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Slide 1

RA4120-15a

NokiaEDU
LTE RPESS
LTE EPS Overview

RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutions and Networks 2016

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Index
LTE/EPC Overview
LTE Air Interface
Air Interface Overheads
RRM overview
LTE Link Budget
Radio Planning Coverage Planning Cell Range
Radio Planning Capacity
LTE Performance Simulations
Nokia LTE Solution
Initial Parameters Planning

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Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant will be able to:


List the LTE/SAE main requirements
Underline the LTE/SAE key features
Describe the LTE Network Architecture
List the key functionalities of the evolved NB
Describe the protocol stack implemented on EUTRAN interfaces
Identify the LTE Terminals categories
LTE Advanced features

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE/SAE Requirements Summary


1. Simplify the RAN:
- Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their complexity.
- Minimize the number of RAN interface types.
2. Increase throughput: Peak data rates of UL/DL 50/300 Mbps (R8)
3. Reduce latency (prerequisite for CS replacement).
4. Improve spectrum efficiency: Capacity 2-4 x higher than with Release 6 HSPA
5. Frequency flexibility & bandwidth scalability: Frequency Refarming
6. Migrate to a PS only domain in the core network: CSFB, SRVCC
7. Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS services will be supported via
VoIP, etc: EPS bearers for IMS based Voice
8. Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above the eNBs S1-Flex interface
9. Support for inter-working with existing 3G system & non-3GPP specified systems.
10. Operation in FDD & TDD modes
11. Improved terminal power efficiency
A more detailed list of the requirements and objectives for LTE can be found in TR 25.913.

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE Radio Interface Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW
MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

LTE Radio Interface Key Features


Retransmission Handling (HARQ/ARQ)
Spectrum Flexibility
FDD & TDD modes
Multi-Antenna Transmission
Frequency and time Domain scheduling
Uplink (UL) Power Control

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EUTRAN Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW

MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

EUTRAN Key Features:


Evolved NodeB
IP transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
QoS Awareness
Self-configuration

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EUTRAN Key Features


Evolved NodeB
No RNC is provided anymore
The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality.
This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network architecture simpler
IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns them dynamically to users and channels
This provides greater flexibility than the older system
QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services
Self configuration
Currently under investigation
Possibility to let Evolved Node Bs configure themselves
It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and optimization.

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EPC Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
(EUTRAN)
SAE-GW

MME Packet
Data
Network
eNode-B Serving PDN
GW GW

EPC Key Features:


IP transport layer
QoS Awareness
Packet Switched Domain only
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
Prepare to connect to non-3GPP access networks

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EPC Key Features


IP transport layer
EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer
QoS awareness
The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service classes
Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
The system provides the possibility for differentiated services
Packet Switched Domain only
No circuit switched domain is provided
If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE.
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)
Non-3GPP access
The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3GPP access networks (e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.)
This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE = Long Term Evolution

Next step for


GSM/WCDMA/HSPA A true global roaming technology
and CDMA

Peak data rates of 300


Mbps / 50 Mbps (R8)
Enhanced consumer experience
Low latency 10-20 ms

Scalable bandwidth of Easy to introduce on any


1.4 20 MHz (R8) frequency band

OFDM technology
Flat, scalable IP based Decreased cost / GB
architecture

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Schedule for 3GPP releases

Next step for


GSM/WCDMA/HSPA A true global roaming technology
and cdma2000

Specification:
HSUPA HSPA+
UMTS/ HSDPA LTE-A
MBMS LTE Studies
WCDMA IMS studies LTE-A
WLAN IW LTE & EPC

3GPP Rel. 99/4 Rel. 5 Rel. 6 Rel. 7 Rel. 8 Rel. 9 Rel. 10

2000 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 2011 year

LTE have been developed by the same standardization organization. The target has been simple multimode implementation
and backwards compatibility.
HSPA and LTE have in common:
Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
Same kind of Turbo coding
The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are typically done on hardware due to
high processing requirements.
WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Network Architecture Evolution


HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE

HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8

GGSN GGSN GGSN SAE GW

SGSN SGSN SGSN MME/SGSN

RNC RNC

Node B Node B Node B + Evolved


(NB) (NB) RNC Node B
Functionality (eNB)

- Flat architecture: single network element in user plane in radio network and User plane
core network Control Plane

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SAE: System Architecture Evolution


SAE GW: Serving Gateway +PDN Gateway

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Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture - Subsystems

The EPS architecture goal is to optimize the system for packet data transfer.
There are no circuit switched components. The EPS architecture is made up of:
EPC: Evolved Packet Core, also referred as SAE
eUTRAN: Radio Access Network, also referred as LTE

EPS Architecture
LTE or eUTRAN SAE or EPC
EPC provides access to
external packet IP networks and
performs a number of CN
related functions (e.g. QoS,
security, mobility and terminal
context management) for idle
and active terminals
eUTRAN performs all radio
interface related functions

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LTE/SAE Network Elements


Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS
eNB Mobility
Management
Entity Policy &
Charging Rule
S6a
Function
MME S10
X2
S7 Rx+
PCRF
S11

S1-U S5/S8 SGi


PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Evolved Node B
Gateway Gateway
LTE-UE (eNB)
SAE
Gateway

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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Evolved Node B (eNB)


eNB Functions
Only network element defined as
Inter-cell RRM: HO, load balancing between cells part of eUTRAN.
Radio Bearer Control: setup , modifications and Replaces the old Node B / RNC
release of Radio Resources combination from 3G.
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Management, Terminates the complete radio
MME-UE Connection interface including physical layer.
Radio Admission Control
Provides all radio management
functions
eNode B Meas. collection and evaluation
To enable efficient inter-cell radio
Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler) management for cells not attached to
the same eNB, there is a inter-eNB
IP Header Compression/ de-compression interface X2 specified. It will allow to
coordinate inter-eNB handovers
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface without direct involvement of EPC
during this process.
MME Selection at Attach of the UE

User Data Routing to the SAE GW

Transmission of Paging Msg coming from MME

Transmission of Broadcast Info (e.g. System info,


MBMS)

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Module Contents
LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE Radio Interface & the X2 Interface


LTE-Uu interface
Air interface of LTE
(E)-RRC User PDUs .. User PDUs Based on OFDMA in DL & SC-FDMA in UL
PDCP
FDD & TDD duplex methods
Scalable bandwidth: 1.4MHz - 20 MHz
RLC TS 36.300
MAC
X2 interface
eNB
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) Inter eNB interface
X2AP: special signaling protocol (Application
LTE-Uu Part)
X2-UP Functionalities:
(User Plane) In inter- eNB HO to facilitate Handover and
X2-CP
provide data forwarding.
(Control Plane)
User PDUs In RRM to provide e.g. load information to
neighboring eNBs to facilitate interference
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U management.
X2
SCTP UDP TS 36.424 Logical interface: doesnt need direct site-to-
TS 36.422 site connection, i.e. can be routed via CN as
IP IP well
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421

TS 36.420

eNB

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S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces


S1 interface is divided into two parts: S1-MME
S1-MME interface (Control Plane)

Control Plane interface between eNB & MME NAS Protocols


MME
S1AP:S1 Application Protocol TS 36.413 S1-AP

MME & UE will exchange NAS signaling via eNB TS 36.412 SCTP
through this interface ( i.e. authentication, tracking IP
area updates) L1/L2 TS 36.411
S1 Flex: an eNB is allowed to connect to a
S1-U
maximum of 16 MME. (LTE2, RL20) (User Plane)
S1-U interface User PDUs

User plane interface between eNB & Serving eNB GTP-U Serving
Gateway. TS 36.414 Gateway
UDP
Pure user data interface (U=User plane) IP
TS 36.411 L1/L2

TS 36.410

LTE4: Multi-Operator Core Network (MO-CN): An eNB can be connected simultaneously to the different
Evolved Packet Cores (EPCs) of different operators, and shared by them.

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Terminals
LTE Advanced

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LTE UE Categories
Downlink Uplink
Peak rate in Maximum number Maximum number
UE 3GPP Maximum number Maximum number Maximum number
Mbps of DL-SCH transport of bits of a DL-SCH Total number of soft of supported layers
of UL-SCH transport of bits of an UL-SCH
Support for Total layer 2
Category Release block bits transport block
DL / UL block bits received transport block channel bits for spatial 64QAM in UL buffer sizes
transmitted within a transmitted within a
within a TTI (Note) received within a TTI multiplexing in DL
TTI TTI

1 8 10 / 5 10296 10296 250368 1 5160 5160 No 150 000


2 8 50 / 25 51024 51024 1237248 2 25456 25456 No 700 000
3 8 50 / 100 102048 75376 1237248 2 51024 51024 No 1 400 000
4 8 150 / 50 150752 75376 1827072 2 51024 51024 No 1 900 000
5 8 300 / 75 299552 149776 3667200 4 75376 75376 Yes 3 500 000
75376 (2 layers) 2
6 4 10 300 / 50 301504 3654144 51024 51024 No 3 300 000
149776 (4 layers) 4
75376 (2 layers) 2 102048
7 4 10 300 / 100 301504 3654144 51024 No 3 800 000
149776 (4 layers) 4 (UL MIMO)
8 5 10 3000 / 1500 2998560 299856 35982720 8 1497760 149776 Yes 42 200 000
75376 (2 layers) 2
9 6 4 11 450 / 50 452256 5481216 51024 51024 No 4 800 000
149776 (4 layers) 4
75376 (2 layers) 2 102048
10 7 4 11 450 / 100 452256 5481216 51024 No 5 200 000
149776 (4 layers) 4 (UL MIMO)

NOTE: In carrier aggregation operation, the DL-SCH processing capability can be shared by the UE with that of MCH received from a serving cell. If the total eNB
scheduling for DL-SCH and an MCH in one serving cell at a given TTI is larger than the defined processing capability, the prioritization between DL-SCH and MCH is
left up to UE implementation.
NOTE: Rel 8 = [1 .. 5], Rel 10 = [6 .. 8], Rel 11 = [9 .. 10]
A UE Cat 9 transmits Rel 11 UE category 9 + Rel 10 transmits Cat 6 UE Cat 9 + Rel 8 transmits Cat 4

NOTE: A UE indicating category 10 shall also indicate category 7 and 4. A UE indicating category 9 shall also indicate category 6 and 4. A UE indicating category 8
shall also indicate category 5.
Power Tx Power Tolerance (dB)
Class (dBm)
1 [+30]
2 [+27]
3 +23 +/-2 dB
4 [+21]

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LTE: What is new?

- new radio transmission schemes: new network architecture:


OFDMA in DL More functionality in the base
station (eNodeB)
SC-FDMA in UL
Focus on PS domain
MIMO Multiple Antenna Technology
Flat architecture (2-nodes)
All-IP
- New radio protocol architecture:
Complexity reduction
Important for Radio Planning
Focus on shared channel operation,
Frequency Reuse 1
no dedicated channels anymore
No need for Frequency Planning
No need to define neighbor lists in
LTE

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Module Contents

LTE Requirements
LTE Key Features
LTE Standardization
LTE Architecture
Evolved NB functionalities
EUTRAN Interfaces
LTE Advanced

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LTE becomes LTE-Advanced with 3GPP Rel 10


LTE-Advanced Goals

Meet and exceed capabilities requested for


LTE-A fulfills or exceeds the IMT-Advanced
requirements of
IMT-Advanced defined by ITU Meet 3GPP operators requirements for LTE
evolution

Mobility Enhance macro network performance

Enable efficient use of small cells

More Bandwidth available

Able to achieve higher data rates ( up to 1


Gbps in downlink for stationary users)

Enhance the coverage by increasing data rates


on the cell edge
Data rates

Backward compatibility

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System Performance Requirements

Peak data rate


- 1 Gbps data rate will be achieved by 4-by-4 MIMO and transmission bandwidth wider
than approximately 70 MHz
Peak spectrum efficiency
- DL: Rel. 8 LTE satisfies IMT-Advanced requirement
- UL: Need to double from Release 8 to satisfy IMT-Advanced requirement

Rel. 8 LTE LTE-Advanced IMT-Advanced


DL 300 Mbps 1 Gbps
Peak data rate 1 Gbps(*)
UL 75 Mbps 500 Mbps
Peak spectrum efficiency DL 15 30 15
[bps/Hz] UL 3.75 15 6.75
*100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility

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LTE-Advanced: First features standardized in 3GPP Release10

Key aspects in
3GPP Rel.10
Carrier Aggregation

..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n
Carrier Bandwidth extension by carrier aggregation
Downlink: Up to 100 MHz bandwidth with 2 Release 8 carriers from
8x MIMO 4x different frequency bands
Uplink: Only single band carrier aggregation
New codebook for downlink (DL) 8TX MIMO
Coordinated Multipoint
Feedback enhancements for DL 2TX/4TX Multiuser MIMO
2TX/4TX Uplink Single/Multiuser MIMO
Coordinated multipoint transmission (CoMP), also
known as cooperative system
Relaying Receiving transmission from multiple sectors
(not necessary visible for UE)
Single Relay Node architecture based on self-backhauling eNB
Simple intercell interference coordination in time domain
Enhancements for office Femto handovers
Heterogeneous
networks

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Support wider bandwidth


Carrier aggregation to achieve wider bandwidth
Support of spectrum aggregation
Peak data rate, spectrum flexibility
Advanced MIMO techniques
Extension to up to 8-layer transmission in downlink
Introduction of single-user MIMO up to 4-layer transmission in uplink
Peak data rate, capacity, cell-edge user throughput
Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception (CoMP)
CoMP transmission in downlink
CoMP reception in uplink
Cell-edge user throughput, coverage, deployment flexibility
Further reduction of delay
AS/NAS parallel processing for reduction of C-Plane delay
Relaying
Type 1 relays create a separate cell and appear as Rel. 8 LTE eNB to Rel. 8 LTE UEs
Coverage, cost effective deployment

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Bandwidth Extension by Carrier Aggregation

Key aspects in
Carrier Aggregation
3GPP Rel.10
.. up to 100 MHz
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n
Flexible component carrier aggregation
different frequency bands
8x MIMO 4x
asymmetric in UL/DL Component Carrier
(LTE rel. 8 Carrier)
Mobility

Coordinated Multipoint 20 MHz 10 MHz

Aggregated BW: 30MHz

20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz


Relaying in June 2009
Aggregated BW: 5x20MHz = 100MHz

300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps 300Mbps


Heterogeneous
networks
1.5Gbps

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Carrier Aggregation (CA)

- High peak data rate of 1 Gbps in downlink and 500 Mbps in uplink can be achieved with
bandwidth extension from 20 MHz up to 100 MHz.
- Backwards compatibility to Release 8 by combining N Release 8 component carriers to N x
LTE bandwidth, for example 5 x 20 MHz = 100 MHz
- Old LTE terminals use one carrier, new ones all N

LTE-Advanced maximum bandwidth


Both contiguous and
Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW Rel8 BW
non-contiguous CA is
supported offering
improved spectrum
flexibility (e.g. for
Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 3 Carrier 4 Carrier 5 refarming).

CA also offers opportunities


for autonomous interference
management schemes
especially relevant for
heterogeneous networks.

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Brief description
Carrier Aggregation functionality for three Component Carriers (3CC) provides means to
aggregate three downlink carriers configured on three overlapped cells that operate in
separate bands. This feature is activated for the UEs that have such CA capability on board
that match with bands where CA operates in the network. Improving the user perceived
downlink throughput (both peak and instantaneous) is the primary design target of this
feature.
Both LTE1804 and LTE1836 allow to aggregate up to 60 MHz spectrum.
LTE1836 is a TDD counterpart of FDD LTE1804.

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LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz (1/2)

CA capable
UE

CA non-capable
UE

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CA principles:
Every cell called Component Carrier (CC) is logically combined with additional cells serving
the same site sector
Primary Cell (PCell) serves both UL and DL traffic (GBR and non-GBR)
Secondary Cells (SCells) serve DL non-GBR traffic only
If configured so, every carrier can play a PCell role
All cells handle CA and non-CA UEs simultaneously
CA for UL traffic is not available yet

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LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz (2/2)

3CC 60 MHz CA principles:


Enables aggregation of three CC
Contiguous and non-contiguous intra-band and
inter-band CA supported

band 1
Intra-band, CA
contiguous capable
UE

f
band 1
CA non-
Intra-band, non- capable UE
contiguous

f
band 1 band 2

Inter-band, non-contiguous

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Supported band combinations

Operating band Note* Frequency band Operating band Note* Frequency band

1 3 5 0 2100 1800 850 2 5 30 0 1900 850 2300

LTE1803
1 3 8 0 and 2 2100 1800 900 2 12 30 0 1900 700 2300
2 29 30 0 1900 700 2300
1 5 7 1 2100 850 2600
3 3 7 0 1800 1800 2600
1 18 28 0 2100 850 700
3 3 8 0 1800 1800 900
Band 2,
2 2 5 NC, 0
1900 1900 850
3 7 20 0 1800 2600 800
Band 2, Band 4,
2 2 12 NC, 0
1900 1900 700 4 4 5 1700 1700 850
NC, 0
Band 2, C, Band 4,
2 2 29 0
1900 1900 700 4 4 12 1700 1700 700
NC, 0
Band 4,
2 4 4 1900 1700 1700 4 5 30 0 1700 850 2300
NC, 0
4 12 30 0 1700 700 2300
2 4 5 0 1900 1700 850
4 29 30 0 1700 700 2300
2 4 12 0 1900 1700 700

* - numbers indicate the bandwidth combination set supported, C contiguous, NC non-contiguous

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Supported bandwidth and eNB antenna combinations

Supported bandwidth Supported eNB antenna


combinations combinations
Bandwidth [MHz] Bandwidth [MHz] Antenna configuration

LTE1803
5 5 5 10 10 10 2TX/2R 2TX/2R 2TX/2R
X X X
5 5 10 10 10 15
LTE1803

2TX/2R 2TX/2R 4TX/4R


5 5 15 10 10 20 X X X
5 5 20 10 15 15 2TX/4R 4TX/4R 4TX/4R
5 10 10 10 15 20 X X X

5 10 15 10 20 20 4TX/4R 4TX/4R 4TX/4R


X X X
5 10 20 15 15 15
5 15 15 15 15 20
5 15 20 15 20 20
5 20 20 20 20 20

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Development timeline of related features

Related features:
LTE1089 DL Carrier Aggregation
LTE1332 DL Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz
LTE1562 Carrier Aggregation for multi-carrier eNBs
LTE1803 Downlink Carrier Aggregation 3CC 40 MHz
LTE1804
Downlink
carrier Extends
aggregation LTE1803
3CC 60 MHz functionalities

SCell (de)configuration and


LTE1089 LTE1332 LTE1562 LTE1803 LTE1804 (de)activation procedures are
RL50 RL60 RL70 RL70 FL15A reused

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Slide 40

With and without the LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation


3CC 60 MHz (1/2)

Maximum aggregated Maximum aggregated Maximum aggregated


bandwidth of 40 MHz bandwidth of 40 MHz bandwidth of 60 MHz
Maximum throughput of Maximum throughput of Maximum throughput of
287.7 Mbps 283.0 Mbps 431.1 Mbps
Fragmented spectrum Inter-band CA only Fragmented spectrum
tailored tailored

3CC CA in 3CC CA in
2CC CA LTE1803 LTE1804

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With and without the LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation


3CC 60 MHz (2/2)

Only one (20+10+10) MHz bandwidth Additional twenty bandwidth and eighteen
combination supported band combinations supported
Joint activation of SCells
CA limitations in case of fragmented Stepwise (de)activation of SCells
spectrum owned Contiguous and non-contiguous intra-band
Limitation of CA UEs number and inter-band CA

Increased number of UEs with SCell(s)


configured

Increased number of PRBs for PUCCH


Format 3

PUCCH Format 3 ACK/NACK and periodic


CSI multiplexing

3CC CA in 3CC CA in
LTE1803 LTE1804

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Slide 42

LTE1836 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz and LTE1838 TDD DL Inter-band Carrier
Aggregation 40 MHz features introduced in TD-LTE15A are very closely related to each other
and share the same solutions (for example many functionalities implemented in LTE1838 are
essential for proper LTE1836 operation)
Due to that fact there cannot be initiated clear division between pure LTE1836 or pure
LTE1838 functionalities
In combination with legacy RL55TD LTE1830, they create complete solution for flexible TDD
Carrier Aggregation configuration in intra-band and inter-band scenarios with support of up to
three Component Carriers

40
Slide 43

LTE1836 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz is a first feature introducing possibility of


aggregating three component carriers by the UE in Nokia TDD product
FDD counterpart features are RL70 LTE1803 DL CA 3CC 40MHz with extensions
introduced in FDD-LTE15A LTE1804 DL CA 3CC 60 MHz
Primary aim of the features is to boost mean and peak downlink user throughput via sending
user data simultaneously over two or three component carriers
Maximum achievable peak user throughput can be even three times higher in 3CC scenario
(LTE1836) in contrast to non-CA case
Maximum peak user throughput in 2CC scenario (LTE1838) remains unchanged
comparing to legacy LTE1558/LTE1830

41
Slide 44

To make the aggregation of carriers possible, regular cell is paired with two
additional logical cells serving the same site sector
Primary Cell and both Secondary Cells have to be collocated with each other
Only non-GBR data could be sent via Secondary Cells (SCells)
All cells handling CA UEs serve simultaneously also regular, non-CA UEs
There is no carrier aggregation in the uplink direction all UL traffic is sent via
Primary Cell (PCell) only

42
Slide 45

LTE1836 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz

Cells that will be aggregated have to be co-located and served by the same eNB
20 MHz + 20 MHz + 10/15/20 MHz channel combinations are supported by LTE1836
- It gives possibility of using up to 60 MHz spectrum by the 3CC CA-capable UEs
Only certain band combinations for 3CCs are supported by LTE1836:
- Intra-band 2300 (3GPP band 40)
- Intra-band 2500 (3GPP band 41)
- Inter-band 2600, 2500 (3GPP bands 38 and 41)
- Inter-band 1900, 2500 (3GPP bands 39 and 41)
All 2Tx/4Tx/8Tx site configurations are supported by LTE1836
There is no restriction on which of the carriers could
play a role of PCell

45 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

43
Slide 46

LTE1838 TDD DL Inter-band Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz

Cells that will be aggregated have to be co-located and served by the same eNB
20 MHz + 10/20 MHz channel combinations are supported by LTE1838
- It gives possibility of using up to 40 MHz spectrum by the 2CC CA-capable UEs
Only certain band combinations for 2CCs are supported by LTE1838:
- Intra-band 2600 (3GPP band 38)
- Intra-band 2500 (3GPP band 41)
- Inter-band 2600, 2500 (3GPP bands 38 and 41)
- Inter-band 1900, 2500 (3GPP bands 39 and 41)
2Tx and 8Tx site configurations are supported by LTE1838
There is no restriction on which of the carriers could
play a role of PCell

46 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

44
Slide 47

LTE1836 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz


LTE1838 TDD DL Inter-band Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz

LTE1830 TDD DL LTE1562 Carrier


LTE1558 TDD DL Carrier LTE1803 DL Carrier
Carrier Aggregation Aggregation for multi-
Aggregation 40 MHz Aggregation 3CC 40 MHz
enhancements carrier eNBs

47 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

In general LTE1836 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz and LTE1838 TDD DL
Inter-band Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz are based on the legacy features:
RL45TD LTE1558 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation
RL55TD LTE1830 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation enhancements
TD-LTE15A LTE1562 Carrier Aggregation for multi-carrier eNBs
LTE1836 TDD DL CA 3CC 60 MHz adapts also many solutions from FDD counterpart
features LTE1803 DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 40 MHz and LTE1804 DL Carrier
Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz

45
Slide 48

LTE1836 TDD DL Carrier Aggregation 3CC 60 MHz


LTE1838 TDD DL Inter-band Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz

Before After

Only two intra-band Component Carriers Up to three Component Carriers can be


could be used at the same time by CA- used at the same time by CA-capable
capable UEs UEs
In case customers have two or three Additionally inter-band scenarios with
frequency layers, part of the spectrum two Component Carriers are supported
couldnt be used to improve throughput More flexibility for CA configuration,
of CA-capable UEs especially in cases where customers
have quite fragmented spectrum

48 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

46
Slide 49

LTE2305 Inter-eNB CA for two Macro eNBs works with all legacy 2CC and 3CC Carrier Aggregation features:
LTE1089/LTE1332 DL Carrier Aggregation 40 MHz (2CC)
LTE1562 Carrier Aggregation for multi-carrier eNBs (2CC)
LTE1803/LTE1804 DL Carrier Aggregation 60 MHz (3CC)
LTE2006 Flexible SCell selection (2CC/3CC)
Feature is mainly focused on the inter-eNB cooperation in terms of connectivity and messages exchange (i.e. it does not modify
any of the legacy CA features):
list of supported band/bandwidth combinations remains unchanged comparing to legacy CA features (no new
combinations are introduced nor none of them are removed)
none of the RRM algorithms or procedures (SCell(s) configuration/activation, scheduling, data split among serving
cells, HARQ feedback, etc.) implemented in legacy CA features are modified

47
Slide 50

LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro eNBs

LTE2305 Inter-eNB CA for two Macro eNBs should not be confused with so-
called Dual Connectivity solution introduced in 3GPP Release 12 that allows
Carrier Aggregation between separate eNBs using the X2 connection, or by
splitting the bearer path at the serving gateway.
- Dual Connectivity in Nokia product will be introduced in the future releases. It
will require new scheduling algorithms that are more tolerant for long
latencies.

LTE2305 Inter-eNB CA Dual Connectivity

SRIO link X2 connection



eNB 1 eNB 2 eNB 1 eNB 2

50 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

48
Slide 51

LTE2305 Inter-eNB DL CA for two Macro eNBs

Before After

Only intra-eNB Carrier Aggregation was Inter-eNB Carrier Aggregation between


possible (all cells involved in CA had to two co-located Macro eNBs is possible
be hosted by the same eNB) More advanced configurations that have
More complex CA configurations (such to be deployed on separate eNBs, can
like 2 carriers of 3 x 20 MHz cells with UL now be used for DL Carrier Aggregation
CoMP) could not be used due to the HW allowing for more flexibility in CA
limitations (deployment on separate configuration
eNBs required)

51 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

49
Slide 52

MIMO Extension

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint

Relaying

Heterogeneous
networks

52 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Uplink MIMO for up to 4 UE antennas


Increase peak data rate, and average and the cell edge throughput
Fall back to TX diversity available for data and control (use the power
amplifiers of all antennas even if multi-stream doesnt work)
Advancements in reference signal structure, channel sounding and
feedback
DL MIMO for 8 TX antennas
Increase peak data rate, and average and the cell edge throughput
Release 8 LTE UEs support up to 4 TX antennas (which are actually
combinations of the 8 physical antennas)
Improved reference signal design, scheduling and feedback schemes

50
Slide 53

LTE568 : DL adaptive closed loop MIMO (4x2)


TX diversity for 4 antennas

For 4 Tx ant, TX diversity uses combination of SFBC and FSTD

s1
s2*
To balance for channel estimation 0
accuracy 0
{s1, s2} are transmitted by antenna ports 0 and 2 Antenna Port 0
{s3, s4} are transmitted by antenna ports 1 and 3
0
0
s3
s4*
Antenna Port 1

s2
s4, s3, s2, s1 Alamouti
s1*
encoder 0
0
Antenna Port 2

Weaker channel estimation 0


for antenna ports 2 and 3 0
(only 2 symbols for RS per s4
PRB per slot) s3*
Antenna Port 3

53 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

DL adaptive closed loop MIMO (4x2) supports Transmit Diversity for 4 antenna ports in
Transmission Mode 4 (TM4) and in Transmission Mode 2 (TM2).
3GPP has specified open loop Transmit Diversity using one codeword: Precoding Feedback
and Rank Information is not required!
Transmit Diversity using 4 antenna ports is used whenever there is no valid, complete and
consistent Channel State Information available as detected by eNodeB.
During Initialization when RRC setup is performed
No update of valid CSI reports for single layer (RI=1) and dual layer (RI=2)
transmissions since a characteristic update time.
UE does not send valid reports (e.g. Category 1 UEs).
Transmit Diversity for 4 antenna ports is implemented as a combination of SFBC (Space
Frequency Block Coding) with FSTD (Frequency Switched Time Diversity).

51
Slide 54

LTE568 : DL adaptive closed loop MIMO (4x2)


Fast adaptive MIMO switching
Closed Loop MIMO (4x2) uses Fast Adaptive MIMO Switching
eNB supports fast switching between Dual Layer and Single Layer SpMux depending on
the Rank only
eNB will not override UE requests regarding the used number of codewords and PMI
avoids cyclic PMI switching which was used with Dynamic Adaptive MIMO Switching
when transmission rank was overridden by the eNB.
If no valid CSI report - fallback to 4 way Tx diversity

54 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Fast Adaptive MIMO Switching MIMO Mode Control algorithm is introduced with LTE568,
but can be used also with LTE703 since RL50/RL35
After elapsing a certain time from the latest valid PMI report, eNB will switch the transmission
mode to 4-way Transmit Diversity to the user in question.
Single/dual codeword transmission will resume immediately after valid report is received.

For Fast MIMO Switching, following parameters must be configured:


LNCEL-actFastMimoSwitch = true
LNCEL-riPerM must be set to '1
LNCEL-riPerOffset must be configured to '-1'
Above parameters ensures that RI are immediate and current

52
Slide 55

LTE568 : DL adaptive closed loop MIMO (4x2)

Code book based 16 index values as per 3GPP 36.211 R9, precoding matrix W:
UE feedback: precoding matrix indicator (PMI)
No mapping 1 CW to 2 layer, only 1 CW to 1 layer 4x2 CL MIMO is comparable to 2 x
TxDiv 2 layer

Codeword 0 Layer 0
Layer
Mapper Layer 1
Precoding
Layer 2
Codeword 1
Layer 3

Feedback:
CQI
RI
PMI

55 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

2 codewords are the 3GPP max Ack/Nck and CQI are per codeword 2 CW gives an optimum
overhead.
Even with high order layers (say 8x8) still only 2 CW but we are sending the codewords much
faster!

53
Slide 56

LTE569 Downlink adaptive closed loop SU MIMO 4x4 - TM 4

Brief description
This feature extended MIMO functionality to support MIMO 4x4 TM4 with transmission up to 4
layers in downlink.
Feature operates with:
- UEs cat.5 and cat.8
- bandwidth 10MHz and 20 MHz
LTE569 uses closed loop and adaptive fast switching between number of layer (1, 2, 3 or 4
layers). The selection between transmission mode is based on the RI and PMI provided by the
UE (RI=1 indicate for 1 layer, RI=2 indicates 2 layers, etc.) PMI <0,1,2,,15>.

Uplink Control Information (Desirable RI & PMI)

eNodeB
layer1 UE

layer2

layer3

layer4

Downlink Control Information

56 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

54
Slide 57

LTE1543: 8x2 SU MIMO with TM9

First Transmission Mode 9 (TM9) feature in Nokia


8x2 MIMO over 8 TX pipes and 2RX UE antennas with closed-loop CSI feedback
effects in beamforming of UE dedicated PDSCH

3GPP Rel. 10 compliant


Dual stream transmission with TM9 for Rel. 10 TM-9 enabled UEs
Non-TM9 UEs can still be served using TM8, TM7 or TM2, depending on UE capabilities
Although TM9/TM3 switch is not in scope of LTE1543, non-TM9 UEs may still benefit from
TM7/TM3 or TM8/TM3 switching (LTE1013-a, LTE1013-b)

Compared to LTE541 (TM8-based Dual Stream Beamforming), LTE1543 allows for


higher average and cell edge DL throughput
Peak throughput is not changed w.r.t. LTE541

57 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

55
Slide 58

LTE1543: 8x2 SU MIMO with TM9

Before LTE1543: After LTE1543 : Improved PDSCH


Cell uses LTE541 Dual Increase in cell DL throughput beam enhances
Stream Beamforming and coverage made possible by DL SINR allowing
better DL channel feedback for higher DL
throughput

Resulting PDSCH
beam is inferior
due to limited
channel state
information

Preferred beam
information is
Rel. 10 CSI-RS are
SRS is used for DL channel signaled to eNB in an
sent in DL to help with
estimation improved PMI report
channel estimation

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56
Slide 59

LTE1543: 8x2 SU MIMO with TM9

Supported 3GPP Transmission Modes: PDSCH


TM9
This feature (LTE1543)
PDCCH
CRS
DM-RS
CSI-RS

CQI DL
PMI feedback
Rank
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

PDSCH channel estimation based on demodulation reference


signals (DM-RS) ports 7..14 (up to 8 layers)
DM-RS

CSI-RS
CRS

CQI report based on Channel State Information Reference


Signals (CSI-RS) ports 15..22
Closed loop precoding based on CSI-RS, reported by PMI
CSI-RS is configured to each Rel10 UE via RRC reconfiguration

MCS
Rank
UL
Note: This example shows CRS and DM-RS for 2 TX antenna ports. 3GPP
feedback
specifies CRS for up to 4 TX antenna ports and DM-RS for up to 8 antenna
ports. See 3GPP 36.211 6.10.1, 6.10.3.2 for details

59 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

57
Slide 60

LTE1545 UL MU-MIMO 8RX


Single User MIMO

Multiuser MIMO (or Virtual MIMO, V-MIMO)


allows pairs of UEs with appropriate radio
conditions to be scheduled on the same time
and frequency radio resources
Contrary to DL, 3GPP Rel. 8 and 9 does not standardize
single user MIMO in UL UE is able to transmit only
one stream of data.
Scheduling UEs on the same resources (MU-MIMO) is
still possible given the standard definition
SIMO
MU-MIMO

MU-MIMO scheme enables MIMO


capacity gain on low-cost terminals with
single TX antenna

60 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

First UL MU-MIMO feature in Nokia LTE at RL55


UL MU-MIMO already proven technology in Nokia product e.g. in
GSM

DL MU-MIMO based on TM8 already available in RL35 (LTE1169


TM8 Based Dual User Single Layer MU-MIMO)

58
Slide 61

LTE1545 UL MU-MIMO 8RX


Paired UEs
are received
by MU-MIMO
receiver
LTE1545 is implemented for 8RX UL eNBs
Advanced UL receiver is able to separate data
streams from MU-MIMO UEs
MU-MIMO receiver implementation bases on
MRC (Maximum Ratio Combining) algorithm
RRM algorithm will ensure that only the UEs that will
benefit from MU-MIMO will be paired

For single mode UE any suitable receiver


algorithm can be configured for the eNB (MRC or
IRC)
by ulCombinationMode parameter Unpaired UEs
are received
by legacy
MRC or IRC
eNB

61 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Pairing algorithm overview

MU-MIMO UE pairs are selected in the scheduling algorithm


Pairing candidates are chosen from among the UEs that are to be scheduled in the same TTI
Pairing criterions are based on radio conditions of individual UEs and potential pairs. Final
pairing decision is made based on the joint throughput to-average metric (Max-PF metric)
MU-MIMO UE pairs are assigned the same number of PRBs and same position in the frequency
domain
Pairing decisions are done in every TTI

59
Slide 62

LTE1545 UL MU-MIMO 8RX


Before & after

Before After
UEs with good enough UL SINR and
All UEs transmit on the dedicated time low channel orthogonality are
and frequency resources, neglecting scheduled on the same time and
spatial dimension of the channel frequency resources
Standard uplink capacity Average UL capacity is increased

f f

f f

f f

62 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Gains from the feature:


Feature could double UL peak cell throughput
No increase in UE peak throughput
In real radio conditions, over 20% average capacity increase can be expected
Cell edge UEs will benefit indirectly as they would get more scheduling opportunities

60
Slide 63

Coordinated Multipoint Transmission (CoMP)

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint
Cooperation of antennas of
multiple sectors / sites
Interference free
by coordinated
Relaying transmission /
reception
Highest
performance
Heterogeneous potential
networks
Service Area

63 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Joint Processing (JP):


data is available at each cell in the CoMP set
As if all sites formed a single multi antenna base station

Coordinated Scheduling/Beamforming (CS/CB):


data only at the serving cell
scheduling coordinated among cells

Standardization will be done in Rel. 11


Utilizing enhanced reference schemes introduced for MIMO enhancements, which were
already done forward looking to CoMP applications

61
Slide 64

LTE1691:uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx

In general, LTE has frequency reuse of 1. That means a lot of interference on cell edges. In effect, on cell edge UEs are
received with similar power by serving and neighbor cell

but not always as a useful signal. To the neighbor cell, this is interference.

CoMP aims to take this interference and turn it to the useful signal. Neighbor cell can do it to.

But the main obstacle is to get the data from one cell to the other:
There is a lot of data to be exchanged between cells
Delay is crucial

64 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

62
Slide 65

LTE1691:uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx

Receive UEs uplink signal by more than one cell


Intra eNB CoMP: cells involved in reception of the UE belong to the same eNB (cells are colocated)
LTE1691: UL inter-cell intra eNB reception + Interference Rejection Combining (IRC)

UL SINR enhancement allows for increased UL throughput on average and cell edge. Gains depend on load and
interference conditions in the network

LTE1691 is an extension of LTE1402 UL intra-eNB CoMP for 2RX feature


In LTE1691 up to 2 cells can be selected for UL reception from so called CoMP sets containing up to 3 cells
Cell selection is performed per TTI based on instantaneous SINR measurements
CoMP reception can only be done for PUSCH. Other UL physical channels are received by serving cell antennas.
Cells involved in LTE1691 CoMP sets can only have 4 RX antennas

In LTE1691 Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) algorithm is used for UL reception


FDD: using 1 cell: LTE980 IRC for 4 RX paths; using 2 cells: Enhanced IRC with Shrinkage
TDD: LTE936 UL IRC Receiver; using 2 cells: Enhanced IRC with Shrinkage

LTE1691 is transparent to UEs. All 3GPP Rel. 8 compliant UEs will benefit from this feature.

65 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

63
Slide 66

LTE1691:uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx

Benefits of increasing the aperture in intra eNB UL CoMP

Combining gain on intra cell edge due to more antennas


(up to 3dB)
Effect of diversity gain in fading channel.
90
40
120 60 0
30

150 20 30 -10
4 Rx antennas
10
-20
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
3dB combining 180 0

gain UL CoMP area


0

210 330
-10
2 Rx antennas
240 300 -20
270 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Channel Gain [dB]


0

-10
1 Rx antenna
-20
Additional diversity gain in fading channels usually 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
antennas from two cells will have high enough separation to Time [sec]
allow for close to perfect decorrelation

66 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

64
Slide 67

LTE1691:uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx


Combining using neighbor cell antennas inter eNB interference
More inter cell interference will be picked up by the eNB when combining with
neighbor cell antennas
The interference may come from various cells, they might be multiple interferers to
the subcarrier

Conclusion:

f
Using intra eNB cell antennas for UL
combining will expose the UL
receiver to higher interference f
levels.

f
This is the reason why
Interference Rejection
Combining (IRC) algorithm must
be used for UL reception
f

UL co-channel
interference from
neighbor cell

67 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

65
Slide 68

LTE1691:uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx


Quick recap on Interference Rejection combining (IRC)
IRC will maximize SINR of the wanted user by applying complex weights to the antenna elements
IRC cannot cancel white noise, just (spatially correlated) interferers
Rule of thumb: IRC can cancel up to N-1 interferers where N is number of antenna elements
IRC is performed per subcarrier 90 30 MRC
IRC is applicable to PUSCH only. Control channels are received using MRC or incoherent combining 120 60 pattern
20

150 30
10

DMRS 4RX IRC vs. 4RX MRC


0.0 180 0
no interf. SDI 3 IF 4 IF 5 IF
SINR required to
reach 10% BLER
-5.0 on PUSCH
210 330

IRC per
subcarrier -10.0 MRC 240 300
1PRB

SINR [dB]

processing
IRC (switching) high interf. 270
IRC
-15.0 IRC (switching) medium interf. pattern
IRC (switching) low interf.
Wanted UE
-20.0

Number of interferers interferers


1 slot (0.5 ms)
-25.0
Interference scenario
UL slot structure

68 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

66
Slide 69

LTE2128 Uplink Intra eNodeB CoMP 8 RX with Softbit


Combination
Softbit Combining IQ combining

With 8RX antennas and 2 cell combining receiver


needs to combine 16 RX paths
Our system module does not have the capacity to
handle this amount of processing load
An alternative approach to IQ signal combining is
softbit combining. It requires less processing power
on the baseband level

The soft bit combining simply adds the Log-Likelihood


Ratio (LLR) soft bits from both receivers to obtain the
improved soft bits. Therefore, if we denote the LLR
(soft bit) for the mth bit of ith received symbol in the
serving and neighbor cells as i
Lm
and Lim , s
n
respectively, the combined soft bit is

Lim Lim Lim


C s n

Soft bit
combining

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67
Slide 70

Softbit Combining LL performance

0
CellEdge, 2-Cell CoMP, 8Rx, 10RB, Mcs 0:5:25, UMiNLoS, IRC
10
RxTimeDomain
Demodulator
Off
-1
10
BLER

-2
10

-3
10

-4
10
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
SNR [dB]

70 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Since softbit combining is sub-optimal , there is a slight performance loss on link level soft
combining scheme vs. joint reception (IQ combining)

68
Slide 71

Softbit Combining vs. Uplink Measurements


LTE2128 LTE1402,
LTE1691

Measurement Serving Serving +


Cell Only Neighb
cell

Timing advance estimation x

Frequency offset estimation x x

UL CSI measurements per x


PRB

Received interference x
power measurement per
PRB

RSSI (M1) x x

I+N (K1) x x

71 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

In LTE2128 only combining of soft bits demodulated from the UL Shared CHannel (UL-SCH )
in the Physical UL Shared CHannel (PUSCH) is performed
All other physical UL signals and channels like the PRACH, SRS and PUCCH, will be just
received based on the serving cell antennas, and their signals on the neighboring cells are
not taken into account at all
Also the UL control information (UCI) which is multiplexed into the PUSCH in time and
frequency domain is not exchanged between cells and does not benefit from the soft bit
combining. Therefore, CQI, Ack/Nack, PMI and rank indicator (RI) coming along on the
PUSCH will have the same performance if this feature is enabled or not
Additionally, the UL measurements: RSSI, interference power and SINR, TA and FO are
based on the serving cell's measurements.

69
Slide 72

LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN)

LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN) and LTE1402 (Uplink Intra eNodeB CoMP )


are off
No cooperation between cells and eNBs at all
Only signal received by serving cell is used in decoding process

Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 6

Cell1 Cell2 Cell3

X X X

UE

X
X X
Cell 2 (serving)
Cell 1 Cell 5
Cell4 Cell5 Cell6
Interference Useful signal

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70
Slide 73

LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN)


LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN) is off but LTE1402 (Uplink Intra eNodeB CoMP ) is on
Signal from serving cell can be combined with one cell (the strongest one) that belongs to
UL CoMP set, provided that:
1) Serving cell is in UL CoMP set
2) UE`s measured SINR at neighbor cell is less than ULCOMP:ulCoMpSinrThreshold
below SINR of serving cell
3) UE`s measured SINR at neighbor cell > -10dB
UL CoMP set characteristics
Cell 3 Cell 4Cell 4 Cell 6
- Up to 3 cells of the same (serving)

eNB only X
Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 X X
- One cell can belong to one
UL CoMP set only
UE

X X
X
CellCell
2 (serving)
2
Cell 1 Cell 5

Cell4 Cell5 Cell6


Interference Useful signal

Note: UL CoMP set consists of Cells: 1,3,4


4,5,6

73 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

71
Slide 74

LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN)

LTE1724/LTE1900 (Centralized RAN) is on


Signals from serving cell and up to 3 cells that belong to CRAN CoMP set and with the highest
measured SINR are combined [up to 8RX UL combining]
6 cells create CRAN CoMP set
- Cells from the same as well as from different eNB

CRAN CoMP set can change


with change of serving cell Note: CRAN CoMP set consists of Cells: 1,2,3,4,5,6
1,2,3,4,7,8

- More than one CoMP set are Cell 8 Cell 2 Cell 4 Cell 6
defined per eNB Cell1 Cell2 Cell3 Cell4
- CRAN CoMP sets overlaps each X X X X
other

UE UE

X X
X X
Cell 1 (serving)Cell 3 (serving)
Cell 7 Cell 1 Cell 3 Cell 5
Cell5 Cell6 Cell7 Cell8
Interference Useful signal

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72
Slide 75

Relaying

Key aspects in Carrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x
Fast deployment
Coverage with low
infrastructure costs
Coordinated Multipoint

Relaying

Heterogeneous
networks

75 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

Not Part of RL60

73
Slide 76

Heterogeneous Network

Key aspects inCarrier Aggregation


3GPP Rel.10
..
Carrier1 Carrier2 Carrier n

8x MIMO 4x

Coordinated Multipoint Heterogeneous Networks The


Combined Benefit of Wide & Local Area

Wide Area sites

Relaying Medium Medium


area sites area sites

Local Local Local Local Local


area area area area area

Heterogeneous WLAN WLAN


networks

WLAN
WLAN
WLAN

76 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

The term Heterogeneous Networks does not necessarily refer to a specific technology or
feature as such, but is instead used to describe networks that have both wide area and local
area (small cell) deployments. In many expected deployment scenarios, heterogeneous
networks spread across multiple radio access technologies. Autonomous or automated
interference coordination and handover optimization in such hierarchical network architectures
are key aspects of heterogeneous networks. Other coordination technologies like self-
configuration and self-optimization have been covered under Self Organized/Optimized
Networks (SON) and Minimized Drive Testing (MDT) related study and work items since Release
8.

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Slide 77

Heterogeneous Networks The Combined Benefit of Wide &


Local Area
Majority of cell sites today
Wide Area sites > 300 m Macro
> 5 W output power

Medium area Medium area Share of sites growing


sites sites 100 300 m
Micro
15W

Share will grow in future


Local Local Local Local Local
10 100 m,
area area area area area
< 500 mW
Pico, Femto

License exempt growing & Secondary


WLAN WLAN services emerging
10-100 m
< 100 mW Access
Points
WLAN WLAN
WLAN

Benefits of Multi-Layer Deployment Tradeoffs involved with Multi-Layer


Coverage improvement from local area cells in edge or Co-channel deployment needs no additional
shadowed regions spectrum but creates interference between the
Capacity increase from more transmission points in a layers and within the same layer >> this
given area interference needs to be controlled for QoS

77 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

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Heterogeneous Networks
Heterogeneous Networks
LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet
LTE1822: PCI Assignment Optimization for HetNet
LTE1823: Neighbor Prioritization Optimization for HetNet
LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet

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Slide 79

HetNet Deployment SON Optimization


Optimized SON support for multi-layer HetNet deployments

Micro
Macro

DAS HetNet deployments include cells of


WiFi
various types and sizes
Femto

Pico
WiFi

Greater cell density with


deployment of small cells


Avoid the addition of
unnecessary neighbor
relationships

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SON Central Management works well with mixed Macro and Small Cell Setup
Optimize PCI assignment for LTE multi-layer HetNet environments
Dedicated consideration of Macro and Small Cells for
PCI Assignment,
Neighbor Relation Establishment and
Neighbor Prioritization
By identifying and utilizing site specific neighbor distances relative to both the source
and all potential target cells.

77
Slide 80

LTE1821 Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet

Functional overview
Multi-layer heterogeneous networks (HetNet) consists of many types of cells, for example: macro, small, micro, and pico. In
the HetNet, neighbor relationships are determined based on overlapping cell ranges, and based on the distance between
the source cell and other cells in the network.
Purpose

R2 = ll
Sma s
ll Ce
Radiu
Existing SON functionality (RL60 and backwards) treat all cells the same
and thus does not account for variances such as differing cell coverage
areas or multi-layer networks. However, a 5W Flexi Zone Micro BTS
cannot be treated the same as a 40W macro eNB cell for finding
appropriate neighbors. D1

LTE1821 provides more precise detection of neighbor cells in a HetNet


environment by calculating and using estimated cell specific ranges for R1 = adius
ll R
o Ce
Macr
both the source and target cells. Cell under

configuration
A target cell is considered a neighbor candidate if the sum of the target cell
range and source cell range is smaller than distance between the cells.
D2
Benefits:

Radiu ell
Cells which are not neighbors are excluded from neighbor list
Sma =
ll C
s
R2
Less neighbors means less X2 links to manage
Macro eNB which belongs to the cell under
configuration with Cell Radius = R1
Small Cell with Radius R2. R1 +R2 >= D2,
so Cell is considered a neighbor
candidate.
Small Cell with Radius R2. R1+R2 < D1,
so cell is not a neighbor candidate.

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Cell range
Cell range is a potential coverage range of the cell.
The operator can determine the cell range in several ways by:
configuring a cell range per cell - importing cell ranges from an external planning tool is
available
defining a static cell range based on existing PDDB parameters
allowing the iSON Manager to calculate cell-specific ranges based on configured parameters for
each cell. This option uses path loss models.
For the cell range via path loss model option, the operator can choose editable range extension
factor (REF) to calculate the cell range (particularly for small cells). The REF allows the operator
additional control over the cell ranges that might be automatically calculated by the iSON
Manager using path loss models

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LTE1821 Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet


Distance calculation
The distance is calculated based on the geo-coordinates between the source
cell and each of the other cells in the network, or current scope. It is already
implemented in the common distance service in the iSON Manager.
The distance calculation is done for each cell in the network.
Neighbor relationship
The neighbor relationship between two cells are determined as follows:
If (R1*REF1) + (R2*REF2) >= D, then Cell 1 and Cell 2 are potential
neighbors due to possible coverage overlap

Cells considered as neighbor cells

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LTE1821 Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet


If (R1*REF1) + (R2*REF2) < D, then Cell 1 and Cell 2 are not considered as
neighbors;
Cell 2 is dropped from neighbor prioritization

Cell not considered as neighbor cells


where:
Rx - the range of Cell x
D - the distance between the source cell (Cell 1) and the potential neighbor cell (Cell 2)

To reduce the neighbor search space:


The range calculation and the coverage overlap check are performed only for the cells that
lie within the search distance from the cell being configured.
The LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet feature utilizes the estimated
cell-specific range of the source and potential target cells in addition to the distance
between the two cells

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Slide 83

LTE1822 PCI Assignment Enhancements for HetNet


Purpose
Operators today are deploying multi-layer heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The following
are some examples:
Macro layer with underlying small cell layer at same frequency
Mix of macro cells and underlying 5W micro & 1W pico cells

Existing SON functionality (RL60 and backwards) treats all cells the same and thus does
not account for variances such as differing cell coverage areas or multi-layer networks.
However, a 5W Flexi Zone Micro BTS cannot be treated the same as a 40W macro eNB
cell for finding appropriate neighbors and assigning other cell specific parameters, such as
PCI.

The PCI management algorithm will, for the most part, remain unchanged. The main
difference is that, rather than use a PCI re-use distance to select the neighbor PCIs that
should be blocked by the PCI Management algorithm, the PCI management algorithm will
now use the prioritized neighbor list that is the result of LTE1821 and LTE1823 to create a
cell specific forbidden PCI list for the cell being configured

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LTE1823: Neighbor Prioritization Optimization for HetNet


1. The iSON manager classifies the cells, selected as
neighbors by the LTE1821:
Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet feature, in three
bins:
a) Bin 1 - the neighbor candidate cells that overlay the source
cell, Neighbor cell bin 1.
b) Bin 2 - the neighbor candidate cells, whose antennas
physically lie outside the coverage of the source cell, but
the coverage of the neighbor cells at least partially overlaps
with the coverage of the source cell, Neighbor cell bin 2.
c) Bin 3 - the neighbor candidate cells that do not overlay the
source cell, Neighbor cell bin 3.

All bin 1 cells have higher priority than any bin 2 cell, and all
bin 2 cells have higher priority than any bin 3 cell.

84 RA41202EN15GLA1 Nokia Solutionsand Networks 2016

2. The cells, selected as neighbors, are prioritized in each bin.


Cells in bin 1 and bin 3 are prioritized based on the ratio of transmit power to
distance from the source cell.
Cells in bin 2 are prioritized in a similar manner that in the LTE539: Central ANR
feature, based on the distance from the source cell and bearing from the source to the neighbor.
Additionally, transmit power factor is applied to calculate the relative size of the neighbor cell.
3. The neighbor cell list is cut, if needed. The prioritized neighbor list is used in PCI
Management algorithms if the PCI management algorithms cannot assign PCIs using all the
potential neighbors of the cell.
It might happen that the number of found neighbors exceeds the maximum number of neighbors
(N), which is defined by the operator for the cell being configured. Then, the prioritized cells
from bin 1 followed by the prioritized cells from bin 2 are selected, until the N is reached. Cells in
bin 3 can be used if the N is not reached by the cells in bin 1 and bin 2.

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LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet


Introduction to the feature
LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet enhances PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) management in a
multi-layer HetNet (Heterogeneous Network) environment. With this feature the PRACH Management algorithms optimize
HetNet configurations.

Functional overview
This feature addresses three areas related to PRACH.
ECR (Expected Cell Range)
ECR is a key input into the PRACH algorithm used in the preamble and PRACH selection. This value currently needs to be
configured manually by the operator for each LTE cell. This feature would automatically calculate the ECR for each cell based
on the propagation model introduced in Central ANR with LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet and
LTE1823: Neighbor Prioritization Optimization for HetNet for use in deriving PRACH and RACH parameters.
Neighbor Identification
The process of identifying neighboring cells to perform the PRACH analysis against will be enhanced to leverage that HeNet
neighbor identification functionality introduced with LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet and LTE1823:
Neighbor Prioritization Optimization for HetNet. The feature evaluates each cell-to-cell relationship individually based on cell
specific characteristics and configuration. The underlying PRACH parameter selection algorithms are not being modified by
this feature. Only the algorithms that determine the set of neighboring cells to be used for PRACH analysis will be modified
High Speed UE Flag
As the high speed UE flag impacts the root sequence selection for a cell, all small cells of size less than or equal to 5 W
transmit power have the High Speed UE Flag disabled as it is assumed that small cells will be used for more pedestrian, low
speed traffic. This can be overwritten and changed by the operator.
.

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LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet

LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet uses the algorithms for
the calculation of neighbor relationships and cells ranges as defined in LTE1821:
Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet. The iSON manager allows the
operator several options to determine cells ranges:
The operator configures a cell range per cell. This allows the option to import
cell ranges from an external planning tool.
The operator defines a cell range based on existing PDDB parameters such as
cell type or Tx Power.
The operator allows the iSON Manager to calculate cell-specific ranges based
on configured parameters for each cell.

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The algorithms defined in LTE1821: Neighbor Detection Optimization for HetNet and
to be used by LTE2020: PRACH Management Optimization for HetNet are applicable to
Intra-Frequency as well as Inter-Frequency neighbors and the neighbors can have the
same or differing channel bandwidths

84
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LTE-A Improving the Radio Performance

Peak rate Average rate Cell edge rate Coverage


(capacity) (interference) (noise limited)

Carrier aggregation ++ + ++ +

MIMO enhancements ++ ++ ++ o
(o) (+) (+)

CoMP o + + ++

Heterogeneous o ++ ++ +
networks

Relays o o + ++

= clear gain = moderate gain

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LTE-A enables a smooth and backward compatible evolution of LTE towards true 4G
performance
LTE-A comprises of various tools to enhance mobile broadband user experience and
network efficiency
There are serious interdependencies between network implementation and the various
tools of LTE-A, which require an experienced partner when planning and implementing LTE-
A
Nokia Solutions and Networks has always been at the forefront of LTE-A research and
development, with a strong focus on real operator opportunities in terms of efficiency and
user experience

85
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