4 11i'h5+ tack does not break through. However,
g6 15 J.xg6+ roxg6 16 J.xf6 but had with one of Black's knights out of the
completely overlooked the fact that he centre, White need not adopt overly
could then castle with a winning ad violent methods but can continue qui
vantage. The attempt 1 6 J.h6 (instead etly with 1 5 J.h4; e.g., 1 5 . . . 0-0 1 6
of 1 6 J.xf6) is too fantastic. The sim J.xc8 ! l::taxc8 l 7 t;)f5 l::tc 5 1 8 'ifg4 g6
plest answer is 16 . . .11fc5 . 1 9 e4 with a winning game.
White's best line after 1 3 . . . l0e5 be I am sure that Karpov saw far more
gins with 14 f4 to drive the knight of these variations than he indicated
from its strong central position. The after the game. While I was thinking
resulting complications are difficult about my thirteenth move I noticed
to enumerate. In the tent of mirrors, that he was also concentrating in
Hans Ree showed this pretty variation tensely on the position. In positions
to the public during the demonstra where you have to dig very deeply to
tion: l 4 . . . roxe3 1 5 'flh5+ g6 1 6 J.xg6+ decide on a continuation, variations
roxg6 1 7 f5 roxn 1 8 fxg6 'ifxg5 1 9 are sometimes considered subcon
g 7 + 'ifxh5 2 0 gxh811i'+ an d 2 1 l:lxfl sciously and do not rise to the surface
with a winning positional advantage of conscious calculation; such vari
for White. This variation is so beauti ations help only in the overall evalu
ful mainly because it expresses the ation of a position, which is a
Excelsior Theme in its full glory: necessary part of judging the value of
White's f-pawn advances undisturbed a move. It was only after the game, for
to the queening square . The opposi example, that I recognised the vari
tion of the queens on a5 and h5 and ation Hans Ree had shown the public.
the position of the minor pieces be A great deal of tension is usually re
tween them leads to very surprising leased right after a game, and you may
twists and variations. Thus Black finds not be able to remember variations
no salvation in the variation 17 . . . t;)xf5 you had calculated during the game or
(instead of l 7 . . . roxn ) l 8 t;)xf5 J.xf5 may only vaguely recognise variations
1 9 J.xf6 0-0 20 l::t xf5 and White's at that had sprung into your subcon
tack wins. scious mind. In any case, it seems very
Timman - Karpov 145

improbable to me that Karpov had


overlooked the possibility of castling
after 13 . . . lLle5 14 'ifh5+ g6 1 5 i.xg6+ B

lLlxg6 1 6 i. xf6, since castling would


have been one of his first considera
tions. Perhaps he then went on to look
at other possibilities and, after the
game, could not remember much
about it.
14 i.xd7+ i.xd7
15 i.f4 0-0
Karpov again keeps things as sim
ple as possible and perhaps he is right Also possible is 20 . . . ltc6, and 2 1
again. He could have kept the extra 'ii'd4 is the best reply.
pawn with 1 5 . . . 1i'c5 (not 1 5 . . . 'ifd5 1 6 21 l:b4 i.e6
e4), but h e feared 1 6 'ii'f3 . Indeed, 2 1 . . .'ii'e5 is also to be considered,
White has excellent compensation af with the intention 22 lLlxc4 'it'xc3 23
ter either 1 6 . . . d5 1 7 'ii' h 5+ g6 1 8 1i'h6 'ii'd 6 i.e8 . However, White plays 22
or 16 . . . l'bd5 17 1Wh5+ g6 18 'ii'h 6. Our 'ii'd2 followed eventually by f4.
World Champion, however, does not 22 'iff3 'ifdS
like an unsafe king. In the second vari 23 'ifxd5 i.xd5
ation, after 1 8 . . . lLlxf4 1 9 exf4 1;f7 20 24 lld1 i.e6
life 1 White threatens the annoying 2 1 25 lld4 lled7
l:e7+, and Black's king would not be 26 f3
at home on the queenside. Black has been able to defend the c
16 i.xd6 ltfe8 pawn sufficiently, but White's position
17 llb1 b6 is a little better and easier to handle.
18 i.xe7 l:lxe7 26 ... c.t>rs
19 lLlb5 (D) 27 lLlb5 (D)
This manoeuvre, begun by White's The right moment, especially for
1 7 th move, is the only way to give psychological reasons.
Black problems. White can also con 27... lieS
tinue with 19 1Wd2 followed by 20 f3 Karpov thought about this for a
and 2 1 e4 . He would stand well then, long time. He showed afterwards
but the position would be too static for that he probably could have played
him to hope for much. 27 . . . llxd4 . At first sight this seems
19 . lieS very good for White, for after 28 cxd4
The only move. and a move by Black's rook, White
20 6 llc7 has 29 lLlc3 with a winning positional
146 The Art of Chess Analysis

advantage. But B lack's rook need not by Bohm. After the 'exchange' on b2,
move : 28 . . . c3 ! 29 &tJxc7 i.xa2 and, the white king moves back and forth
amazingly, White has only one way to between al and b2 so that he cannot
stop the c-pawn: 30 &tJe6+. Black must be forced into zugzwang.
take the knight to prevent it from get From all this it seems that White
ting to d3 or e2 via f4 : 30 . . . i.xe6. would have had to answer 27 . . . l:txd4
Now comes 3 1 l:lbl c2 32 llc l i.b3 with 28 exd4, which would have been
33 f2 b5 . With his king on d2 or d3, more or less the same as the actual
the best White could hope for would game c9ntinuation.
be to return the exchange on c2; there 2 a4
fore, 34 e4 b4 35 e3 a5 36 d5 a4 37 Not nice, fixing the pawn on the
d4 (D). B lack cannot prevent the wrong colour; but if White wants to
white king's occupation of c5 by put make any progress, it's virtually un
ting his own king on d6, for then f3-f4 avoidable.
and e4-e5 would follow. So it seems to 28 a6
be all over now, since on 37 . . . a3 38 29 &tJa3 l:txd4
c5 is decisive. Black, however, has a 30 exd4 l:tc6
sparkling finesse which the World 31 .!Oc2 e7
Champion was not able to work out 32 l:tb2
completely over the board. Threatening 33 &tJb4. The push 3 3
37 . . . .ta2 ! . After 38 l:txc2 b3 39 a5 bxa5 3 4 l:ta4 l:tb6 doesn ' t lead to
l:tc8+ e7 40 l:tc7+ d8 (but not anything.
40 . . . d6?? 4 1 l:tb7 followed by 42 32 ... aS
f4 and 43 e5+ with mate ! ) and Black 33 dS! (D)
wins, so White has no better than to The only reasonable winning at
head for a draw with 39 l:tb2 ! (instead tempt. 33 &tJe3 seems promising but
of 39 l:tc8+) 39 . a3 40 c3, as given
. . leads to nothing after 33 . . . d6; e.g.,
Timman - Karpov 147

34 f2 i.d7 ! and if 3S dS l:r.cS 36 pawn due to the double threat 37 l:r.a7+


l:r.xb6+ c7 White loses his a-pawn. and 37 bS, and his compensation
That wrongly-fixed pawn is a thorn in would be questionable.
White's flesh, while its Black counter
part is a potential passed pawn - the
knight's natural enemy.
B

36 . d7
Now everything is in order again.
37 h4 c7
33 i.xdS 38 l:te6 (D)
The fact that Karpov thought a few A little joke at the end of an ener
minutes before making this capture in vating game . The pawn ending is won
dicates that he had overlooked White's for White after 38 . . . i.xe6 39 xe6+
last move - or that he wanted to create d6 40 xeS xeS 4 1 e3 dS 42
the impression that he had overlooked f4 ! , etc. Karpov, of course, will have
it. nothing to do with it.
34 tDd4 l:r.cS
The best square for the rook.
35 l:r.xb6 hS?
Maybe a consequence of overlook
ing White's 33rd move. The steady re
action is 3S . . . d7, to be able to
defend his weak points in time.
36 12?
In slight time trouble, I reacted
automatically with the answer I had
planned for 3S . . .'1d7 . Things would
be much more difficult for Black after
36 l:r.a6. He would have to give up a
148 The Art of Chess Analysis

38 d7 42 Ab6 c7
39 l:b6 c7 43 Ae6 d7
40 Ae6 44 Ab6 c7
40 l:bl is also nothing because of 45 Ae6 1/2-112
40 . i.f7 and Black is again ready to
. . The draw was agreed here, before
besiege White's a-pawn. adjourning. Playing for a win with 45
40 d7 A bl would have been risky due to
41 Aa6 i.b7! 45 . . . i.c8 46 o!Db5+ d8 ! .
Game N ineteen
Spassky - Korch noi
Final Candidates Match (4), Belgrade 1977
French Defence, Wi nawer Variation
After Korchnoi sought asylum in the West in August 1 976, the Russians system
atically tried to make life difficult for him. First Pravda and 64 published a letter
signed by most Russian grandmasters condemning and criticising him. Then the
Soviet Chess Federation asked FIDE to exclude Korchnoi from the matches lead
ing to the world championship. Their motto was, perhaps, 'Even if it doesn' t help,
it can't hurt.'
Fortunately, it didn't help. But it meant that until further notice Korchnoi could
meet Soviet opponents only in matches. The confrontation peaked in 1 977, when
he successively met Petrosian, Polugaevsky, and Spassky. Petrosian went down
after a nerve-racking equal struggle, Polugaevsky never had a chance, and it
seemed at first that Spassky would be similarly run over: after nine games
Korchnoi had built up a lead of 6112-2112. At that point, Spassky began to exhibit a
remarkable pattern of behaviour: he appeared at the board only to make his
moves, and then he immediately sauntered backstage to muse over the course of
the game - a unique method of thought which appears to be not very efficient. In
stead of realising this, Korchnoi took it as a serious insult. He became extremely
upset and lost four games in a row. Only then did he slowly pull himself together.
With two draws and two more wins, he won the match by a comfortable margin
and went on to face Karpov.
This game is from the period before the relationship between Korchnoi and
Spassky was so radically disturbed.

1 e4 e6 him. He now uses the 'positional'


2 d4 d5 method preferred especially by Smys
3 lDc3 ..i.b4 lov and Fischer.
4 eS cS 7 ..i.d7
5 a3 .i.xc3+ 8 l0t'3 1i'aS
6 bxc3 ltle7 9 ..i.d2
7 a4 The important alternative is 9 'ii'd 2.
In the second game of this match 9 ltlbc6
Spassky chose the sharpest system 10 J.e2 f6 (D)
with 7 'ii'g 4, but it turned out badly for Attacking the centre immediately.
1 50 The Art of Chess Analysis

1 1 c4 'flc7
12 e:xf6
w I play 1 2 cxd5 first, which amounts
to a transposition of moves.
12 gxf6
13 cxd5 lLlxdS
14 c3
But now the game takes another
route. A gainst Korchnoi I tried 14 c4
to aim for the endgame after 14 ... lLlde7
1 5 dxc5 0-0-0 16 j,c3 e5 1 7 1i'd6. The
continuation was 1 7 . . lLlf5 1 8 'ii'x c7+
.

This was first played by Korchnoi, <li>xc7 19 0-0 lLlfd4 20 lLlxd4 lLlxd4 2 1
against me, in Leeuwarden 1 976. j,d 1 c6 and now White should have
B lack provokes his opponent to open further opened the position with 22 f4
the centre at once, an idea formerly (instead of 22 j,xd4 as played), after
considered too dangerous because of which the chances would have re
White's bishop-pair. mained balanced.
In the old days Botvinnik used to The text-move is based on a differ
close the centre with 10 ... c4. Planinc has ent strategy: White holds d4 so as to
had particular success against 10 . . . c4 prevent Black from quickly freeing his
with 1 1 lLlg5, and even the great expert game with e6-e5 . The centralised po
Uhlmann could not find a satisfactory sition of the knight on d5 helps Black
reply; e.g., Kavalek-Uhlmann, Manila to rapidly carry out this advance any
1 976: 10 . . . c4 l l lLlg5 h6 1 2 lLlh3 0-0-0 way.
1 3 lLlf4 <ti>b8 1 4 0-0 lLlc8 15 lLlh5 14 0-0-0
.:.hg8 1 6 j,g4 lLlb6 17 .:.e 1 lLlxa4 1 8 15 0-0 .:.hg8
.:.e3 b 5 1 9 .:.f3 j,e8 20 .:.g3 lLle7 2 1 16 .:.e1 (D)
j, c 1 lLlg6 2 2 j,a3 aS 2 3 'ii'd 2 'ilc7 A very tense position. After this
24 j,h3 j,d7 25 j,d6 1i'c6 26 .:.n move the storm breaks, but 16 g3
j,cS 27 f4 f5 28 exf6 gxf6 29 f5 ! and would also have been answered by
White broke the position open. 1 6 . . . e5 17 c4 lLlf4 with complications
Later, Vaganian tried 1 0 . . . 'ii'c 7 and similar to those in the game.
reached a good position against Klo 16 .. e5!
van after 1 1 0-0 0-0 12 .:.e1 h6 1 3 j,f4 Very sharply judged.
lLlg6 1 4 j,g3 lLlce7 . Kuraj ica, against 17 c4
me, later improved White's play : 1 3 The standard reaction. White wants
'ii'c 1 f6 1 4 exf6 .:.xf6 1 5 1i'a3 ! c4 1 6 to establish a strong protected passed
lLle5 and White stood better. pawn in the centre. Spassky now had
Spassky - Korchnoi 151

1 8 . . . .!Llf4 1 9 .i.xf4 l:xd4 20 1i'c 1 ; e.g.,


20 ... .i. xg2 21 .i.g4+ ! 'ii? b8 22 .!Lle6, or
20 . . . .i.f5 2 1 .i.e3 fxg5 22 .i.xd4 .!Llxd4
23 .i.d 1 and Black does not have
enough compensation. Much stronger
is 1 8 . . . .i. xg2, leading to very intricate
and interesting complications which
do not seem unfavourable for Black. It
is irrelevant, however. After 1 8 .!Llg5
tDc3 ! the white attack is refuted ele
gantly and convincingly. Black re
mains at least a pawn ahead with an
only forty minutes left on his clock, overwhelming position.
Korchnoi eighty. The tension was pal
pable.
17 .i.h3
This blow makes the game more
complicated than it would have been
after 17 . . . .!Llf4 . But it is no worse a
move, since 17 . . . .!Llf4 1 8 .i.xf4 exf4 1 9
d 5 .i.h3 produces the same position as
the best variation after Black's next
move.
17 . . . e4 is bad because of 18 cxd5
exf3 1 9 .i.xf3 .!Llxd4 20 .i.c3 with po
sitional advantage for White.
18 .an (D) 18 .!Llb6
1 8 g3 is bad here because after The piece sacrifice Korchnoi has in
1 8 . . . .!Llf4 1 9 .i.xf4 exf4 Black already mind looks overwhelming, but in the
threatens a decisive double capture on end it turns out to be not very promis
g3, a good example of how quickly ing. The alternatives are:
the black attack can develop. 1 ) 1 8 . . . l:txg2+. This direct try fails
A very interesting possibility is 1 8 to 1 9 .i.xg2 'ilg7 20 .!Llh4 .!Llxd4 2 1
tDg5 , to keep the g-file closed. Three l:ta3 and the rook goes to g3.
white men are attacked, and in such 2) 18 ... .!Llde7 19 d5 .!Lld4 20 tDxd4
cases a countersacritice is not out of cxd4 . A very interesting position. Al
place. B ut which one should Black though Black seems to have a nice
take? 1 8 . . . fxg5 1 9 cxd5 is simply bad, pawn front, it is destroyed by 2 1 1i'f3
and White has the advantage also after i.f5 22 i.b4 e4 23 l:txe4 ! i.xe4 24
152 The Art of Chess Analysis

'ii'x e4, and White has all the trumps 22 e4


with his pair of bishops and two pawns This is the only way for Black to
for the exchange. win his piece back, because after
3) 1 8 . . . lill4 ! is undoubtedly the 22 . . . l:td3 White can defend with 23
strongest move. After 1 9 ..i.xf4 exf4 'ii'c 2 'ii'd5 24 .ie3, and 22 . . . l:tg4 is met
20 d5 ..i.g4 ! 2 1 'ii'b 3 ..i.xf3 22 1i'xf3 by 23 'ii'e 2 J:.e4 24 .ie3 and, at best,
lDd4 Black has a fairly large positional Black can get a third pawn for his
advantage thanks to his strong knight. piece.
19 dS xc4 23 'iVb3 (D)
The follow-up to the previous
move.
20 dxc6 'ii'xc6
White ' s position seems very vul
nerable. Strangely enough, it turns out
all right. Immediate attempts to force
matters fail ; e.g., after 20 . . . .txg2 2 1
.ixg2 'ii'x c6, 2 2 g5 i s good enough.
21 g3 (D)

A roughly equal alternative is 2 3


'ii'c 2. After 23 . . . 'ii'd 5 24 l:tfc 1 Black has
the choice of having his pawn on e4 or
f3. In the first case, after 24 . . . xd2 25
xd2 'ii'xd2 26 'ii'x c5+ b8 27 1i'c7+
a8 28 l:tab l he must be prepared to
defend passively with 28 . . .l:tb8 . There
fore, the second choice is better be
cause of Black's mate threats on the
The only move. 2 1 l:ta2 fails to back rank: 24 . . . exf3 25 'ii'xc4 'ii'x d2
2 l . . . xd2 22 l:txd2 l:txd2 23 'ii'x d2 26 'ii' x c5+ b8, and now 27 'ii'f5 is
'ii' xf3 and wins. best, to recover the pawn. The chances
21 .txn are equal.
22 l:txfl Playing to win the exchange with
Not 22 xfl because of 22 . . . 'ii'x f3 24 l:tfd 1 (instead of 24 l:tfc l ) fails af
23 'ii' x f3 xd2+ and Black stays two ter 24 . . . exf3 25 .ia5 'ife6 followed by
pawns ahead. 26 . . . 'ifh3 and mate.
Spassky - Korchnoi 15 3

23 'ii'dS f-pawn indirectly protected after 28


24 l:.acl (D) .tf4 with 28 . . . l:.gf8. Black is not badly
It is possible that Spassky had been off as far as material is concerned, but
planning 24 l:.fd l here, since now it his pieces do not work well together. It
wouldn ' t fail as it did with the queen is understandable why Korchnoi did
on c2 (Black's f3-pawn hangs). But not enter this variation.
24 ... 5 would be lethal. 25 lDxd2 'ii'xd2
26 :xeS+ b8
27 l:.bl
Now it looks as though White is
taking over the attack, but it has little
potency.
27 l:.g7
28 l:bS l:.dd7
29 'ii'e6 e3
The safest way to a draw.
30 fxe3 llge7
31 'iVg8+ lld8
32 'it'b3 l:t8d7
Korchnoi offered a draw here, but
24 lDxd2 Spassky, with a forced draw in hand,
24 . . . 5 seems a crushing blow, refused.
but closer analysis shows that it works 33 'iVg8+ l:.d8
out badly. White replies 25 l:.xc5 + ! 34 ft3 l!z . 1/z
1Yxc5 2 6 l:.c l , and Keene concludes Spassky offered the draw, and
that White stands clearly better after Korchnoi accepted. After the forced
26 . . . 'it'xc 1 + 27 .txc l lDxf3+ 28 g2, 34 . . . l:.8d7 35 'ii'g 8+ he could have de
for White's queen and bishop combine manded a draw by the repetition rule,
very well indeed. Stronger is 27 . . . exf3 but the personal tensions were not yet
(instead of 27 . . . lDxf3+) to keep the so great at this stage.
G a m e Twe nty
Korchnoi - Karpov
World Championship Match (21) ,

Baguio City 1978


Qu een's G a m bit Decli n ed
After the 1 977 Final Candidates Match, worse was expected of the ensuing World
Championship Match, and reality confirmed those fears. Fodder for sensation
seeking journalists was plentiful in Baguio City, but what was most striking about
it was how uninteresting the off-the-board complications were, compared to
those in Reykj avik 1 972, for example. I no longer remember whether Zukhar was
sitting in one of the first four rows of the auditorium during this game or was with
the rest of the Russian delegation in the rear of the hall, or whether Korchnoi or a
member of his entourage was protesting about something or other, or whether the
Ananda Marga members, with or without their folkloric costumes, were sitting in
the hall or whether the Russians had already convinced the partisan match jury to
make them leave both Korchnoi's villa and the city of Baguio.
From now on I will discuss only the game.
A very interesting opening. Karpov came up with something new, but the Rus
sian team's preparation did not seem to be very thorough. Perhaps it was an at
tempt to bluff Korchnoi, but it failed miserably. Korchnoi had no problems with it
and dictated matters throughout the game. Neither side seemed to have analysed
carefully after adjournment. White's ultimate victory looked convincing, but
analysis shows that some mistakes were made.

1 c4 .!Df6 bishop does not exert maximum pres


2 3 e6 sure on the centre.
3 .!Df3 d5 7 dxc5 J.xc5
4 d4 J.e7 In Ribli-Gligoric, Bled/Portoroz
5 J.f4 1 979, Black varied with 7 . . . lDc6 8
Korchnoi earlier used to swear by the 'ii'c 2 o!Db4, but after 9 1i'd 1 .i.xc5 1 0
classical 5 J.g5, but the innocent-look a 3 .!Dc6 1 1 'ii'c 2 the play nevertheless
ing text contains a fair dose of venom. entered the paths of this game via a
5 0-0 different order of moves. But now Gli
6 e3 c5 goric found a new set-up: instead of
The logical reaction now, since the developing his queen on a5 he played
development of White's queen's 1 1 . . .'ii'e7 , and after 1 2 l:td 1 l:td8 1 3
Korchnoi - Karpov 155

i.e2 h6 1 4 cxd5 exd5 1 5 0-0 i.e6 16 White ( Karpov-Spassky, Montreal


a4 i.d6 17 i.xd6 l:r.xd6 1 8 c5 1 979).
i.g4 1 9 d4 White had a slight ad- 2) 1 1 . . .e5 12 i.g5 d4 13 b3 (D):
vantage.
8 'ii'cl c6
9 l:r.d1 'ifaS
10 a3 8
An important position for theory,
the more so because it can arise from
the Nimzo-lndian ( 1 d4 f6 2 c4 e6 3
c3 i.b4 4 'Wc2 c5 5 dxc5 0-0 6 f3
c6 7 i. f4 i.xc5 8 e3 d5 9 l:[d 1 'WaS
1 0 a3). In fact, the only difference is
that here Black has played . . . i.f8-
e7xc5 instead of ... i.f8-b4xc5 .
10 l:.e8 (D)
2a) 1 3 . . . 1i'd8 14 i.e2 h6 (in Ree
Kuijpers, Leeuwarden 1 978, Spas
sky 's old move 14 . . . g4 appeared to
be unsatisfactory after 1 5 i.xe7 'ii'xe7
1 6 exd4 'ii'h4 17 g3 'ikh3 1 8 d5 4
1 9 xd4 exd4 20 l:r.xd4 lle8 2 1 l:le4
i.d7 22 i.fl 'ii' h 5 and now White
played the important improvement 23
h3 ! , instead of 23 i.e2 1i'h3 with repe
tition of moves as in Portisch-Spassky,
Havana 1 966) 1 5 i.xf6 i.xf6 1 6 0-0
i.e6 17 c5 'We7 18 xe6 'ilxe6 1 9
d5 with advantage to White (Korch
A novelty with an interesting idea noi-Karpov, 9th match game 1 978).
behind it but which nevertheless seems 2b) 13 ... ft'b6 14 i.xf6 i.xf6 15
doomed to failure . The usual move is d5 'ii'd 8 16 i.d3 g6 1 7 exd4 xd4
10 . . . i.e7, which White answers with 1 8 xd4 exd4 19 xf6+ 'ifxf6 20 0-0
1 1 d2. Important recent examples .i.e6 2 1 l:tfe 1 l:tac8 22 b3 l:lfd8 and
are: Black could just hold equality (Korch
1 ) 1 1 . . .i.d7 12 i.e2 l:r.fc8 1 3 0-0 noi-Karpov, 23rd match game 1 978).
'Wd8 14 cxd5 exd5 15 f3 h6 16 5 11 2!
i.e6 1 7 xc6 l:r.xc6 1 8 i. f3 'Wb6 1 9 Korchnoi saw clearly that he need
i.e5 with a lasting positional plus for not avoid the black threats . On the
1 56 The Art of Chess Analysis

contrary, he deliberately invites the - that Black is in almost insurmount


following storm, which seems only to able difficulties.
compromise the black position. The
cautious 1 1 o!De.5 achieves nothing, and
1 1 b4 is simply bad due to l l . . .xb4,
etc. w
11 eS?
Consistent but bad.
12 i.gS d4 (D)

Superficially, everything seems


very nice for Black: his knight move
to d4 has allowed him also to develop
his queen's bishop with tempo. All
Black's pieces are splendidly devel
oped and are in threatening positions.
But what do they threaten? White's
S o this was the idea. Black quickly position offers no points of attack.
gets a decisive attack after 1 3 exd4 Black's knight, which sprang to d4
exd4+ 14 e2 g4 . Korchnoi is un with such force, is now hanging and in
perturbed and replies without too fact prevents the advance of the d
much thought. pawn. Thus, d5 is a sensitive weak
13 1i'b1 i.fS point in Black's position. White threat
14 i.d3 e4 (D) ens at any time to capture Black's
' Karpov must have had this posi king's knight with the bishop, and, af
tion on the board at home,' Bouw ter due preparation, Black's hanging
meester remarks in his book about this queen's knight too.
match, Het schaak der wraken ('The It seems to me that the Russians as
Chess of Revenge' ). sumed the following in their prepara
This, I think, is a gross underesti tions: the move 10 . . . .l:.e8 carried the
mation of Karpov's powers of judge threat of 1 1 . . .e5 followed by 1 2 ... 4;
ment. A short analysis should be White's reply would obviously be 1 1
enough to convince any expert - Tal, clDe5 . That move was undoubtedly an
Zaitsev, B alashov, or Karpov himself alysed thoroughly, and the probable
Korchnoi - Karpov 157

conclusion was that Black would have suppose that he himself (Kholmov
little to fear. Perhaps 1 1 d2 was dis that is) doesn't take it very seriously.'
cussed briefly and dismissed on the But not everyone was of this opin
grounds that Korchnoi would quickly ion. Dvoretsky emphatically recom
get into time trouble due to the inevi mends the line given by Dolmatov:
table complications, and in that case 15 . . . g4 16 cxd5 e5 . He then con
the correctness of the black moves siders 17 i.f4 3+ 18 i.xd3 exd3 1 9
would not play too great a role. 0-0 e2+ 2 0 xe2 dxe2 2 1 'ii'xf5 to
Korchnoi, however, showed his be the best line for White.
best side: no time trouble, but a clear Chances are then roughly equal .
headed, strong reaction. The question remains whether Black's
lS i.c2 attack after 1 7 exd4 i.xd4 18 i.e3
Good enough to keep a clear advan i.xe3 1 9 fxe3 11fc5 is really so strong
tage, but the Steinitzian retreat 1 5 as Dvoretsky wishes it to appear.
i.fl ! would have led to a winning po After 20 dxe4 'ii'x e3+ 2 1 i.e2 in
sition after some complications. For my opinion Black has insufficient
instance: compensation for the piece. In order to
1) 15 . . . g4 . In my original anno substantiate this assessment I give the
tation I stated : 'Given by Kholmov in following variations:
Shakhmaty v SSSR. He continues 1 6 1 a) 2 1 . . .i.g4 22 g3 (above all,
xd5 e5 ? ! 1 7 exd4? e3 ! 1 8 'ifxf5 not 22 11fc 1 ?? 3+) 22 ...l:lac8 23 'ifc2
f3 +! ! 1 9 'ii'xf3 exd2 mate (exclama l:tc4 24 'it'd2 1i'b6 25 d6 and Black's
tion and question marks by Kholmov). attack no longer amounts to much.
Despite the three successive piece sac 1 b) 2 1 . . .g4 (the best chance) 22
rifices, the variation is rather clumsy l:td3 ! 'ii' b 6 (not 22 . . . i.xe4 because of
and pedestrian, and is scarcely rele 23 l:txe3, winning; 22 . . . 'ii'f4 23 l:tf3
vant since the black knight's move to 'tli'e5 24 :XC5 ! 'ii'xf5 25 i.xg4 'ii'xg4 26
e5 is intended merely to tempt White 0-0 also offers no chance) 23 l:tf3 (not
to capture on d4 . Moreover, 1 5 . . . g4 23 l:tg3 f2 ! ) 23 . . . i.g6 (or 23 . . . e3
is just a blow in the air after the simple 24 l:txe3 Wxe3 25 6+ gxf6 26 1i'xf5
1 6 cxd5 . Then the c4-square becomes 'ii'c 1 + 27 d 1 , followed by 28 0-0
available to both the knight and the with a winning advantage for White)
king's bishop while the knight on d4 24 l:tg3 ! and White keeps the upper
stays in the trap.' I was not the only hand in all cases; e.g.: 24 . . . ffi 25
one to think this. In his Het matchboek l:txg6, or 24 . . .f5 25 We t ! .
Karpov-Kortchnoi Hans Ree observes 2) 1 5 . . . i.xa3 . The most important
with regard to Kholmov's variation: move. White has the following possi
'Really very nice, but the distribu bilities after the forced 16 i.xf6 gxf6
tion of punctuation marks leads one to (D):
158 The Art of Chess Analysis

16 'ii'xc2 (D)

2a) 1 7 lL!xd5 ? i.b4 ! 1 8 lLlxf6+


rJ;g7 1 9 lLlxe8+ .C.xe8 and Black has a
continuing crushing initiative despite 16 'ii'a6
his material deficit. If White parries It is always difficult to choose be
the main threat 20 . . . lL!b3 with 20 b3, tween two evils. Kholmov gives the
then 20 ... i.g4 is very strong. text-move a question mark and claims
2b) 17 exd4 e3 18 'ii'xf5 exd2+ 1 9 that 16 . . . dxc4 offers equal play. He
rJ;xd2 i.xb2 2 0 'Wc2 'ii' b4 ! and Black gives two lines after 17 i.xf6 gxf6:
has his opponent in a vice; e.g., 2 1 I ) 1 8 b4 cxb3 1 9 lLlxb3 'ii'x a3 20
i.d3 dxc4 2 2 i.xh7+ rJ;g7 and Black l:lal 1i'b4 2 1 l:.a4 1i'b6 22 lL!d5 'Wc6 !
wins the sacrificed material back with and Black i s saved. This may be the
interest, or 2 1 h4 .C.e4 ! with a strong continuation Karpov feared, but White
attack. has no way to undertake really dan
2c) 17 cxd5 ! , as was the case after gerous action against the black king,
1 5 . . . lL!g4, is the correct way to take the as can be seen from 23 \i'xc5 1i'xa4 24
d-pawn. The best for Black is again lLlxf6+ rJ;g7 25 'ilkxf5 'Wxb3 26 1i'g5 +
17 . . . i.b4, but now comes 18 exd4. Af rJ;h8 ( n o t 26 . . . rJ;f8 ? ? 27 lL!d7 mate)
ter 1 8 . . . e3 1 9 'ii'xf5 i.xc3 20 bxc3 27 0-0 l:le6 possibly followed by
'Wxc3 2 1 'ii'g4+ ! rJ;h8 22 fxe3 l:lxe3+ 28 . . . l:lxf6, after which White has no
23 i.e2 l:lae8 24 0-0 Black's attack more than a draw by perpetual check.
has burned itself out. In other cases, 2) 1 8 lLlxc4 \i'a6 1 9 lLld5 llac8 20
too, White keeps a material advantage. \i'c3 i.e7 and White loses material .
15 ... lLlxc2+ This is mainly because of his 1 9th
Black exchanges his awkwardly move, but other moves also offer him
placed knight, but his problems re no advantage.
main because his other pieces are not But why should White take the c
well co-ordinated. pawn right away? Much stronger is 1 8
Korchnoi - Karpov 159

0-0, to attack the e-pawn. After all,


Black's weakened king position in-
vites attack. Black has no satisfactory W
solution to his problems; for example,
l 8 . . . 'it>g7 19 o!Oxc4 (now this is cor-
rect; less clear is 1 9 .!Qdxe4 lle5)
1 9 . . . 'ii'a6 20 lld5 and White's advan-
tage is undeniable.
It should also be pointed out that
1 6 . . . d4 (instead of the text-move) only
leads Black into a dead end after 1 7
o!Ob 3 d3 18 o!Oxa5 dxc2 1 9 l:r.c l and
Black loses a pawn without any com virtually forced 20 o!Od4 .txd4 2 1
pensation. l:.xd4 1i'g5 Tal gives 22 fl an excla
17 i.xf6 mation mark in 64, and almost the en
Korchnoi gives up his other bishop tire international chess press accepted
for a knight so that he can safely win a this without question. It is far from
pawn. 17 cxd5 would have made it un convincing, however. White's king's
necessarily difficult to castle. rook will be excluded from the game
17
... 'ii'xf6 for a long time, and Black can take ad
18 o!Ob3 vantage of this with 22 . . . llad8 (D).
As in the variations after White's For example:
1 5th move, capturing on d5 with the
knight deserves no recommendation.
After 18 o!Oxd5 1i'g5 1 9 0-0 Black gets
very good attacking chances with w
1 9 . . . .td6 (threatening 20 . . . .th3 with
out having to worry about 2 1 o!Of4) 20
h 1 lle6. But not 19 . . . .tg4?, as given
by Kholmov, because of 20 o!Oxe4 !
.txd 1 2 1 llxd l 'ii'g 6 22 f3 with supe
rior play for White.
Korchnoi intends to capture the
black d-pawn with a rook.
18
.t d6
19 llxdS lieS (D) 23 o!Od5 .te6 or 23 o!Oe2 .tg4 24
After this almost pointless move llxd8 .txe2+ ! 25 'it'xe2 (25 xe2
Black might have quickly gone down 'it'h5 + ! ) 25 . . . llxd8 26 g3 lld3 27 g2
hill. 19 . . . .te5 is required. After the 'it'f5 with sufficient compensation for
1 60 Th e A rt of Chess Analysis

the pawn, considering that 28 l:[d 1 ? 21 l:xeS (D)


fails to 28 . . . 'flf3+. Perhaps better is
first 23 l:[xd8 l:xd8 and only then 24
lile2. Black's most promising continu
ation then is probably 24 ... lld3 25 ltld4 8

h5 with compensation for the pawn.


22 g3 !, given by Andersson, is
much stronger than 22 fl . It seems
at first sight to create a serious weak
ness, but a closer look shows that
White's king does not face any serious
danger. White will 'castle' artificially
on the queenside via d 1 or d2, and
Black's compensation seems insuffi
cient; e.g., 22 . . . l:ad8 23 ltle2 .ig4 24 Korchnoi exchanges some pieces
l:[xd8 l:[xd8 (now the capture on e2 is with the clear intention of castling as
not with check) 25 ltld4. Incidentally, soon as possible. Objectively, this does
the question as to whether White can not throw away the win, but it does
do better with 22 fl or 22 g3 is not give Black the chance to fight back
really relevant, for Dvoretsky shows and reach an ending which is not alto
that 22 0-0 ! is possible. Viewed super gether hopeless.
ficially, Black then gets excellent play White can make short work of his
with 22 . . . .th3 23 f4 exf3 24 l:txf3 opponent with 21 f4 ! . If Black cap
.:.xe3. However, White takes advan tures en passant he loses a piece with
tage of Black's 'back-rank problem' out compensation: 2 l . . .exf3 22 ltlxf5
with 25 'fld2 ! l:[e 1+ 26 f2 'flxg2+ fxg2 23 l:[g l . If he takes on d5, his pair
27 xe 1 l:[e8+ 28 .:.e4 and wins. of bishops will have no future and
No more satisfactory for Black is White will be a pawn ahead with the
1 9 . . . 1i'g6. better position.
Kholmov shows that White beats 21 1i'xeS
off the enemy attack with 20 0-0 1i'h6 22 ltlxrs 'ii'xfS
(or 20 . . . .th3 21 f4) 2 1 g3 .ig4 22 23 0-0
ltlxe4 .if3 23 ltlbd2 .:.xe4 24 ltlxf3 ! The best. White returns the pawn
and Black is two pawns behind with temporarily but keeps the initiative. 23
out the slightest compensation. ltlxe4 is less convincing due to 23 . . . b5.
20 lLld4 .:.cs After 24 0-0 .:.xc4 25 'ifd2 .tc7 26
This makes possible a very strong ltJg3 1i'e6 27 1i'd3 g6 followed by
tactical manoeuvre, but there is no 28 . . . .te5 , Black is very active and
reasonable alternative. faces little genuine danger of losing.
Korchnoi - Karpov 161

23 :xc4 28 liJd5 White has a winning attack.


24 :dt 'ileS (D) Finally, Kholmov points out that Lar
sen's 26 . . . i.f6 (instead of 26 . . . 'ti'g5)
fails to 27 llJxe4 .i.xd4 28 liJf6+ ! with
mate or win of the queen.
w We may conclude that the move
chosen by Karpov is the most stub
born continuation.
25 g3 a6
26 'ii' b 3 bS
Black' s pieces seem to be working
together well again. With his next
move Korchnoi proves that the oppo
site is true.
27 a4! l:b4
Tal rejects this move and gives This leads to a hopeless ending, but
24 . . . i.e7 . He considers Black's pros there is nothing better.
pects to be not bad, having in mind the 28 1i'd5 'ii'xdS
variation 25 l:d4 :xd4 26 exd4 'ifg5 29 :xdS i.f8
27 llJxe4 'ilfd5 28 1i'd3 'ifa2. Except 30 axbS aS (D)
for Kholmov, the commentators once The only fighting chance. The win
again accepted this uncritically. Khol ning process would run smoothly after
mov's analysis of the match in Shakh 30 . . . axb5 3 1 :xb5 .
maty v SSSR is generally deep and
good, but he treats certain parts of this
game somewhat superficially, prob
ably because of lack of time or space. w
In the same issue (December 1 978) of
that Russian magazine, he provides
excellent extensive analysis of the
twentieth match game.
At this point he shows that he was
very alert. He completely refutes Tal's
analysis with the powerful move 27
g3 ! (instead of 27 llJxe4). White not
only makes room for his king but is
also ready to answer 27 . . . e3 with 28 31 AdS
f4. White has a won position after A remarkable decision. The alter
27 . . . 'ti'g4 28 'ti'xe4, and after 27 . . . f5 native 3 1 b6 :Z.xb6 32 :xa5 :Z.xb2 33
1 62 The Art of Chess Analysis

l0xe4 leads to an ending that would be f8 70 f6 e5 7 1 xe5 xf7 72


drawn without the minor pieces but f5, l-0.
which must be a win with the bishop Pritchett defended himself not at all
and knight on the board. This is be badly in this game but finally could
cause the play takes place only on one not avoid going under. The execution
side of the board, a situation in which of the victory took forty-six moves,
the knight is clearly stronger than the which provides food for thought: Kor
bishop-long diagonals play no role. chnoi was undoubtedly hoping for a
A recent example is Portisch-Prit quicker win and correctly saw that
chett, Buenos Aires Olympiad 1 978 keeping the advanced passed b-pawn
(played shortly after this match). would guarantee it.
31 ... l:.xb2
32 :as rs
Black has two ways of trying to
reach an ending of four pawns to three
on one wing, but both fail:
l ) 32 ... l:b3 33 l0d5 g6 34 l:.xa5
i.c5 35 b6 ! i.xb6 36 l:.a8+ g7 39
l:tb8 winning a piece.
2) 32 . . . a4 33 l:.xa4 l:.b3 34 l:.c4 g6
35 l:.c6 (threatening 36 b6) 35 . . . i.g7
36 l:.c8+ i.f8 and now after 37 g4, the
strongest move, Black has no chances
whatsoever; e.g., 37 . . . g7 38 l:.c6 or
26 . . . h5 27 l:.b7 i.e5 28 l0f3 i.f6 29 37 . . . f5 38 gxf5 gxf5 39 g2 f7 40
g2 l:.e8 30 e3 l:.e7 3 1 l:.b5 g7 32 l:.c7+ and now 40 . . . e6 is met by 4 1
l0d2 l:.e5 33 l:.b4 i.e? 34 l:.b7 i.f6 35 l0e2, and after 40. . .g6 4 1 l:.c6+ fol-
f3 l:.e7 36 l:.b3 l:.e6 37 l0e4 i.e? 38 lowed by 42 b6 White also has matters
l:.b7 l:.e5 39 l:.d7 l:.e6 40 l0c3 i.f8 4 1 all his own way.
lLle2 l:e7 4 2 l:d3 l:e5 43 lLlf4 l:e7 44 The text gives White the greatest
l:d5 l:c7 45 l0d3 l:.c6 46 e4 l:.a6 47 technical problems as the knight will
e3 g8 48 h3 i.h6+ 49 f4 l:.a3 50 later have to move to the edge of the
g4 hxg4 5 1 hxg4 i.g7 52 l:.d8+ h7 board to defend the b-pawn.
53 g5 l:a1 54 e5 l:.g1 55 l0c5 l:.g3+ 56 33 l:.xaS i. b4
f2 l:.a3 57 l0e4 l:.a2+ 58 f3 l:.a3+ 34 l:.a8+ m
59 g4 l:a4 60 lLlf6+ i.xf6 61 gxf6 35 l0a4 (D)
l:a6 62 l:.f8 l:.a7 63 e6 fxe6 64 l:e8 The attack on the rook is necessary
h6 65 l:.h8+ l:.h7 66 l:xh7+ xh7 because after 35 l0d5 i.e 1 Black gets
67 g5 h8 68 xg6 g8 69 f7 + counterplay.
Korchnoi - Karpov 163

35 l:tbl+ 42 . . . l:txb6 fails to 43 l:ta5+ f6 44


36 g2 i.d6 d5+. Relatively better is 4 l . . .e6
37 l:ta7+ f6 (instead of 4 1 . . . e5), but White plays
38 b6 i.b8 42 .!Zk:7+ d7 43 liX:8 ! and simplifies
Kholmov looks at 38 . . . h5 , but then to a winning ending; e.g., 43 . . . g6 44
White wins easily after 39 .!Zk:3 l:tb3 xd6 xd6 45 l:tb8 c6 46 h4 ! and
40 d5+ e6 4 1 f4+ ! i.xf4 42 Black has no defence. The pawn end
gxf4 g6 43 b7 and the white king ing after 46 . . . l:xb6 47 l:txb6+ xb6
penetrates via g5 . 48 g4 ! is lost, and 46 . . . l:tb1 47 l:h8
39 l:[aS (D) l:txb6 48 l:txh7 d5 49 l:h6 followed
An idea of Panno's is 39 l:tc7 , by 50 h5 is equally hopeless. After the
which is quite justified tactically, as text-move White can indeed advance
we see in 39 . . . i.xc7 40 bxc7 l:tc 1 4 1 his passed pawn, but his knight does
b6 l:txc7 42 d5 + or 3 9. . .l:tb4 40 not give it strong support from c5, and
c5 l:txb6 41 d7+ g6 42 l:tc8. But it is this factor which makes the win
the move achieves little after 39 . . . h5 difficult.
for instance. The winning variation 40 cS i.d6
given in the notes to the previous 41 b7 rj;e7
move is no longer possible. 42 l:tg8 i. eS
39
.. i.eS 43 f4
Various commentators have incor The sealed move, and clearly the
rectly called this the decisive mistake. strongest. Black must capture en pas
39 . . . i.d6, given as better, loses much s ant because his bishop is tied to the
more quickly because the white knight defence of g7 and b8. White's king
then plays a decisive role in the strug will now have more room to manoeu-
gle: 40 c3 l:tb3 4 1 d5+ e5 42 vre.
7 ! . The main threat is 43 l:te8+, and 43
exf3+
1 64 Th e Art of Chess Analysis

44 <Rxf3 fj;f7 (D) l:d5 ! (D), the most obvious move and
the strongest. Black has two reason
able replies:

45 l:c8
Keene, in his book on the match,
writes that Korchnoi 's team analysed l ) 4S . . . i.bS (to keep White's king
the adj ourned position until the last out of the centre for the moment) 49
possible moment and wasted a lot of exf5 i.a7 (threatening to simplify to a
time on the unnecessary piece sacri drawn rook ending) 50 f6 ! (a charac
fice 45 l:dS <Re7 46 l:d7+ <ReS 47 e4 teristic tactical twist) 50 .. . gxf6 5 1 /0e4
l:b5 4S exf5 l:xc5 49 l:xg7. They with an easy win.
could not find a clear winning line af 2) 4S . . . fxe4+ 49 <Rxe4 i.bS 50
ter 49 . . . h6 ! . Korchnoi chose the text <Rd4 (or 50 <Rd3) 50 . . . i.a7 5 1 <Rc4
move at the last moment; since no l:b6 (on 5 l .. .l:bl or 5 l . . .l:b2, 52 1tlb3
concrete winning variation had been is immediately decisive) 52 /0e4 ! (D).
found, he decided to hold the position
as it was.
However, Keene and Stean were on
the right track. The introductory moves B
of the variation, 45 l:dS <Re7 46 l:.d7+
<ReS 47 e4 l:b5 are completely logical.
Maybe they underestimated White's
chances. After a brief look, Andersson
and I came to the conclusion that
White must be winning and that a
forced winning variation, hidden or
not, existed. After nearly an hour's
search, our analysis continued with 4S
Korchnoi - Karpov 165

Another characteristic idea. White Keene gives this an exclamation


threatens 53 l:.b5 to swap rooks and to mark and even describes it as a subtle
make it difficult for Black even to give trap. And it is, too. Objectively, the
up his bishop for the b-pawn . The last best move is 46 l:tg8, to answer
stand now is 52 . . . J.b8 53 l:.b5 l:te6 54 46 . . . <itJf7 with 47 l:.d8 (see the notes to
lbcS l:.e2, but White still wins after 55 the previous move). The text-move
lba6 J. a7 56 b8'ik+ J. xb8 57 l:txb8+ lengthens the diagonal of Black's
f7 58 h3 ! l:th2 59 h4. But definitely bishop and puts the win in doubt. Kar
not 5 8 h4? l:.e3 59 l:.b3 l:txb3 60 pov, however, is not able to take full
xb3 g6 and the black king pene advantage of it.
trates, ensuring a draw. 46 e4 is another interesting winning
All in all, a not too difficult and try. The difference from the winning
fairly forced variation. Note that White variation in the notes to White's 45th
keeps the pawn formation h2-g3 in move is that with 46 . . . fxe4+ 47 xe4
tact; to limit the diagonal of Black's i.d6 48 d5 J.xc5 49 b8ti' l:txb8 50
bishop. l:txb8 Black reaches an ending that is a
To give a balanced view of the cir theoretical draw with the bishop on
cumstances, it is not inappropriate to the al -h8 diagonal - but it's hard to
point out that Andersson and I did this see how to get it there. Best seems
analysis far from the pressure and the 50 . . . J.gl 5 1 h3 f7. and I think Black
heat of battle whereas Korchnoi's sec need not despair.
onds had to try to find something in a 46
... hS?
few short hours. This was not the first A baffling inaccuracy. Black wants
time that the requisite sharp, objective to prevent the advance of White's g
vision was clouded by such factors. pawn, but in so doing he makes possi
45 fj;;e7 ble a smooth winning method that was
46 h3 (D) not in the position before. 46 . . . g6,
given by Larsen, is equally unsatisfac
tory because of 47 lbd3 J.d6 48 l:th8
hS 49 lbf4 f6 SO l:th7 and sooner or
later Black will have to permit a rook
ending that he will slowly but surely
lose.
The move 46 . . . l:tb5 !, however, puts
some spokes in the wheel and gives
White serious problems; e.g., 47 g4
fxg4+ 48 hxg4 J.d6 49 e4 h6 (not
49 . .. g6 50 g5 ! and Black does not get a
passed pawn) 50 d3 (if 50 fS then
1 66 The Art of Chess Analysis

not 50 . . . i.xc5 5 1 b8'ii' .J:lxb8 52 .J:lxb8 win. The main variation runs 48 . . . e7
i.xe3 53 g6 i.d4 54 .J:lg8 and White 49 .J:ld7+ e8 (otherwise he loses ma
wins, but 50 . . . f7 and if 5 1 e4?? then terial : 49 . . . f6 50 .J:ld5 i.b8 5 1 .J:ld8
White is suddenly mated with 5 l . ..g6) i.c7 52 b8'it' or 50 . . . i.c7 5 1 lba6 !
50 . . . .J:lb4 ! 5 1 e4 (if 5 1 c3, now .l:xb7 52 .:td7 winning a piece) 50 .J:ld5
5 l . . .i.xc5) 5 l . ..i.e5 ! (D). i.b8 5 1 .J:lxf5 and White wins the
black h-pawn also after 5 l . . .i.d6 52
lLle4 . If his pawn were still on h7,
Black would have good drawing
w chances after 52 . . . i.e7 followed by
53 . . . .J:lxb7.
48
gS
Desperation.
49 g4
The surest way. White is not misled
by 49 lLld3 , which leads to a draw af
ter 49 . . . g4+ 50 hxg4+ hxg4 5 1 t2
e7 ! 52 lDxe5 xd8 53 b8'ii'+ .J:lxb8
54 lDc6+ c7 55 lDxb8 xb8 5 6 e4
This last variation was given by An c7 57 e3 d6 (Tal).
dersson. It is difficult to see how White A good move is 49 lLld7, given by
can make progress after 46 . . . .J:lb5 . Kholmov. After 49 . . . g4+ 50 hxg4
47 .J:lg8 f7 Black has two ways of recapturing:
48 lld8 (D) 1) 50 . . . fxg4+ 5 1 e4 i.xg3 52
b81t' i.xb8 5 3 .J:lxb8. Kholmov stops
here. If Black does not exchange
rooks, 54 lLle5+ will be decisive, and
53 . . . .J:lxb8 54 lLlxb8 h4 55 lDc6 f6
56 f4 h3 57 lDe5 g3 58 lDg4+ fol
lowed by 59 xg3 also leads to an
easy win for White.
2) 50 ... hxg4+ 5 1 e2 .J:lb2+ 52 3
i.xg3 53 b8'it' i.xb8 54 .J:lxb8 . Khol
mov again gives no further analysis.
This time, avoiding the exchange of
rooks is bad because of 55 .J:lb6 fol
lowed by 56 lDe5 , and 54 . . . .1:xb8 55
With White's pawn on h3 and lDxb8 f6 56 lLlc6 g5 57 lDd4 g3 5 8
Black's on h5 this leads to a fairly easy e2 g4 5 9 fl i s also hopeless for
Korchnoi - Karpov 1 67

Black because 59 . . . f4 60 e4 f3 fails to Certainly not 54 <"/;f5 ?? because of


6 l lbxf3. 54 . . . i.xc5 drawing. White must keep
49 hxg4+ his e-pawn safe.
There is no time for 49 . . .fxg4+ 50 54 llgl+
hxg4 h4 on account of 5 1 ltld7 and 55 r5 g4
Black doesn' t even get a pawn for the 56 e5
piece. Korchnoi has plotted a very elegant
50 hxg4 <"/;e7 course to victory. 56 b8'ii' is good
51 :gs fxg4+ enough too, of course.
If 5 1 . . .'itf7 then again 52 :cs ! . 56 :n+
Kholmov then gives 52 . . .fxg4+ 5 3 57 <t;e4 :et +
xg4 i.d6 5 4 e 4 i.f4 5 5 c.t>f5 : n 56 58 <t;d5 Adt +
lbd7 <t;e? 57 e5 and wins. 59 lbdJ!
52 <t;xg4 q;r7 This is the point.
53 Ac8 i.d6 59 llxd3+
54 e4 60 'Ot>c4 1-0
Game Twenty-one
Kasparov - Pol ugaevsky
46th USSR Championship, Tbilisi 1978
Sici lian Defence, Modern Pau lsen Variation
Karpov i s the only member o f the generation o f Russian players born around
1 950 to have really reached the top. For a while it seemed that Romanishin would
succeed too, but after a few tournament victories his results fluctuated again. The
older generation of Petrosian, Polugaevsky, and Tal will not be easily surpassed,
it seems. But Garry Kasparov might well be the one to do it: he won the tourna
ment at B anja Luka 1 979 two full points ahead of second place, and during the
tournament he celebrated his sixteenth birthday.
Kasparov had made his debut the previous year in the Soviet Championship,
where he scored fifty percent. His win against Polugaevsky was undoubtedly the
most striking. After his very opportunistic pawn sacrifice in a well-known theo
retical position the play became extremely sharp, but it was soon apparent that
Black was not in great danger despite all the complications. Polugaevsky went
wrong only in the endgame, after refusing a draw offer.
Polugaevsky is a generally solid player who seldom loses despite his fairly en
terprising style. This was his only loss in the Championship. In fact, it was not un
til the Spartakiade, half a year later, that he lost another game - to Kasparov.

1 e4 cS 6 .tel bS
2 lbf3 e6 This advance is completely sound
3 d4 cxd4 now that White has developed his
4 lbxd4 a6 king's bishop.
Polugaevsky does not play this sys 7 .tf3 .ib7
tem often. He prefers the Najdorf and 8 0-0 lbc6
sometimes the Scheveningen. 9 lbxc6 dxc6 (D)
5 lbc3 'fkc7 A known theoretical position. Most
5 . . . b5 is known to be somewhat of the examples now continue 10 a4 ;
premature because of 6 .id3. A recent for example, 1 0 . . . .id6 1 1 axb5 cxb5
example is Tal-Ljubojevic, Montreal 12 e5 .ixe5 1 3 lbxb5 axb5 14 l:txa8+
1 979: 6 ....ib7 7 0-0 lbc6 8 lbxc6 .ixc6 .ixa8 15 .ixa8 .ixh2+ 16 h 1 .id6
9 1i'e2 lbf6 10 e5 lbd5 1 1 lbxd5 .ixd5 with roughly equal play (Estrin-Polu
1 2 a4 1i'a5 1 3 l:td 1 with advantage to gaevsky, US SR 1 964). A more cau
White. tious approach is 1 1 g3 . White won
Kasparov - Polr.gaevsky 169

quickly with this in Liberzon-Torre, d6+ .i.xd6 1 8 l:lxd6 e7 1 9 l:led 1


Bad Lauterberg 1977: 1 l ..ie5 12 i.g2 i.a8 and Black consolidated his extra
f6 1 3 f4 l:ld8 14 1!Vf3 i.d4+ 15 h 1 pawn. White's 12 i.g5 hardly seems
e5? 1 6 g4 ! exf4 1 7 i.xf4 'ile7 1 8 eS the right way to get compensation for
00 1 9 i.g5 f6 20 exf6 gxf6 2 1 l:lae1 the pawn. More purposeful and better
i.e5 22 xd5 and Black resigned. is 1 2 11Vxd6 i.xd6 1 3 e4 i.e7 1 4
Better is 1 5 . . . 0-0 and not much is go i.e3 followed b y 1 5 5. after which
ing on. White has reasonable pressure for the
Kasparov decides to sacrifice. pawn. Understandably, Polugaevsky
chooses the text-move, having cor
rectly calculated that he will face little
danger despite the presence of queens
w on the board.
12 i.hS
There is no other way to try to prove
the correctness of the pawn sacrifice.
12 .te7 (D)

10 eS! ?
Good o r bad? Kasparov and Sakh
arov put a ' ? ! ' (dubious) after the move
in their notes in the Informant. My
analysis indicates that it is neither bet
ter nor worse than the normal theoreti
cal paths. Nearly all the variations
lead finally to equal positions.
10
'ii'xeS This move ought to do in any case.
Naturally, he accepts the offer. 1 2 . . . g6 is bad, of course, because of 1 3
1 1 l:lel 'flc7 'ii'd4.
Black can force an ending with 13 Axe6 g6
1 1 . . .11Vd6, since after 12 'ii'e2 f6 he The sharpest: Black aims to win
would simply be a pawn ahead. Barle material. 13 . . . f6 is quieter. Kasparov
Miles, B led/Portorof 1 979, continued and Sakharov reject that move be
1 2 .tg5 11Vxd 1 1 3 Aaxd 1 .te7 1 4 lbe4 cause of 1 4 e4, with the point that
f6 1 5 i.xf6 gxf6 16 .i.h5 Aa7 ! 1 7 14 . . . xh5 15 'ii'xh5 0-0 1 6 i. f4 leads
170 The Art of Chess Analysis

to 'slightly better play for White.' This 14 .:et


judgement is undoubtedly correct if A forced piece sacrifice. 1 4 1i'd4 is
Black now takes on f4, but he has bet bad because 1 4 . . . fxe6 1S 'fi'xhS 0-0-0
ter: 1 6 . . . 'ii'd7 ! , and White's rook is 16 .i.g4 .i.f6 is in Black's favour. B el
suddenly in serious trouble. It has only lin notes in International CHess that
one square, as the combinational try 17 1S .i.f4 (instead of 15 'fi'xhS) is refuted
lOgS would work only after 1 7 . . . xgS by 1S . . . eS 1 6 .i.xeS 'fi'dS . Simpler,
1S .:d6 'fi'fS 1 9 1i'xgS 'fi'xc2? 20 eS, however, is 1S . . . .i.f6 (as in Shamko
but not after 17 . . . h6 1 S .:xh6 gxh6 1 9 vich-Arnason, Lone Pine 1 9SO), and
'ifxh6 'fi'fS and White has run out of White is behind too much material .
steam. Therefore, 1 7 .:es . But now 14... AdS
comes 17 . . .f6 (D). Polugaevsky does not want to ac
cept the sacrifice immediately, but
14 . . . gxhS is not so very risky. Kaspar
ov and S akharov give two continu
w ations and conclude that Black gets a
clear advantage in both.
1 ) l S .i.gS cS . Thus far Kasparov
and Sakharov. Black indeed has the
better prospects, as we see in 1 6 lOdS
.i.xdS 17 'ifxd5 .:ds 18 'fi'f3 f8 ! and
White's grip on the position weakens,
allowing Black to bring his material
advantage to bear.
2) l S 1i'd4. Without doubt the
Things look precarious for White strongest move. White forces 1 S . . . f6,
because after 1 S lOcS xeS 1 9 :xeS after which he has the following possi
11Vd4 he loses material on the queen bilities:
side. However, he can just save him 2a) 1 6 1i'd l . This is given by Kas
self with 1 S .:d 1 1i'eS 1 9 l0d6 ! 1i'xhS parov and Sakharov. By playing his
20 .:xh5 :adS 2 1 .:h3 followed by 22 queen back, White ensures that the en
.:hd3 - a narrow escape. emy king is kept in the centre. Initially
The question arises whether 14 I thought that this was White's best at
l0e4, given a n exclamation mark by tacking continuation, but closer ex
Kasparov and Sakharov in their notes, amination showed me that White's
is really that strong. More solid is 1 4 game runs out of steam, as a result of
.i.gS 0-0 I S .:e l . After l S . . . .:feS 1 6 which Black is able to consolidate his
.i.f3 :adS 1 7 'fie 1 the position is material advantage. The best continu
about balanced. ation is the enterprising thrust 16 . . . b4 .
Kasparov - Polugaevsky 171

After 1 7 'ikxh5+ <t>f8 1 8 e4 1Ve5 1 9 move 20 :e3 ! is much stronger. White


i.h6+ xh6 20 'ii'x h6+ f7 White's then retains all kinds of attacking
attack is beaten off. So he has to play chances. Whether this is sufficient is
1 8 i.h6+ at once, but also in this case another question. In any case it is clear
Black can escape perpetual check: that White has to look in this direc
1 8 . . . xh6 19 1i'xh6+ f7 20 1i'h5+ tion, which does not alter the fact that
g8. In my original note I said that Polugayevsky could have accepted the
White would now get dangerous sacrifice without hesitation.
threats with 2 1 l:tad 1 l:.d8 22 .:txd8+ Young geniuses are usually incor
'it'xd8 23 e4 . However, this comes rigibly optimistic. It is remarkable that
up against 23 . . . i.c8 24 .:te3 i.f5 ! , Kasparov, after the game, should have
when the black king is conclusively had so little faith in his own concep
protected. tion, as shown by his notes.
2b) 1 6 i.f4. This is given by Bel 15 11ff3 cS (D)
lin, who has investigated this game in
some depth. Initially I thought that
this move was less good, but I later re
considered this assessment. It is en w
tirely logical to develop the bishop.
Black has a tough time, because on
1 6 . . . 1Vd7 White continues with the
strong 17 'ikc5 . If he now castles long
it all ends in disaster: 17 . . . 0-0-0 1 8
'ika7 i.d6 1 9 l:tad 1 'ikc7 20 .:txd6
:xd6 2 1 e4 .:td 1 22 l:txd 1 'ikxf4 23
d6+ and wins. So the black king
again has to move to f8, but then
White, with his beautifully developed Still postponing the capture on h5,
queen's bishop, has better chances and rightly so. 15 ... gxh5 would now
than in variation 2a. Black's best reply be very strongly answered by 1 6 i.f4.
to 1 6 i.f4 is 1 6 . . . c5, in order to get 16 .tr4 'ii'b 6
counterplay that is as active as possi The simplification 1 6 . . . .i xf3 1 7
ble. In my original notes I gave the i.xc7 i.xh5 1 8 i.xd8 xd8 i s bad for
continuation 17 'ii'e3 'itc6 1 8 'ith3 f5 Black because his game is completely
(prevents 1 9 .:te6 and frees the path to disorganised after 19 f3 ; e.g., 19 . . . g5
g6 for the queen) 1 9 .:tad 1 'ii'g 6 20 20 .:tad 1 + e8 2 1 .:td6 ! and the time
d5 .:td8 with, by way of conclusion: is ripe for White to reap the fruits of
' and White's attack is over' . Perhaps his labour.
that is so, but instead of 20 d5 the 17 'ifg3 gxhS
1 72 The Art of Chess Analysis

18 J.c7 Although most of the tension has


The primitive 1 8 1i'g7 fails to been resolved by the forced simplifi
1 8 . . . 1i'g6 1 9 :txe7+ fi)xe7 20 1i'xh8+ cation, the position has not become
d7 21 :td 1 + J.d5 ! and Black wins. any less interesting . Black can be sat
The text-move speaks for itself, yet isfied with his material advantage, but
there is an alternative: 1 8 J.e5 . The his problem is how to complete his de
idea is to continue with 19 J.c7 only velopment while also ensuring good
after 1 8 . . . f6, which cuts off the black co-ordination among his pieces.
queen's route to g6. Black has a pretty 21 .J:r.ad1+ (D)
refutation in hand, however: 1 8 . . . fi)f6
19 J.c7 1i'c6 20 J.xd8 :tg8 ! ! (D).

21 c7
The most obvious, although there
Oddly enough, after this powerful is also an idea behind the alternative
move it seems that White has run out 2 l . . .c8 . He must meet 22 fi)d5 by
of ammunition. The queen sacrifice 22 . . . J.xd5, as in the game (22 . . . J.d6 is
2 1 J. xe7 :txg3 22 J.xf6+ f8 23 refuted by 23 fi)b6+ c7 24 l:te8), and
fi)e4 :tg6 is insufficient, and after 2 1 after 23 llxd5, fi)f6 is possible. If now
llxe7+ xd8 2 2 'tlt'b8+ xe7 White White thoughtlessly plays 24 llf5 ,
can ' t even force a draw because the Black achieves the desired co-ordina
black king escapes via f5 . tion with 24 . . . d7 . Much stronger,
Andersson's attempt to improve the however, is 24 llde5 and after 24 . . .J.d6
white play with 19 1i'f4 (instead of 1 9 only now 25 llf5. The important black
J.c7) also fails, because of the laconic f-pawn falls, and Black does not get a
reply 1 9 . . . d7 . dangerous enough initiative; for ex
18 'ii'g6 ample, 25 . . . fi)g4 26 :xn c4 27 llf5
19 J.xd8 1Vxg3 with a winning position. Black must
20 hxg3 xd8 therefore play more modestly.
Kasparov - Polugaevsky 173

22 5+ .ixd5 27 l:[d3+ r/;c7


23 l:[xd5 h6! 28 l:[aJ l:[g6
Black finds a subtle way to com 29 :n .tr6!?
plete his development: he brings his After the simpler 29 . . .l:[g7 White
rook into the game first. He thus un h as nothing better than to attack the
avoidably loses his foremost h-pawn. a-pawn again with 30 l:[a3 . Polugaev
24 l:[xb5 l:[h7 sky's winning attempt is not unjusti
25 l:[he5 'iPd7 fied. but it's rather naive.
26 :5e3! (D) 30 c3 r/;d7
3 1 l:r.d3+ r/;c7
And now we see how naive Black's
winning attempt was . The combatants
8 could shake hands after 32 l:[f3.
32 l:te8 (D)
White, in turn, dares a winning at
tempt; this one, however, is much risk
ier than Black's was.

Kasparov manoeuvres very effi


ciently. Black has hardly any weak
nesses, and if he manages to bring his
rook into play undisturbed, White will
be in serious trouble. However, the
white rook operating along the third
rank harasses the most vulnerable
points in the black position, a6 and f7 .
Thus White can just maintain the bal- 32 ... b7 ?
ance. Polugaevsky, in time trouble, sud
26 . l:[g7 denly loses the thread completely.
Black can play 26 . . . c4 to keep the After 32 . . . .ie7 it is not clear whether
white rook out of a3, but it has the dis White's rook has penetrated or fallen
advantage that White can force the c into a trap. White no longer has per
pawn's exchange with 27 b3. The petual check or repetition of moves, so
opening of the c-file would be very fa Black can slowly but surely direct his
vourable for White. pieces to strong posts; e.g., 33 l:[f3
1 74 The Art of Chess Analysis

l:tg7 34 l:r.f5 a5 followed by 35 . . . a4 or 38 h2 i.cS


35 . . . b4 . The white rooks are actively 39 l:te2 b4 (D)
placed, but Black's pieces are very A last try. The idea is to create some
elastic. White would have to fight for a counterplay with 40 . . . b3.
draw.
After the text-move Black loses an
important supporting pillar of his po
sition, the f-pawn. In return, he gets w
his knight to c6, which is not even the
best place for it.
33 .l:led8
More convincing than 33 .l:lf8 .l:lg7
34 .l:lf3 ltlg6 and Black has some fight
left.
33
34 .l:l8d7+ b6
35 .l:lxf7 i.e7
Too late, but there was little else to 40 .l:le4
do against the threat of .l:ld6. White exchanges his g-pawn for the
36 .l:le3 i.d6 black c-pawn.
37 f4 (D) 40 bxc3
41 bxc3 i.fl
42 l:txc4 i.xg3+
43 h3 i.el (D)
B

Takes the e5-square from the


knight. Black is helpless, all the more
so because his minor pieces are not
working together effectively. At first sight it seems that Black
37 c4 has obtained some counterplay, but
Kasparov - Polugaevsky 175

the following strong move ends all il 44 ... lDaS


lusions. But this only makes it worse.
44 a4! 45 l:b4+ <it>cS
This move is based on the fact that A blunder in a totally lost position.
the exchange of rooks brings Black no If 45 . . . q;,c6, 46 l:f5 follows anyway,
relief: 44 . . . ltg3+ 45 <iPh2 ltxc3 46 l:xc3 since after 46 . . . i.xc3 he calmly takes
i.xc3 47 l:h7 <it>a5 48 ltxh6 lDb4 49 the knight: 47 l:xa5 .
g4 <i>xa4 50 f5 a5 5 1 f6 and White's 46 l:f5+ 1-0
connected passed pawns are faster A quite abrupt end to an exhilarat
than Black's wing pawn. ing fight.
Game Twenty-two
Spassky - Ti mman
M ontreal 1979
Grunfeld Defence, Exchange Variation
The ten-player supergrandmaster tournament i n Montreal was immodestly de
scribed on the cover of the French-language tournament book as the most impor
tant in the history of chess. With an average Elo rating of 2622 and a prize fund of
$ 1 10,000, it sounded tremendous; yet for such an important tournament there
were serious organisational faults. lt was played on the island of St. Helena at the
mouth of the St. Lawrence River, the site of Expo 1 967 . The tournament hall was
a fairly large theatre in a somewhat decaying building. The drafts were so strong
that a few players sometimes put on their coats during the game. Often the boards
and pieces were not set up until five minutes before the beginning of the round.
Apparently, the tasks had not been very efficiently divided among the local organ
isers. Or did they find it beneath their dignity to perform such chores? The arbiter,
Svetozar Gligoric, usually had to do most of the work, but once I saw Spassky
carry ing the boards into the hall while Hort was setting out the name cards.
But let's forget all that. The attractive prize fund in any case ensured that the
games would be extremely hard fought. Witness the following game .

1 d4 ltlf6 .J:r.ac8 1 9 .l:txc7 .l:txc7 20 .l:tb 1 ltlxa2 2 1


2 c4 g6 .l:ta1 ! .
3 lL!c3 dS 7 cS
4 cxdS lLlxdS 8 lL!e2 0-0
s e4 ltlxc3 9 0-0 lL!c6
6 bxc3 ..tg7 10 ..te3 ..tg4
7 i.c4 1 1 f3 lOas
The Exchange Variation is still one Delaying the exchange on d4 has a
of the most dangerous weapons against dual purpose: first, White cannot pro
the Griinfeld Defence, but nowadays 7 tect his bishop on c4 with .l:ta1 -c 1 ; sec
ltlf3 is also played regularly ; e.g., ond, the variation with .ic4-d5 is not
Karpov-Ljubojevic, Montreal 1 979: 7 so attractive for White with the c-file
ltlf3 c5 8 ..te2 0-0 9 0-0 ..tg4 10 ..te3 closed. Thus White is more or less
'WaS 1 1 'Wb3 cxd4 12 cxd4 lLlc6 1 3 forced to play the classical exchange
.l:tad l 'Wb4 1 4 h3 ..txf3 1 5 i.xf3 .l:tfc8 sacrifice after 12 .id3 cxd4 1 3 cxd4
1 6 'Wxb4 lLlxb4 17 e5 .l:tc7 1 8 .l:tc 1 .ie6 14 d5 . But Spassky, who has
Spassky - Timman 177

been playing the Exchange Variation the usual 1 4 l:[b 1 (after the pawn ex
against the Griinfeld ever since his change). Even now, after 1 3 . . . cxd4 1 4
youth, has never shown any interest in cxd4 White's position remains very
the exchange sacrifice. He chooses an good and he can sacrifice his d-pawn
other continuation, which is associ with little to worry about. You can see
ated with great risk. that after 14 . . . i.. b5 15 l:tb1 i.. xe2 1 6
12 i.. dS i.. d7 (D) 'ihe2 i.. x d4+ 17 h 1 Black has seri
ous problems.
13 i.. bS
14 l:tb1 i..a6
Not so good is l4 . . . 1i'd7, because
after 15 l:txb5 'ii'x b5 1 6 i.. xe7 White
clearly has the better chances. But
now Black is ready for l 5 . . . 'ii'd7 fol
lowed by 1 6 . . . e6, after which White's
position would collapse . Therefore,
the following supersharp attacking at
tempt is born of necessity.
15 f4 'ii'd7
Black can insert l5 . . . h6 here, at a
13 i.. g5 moment when White is forced to
The usual move is 1 3 l:tb1 , as in move his bishop to h4 . But my intui
Hort-Timman, Niksic 1 97 8 . After 1 3 tion warned me that it was too risky,
l':.b1 'ii'c 8 1 4 dxc5 , Black could have and a closer look shows that this was
had a good game with 14 . . . l:td8, as the correct evaluation; after 15 . . . h6 1 6
Hort suggested after the game . Need i.. h4 'ii'd 7 1 7 f5 gxf5 White launches
less to say, taking on c5 meant that an offensive full of bold sacrifices: 1 8
White's strategy was a failure. There tLlg3 ! e6 1 9 ttlh5 ! ! (D) and now:
were no good alternatives, however, 1) 19 ... i.. xfl 20 i.. f6 ! exd5 2 1 i.. xg7
because Black threatened to get the and White's attack quickly becomes
better position with 14 . . . e6 15 i.. b3 decisive. The imperturbable manner in
tLlxb3 . which White's attack is conducted in
Spassky therefore chooses a con this variation is rather typical of this
tinuation that lets him keep his bishop position; Black's pieces are active and
on d5 for a while. It is a remarkable well co-ordinated, but they are not
idea because the move i.. g 5 in con well placed for defence.
nection with the pawn exchange on d4 2) 1 9 . . . f6 20 l:txf5 ! exd5 2 1 i.. xf6
(and therefore played on move 1 4 ) is i.. xf6 22 tLlxf6+ l:txf6 23 l:xf6 'ii'g 7
never mentioned as an alternative to 24 e5. Although the attack has been
178 The Art of Chess A111l lysis

temporarily halted and the material to 19 i.h6 l:.f7 20 lilf4 ! exd5 2 1 lilh5
situation has not turned out too badly with a winning attack) 19 lilf4 exd5
for Black, White has the better chances 20 'ii'h 5 fxe4 2 1 l:.h3 1i'f5 22 g4 ..ie2
because Black's minor pieces cannot 23 lilxe2 1i'g6 24 1i'h4 e3 25 l:.fl , with
be brought onto the battlefield very the unavoidable threat of 26 lilf4, I re
easily. alised that 1 9 exf5 'iWxd5 20 f6 pro
16 rs gxrs duces a much more plausible win.
17 l:.f3 (D) Remember this long variation, how
It took Spassky quite a while to find ever, for it will come up again.
this unsophisticated continuation of Choosing1>etween the text and the
the attack. Now 1 7 lilg3 e6 1 8 lilh5 is insertion of 1 7 . . . h6 gave me the big
not sufficient because of 1 8 . . . f6. Al gest headache. After the subtle reply
though 19 l:.xf5 is still possible (as in 1 8 .te l ! Black's position is critical .
variation 2 above), under these circum Taking on e4 is now forced, and after
stances it is just too fantastic : Black 1 8 . . . fxe4 1 9 l:.g3 (D) I investigated:
reacts cold-bloodedly with 1 9 . . exd5.

20 i.xf6 .ixf6 2 1 lilxf6+ l:.xf6 22


l:.xf6, and with the pawn on h7 instead
of h6, Black's king position is ade 8
quately defended and he has time for
22 . . . dxe4 with a winning advantage.
17... fxe4
It took me almost an hour to find a
fully satisfactory defensive scheme. I
initially considered 1 7 . . . e6, but after I
found the complicated refutation 1 8
l:.g3 h8 ( 1 8 . . . f6 i s insufficient due
Spassky - Timman 179

1) 19 ... 'ii'x d5 20 .txh6 'fih5 2 1 set-up is the fact that his e- and f
.t xg7 'ii'x e2 2 2 'ii'c 1 ! with the devas pawns are not yet advanced, but aside
tating threat of 23 'fih6. from that it is surprising how few de
2) 1 9 . . . h7 20 lLlf4 .td3 21 'ii'h 5 fensive possibilities Black has. The
.txbl 22 l:txg7+ xg7 23 ltle6+ and main variation is 20 llc l 'ii' f5 2 1 'ifh5
White has a mating attack. (threatening 22 .th6) 2 1 . . .e6 22 llh3
18 llg3 (D) exd5 23 g4 .te2 24 ltlxe2 'fi'g6 25
'ii'h4 and we get almost the same posi
tion as in the note after Black's 17th
move. After 25 . . . h6 26 lLlf4 'ii'h 7 27
B .txh6 .txh6 28 1i'f6+ g8 29 llxh6
White's attack has reached storm pro
portions.
19 'ifxe2 h8
20 .txe4
One of the ideas of Black's defence
becomes clear after 20 'ii'xe4 f5 2 1
'ii' h 4 'ii'x d5 22 llh3 'ii'g 8 and Black
wins.
20
.. rs
18 .txe2! 21 .trJ
A necessary exchange, because the Quite rightly refraining from fur
white knight threatened to enter the ther attacking tries and placing the
thick of the fight by going to f4. Nev bishop on the long diagonal where it
ertheless, after 18 . . . h8 1 9 lLlf4 Black can exert the most pressure.
is not lost because he still has the fi 21
.. cxd4 (D)
nesse 1 9 . . . .td3 . White's attack is not There is no time to protect the e
yet strong enough for him to sacrifice pawn; after 2 1 . . .e6 22 dxc5 White's
a rook: 20 1i'h5 .txbl and if now 2 1 bishop-pair comes to life and after
.txf7 llxf7 22 'ii'xf7 llf8 or 2 1 .th6 22 . . . .txc3 he would have more than
.txh6 22 'ii'xh6 llg8 23 .txf7 e3 or 2 1 sufficient compensation for the pawn .
.te6 .txd4+ ! 2 2 cxd4 'ii'xd4+ 2 3 h 1 22 .txe7!
.txa2, White's attack is repulsed and The only way to stay in the game.
Black's material plus will be decisive. The endgame after 22 'ii' xe7 'ilxe7 23
But the rook sacrifice is unneces .txe7 llfe8 24 .tb4 ltlc6 offers White
sary. White's pieces occupy ideal at little chance of survival.
tacking positions and he can take the 22
.. d3
time to play 20 llc l . The most impor The beginning of a forced simpli
tant strength of B lack's defensive fication leading to a roughly equal
1 80 The Art of Chess Analysis

extremely unpleasant for White. The


attempt to improve White's play with
w 23 l:td 1 fails: 23 . . . .td4+ 24 fl
l:r.ae8 ! 25 i.xf8 l:txe2 26 i.xe2 c2 27
l:tc l fie? and Black is winning. White's
best bet is to sacrifice the exchange
with 23 l:txg7. After 23 . . . 'ii'd 4+ 24 fl
"flxg7 25 .i.b4 ! c!Oc6 (25 . . . c2 26 l:tc l
"flb2? 27 "fld2 is senseless, and White
wins) 26 .i.xc6 bxc6 27 l:tb3 ! Black
has nothing better than 27 . . . l:tae8,
which gives White the opportunity to
endgame. The point of White's play simplify to a drawish endgame with
becomes clear after 22 . . . l:tf7 23 l:txg7 ! 28 i.xc3 l:txe2 29 xe2 (29 . . . l:tf6?
l:txg7 24 .tf6 dxc3 25 .txc 3 . White fails to 30 l:tb8+ ), and with nothing
does not hurry to regain the exchange, but isolated pawns, Black has no real
while Black's task of defending him istic winning chances.
self becomes extremely difficult and 23 .txrs dxe2
unpleasant. Sacrificing the exchange now is out
A good alternative is to sacrifice the of the question as White immediately
exchange by 22 . . . dxc3 (D): sacrifices back: 23 . . . l:txf8 24 l:txg7
(24 ... xg7? 25 "fle5+ or 24 . . ."flxg7 25
"flxd3 with a positional advantage for
White).
w 24 i.xg7+ 'it'xg7
25 l:txg7 xg7 (D)

If White accepts, then after 23


i.xf8 l:txf8 Black has excellent pros
pects: his king is safe, and White's
rook on g3 is therefore out of play.
The advanced passed pawn on c3 is
Spassky - Timman 181

Attack and defence have balanced 33 l:r.d6+ <ii>g5 (D)


each other, and if White had now
chosen 26 .i.xe2 a cease-fire would
probably have been signed in short or
der. One possibility is 26 . . . l:r.c8 27
l:tb5 b6 28 l:r.xf5 l:r.xc3 29 .i.f3 ; if
Black now risks winning the a-pawn
with 29 . . . l:r.c l + 30 'ii.>f2 l:r.c2+, White
becomes too active with 3 1 'ii.>e 3 l:r.xa2
32 .i.d5 . The safest plan is to bring
the knight into play immediately with
29 . . . llX:4.
Instead, Spassky begins to play
carelessly.
26 c,Pf2 l:r.c8 34 l:r.b6?
B ased on a neat trap: 27 .i.xb7? This is not the best way to exploit
fails to 27 . . . .1:.b8 28 .i.e4 e 1 1i'+ ! 29 the active position of White's pieces .
'ii.> xel l:r.e8 winning a piece. With 34 l:r.d5 b4 35 .i.e4 he can win
27 'ii.>xe2 b6 the f-pawn and simultaneously bring
28 l:r.dl his bishop to the b l -h7 diagonal, neu
White gives up a pawn to activate tralising Black' s passed b-pawn.
his rook. He is in no danger of losing 34 llb2
because of this move, but neither is 35 g3
there any clear reason to play it. After White's best chance under the cir
28 l:r.c l 'ii.> f6 Black has a somewhat cumsta.nces. The mating threat 36 h4
better position due to his well-co-ordi forces Black to exchange a pair of
nated pieces, but it would not be pawns on the kingside. Black, it is
enough for White to worry about. true, gets rid of one of his isolated
28 :.XcJ pawns, but it is more important that
29 :d7+ 'ii.>g6 the total number of pawns is reduced
30 l:r.xa7 l:r.c2+ and that, except for the passed b
3 1 'ii.>d3 l:r.xa2 pawn, Black is left only with the insig
32 l:r.d7 nificant h-pawn.
White's rook is again in the most 35 l:b3+
active position. The direct attack 3 2 36 'ii.>e2 f4
l:r.a6 is bad due t o 32 . . . l:r.a3+ 33 'ii.> c 2 37 l:r.d6
/Oc4 with excellent winning chances Forcing the capture on g3 . Too am
for Black. bitious is 37 h4+ 'ii.>f5 38 g4+ 'ii.>e 5 39
32 b5 l:r.h6 as after 39 . . . 10c4 40 l:r.xh7 l:r.e3+
1 82 The Art of Chess Analysis

4 1 f2 d2 White will be pushed example, 42 l:.h7 g6 ! 43 .ie4+ g5


even farther back, and he cannot ex 44 l:.g7+ f6 45 l:lg6+ e5 and a
change rooks (42 l:.e7+ d4 43 l:.xe3 draw is nowhere in sight for White:
fxe3+ 44 e2 xf3 45 xf3 d3 Black consolidates a solid extra pawn.
and Black wins). The exchange sacrifice 4 1 l:.xb5
37 fxg3 l:.xb5 42 xe3 l:.b2 43 .ie2 e5 is
38 hxg3 4 also not a watertight method of draw
39 l:.dS+ f6 ing. White's best chance is 4 1 l:.c5 !, as
40 ! (D) Spassky suggested later, in order to
Now that he is in danger, Spassky keep as many checking options as pos
defends himself very well. This move sible. Black still has practical chances
protects the g-pawn and frees his after, say, 4 1 . . . b4 42 l:.c7 h6 43 l:.c6+
bishop to go either to e2 or to e4, de e5 44 l:lxh6 f5 followed by
pending on Black's moves. 45 . . . l:.b2+, but it is doubtful whether
they are very real.
This ending bears a striking resem
blance to an ending from the first
8 game of the Spassky-Petrosian World
Championship Match in 1 969. After
Black's 5 1 st move the following posi
tion arose:

40 l:.b2+?
It happens quite often that a player
makes a mistake on his 40th move.
The text-move helps only White, and
Black's winning chances melt like
snow in the sun.
40 . . . e5 is no more effective, be
cause of 4 1 .ie2. Black should have After putting up a heroic resistance,
realised that f5 , not e5, is the ideal Spassky went wrong with 52 l:.h6+
place for the knight and that 40 . . .3 ! and had to resign after 52 . . .e5 53
i s the correct move. After 4 1 l:.d7 h6 l:.b6 4 54 l:.e6+ 'ii?d4 55 l:.e4+ c5
Black maintains winning chances; for 56 l:.xa4 l:.a l . Later analysis showed
Spassky - Timman 18 3

that White could have drawn with 52


<ili'e3 ; e.g., 5 2 ... l0a4 5 3 .l:r.h4 ! l0c3 54
l:tb4 l0d5+ 55 ..txd5, etc.
Although I knew during the game
that my practical chances were not as
good as Petrosian's were, I still had to
play the game and hope that it would
turn out just as well for me.
41 ..te2 b4
42 <ili'f3
The sealed move. Home analysis
revealed that B lack has no winning
chances. 47 g6
42 . l0e5+ Unfortunately, 47 . . . .l:te4+ 48 <ili'd3
42 . . . l0a3 43 .id3 achieves even g6 is not playable because in the
less. pawn end g ame after 49 .l:txh7, etc.,
43 e3 White's king is within reach of the b
White's pieces are again working in pawn's queening square.
harmony, and Black has no objective 48 lth4 (D)
winning chances at all. But I had one Spassky needed a good half hour to
more trap up my sleeve. convince himself that this move guar
43 .l:tc2 anteed the draw. After the game he
44 .l:tb5 o&:4+ said he feared that 48 .l:th3 might give
45 d3 Black winning chances after 48 .. ..l:te4+
Exactly what I was hoping for ! Af 49 <i!tb3, but in the post-mortem we
ter 45 f3 Black has no possibility of couldn't find any. The main variation
making progress. we examined was 49 ... h5 50 !ita4 g5
45 .l:td2+ S l .l:th l lteS (threatening 52 . . . g4) 52
46 xc4 J:txe2 (D) l:.h4 b3 53 'iPa3 ! .:te3 54 .l:th3 and
The outlines of the trap are becom Black has made no progress. It is re
ing visible. No matter how White cap markable how the seemingly weak po
tures Black's b-pawn, the resulting sition of the white rook on h3 still
pawn endgame is a win for Black, as manages to spoil whatever winning
can easily be seen. Unfortunately for chances Black might have.
Black, the rook ending is still a draw. But a closer analysis shows that
47 .l:th5 Spassky 's intuition did not fail him.
The most convincing method. It Black must not play the routine
would have been more difficult after 49 . . . h5 ? but must reserve that square
47 d3 .l:tb2. for the rook; so 49 . . . J:r.g4 SO a4 .l:tgS !
1 84 The Art of Chess AMlysis

5 1 Wxb4 llh5. In this position Black is


again headed for a winning pawn end
game. w

but now after 57 . . . Wf3 Black cannot


exchange rooks with 58 .:.e t . The cor
rect method is 56 .:.b4+, and now after
56 . .'itf3 White can let his king be cut
.

48 llg2 off because 57 l:.h4 l:.d6+ 58 Wc3


48 . . . .:.e3 is stronger, but even then Wg3 59 l:.h l leads to a theoretical
the draw is inevitable if White plays draw.
accurately. The next few moves are 49 l:lg4+ eMS
forced: 49 .:.g4+ f5 50 .:.g7 (not 50 50 .:.h4
.:.h4 l:.e4+) 50 . ..:.e4+ 5 1 Wd3 h6
. With the black rook on e3 this would
(5 1 . . .h5 5 2 .:.h7 Wg6 5 3 .:.xh5 draws not have been possible (50 . .:.e4+ );
. .

immediately) 52 .:.h7 .:.e6 53 .:.b7 with the rook on g2 it leads directly to


Wg4 54 l:lxb4+ Wxg3 55 .:.b5 ! Wg4 a draw. Only after 50 .:.g7 h5 followed
(D) and now it all depends on this po by 5 l .. h4 could Black have won.
.

sition: 50 b3
During the post-mortem analysis 51 .:.xh7 b2
Spassky suggested 56 Wd2 h5 57 .:.bt , 52 .:.b7 1fz.1/z
Game Twenty-three
Ti m man - Tsesh kovsky
8/ed/Port oroi 1979
English Opening
The Vidmar Memorial Tournament is held every two years. For some reason or
other, the fifth of the series, in 1 979, attracted me immediately. Not that I have
ever played through a game of Vidmar's - at least, never a game he won; but prob
ably I have seen a number of his losses printed among the collected games of
Alekhine, Capablanca, and Euwe. Frankly, this splendid tournament is a rather
exaggerated mark of honour for a not very brilliant chess player.
The frrst six rounds were played in Bled, Yugoslavia, beside a Jake of serene,
almost sterile beauty. The last nine were played in Portoroz, a rather mundane
bathing resort with a casino which accepts only Italian lire. Venice is two hours
away in a fast boat. Yet it was not even these attractive locations that made the
tournament so tempting from the frrst moment. It was something else: a tourna
ment that seemed cut out for me to win. Though not as strong as Montreal, it was
strong enough to make a first place honourable. Larsen, at the opening ceremony,
seemed to be thinking the same thing. He had just arrived by train, and the re
freshing white wine being passed around was obviously doing him some good -
and me too, for that matter. 'Who is going to win the tournament?' one of the or
ganisers asked us. Politely, I made a noncommittal reply, whereupon Larsen,
bursting with self-confidence, swallowed a good mouthful of wine and declared,
'I am going to win the tournament ! ' I must admit that I was at first taken aback by
this display of naked optimism, and I often recalled it during the tournament.
The struggle for frrst place did indeed take place between Larsen and me, after
Ribli dropped out of the running by losing spectacularly to Marjanovic in the
eleventh round. Larsen was still half a point ahead of me after that round, but the
situation was reversed when he lost to Chi and I beat Tseshkovsky.
That victory meant a great deal to me. Not only was I clearly at the top of the
crosstable for the first time in the tournament, but also it had been a long time
since I last beat a Russian grandmaster. A psychological factor entered into the
game, too: although Tseshkovsky did most of the playing, so to speak, I went into
the complications with a healthy measure of optimism and confidence.

1 l0r3 l0r6 3 .!Dc3 dS


2 c4 g6 4 cxdS lilxdS
1 86 The Art of Chess Analysis

S 'it'a4+ c!Llc6 exd3 xf7 . But White has the possi


Tseshkovsky is an enormous deep bility 8 d4, with the tactical justifica
sea diver, as Langeweg once expressed tion 8 . . . 'ii'xd4? 9 c!Llf3 with win of
it. He can sometimes sink into thought material . Things are less clear, how
for an hour or more, even in the open ever, after 8 . . . .i.xe5 9 dxe5 c!Lld5, when
ing. He began very early in this game; Black's centralised position compen
he thought about the text-move for sates for the lack of his king's bishop. In
more than forty-five minutes. It is un Informant 2 7, Tseshkovsky gives 1 0
doubtedly a better attempt to get coun .i.d2 c!Llb6 1 1 'fkf4 'ii'd4 1 2 0-0-0 with
terplay than the usual 5 . . . .i.d7, but, as unclear play. Black can try 1 l . . . .i.e6,
we will see, he was not completely fa but after 12 0-0-0 'ikd4 the situation is
miliar with all the position's subtleties. still difficult to judge ( 1 3 c!Llb5 'ikc5+ ).
6 lbes .!Llb4 8 .i.xeS
7 a3 (D) 9 bS c!Llb8
10 g3
The fianchetto of the bishop looks
good, but it does not achieve much for
8 White. To be considered is 10 e3 fol
lowed by 1 1 d4 in order to build up a
solid centre immediately.
Timman-Sax, Rio de Janeiro 1 979,
showed that this plan is indeed correct
- it is good enough, in fact, to refute
the black set-up: 10 e3 .i.g7 1 1 d4 0-0
1 2 .i.e2 c6 1 3 0-0 cxb5 14 'ikxb5 c!Llc6
1 5 .i.f3 a6 16 'ikb3 'ikd7 and now
White could have placed his opponent
7 . .i. g7 in a paralysing grip with 17 .i.d2 (in
The only reasonable move. He had stead of 17 l:td 1 as played) followed
already written 7 . . . c!Llc2+ on his score by 18 l:tfc l .
sheet, but White would emerge with a 10 0-0
great advantage after 8 'ii'x c2 c!Llxe5 9 11 .i.g2 .i.g7
d4 ! . Note the importance of White's 12 0-0
seventh move: now 9 . . . 'ii'xd4 would The Informant considers postpon
fail to 10 c!Llb5 because Black has no ing castling and gives the variation 1 2
check on b4. d3 c6 1 3 .i.f4 e5 1 4 .i.e3 a6 1 5 1i'a3
8 axb4 with a clear advantage for White. But
The obvious 8 c!Llxf7 would be to Black has a much better move than the
Black's advantage after 8 ... c!Lld3+ ! 9 weakening 1 3 . . . e5 ; namely, 1 3 . . . cxb5
Timman - Tseshkovsky 1 87

14 'ii'x b5 lik6. Black has quite enough with 1 8 .i.h6. Black's reaction is ade
compensation for the pawn after 1 5 quate, however.
.i.xc6 bxc6 1 6 'ii'xc6 h3. 16 l:b8
12
c6 17 lDB4
Naturally. Without this pawn sacri Again threatening 1 8 .i.h6, but
fice, White would get a clear posi Black has a strong reply which takes
tional advantage. all the sting out of the white strategy.
13 d3 a6! (D) Perhaps the pawn sacrifice 17 .i.h6 is
White's best chance. After 17 . . . .i.xh6
18 'i!i'xh6 l:xb2 he has sufficient com
pensation for the pawn. White's best
would then be to force the exchange of
Black's rook with 19 l:fbl .
17 h5! (D)

Again a move that strikes at the


heart of the position. He forces his op
ponent to capture on c6.
14 bxc6 c6
15 .i.xc6
Tseshkovsky was already running
into time trouble. Although I saw that Not only preventing .i.c l -h6 but
the text-move was risky, it seemed to also making the g4-square accessible
be the only way to keep the game to Black's queen's bishop.
complicated. Other moves would al 18 .i.d2
low Black to complete his develop Intending 1 9 .i.c3 . 1 8 .i.g5 would
ment soundly and with easy equality. be simply answered by 19 . . . l:le8.
15 bxc6 18 . .i.g4
16 'ii'h4 19 f3
Black's bishop pair would provide I saw that Black would have tactical
excellent compensation for the pawn possibilities after this, but I chose it
after 1 6 'ii'xc6 l:b8. After the text very quickly because there was very
White threatens to get the advantage little choice.
1 88 The Art of Chess Analysis

19 xb2 The real point of Black's combina


The introduction to a deep combi tion now surfaces. White must return
nation. I was more concerned, how the exchange due to the threat 24 . . . g5.
ever, about 1 9 . . . f6. The exchange of
dark-squared bishops is in itself fa
vourable for White, but after 20 g5
xg5 2 1 'ikxg5 h3 he faces an un w
pleasant choice: either to seriously
weaken his pawn structure after 22
:fd 1 'ikd4+ 23 e3, or to position his
rook passively with 22 l::r. f2 . The lat
ter is probably the lesser evil. In his
annotations to the game, Tseshkov
sky gives 22 :f2 :b4 (probably to
prevent 23 'ikh4, which would force
the bishop back), and he concludes
that Black stands clearly better. How 24 fxg4 'ii'xd2
ever, it is not at all clear after 23 'ikc5 ! . Black played this immediately -
Black must permit the exchange of which is understandable, as he had lit
queens with 23 . . . 1i'd6 in order not to tle time left on his clock. But 24 . . . g5 !
lose a pawn, but then the advance of is safer, and only after 25 'ii'x h5 to
the white e-pawn will not be such a se take the rook with 25 . . . 'it'xd2. Then
rious weakness in the ending because White's queen would be out of play and
Black will not have any real attacking threatened with capture via 26 . . . g7
chances: thus 24 'llx d6 exd6 25 e3 followed by 27 . . . f6 and 28 . . . :h8 . It
with a tenable position. would make sense for White, there
20 ltlxb2 'lld4+ fore, to force a perpetual check with
21 h1 :xb2 26 :rs 'it'e1 + 27 g2 'it'xe2+ 28 h3
22 :ad1 f6 29 'it'g6+ h8 30 'it'h6+ draw.
The only move. After 22 h6 :xe2 Tseshkovsky may have seen 24 . . . g5
White cannot capture on g4 because without quite realising that this was
of mate. the time to think of a draw. Naturally
22 :Xd2 (D) one does not make such a long combi
This was the idea. 22 . . . 1i'e5 is nation merely to force a draw. B ut af
pointless because of 23 fxg4 1i'xe2 24 ter the text White gets the advantage.
1i' g5 hxg4 25 1i'e3 and White simpli 25 1i'xe7
fies to an ending that must be a win for The white queen is dominantly
him. placed here.
23 :Xd2 1le3 25 hxg4
Timman - Tseshkovsky 1 89

26 l::r.f4 (D) White would be the only player with


attacking chances after 29 fl.
29 11'xd8 l::r.xd8
30 fl (D)
The ending is not an easy one for
Black; he has two isolated pawns and
the white pieces are slightly more ac
tive.

The smoke has cleared and Black is


a pawn ahead. White will win it back
by force, however, and a close study of
the position shows that White's king is
safer than Black's. White's e-pawn in
particular provides strong protection,
and besides, the white pawn structure
is more compact than Black's. 30 .
26 1i'a2 The Hungarian magazine Magyar
The continuation shows that Sakkelet gives 30 . . . a5 with the vari
26 . . . Wa5 followed by 27 . . . Wd8 would ation 3 1 e3 l::r. a8 32 l::r. a4 f8 3 3
have saved a tempo. The most sensible d4 e7 3 4 c5 d7 35 b6 l::r. b 8+
move, however, is 26 . . . f5 . After 27 36 xa5 l::r.b 2 with a draw. But it isn ' t
l::r. d 4 11'a2 Black stands better. Correct that simple. Much stronger i s 3 l l::r.c4 ! ,
is 27 We6+ g7 28 l::r.d 4, which offers when Black must give u p h i s c-pawn
good winning chances if Black posts (3 I . . .l::r.c 8 32 l::r.c 5). After 3 1 . . .l::r.a 8 32
his queen passively with 28 . . .Wg5, but l::r. x c6 a4 33 l::r.c 2 a3 34 l::r. a2 White is
only a draw if he decides on 28 . . . l::r.f6 ! . not yet winning, but he has very real
After 29 l::r.d 7+ h6 White h as n o bet chances. The white king can wal k un
ter than to take on f6, which allows hindered to the centre and later to the
Black a perpetual check. queenside. White's only weakness is
27 l::r.xg4 'iVdS+ the h-pawn, but in an emergency it can
28 gl 1i'd8 be covered by advancing the e-pawn.
See the note to B lack's 26th move. 31 e3 e7
Black decides against 28 . . . l::r. b 8 since 32 l::r.e4+
1 90 Th e A rt of Chess A111l lysis

I played this quickly, uncertain Black's king is now cut off from the
whether or not the pawn ending after queenside and White's can approach
32 . . . d6 33 l:td4+ ri;;c7 34 l:txd8 xd8 the weak pawns unhindered. 33 l:ta4 is
was a win. Black, in time trouble, un less accurate because of 33 . . . l:te8+ 34
derstandably did not want to chance it. d2 l:ta8 35 c3 e5 36 c4 ri;;d 6
Closer analysis, however, showed and the black king is in time to prevent
that it is a draw. The main variation his colleague from penetrating.
runs: 35 d4 rl;e7 (or 35 . . . rl;d7, but 33 l:tb8
not 35 . . . c7 because of 36 h4 f5 37 e4 34 c3 .z:tb5
and White gets two passed pawns. Af 35 l:tc4 (D)
ter either 35 . . .<>d7 or 35 . . . e7, then
36 h4 f5 37 e4 would be satisfactorily
answered by 37 . . . rl;e6.) 36 rj;c5 a5 37
ci>c4 d6 38 b3 d5 39 a4 (Black 8
would have winning chances after 39
e3 c5) 39 . . . d4 40 xa5 rj;e3 41 b6
<i>xe2 42 rl;xc6 xd3 43 ri;;d5 e3 44
rj;e5 (D).

Playing on the opponent's time


trouble. If now 35 . . . l:tb6 White can
simplify to a pawn ending with 36
l:tb4, but after 36 ... .z:txb4 37 xb4
e5 Black can enter the main vari
ation in the note to White 's 32nd
move, since 38 e3 d5 39 a5 c5 40
xa6 c4 offers White nothing posi
Now Black loses after the auto tive. Perhaps I would have tried it an
matic 44 . . . f3? 45 f6 rj;g2 46 xn other way; e.g., 36 h4 followed by 37
xh2 47 g4, but the game is drawn af g4. Black would still have faced many
ter 44 . . . f5 ! 45 rj;f6 f4 46 gxf4 ri;; xf4 problems and the draw would not yet
and the white h-pawn is rendered have been in sight.
harmless. 35 . c5?
32 'iPf6 Now he loses a pawn by force.
33 d2 36 l:ta4
Timman - Tseshkovsky 191

The point i s that 36 . . . a5 i s quietly 45 :.f2


answered by 37 l:.a2 followed by 38 During the two-hour adjournment,
c4. I looked at the energetic 45 e4 but
36 .l:.b6 could find no convincing win. The
37 .:as l:c6 main variation is as follows: 45 . . . l:d8+
38 c4 l:b6 46 c4 e5 (not 46 . . . l:d4+ 47 c3
39 .l:al e5 48 exf5 with simplification to a
White has time to protect the sec- won ending) 47 exf5 (if 47 h5 now
ond rank before consuming a pawn. 47 . . . l:.d4+ would follow because the
39 .l:c6 pawn ending after 48 c3 fxe4 49
40 dS llc8 .l:xe4+ is a draw) 47 . . . gxf5 48 h5 (to
41 .l:xa6+ post the rook behind the passed pawn
Black has made the time control, immediately; 48 l:.f3 l:.c8 49 l:.e3+
but the ending is lost. d6 is not a clear win) 48 . . . 1lg8 49 h6
41 gS l:txg3 50 l:.h4 l:.g8 5 1 h7 l:h8 52
42 .l:a4 xc5 f4 5 3 d4+ f5 54 d5 f3 and
The most accurate. 42 .l:c6 llh8 43 now, I thought at first, play would
h4+ g4 44 xc5 xg3 45 .l:f6 prob continue 55 d6 f2 56 l:th l g4 57 d7
ably wins too, but there is no reason l:.xh7 58 l:.xh7 (or 58 d81W l:xh l
to give the opponent a passed pawn . draw) 58 . . . f1 1i' 59 l:.g7+ h5 ! 60
Black's c-pawn remains weak. d81i' 1i'c 1 + 6 1 d6 1i'h6+ with a
42 ... fS draw.
43 l:.f4 A fantastic line, but very shaky.
The sealed move. To begin at the end, 57 l:.fl (instead of
43 f6 57 d7) is a win - White waits for
44 h4 l:.e8 (D) 57 . . . g3 before continuing with 5 8
d7 . White can calmly give u p the rook
because the advanced passed pawns
and the out-of-play black king will de
w cide the issue.
Black, in turn, can avoid all harm
with 56 . . . e6 (instead of 56 . . . g4),
and at best White will keep his now
harmless d-pawn. All this means that
White must be more circumspect
about advancing his d-pawn. Instead
of 55 d6, more accurate is 55 l:.h l (D).
Now Black has only one answer,
55 . . . e5 , and it is just sufficient to
1 92 The Art of Chess Analysis

which looks passive at first but is


based on a solid foundation: White
B keeps intact the pawn formation d3-e2
which served him so well in the mid
dlegame and prepares to play the rook
behind the h-pawn. Black has no satis
factory way to stop White from free
ing the h-pawn with 46 g4.
45
l:tc8
45 . . . l:e5+ is pointless on account
of 46 d6. During the adjournment I
had particularly kept in mind that
draw. For instance, 56 d6 l:tc8+ and Black might give up his weak c-pawn
now: to cut off the white king and get active
1) 57 b5 c,i,>xd6 58 h8'ii' l:txh8 59 play for his king and rook. But after
l:txh8 d5 ! and the white king is held the continuation 45 . . . l:td8+ 46 xc5
off, which guarantees the draw: 60 l:tf8 e5 47 l:tf4 ! l:tc8+ 48 ..t>b4 :c2 49 e4
c,t,>e4 6 1 c4 <ifi>e3 62 l:te8+ c,t,>d2, etc. ltg2 50 d4+ e6 5 1 exf5 + gxf5 5 2
2) 57 c,t,>b4 is the most venomous. l:tf3 the w i n i s not difficult. Black
Black has two ways to go wrong: therefore tries to refine the idea by
2a) 57 . . . xd6 58 h8'ii' l:txh8 59 first waiting for g3-g4 so that the
l:txh8 d5 60 c3 and wins. square f4 will no longer be accessible
2b) 57 . . f2 58 d7 l:h8 59 c,t,>c5 and
. to White's rook.
wins after either 59 . . . e6 60 c;i;>c6 or 46 g4 :d8+
59 . . . l:txh7 60 d8'ii' l:xh 1 61 'ii'd 5+. 47 xeS <ifi>eS
2c) 57 . . . l:tb8+ is the saving check. 48 gxfS gxfS (D)
After 58 c3, f2 is good: 59 d7 e6
60 h8'it' l:txh8 61 l:txh8 fl 'ii' 62 d8'ii'
'ft'c l + and White cannot evade Black's . - . .
checks; e . g. , 63 b4 'ii' b2+ 64 c5 w
'ii'c 3+ 65 b6 1t'b2+ 66 a6 'ii'a l +
67 b7 'ii'g7+ ! 68 c8 'ii'c 3+, etc.
A more difficult complex of vari
. *
- -
--
ations, all in all, than I had suspected . . .
at first. B ut my intuition had not let me . .
down: White should not play 45 e4. I
had only one short hour of adjourn
a
ment time left to find something bet
ter. Finally I found the text-move,
Timman - Tseshlcovsky 193

The win is very simple now; White


already has a passed pawn.
49 hS l:c8+ B
so oi>b4 l:h8
51 l:hl l:h6
If 5 l . . .oi>f4 then 52 h6 is the sim
plest.
52 e3
Hindering the penetration of the
black king.
52 f4
53 exf4+ oi>xf4
54 d4 <il> g3 58 dS 5
55 l:e2 (D) 59 d6 l:dl
Black should have resigned here. 60 oi>cS cM6
Unashamed, he plays on for some time. 61 oi>c6 l:cl+
55 l:xhS 62 oi>d7 l:al
56 l:e8 4 63 l:f8+ </;;g7
57 <il>c4 l:hl 64 l:fl 1-0
G a m e Twe nty-fo u r
Karpov - Hort
Waddinxveen 1979
E n g l i s h O pe n i n g

After the double-round-robin ten-player tournament in Montreal and just before


the Spartakiade, Karpov was prepared to play in a small tournament of four play
ers at Waddinxveen, held in honour of Euwe. Considering the generally peace
loving disposition at that time of the three other competitors, Hort, Kavalek, and
Sosonko, it seemed he would not have too much competition for first place. This
was confirmed by the final standings, although in some games the World Cham
pion was teetering on the edge of a precipice.
When the last round started, Karpov had a lead of one and a half points over
Hort, his opponent in that round. A draw thus seemed a perfectly reasonable ex
pectation. Karpov had White, however, and with the white pieces he is never very
generous with short draws. Besides, the last three games they had played against
each other were drawn, which added a certain challenge.
This was Karpov's best game of the tournament. With subtle opening play he
gained a great advantage, and then he deliberately played for a tactical twist
which, it is true, reduced his advantage, but in a manner whereby he obtained his
favourite type of position: a tight, safe pawn formation around his king, his oppo
nent saddled with two somewhat weak pawns.
When Hort exchanged queens and adopted a passive stance, he appeared to be
already lost. A fabulous technique was required to show this, however, and Kar
pov once again proved that he has it. He thus ended up winning the tournament
two points ahead of Kavalek, who won his last game. The contrast could have
been even more striking: he would have been two and a half points ahead if
Sosonko had accepted Kavalek's offer of a draw in the last round.

1 c4 6 immediately, to establish a type of po


2 lDf3 e6 sition in which White has a spatial ad
3 tDc3 cS vantage and Black has a so-called
4 g3 b6 hedgehog formation - that is, pawns
5 J.. g2 J.. b7 on a6 and b6, no c-pawn, pawns on d6
6 0-0 and e6, and the kingside pawns on
This makes the following reply their original squares, though a pawn
possible. White usually plays 6 d4 on g6 or h6 is sometimes acceptable.
Karpov - Hort 1 95

This type of formation usually pro


vides little excitement. A recent exam-
ple is S tean-Andersson, Amsterdam B
1 979: 6 d4 cxd4 7 'it'xd4 l0c6 8 'it'f4
.i.b4 9 .i.d2 0-0 1 0 0-0 .i.e? 1 1 .l:fd 1
a6 1 2 e4 d 6 1 3 'it'e3 .l:a7 14 'ife2 'Wb8
15 .i.e3 .i.a8 1 6 d2 .J:c8 17 .l:ab 1
d7 1 8 b4 .l:b7 1 9 f4 a7 20 .l:e 1
.l:bc7 2 1 'it'd3 h6 22 e2 f6 12- 12.
Black's eighth move has an interesting
idea behind it, which is also known
from the Catalan and certain vari
ations of the Queen's Indian Defence: the kingside with remarkable speed:
it provokes .i.c 1 -d2 to prevent White 27 exf5 gxf5 28 h3 h5 29 .l:g 1 .J: f7
from fianchettoing his queen's bishop, 30 g4 ! hxg4 31 hxg4 fxg4 32 l:txg4
which is its most harmonious develop f8 33 g3 aS 34 .l:g6 e7 35 f5 !
ment. Possibly Karpov postponed d2- .l:f6 36 l:.xf6 xf6 37 lle2 ! l:U8 38
d4 to avoid this. .i.xc5 bxc5 39 fxe6 xe6 40 ef5+
6
... dS and Black resigned. (The exclamation
A novelty on the sixth move ! marks attached to White's moves are
6 . . . c6 7 e4 'it'b8, as in Smejkal by Karpov himself.)
Larsen, B ie1 1 976, is also interesting. Hort probably had no wish to un
Black had a reasonable position after 8 dergo such treatment. In general, he
d4 cxd4 9 xd4 xd4 10 'it'xd4 prefers to leave the well-worn theo
.i.d6 ! . The most usual, however, is retical paths as soon as possible.
6 . . . .i.e7, aiming for the 'hedgehog' 7 cxdS dS
mentioned earlier. In a game against 8 d4 c3
Gheorghiu, Moscow 1 977, Karpov The alternative is 8 . . . .i.e7 After 9
showed that he knows how to handle xd5 Black must recapture with the
this prickly system: 7 d4 cxd4 8 'it'xd4 bishop because 9 . . . 1i'xd5 1 0 e4 1i'd7
d6 9 b3 0-0 1 0 .l:d 1 bd7 1 1 .i.b2 a6 1 1 d5 exd5 1 2 5 ! 'it'e6 1 3 exd5
1 2 'it'e3 !? 'it'b8 1 3 4 .i.xg2 1 4 xg2 'it'xe5 14 .l:e 1 'iid4 15 1i'xd4 cxd4 1 6
'it'b7+ 1 5 'ii'f3 'it'xf3+ 16 xf3 llfc8 d6 leads to great advantage for White.
1 7 d4 .l:ab8 1 8 .l:ac l h6 1 9 e4 e8 The above variation was given by Van
20 f4 .i.f6 2 1 f3 .l:b7 22 .i.a3 .l:bc7 Wijgerden. After 9 . . . .i.xd5 1 0 dxc5
23 ce2 c5 24 .l:d2 g6 25 c2 i.g7 .i.xc5 it seems it will not be easy for
26 e3 and now (D): White to convert his small lead in de
Black lost his patience and decided velopment into a lasting advantage.
on 26 . . . f5 ?. He was then rolled up on Van Wijgerden gives 1 1 b4, but Black
1 96 The Art of Chess Analysis

has nothing to fear after l l . . . .i.e7 1 2


.i.b2 0-0. But I I lLlg5 is strong. Black
must now play l l . . . .i.xg2 1 2 t!fxd8+ B
xd8 13 ci>xg2 to avoid getting a weak
isolated pawn on d5 . After 1 3 . . . ci>e7
1 4 l:.d l White has a small but tangible
advantage.
The text leads to a position that has
been seen often in recent tournament
practice but without the fianchetto of
Black's queen's bishop. One cannot
tell from this game whether or not that
is an advantage because Hort goes 1i'c2. And moving the queen away
wrong fairly quickly. cannot be considered, since there are
9 bxc3 /1jd7 no suitable squares; e.g., 1 2 . . . 'ilb8 1 3
A normal developing move, al 1Wa4 ! .txe1 1 4 lLle5 and White wins.
though preparing to castle on the king 13 .td2 .txd2
side would seem more obvious. Hort 14 'it'xd2 l:.c8
seems to have an unfortunate plan in 14 . . . 0-0 is no better, as 1 5 lLlg5 dis
mind. rupts Black's pawn structure while
10 l:el cxd4 White keeps his strong bishop: if
1 1 cxd4 .i.b4 1 5 ....txg2 1 6 e6 wins the exchange .
This was his idea, but White will 1S 1i'd3 (D)
not simply allow the exchange of bish
ops. The more modest l l . . . .i.e7 is cor-
rect.
12 .i.gS! (D) B
A venomous zwischenzug which
Hort had probably underestimated.
12 ... f6
A serious concession. A weakness
on e6 is just about the most unpleasant
weakness Black can have in this type
of position. However, now 1 2 . . ..te7 is
only worse because of 13 .txe7 'ilxe7
14 l:.c 1 and there is no reasonable way
to prevent the rook from penetrating to Van Wijgerden called this the best
c7; e . g . , 1 4 . . . lLlf6 1 5 'ila4+ 'ild7 1 6 move of the game, but that was only
'ilxd7+ lLlxd7 1 7 l:.c7 or 1 4 . . . 'fld6 1 5 because he underestimated White's
Karpov - Hort 1 97

advantage. Even stronger is 1 5 'ilfe3 !,


to begin the siege of the weak e-pawn
immediately. After the forced reply 8
1 5 ... 1i'e7 , White continues with 1 6
l:.ec 1 . Castling is now forced, to pre
vent White's immediate penetration
via the c-file. After 1 6 . . . 0-0 17 i.h3
i.d5 1 8 e l Black's position is criti
cal, and as soon as White's knight gets
to d3 Black will have to weaken him
self further with g7-g5 . The white
bishop can later return quietly to g2.
Black will not be able to get any de also forces his opponent to exchange a
cent counterplay because his knight centre pawn for a wing pawn.
stands badly on d7. 19 dxcS "ilxb7
Karpov seems to have deliberately 20 1i'e3
chosen the text-move over 15 'ife3 . He An ideal square for the queen. Al
has seen a tactical twist, known from ternatives offer nothing; e.g., 20 cxb6
the Queen's Indian Defence, by which Axe l 2 1 l:.xc 1 1Wxb6 attacking f2, or
he will maintain at least a slight ad 20 'ii'b 3 1i'e4 and now it is the black
vantage. So he avoids the tension-filled queen that is ideally placed.
position and instead heads straight for 20 l:.xcS
the more technical one. A slight inaccuracy which has no
15
fle7 immediate serious consequences. The
Hort is right to postpone castling. alternative 20 ... bxc5 1eaves White with
After 1 5 ...0-0 16 g5 fxg5 17 i.xb7 he less of a choice, as 2 1 11fxe6+ 'ilff7 22
would have a splintered pawn struc 1i'xf7+ xf7 followed by 23 . . . e6
ture and an unhappy knight against a leads to a roughly equal ending and 2 1
strong bishop. l:.xcS l:.xc5 22 'i!t'xc5 'ii'e4 (still the ideal
16 l:.acl 0-0 square for the black queen) leaves
Necessary now, since he must be White with only a marginal edge.
ready to counter the penetration by 21 l:.xc5 bxcS
White's heavy pieces along the c-file. 22 l:.cl ! (D)
17 g5 (D) Much stronger than the obvious 22
One of the points of his 1 5th move. 'ii'x c5 . White prevents the centralisa
17
fxg5 tion of the black queen.
15 i.xb7 22 d5
By means of this countertwist Another possibility is 22 . . . l:.f5 to
Black gets rid of his weak knight and aim for a rook ending. After 23 1i'xe6+
1 98 The Art of Chess Analysis

23 .Z:.xcS 1i'xa2
24 .Z:.xgS
B This is the position the World
Champion was aiming for. His advan
tage is not great, but it is quite endur-
ing.
24 ... 1i'bl+?
Preparing to exchange queens.
However, the rook ending looks un
tenable. 24 . . ..Z:.f5 is correct. The point
is that after the exchange of rooks a
draw would be unavoidable: 25 .Z:.xf5
'ilkf7 White can ' t avoid the endgame, 'ii' b l + 26 g2 'ikxf5 27 'ikxa7 'ike4+
since his f-pawn is hanging. But the and recovers the pawn on e2. This
rook ending after 24 'ifc8+ 'ikf8 25 means that 25 .Z:.g4 would be the only
flxf8+ xf8 26 e4 .Z:.e5 27 .Z:.c4 is no winning try, but Black would not stand
forced draw; e.g. : much worse after 25 . . . a5 . His passed
1 ) 27 . . . g4 28 h3 h 5 2 9 hxg4 hxg4 pawn would ensure counterplay.
30 fl f7 3 1 e2 f6 32 e3 g5 25 gl 1i'b6
33 .Z:.a4 .Z:.e7 34 .Z:.a5 .Z:.c7 35 d3 and 26 .Z:.e5
Black gradually runs out of good White has absolutely no objection
moves. to a rook endgame.
2) 27 . . .e7 28 f4 exf4 29 gxf4 .Z:.h5 26 'ikxe3
30 g2 (much stronger than B ohm's 27 .Z:.xe3 (D)
30 e5, which Black meets by 30 ... .Z:.h4
3 1 g2 g5) 30 . . . d6 3 1 .Z:.a4 c6 32
.Z:.xa7 and now Van Wij gerden 's con
tinuation 32 . . . c4 33 .Z:.xg7 c3 34 f3
looks hopeless for Black; e.g., 34 . . . c2
35 .Z:.g 1 c5 36 .Z:.c 1 .Z:.xh2 37 a4 and
the white passed pawns decide. Much
tougher, however, is 32 . . . g6 to prevent
White from getting two connected
passed pawns. Black would then have
reasonable drawing chances.
All in all, Hort had little reason to
go in for this. The text-move is more
solid since White's remaining pawns The most critical position of the
will all be on the kingside. game. Hort now defends his weak
Karpov - Hort 1 99

pawn on a7 with his rook on the sec How does White make progress?
ond rank, but, as the game shows, this He gains nothing tangible with 1 g5+
method fails to build a tight defensive f7 2 l%a7+ f8. nor with 1 l%a7 g5 .
line. Most commentators recommend The only try is to bring the king
27 . . . n 28 l%a3 h5 as the best de nearer. After, say, I e2 l%b3 2 d2
fence. B ohm writes that the resulting 1;{7 3 l::tc 5 l::t a3 4 g5 e7 5 l%c7+ f8
four-against-three endgame does not 6 l::tc 3 l::ta4 with the threat of forcing a
look lost, and Van Wijgerden claims draw immediately with 7 . . . e5 8 fxe5
that sooner or later White must play l:[g4, White makes no progress.
g3-g4 with a probable draw. This method therefore seems to
I will subject this ending to a have little chance of success. White's
closer examination, continuing after king fails to penetrate.
29 l%xa7+ f6 30 l%a5 . Black has two
plausible replies. Method Y
1) 30 . . . g6 is the most solid: Black White aims for this position:
tries firmly to hold his ground.
I will now show the several meth
ods White has at his disposal so that
we can form a good idea of this ending w

in its totality. I will label the methods


X, Y. and Z.

Method X
White aims for the pawn structure e3-
f4-g4, as given by Van Wijgerden and
later achieved in the game. He easily
reaches the following position:

This is a far more effective set-up.


White has clearly revealed the darker
w side of . . . h7-h5 : in many cases White's
king can penetrate via g5 . The black
rook cannot be driven off the fourth
rank, but White continues with 1 g4.
The white king penetrates decisively
after l .. .hxg4 2 fxg4 l%c4 3 g5+ f7 4
l%a7+ f8 5 e5.
But is White able to reach this dia
gram starting from the position after
200 The Art of Chess Analysis

30 . . . g6'? A brief variation shows that for the sake of convenience; Timman
he comes out one tempo short: 3 1 >f3 Meulders was actually at move 43
l%b8 32 f4 l%b2 3 3 l%e5 and now not here), Black loses in a studylike man
33 ... g5+ 34 :Xg5 l%xe2 35 l%xh5 lW2+ ner: 35 f5 ! gxf5 36 exf5 :n 37 l%g6+
36 g4 and White wins, but 33 ... l%b4+! h7 (D) (or 37 ... f7 38 J:lg5 e4 39
34 e4 l%b2 with a draw. White lacks l%xh5 e3 40 l:th4 and wins).
the extra move h2-h4.

Method Z
White's king tries to penetrate via h4, B
and he plays 3 1 f4 l%b8 32 e4 ! l%b2+
33 h3 (D).

38 h4 ! ! l:txh2+ (or 38 . . Jlxf5 39


Ag5 llf2 40 h3 and wins) 39 g5 llh3
40 f6 e4 41 llg7+ h8 (or 4 l . ..h6
42 f7 with the intention 43 g8 and
44 J:lg6 mate) 42 g4 ! with mate soon
after 42 . . . hxg4 43 g6. More resis
The threat is now 34 e5+ f7 35 tance is offered by 42 . . . lla3, but White
l%a7+ f8 36 h4, or 34 ... f5 35 wins with 43 lle7 - but not 43 g6'?
l%a8 followed by 36 l%f8+ and 37 l%f6. :tg3 ! with a draw.
Black has two ways of meeting this: The game continuation was instruc
Z l ) 3 3 . . . e5 . A very interesting try tive: 34 ... f7 (instead of 34 . .. g7) 35
indeed. White can capture the pawn in fxe5 lle2'? 36 lla7+ f8 37 h4
two ways or can give check to cut off llxe4+ 38 g5 llxe5+ 39 xg6 lle2
the black king. After 34 l%a6+ exactly 40 l:tf7+ e8 4 1 h3 ! l:tg2 42 :n h4
the same position would occur as in 43 g4 l:tg3 44 l:tf4 ! l:txh3 45 g5 e7
the game Timman-Meulders, Amster 46 g7 e6 47 g6 e5 48 :n l:tg3
dam 1 978. Meulders retreated his king 49 f7 and Black resigned. He could
to the most natural and correct square, have drawn with 35 . . . g5 ! ; e.g., 36 l:th6
f7. If instead 34 ... g7 (I will use the g4+ 37 h4 l:txh2+ 38 g5 l:tg2 39
move numbering of the present game e6+ rtle7 40 f4 l:tf2+ 4 1 e5 l:ta2 42
Karpov - Hort 201

:h7+ eS and White can make no followed by 43 :xg6 and wins, or


progress. 39 . . . g5+ 40 xh5 gxf4 4 1 g4+ e5
This implies that 34 :a6+ is not 42 g5 ! followed by 43 :f6 and the
sufficient to win and that White must white passed pawns decide.
try 34 :xe5, which is a very normal Z l b) 37 . . . :e2 3S g5 (but cer
move anyway (against Meulders I did tainly not 3S h3 :h2 ! and draws)
not have this possibility because my 3S . . . :xh2 39 :a7+ eS 40 xg6
rook was on a4 instead of a5). Black llg2 4 1 :h7 :xg3+ 42 f6 :g4 43 f5
now replies 34 . . . :e2 and it is prob h4 44 :hS+ d7 45 n and the
lematical how White can cash in his game would be drawn only if Black's
two healthy extra pawns because his king could support the h-pawn in time
king and rook are both tied down. - but there is no chance of that.
Pointless is 35 g4 hxg4+ 36 g3 g7 Z2) 33 . . . llf2 (D).
(the most accurate, although 36 . . . n
is adequate too) and White has no
winning chances at all . Therefore he
must try 35 :es n 36 :as llxe4 37 w
h4 (D) and the king threatens to
penetrate into Black's position via g5
(and possibly h6). The poor position
of Black's rook makes his defensive
task hopeless.

8
A very refined defence. The point is
that the white rook is tied down after
34 e5 + f5 35 :as g5 36 :f8+ e4 .
White can win a second pawn with
check after 36 fxg5 (instead of 36
:f8+) 36 ... xg5 37 :gS+ h6 3S
:es, but it is insufficient for victory
after 3S . . . lle2 39 llxe6+ g5 . The
white king stands too poorly; e.g., 40
Z l a) 37 . . . f6 3S lla6+ f5 39 h3 ! :es h6 4 1 e6 g6 42 e7 g7.
and the threatened 40 g4+ cannot be On 33 . . . llf2 White quietly replies
adequately met; for example, 39 . . . :el 34 :b5 (D). Remarkably, Black is in
40 g4+ hxg4 41 hxg4+ xf4 42 :f6+ zugzwang.
202 The Art of Chess Analysis

Remarkably enough, in this type of


endgame it can be better for the king
of the defending side to be cut off on
the eighth rank than on the sixth.
Therefore Black has to withdraw his
king with 33 . . . g7 or 33 . . . f7. After
34 g3 l:lb8 35 e5 l:lb4 there is no
win, because 36 l:la7+ is parried by
36 . . . g8 . This last variation is actu
ally fairly simple, despite the fact that
it was a long time before I realised this.
Conclusion: The black plan of im
Of course he can enter variation Z, mediately giving up the a-pawn and
with 34 . . . e5, but we have seen that it is taking up a position with a pawn on
not enough to draw. The other try is h5 is sufficient to dmw.
34 . . . h4, but then White wins smoothly 27 l:le8
with 35 xh4 l:lxh2+ 36 g4 and the 28 l:la3 l:le7
white king's penetration via g5 is not 29 l:laS
to be stopped; e.g., 36 . . . l:lg2 37 e5 + Under these circumstances it does
f7 38 l:lb7 + f8 and now 39 l:tb3 no harm to prevent h7-h5 .
followed by 40 g5 is the simplest. 29
2) 30 . . . e5 ! . This fighting continu 30 h4 h6
ation was suggested by Polugaevsky. 31 g4 6
Initially I thought that White now had 32 f4 (D)
a won game after 3 1 f4 exf4 32 gxf4
g6 33 e4 (D), based on variations after
33 ... l:lb8 34 l:la7 ! .
B

Now that Black cannot exchange


pawns, White can build up a mighty
Karpov - Hort 203

pawn front without worrying that his 37 gS


king will be unable to penetrate. 38 l:a6
32 .:b7 He will again work with the threat
33 Wf3 .:c7 f4-f5 . The alternative is 38 fxg5+ to get
34 l:a6 a protected passed pawn. But Black's
Provoking . . . g7-g6. After 34 . . . Wf7, position might be difficult to over
35 f5 already comes into considera come.
tion. White ' s passed e-pawn would 38 gxf4
be extremely strong, and White's king For the first and last time in the
could penetrate via h5 after the ex game, Black could have tried to derive
change on f5 . some profit from the presence of his
34 g6 insignificant passed a-pawn, namely
35 :aS by playing 38 . . . l:b3 .
Preventing 35 . . . h5 for sure. The idea is now to exchange on f4
35 l:d7 and to force White to recapture with
36 e3 the king. White then has two plans:
Another quiet preparatory move. 1 ) 39 f5 . I gave this thrust in my
36 .l:.b7 original notes, supposing that the
37 h5 (D) pawn ending after 39 . . Jlb6 40 l:xb6
axb6 4 1 e4 would be won on account
of White's protected passed pawn. Not
until thirteen years later did I realise
8 that Black can hold the pawn ending .
For instance: 4 1 . . .We5 42 We3 exf5 43
exf5 Wd5 44 Wd3 b5 45 Wc3 Wc5 46
Wb3 Wd5 47 Wb4 Wc6 48 f6 Wd6 49
xb5 e6 50 c5 Wxf6 5 1 Wd6.
If Black were to allow his king to
be driven back to g7 he would lose.
With 5 l . . .'i>f7, however, he stands his
ground, both after 52 We5 We7 and af
ter 52 Wd7 Wf6, when after 5 3 e8
The time is ripe for this strategic the black king moves out to e5, where
advance. Note the importance of hav upon both sides will queen at the same
ing provoked . . . g7-g6. White threatens time.
to capture on g6, after which it would 2) 39 fxg5+ hxg5 40 ltxa7 . The
be simple to obtain two connected correct plan. White's winning plan
passed pawns. B lack's reply is there consists in the rook manoeuvre l:a7-
fore forced. h7-h6-g6. Black can do little to
204 The Art of Chess Analysis

counter this, as is evident from the


variation 40 . . . l:tb4 4 1 l:th7 e5 42 l:th6+
n 43 l:tg6 e4+ 44 e2 l:tb5 45 d 1 B
l:tc5 46 d2 when Black is in zug
zwang: he has to allow the white king
onto the c-file. The win then proceeds
systematically; e.g. 46 . . . l:td5+ 47 c2
l:td3 48 l:txg5 l:txe3 49 h6, followed
by 50 l::t g 7+ and 5 1 g5.
40 g2 l:tb7
41 'itg3 'itf7
This is tougher than 4 1 . . .l:tb3+ 42
h4 l:tb4 43 l:txa7 l:txf4 44 l:th7 with This penetration carries the unan
an easy win. swerable threat 48 l:th8 (47 . . . g7 48
42 l:ta4 l:te8 f7 49 l:th8).
Always systematic. He protects the 47 l:tcl
fourth rank for his king before break Hort, in desperation, surrenders the
ing through with g4-g5 . The immedi seventh rank. 47 . . . hxg5 is equally
ate 42 g5 is not so simple: 42 . . . hxg5 hopeless but a little more difficult for
43 hxg5 l:tb3+ 44 f4 l:tb4+ 45 'ite5 White. Van Wij gerden gives two nice
l:tb5+ and Black keeps on checking. variations after 48 fxg5 l:tc4+ 49 f3
42 r:r l::tc 3+ 50 e4 l:tc4+ 5 1 'ite3 (D):
43 g5 l:tc7
44 .!:aS
The sealed move. Now that Black's
king no longer protects the e-pawn, B
White need not worry about the vari
ation given on White's 42nd move.
44 g8
45 l:tb5 (D)
Note that the World Champion is in
no hurry to create a protected passed
pawn with g5-g6. Under no circum
stances can Black take on g5 .
45 f7
46 g4 a6 1 ) 5 1 .. .l:tg4 (5 1 . . .l:tc3+ 52 d4
At last this pawn can take a step only helps White) 52 g6+ g7 5 3
forward. l:tb7+ g8 5 4 f3 l:tg5 55 l:th7 e5
47 l:tb8 (otherwise 56 f4) 56 e4 a5 57 d5
Karpov - Hort 205

a4 5 8 e6 and the white king is in 52 e4 l:el+


time to seal the mating net around the 53 d4 e7
black king. 54 ltxa6 6
2) 5 1 . . .lt h4 5 2 g6+ g7 53 ltb7+ 55 lta7
g8 54 lth7 a5 55 f3 a4 56 g3 Cuts off the black king.
lt h l 57 g4 a3 58 lta7 ltal 59 g5 55 eS+
and the white king is again in time. Final desperation.
Mate in two is threatened. 56 fxeS+ ltxeS
48 g6+ 57 lta6+ 1-0
The simplest, now that Black has White didn't fall into it: the ending
given up the seventh rank. would be drawn after 57 ltf7+ e6 5 8
48 g7 lte7+?? xe7 59 xe5 f8 . Black
49 l:.b7+ resigned after the text-move due to
so ltb6 ltgl+ 57 . . . lte6 58 g7 or 57 . . . f5 58 g7 lte8
51 <ii'f3 ltfl+ 59 ltxh6 and queening is not far off.
Index of Players

Numbers refer to pages.


A bold number indicates that the first named played was White.

Andersson v Ljubojevic 1 28
Bronstein v Ljubojevic 78
Fischer v Larsen 26, Petrosian 38, Spassky 47, 56, 69
Geller v Spassky 120
Gligoric v Portisch 20, 1 14
Gulko v Timman 107
Hort v Karpov 1 94
Karpov v Hort 194, Korchnoi 92, 1 54, Spassky 88, Timman 136, 1 42
Kasparov v Polugaevsky 168
Korchnoi v Karpov 92, 154, Spassky 149
Larsen v Fischer 26
Ljubojevic v Andersson 128, Bronstein 78
Mecking v Polugaevsky 1 3
Petrosian v Fischer 38
Polugaevsky v Kasparov 1 68, Mecking 13
Portisch v Gligoric 20, 1 1 4, Smyslov 9
Smyslov v Portisch 9
Spassky v Fischer 47, 56, 69, Geller 1 20, Karpov 88, Korchnoi 149,
Timman 176
Stein v Taimanov 33
Taimanov v Stein 33
Timman v Gulko 1 07, Karpov 1 36, 142, Spassky 1 76, Tseshkovsky 185
Tseshkovsky v Timman 1 85
I n d ex of Open i n g s

Alekhine Defence 69, 78


Dutch Defence 9
English Opening 1 85, 1 94
Slav Formation 1 3
French Defence, Winawer Variation 26, 107, 149
Griinfeld Defence 20
Exchange Variation 176
Modern Benoni Defence 33
Nimzo-Indian Defence 1 1 4
Leningrad Variation 1 42
Queen's Gambit Declined 154
Queen's Indian Defence 92
Ruy Lopez, Breyer Variation 56
Sicilian Defence
Closed System 1 20
Modern Paulsen Variation 1 68
Rauzer Variation 1 36
Scheveningen Variation 88, 1 28
Sozin Variation 47
Taimanov Variation 38