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# Course-End Review

## Part 1: Time Domain

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems
Signal processing is the study of signals and systems
DEFINITION

## Signal (n): A detectable physical quantity . . . by which messages or information

can be transmitted (Merriam-Webster)

## Signals carry information

Examples:
Speech signals transmit language via acoustic waves
Radar signals transmit the position and velocity of targets via electromagnetic waves
Electrophysiology signals transmit information about processes inside the body
Financial signals transmit information about events in the economy

## Systems manipulate the information carried by signals

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Discrete-Time Signals
Signals are (potentially infinitely-long) vectors that live in a vector space

## Norm measures the strength of a signal x: kxk2 , kxk1 , kxk

The inner product hx, yi measures the similarity between two signals x and y

The Cauchy Schwarz Inequality calibrates inner product similarity measurements and enables
powerful ways and means to detect and classify signals

0 hx, yi kxk2 kyk2

Discrete-time sinusoids ejn are lovely but have two non-intuitive properties:
They alias
Most are not periodic

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Discrete-Time Systems
Linear systems, time-invariant systems, linear time-invariant (LTI) systems

Linear systems are matrices that map an input vector to an output vector

## LTI systems are characterized by their impulse response h

Infinite-length signals
LTI systems are (infinitely large) Toeplitz matrices
Convolution: y = h x

Finite-length/periodic signals
LTI systems are circulant matrices
Circular convolution: y = h ~ x

A system is BIBO stable if and only if its impulse response khk1 <

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Summary of Summaries

## The math is worth it!

Linear algebra is a key tool to understand how signals and systems work
Signals are vectors
Systems are matrices
Inner product and Cauchy Schwarz Inequality
Norms
Basis representations for signals
Eigenanalysis

Programming environments like Matlab make signals and systems come alive

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Whats Next?
Shift from studying signals and systems from a time domain perspective to a
frequency domain perspective (Part 2 of this course)

## Again, linear algebra plays a key role:

Signals: orthogonal bases

## Systems: eigenvectors and eigenvalues of matrices

Frequency domain perspective is very useful for signal analysis and system design

## See you in Part 2!

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It Takes a Village
Project management: Heather Seeba
Rice Online support: Cylette Willis, Jennifer Larson
Filming and editing: Joe Dwyer, Matt Koby, Martn Calvi
Content layout and homework: Matthew Moravec, Shaoyi Su
Case studies: Eva Dyer, Minh Nguyen, Raajen Patel
Office hours: Raajen Patel
Rice course assistants: JJ Alred, Forty-Two, Jack Wang, Tianyi Yao, Stephen Xia
MATLAB platform support: Michael Reardon and the MathWorks engineers
edX: David Porter and the edX engineers
And of course Mr. Lan and BIBO the Bear!

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SEE YOU IN PART 2 !!