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Example 7. Given the data:

x 4.0 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.1
y 102.56 113.18 130.11 142.05 167.53 195.14 224.87 256.73 299.50 326.72

a) Fit a straight line to the value in table.


b) Compute the correlation coefficient (r).
c) Compute y at x = 6.0 .

Solution

i xi yi xi2 yi2 xiyi


1 4.00 102.56 16.00 10518.55 410.24
2 4.20 113.18 17.64 12809.71 475.36
3 4.50 130.11 20.25 16928.61 585.50
4 4.70 142.05 22.09 20178.20 667.64
5 5.10 167.53 26.01 28066.30 854.40
6 5.50 195.14 30.25 38079.62 1073.27
7 5.90 224.87 34.81 50566.52 1326.73
8 6.30 256.87 39.69 65982.20 1618.28
9 6.80 299.50 46.24 89700.25 2036.60
10 7.10 326.72 50.41 106745.96 2319.71
Sum 54.10 1958.53 303.39 439575.92 11367.73

xi 54.10
a) x 5.41
n 10
y 1958.53
y i 195.853
n 10
nxi yi xi yi 1011367.73 54.101958.53
a1 72.096
nxi2 xi 10303.39 54.10
2 2

a0 y a1 x 195.853 72.0965.41 194.187

y a0 a1 x 194.187 72.096 x Ans.

350

300
y = -194.187+72.096x

250

200
y

150

100

50
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5
x
ii

nxi yi xi yi
b) r
nxi2 xi nyi2 yi
2 2

1011367.73 54.101958.53
r 0.997 Ans.
10303.39 54.10 10439575.92 1958.53
2 2

r 2 0.994 (99.4% of the original uncertainty has been explained by the


linear model)

c) y a0 a1 x 194.187 72.0966.0 238.39 Ans.

Example 8. Linearize this model:


y 4 xe 4 x
and use it to estimate 4 and 4 based on the following data. Develop a
plot of your fit along with the data.
x 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8
y 0.75 1.25 1.45 1.25 0.85 0.55 0.35 0.28 0.18

Solution
y 4 xe 4 x
Linearized by dividing it by x
y
4 e 4 x
x
Taking the natural logarithm to yields
y
ln ln 4 4 x
x
y
Using Y ln , X x , a0 ln 4 and a1 4 , then
x
Y a0 a1 X
Converse the data of x and y to the new data, X and Y. Finally, fit the
straight to the new data.

i X=x y Y=ln(y/x) X2 XY
1 0.1 0.75 2.01490 0.01 0.20149
2 0.2 1.25 1.83258 0.04 0.36652
3 0.4 1.45 1.28785 0.16 0.51514
4 0.6 1.25 0.73397 0.36 0.44038
5 0.9 0.85 -0.05716 0.81 -0.05144
6 1.3 0.55 -0.86020 1.69 -1.11826
7 1.5 0.35 -1.45529 2.25 -2.18293
8 1.7 0.28 -1.80359 2.89 -3.06611
9 1.8 0.18 -2.30259 3.24 -4.14465
sum 8.5 -0.60952 11.45 -9.03987

X i 8.5
X 0.94444
n 9
Y 0.60952
Y i 0.06772
n 9
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nX i Yi X i Yi 9 9.03987 8.5 0.60952


a1 4 2.4733
nX X i 911.45 8.5
2 2 2
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a0 ln 4 Y a1 X 0.06772 2.47330.94444 2.2682

2.5

2 Y 2.4733 X 2.2682
1.5

0.5
Y = ln(y/x)

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
X=x

Therefore 4 2.4733 and 4 e 2.2682 9.6618 , the fit is


2.4733x
y 9.6618xe Ans.
This equation can be plotted together with the data:

1.5

y 9.6618xe 2.4733x

1
y

0.5

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
x
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Problem 1. To determine a functional relationship between the attenuation


coefficient and the thickness of a sample of taconite, V.P. Singh [Si] fits
a collection of data by using a linear least squares polynomial. The
following collection of data is taken from a graph in that paper. Find the
linear least squares polynomial fitting these data.

Thickness, t (cm) Attenuation coefficient,A


(dB/cm)
0.040 26.5
0.041 28.1
0.055 25.2
0.056 26.0
0.062 24.0
0.071 25.0
0.071 26.4
0.078 27.2
0.082 25.6
0.090 25.0
0.092 26.8
0.100 24.8
0.105 27.0
0.120 25.0
0.123 27.3
0.130 26.9
0.140 26.2

Ans. A = 1.6004t+25.9218 dB/cm

Problem 2. On average the surface area A of human beings is related to


weight W and height H. Measurements on a number of individuals of height
180 cm and different weights(kg) give values of A (m2)in the following
table:

W (kg) 70 75 77 80 82 84 87 90
A (m2) 2.10 2.12 2.15 2.20 2.22 2.23 2.26 2.30

Show that a power law A=aWb fits these data reasonably well. Evaluate the
constants a and b, and predict what the surface area is for a 95-kg person.

Ans. a = 0.4149, b = 0.3799


A = 2.3404 m2

Problem 3. The calibration of RTD sensor is given a result as shown in


below table. The relationship between resistance of RTD and it temperature
can be written as
RRTD = R0[1+(T-T0)]
where RRTD is resistance of RTD at temperature T , ohm.
R0 is resistance of RTD at reference temperature T0 , ohm.
T is temperature of RTD, C.
T0 is reference temperature which equal 0 C.
is coefficient of resistivity, C-1.

T (C) 20 30 40 50 60 70
RRTD (ohm) 26.96 27.94 28.92 29.90 30.88 31.86

Determine the constant values R0 and .

Ans. R0 = 25 ohm, = 0.00392 C-1.