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Concrete Mixtures

Typical cement, sand and gravel mixtures

Commonly used cement, sand and gravel mixtures:

Materials Volume Ratio Materials Required


Contruction Cement Sand Gravel
Cement Sand Gravel
(sacks) (CY) (CY)
Normal static loads, no rebar, not
1 3 6 4.2 0.5 0.95
exposed
Foundations and walls, normal
1 2.5 5 5.6 0.45 0.9
static loads, exposed
Basement walls 1 2.5 4 5.6 0.5 0.8
Basement walls, waterproof 1 2.5 3.5 5.9 0.55 0.8
Floors, light duty, driveways,
1 2.5 3
sidewalks
Reinforced roads, walls, exposed 1 2 4
High strength, floors, columns 1 1 2

1 CY = 1 cubic yards = 0.7646 m3 = 27 ft3

Road-Mix Pavements

Road-mix pavements consist of mineral aggregate and mineral filler uniformly mixed in place with a
bituminous material and compacted on a prepared base course or subgrade. A single layer, about 1 1/2 inches to 3
inches thick, is generally used. This type of pavement is likely to become defective unless it has a sound, well-
drained subgrade and is well-mixed, uniformly spread, and properly compacted. Road-mix pavements may be
used as a wearing surface on temporary roads and airfields and as a bituminous base or binder course in
construction of more permanent types of roads and airfields. Road mix is an economical method of surfacing small
areas when aggregate can be used from the existing base or when satisfactory aggregate is nearby. For road-
mix pavements, the grade and type of bituminous material depend upon the aggregate and equipment available
as well as weather conditions and time required to complete the project. Good weather is important to the success of
a road-mix project. Where possible, road-mixing operations should be scheduled when weather conditions are
likely to be hot and dry during, and for some time after, the project. Recommended types of bituminous
materials suitable for road mix are asphalt cutbacks, asphalt emulsions, and road tars. A medium-curing cutback
is generally used in a moderate climate, and a rapid-curing cutback is used in a cold climate. Viscosity required
is determined by the temperature, aggregate gradation, and method of mixing. The highest viscosity that will
completely and uniformly coat the particles of aggregate should be used. In general, open-graded aggregate requires
a high viscosity; a gradation, containing mineral filler, requires a less viscous grade. Aggregate, used in road mix,
may be scarified from the existing subgrade or hauled in from a nearby source. A wide range of coarse and fine
aggregate and mineral filler may be used. The ideal aggregate for road-mix
Asphalt Pavement Mixtures

Asphalt pavement refers to any paved road surfaced with asphalt. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is a combination
of approximately 95% stone, sand, or gravel bound together by asphalt cement, a product of crude oil. Asphalt
cement is heated aggregate, combined, and mixed with the aggregate at an HMA facility. The resulting Hot Mix
Asphalt is loaded into trucks for transport to the paving site. The trucks dump the Hot Mix Asphalt into hoppers
located at the front of paving machines. The asphalt is placed, and then compacted using a heavy roller, which is
driven over the asphalt. Traffic is generally permitted on the pavement as soon as the pavement has cooled.

Bituminous Materials

Is generally used to denote substances in which bitumen is present or from which it can be derived [Goetz
and Wood, 1960]. Bitumen is defined as an amorphous, black or dark-colored, (solid, semi-solid, or viscous)
cementitious substance, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, and soluble in carbon
disulfide.

For civil engineering applications, bituminous materials include primarily asphalts and tars. Asphalts may occur in
nature (natural asphalts) or may be obtained from petroleum processing (petroleum asphalts). Tars do not occur in
nature and are obtained as condensates in the processing of coal, petroleum, oil-shale, wood or other organic
materials. Pitch is formed when a tar is partially distilled so that the volatile constituents have evaporated off from it.

Bituminous mixtures are generally used to denote the combinations of bituminous materials (as binders), aggregates
and additives. This chapter presents the basic principles and practices of the usage of bituminous materials in
pavement construction. In recent years, the use of tars in highway construction has been very limited due to the
concern with the possible emission of hazardous flumes when tars are heated. Thus, this chapter deals primarily with
asphalts.

Types of Bituminous Materials Used In Pavement Construction

Asphalt cement is an asphalt which has been specially refined as to quality and consistency for direct use in
the construction of asphalt pavements. An asphalt cement has to be heated to an appropriate high temperature in
order to be fluid enough to be mixed and placed. Mang Tia - 2 - Cutback asphaltis a liquid asphalt which is a blend of
asphalt and petroleum solvents (such as gasoline and kerosine). A cutback asphalt can be mixed and placed with
little or no application of heat. After a cutback asphalt is applied and exposed to the atmosphere, the solvent will
gradually evaporate, leaving the asphalt cement to perform its function as a binder. Emulsified asphalt (or asphalt
emulsion) is an emulsion of asphalt cement and water that contains a small amount of emulsifying agent. In a normal
emulsified asphalt, the asphalt cement is in the form of minute globules in suspension in water. An emulsified asphalt
can be mixed and applied without any application of heat. After an asphalt emulsion is applied, sufficient time is
required for the emulsion to break and the water to evaporate to leave the asphalt cement to perform its function as a
binder. In an inverted emulsified asphalt, minute globules of water are in suspension in a liquid asphalt, which is
usually a cutback asphalt. Inverted asphalt emulsions are seldom used in pavement applications.