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Section

3.1 Functions

Definitions
Relation is any set of ordered pairs.
Domain is the set of all first components of the ordered pairs
Range is the set of all second components of the ordered pairs
Function is a relation in which each member of the domain corresponds to exactly one
member of the range a correspondence from a first set to a second set

value
First Component or First Coordinate
Independent Variable
Ordered Pair ,
value
Second Component or Second Coordinate
Dependent Variable

Decide whether each of the following is function and then find the domain and range


1 A 1 A 1 A 1 A

2 B 2 B 2 B 2 B
3 C 3 C 3 C 3 C

4 D 4 D 4 D 4 D



Function Notation:
represents the value of the function at the number .
Read as of or at

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Section 3.1 Functions

Evaluating Function
For the function 3 7, evaluate each of the following;
1. 3 2. 3. 1
Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3
3 7 3 7 3 7
3 3 3 3 7 3 7 1 1 3 1 7
9 9 7 2 1 3 3 7
7 5 11

Finding Domains of Functions
The domain of a polynomial is all real numbers, , .

The domain of a rational,
g
Step 1: Set 0, then find zeros.
Step 2: Remove the resulting zeros from , .
The domain of a th root,
If the index of a root, , is odd number, the domain is all real numbers, , .
If the index of a root, , is even number, the domain is 0.

SetBuilder Notations and Interval Notations
SetBuilder Notation Interval Notation Graph

| ,

| ,

| ,

| ,

| or | ,

| or | ,

| or | ,

| or | ,




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Section 3.1 Functtions

Reading Inequalities
and is greater than and less tthan
and is greater than and less tthan or equaal to
and is greater than oor equal to and less th
han
and is greater than oor equal to and less th
han or equal to
or is grreater than
or is grreater than o or equal to
or is less than
or is less than or eq qual to

Parentheses and Brackets in Interv val Notation
Parentheses indicatee endpoints th hat are NOT INCLUDED in n an intervall.
Parentheses aare used for tthe inequality y or .
Sq quare Brackeets indiccate endpoin
nts that are IN
NCLUDED in an interval.
Sq quare Brackeets are used for the inequ uality or .

Exercisess
1. Solution 1
The relation is not a functiion
because vaalue, 8, is repeated.
Do not need tto state the do omain
or range becaause it is not aa
function.









2.



Solution 2
2
Step 1: Solvve for . Step 2: Deteermine
5 Becausse each has two different values, the equation is no ot a
5 functio
on. For examp ple if 4, 4 5 9 3. SSo,
5 4 corresponds t to 3 and 3.
Note that iff the power off variable is more than onne, the equatioon is not a funcction.

3. Soolution 3
All Quadratic equ uations in thee form of
are functionns.

Note that the pow wer of variaable is one, thee
equ uation is a fun
nction.


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Section 3.1 Functtions

4.








Solution 4
4
. 3 4 7 . 3 4 7
4 3 4 4 4 7 3 4 7
3 16 166 7 3 4 7
3 16 166 7 3 4 7
48 16 7
39

. 3 4 7 . 3 4 7
3 4 7 3 4 7
3 4 7 3 4 7
3 2 4 4 7
3 6 3 4 4 7

5. Soolution 5
Beccause the funcction includess a fraction, the
dennominator can nnot be 0.
Steep 1: Set Denoominator 0.
0
Steep 2: Factor, iff necessary, annd then find zeeros.
0
1 0
0 or 1 0
1 1 because 0, so 1 0
Thus, only 0 is not in thhe domain.
Steep 3: Remove tthe resulting zzeros from , .
Therefore, the domain iss , 0 0 0,

5. Soolution 5
Beccause the funcction includess a fraction, the
dennominator can nnot be 0.
Steep 1: Set Denoominator 0, tthen find zero os.
4 0
Steep 2: Factor, iff necessary, annd then find zeeros.
4 0
4 4
4
4
2
Thus, can nnot be 2 an nd 2.
Steep 3: Remove tthe resulting zzeros from , .
Therefore, the domain iss
, 2 2 2,2 2,

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Section 3.1 Functtions

6.




Solution 6
6
Because the function 6 18 includes a square ro oot, the inside of the square root must be greater than or
equal to 0.
Step 1: Set 0, then solve f
0 for .
The rradicand is 6 18.
6 18 0
18 18
6 18
6 18

6 6
3
Step 2: Rewwrite the resullt in interval n notation.
Read the inequality y 3 as is greater thaan or equal too 3. The solutiions of 3 aare all real nu
umbers
that aare greater thaan or equal to 3. In other wo ords, solution s are , 4, 5, , Importaant: 3 is includ
ded in
the soolution set . Thus, the solution set is 3, in interval n notation.
Note that Brackets must be used d for or

7.






Solution 7
7
15
Because the function includes a square roott and a fractioon, the inside o
of the square rroot must be ggreater
2
than or equual to 0 and th he denominato or cannot be 0.
0
Step 1: Set 0,
0 then solve ffor . Step 2: SSet Denominattor 0.
15 2 0
0
2 2 2
15 2
2 0 2
2 Thu us, cannot b
be 2.
15 2 0
15 15 2 0 Step 3: F
Find the domaain.
15 30 0 Alttogether, 2 and 2, the domain
n of
30 30 is | 2.
15 30
15 30

15 15
2






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Section 3.1 Functtions

8.
















Solution 8
8.a
g g
7 3
7 3
What is thee domain of g?
Becau use the functio on g in
ncludes squarre roots, the in
nside of the sqquare root must be greater tthan or
equall to 0.
0
Thereefore, the dom main of g is | 0.

Solution 8
8.b


g 7 3

What is thee domain of ?
g
Becau use the functio on includes a ssquare root an nd a fraction, tthe inside of tthe square rooot must be greeater

than oor equal to 0 aand the denom minator canno ot be 0.
Step 11: Set 0, then solve for .
0
Step 22: Set Denomiinator 0.
7 3 0
3 3
7 3
7 3

7 7
3 3
Thus,
7 7
Step 33: Find the domain.
3 3
Altogether 0 and , the domain is | 0 a nd
7 7

0 0,0 1, 2, 3 ,
0 1 2 3
3

7

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