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Instituto Superior Tcnico - lgebra Linear - 1o Semestre 2009/2010

MEAmbi - MEBiol
Resoluo da 2a Ficha de exerccios

1 3
1. (i) 3
2 =[ 2 1] (ii) No possvel.

2 3
32 1
3 2 11
p 3
2
2 3
2 4 2
3 2 5 5
(iii) 4 54
p
5=4
p
5
1 8 7
1 1 3 5 2 3
2 5 2

1 0 1 0 6 2 2
(iv) 2 1 3
= 20 (v) No possvel. (vi) No possvel.
3 2
2 3 3
2

2 p p p 3
p 4 2 1
2 2 2
2 2
(vii) 4 1
2 = 4 5
3 2
3
12 2
6

02 3 2 p
1T 1
p p 3
2 p 4 2 2
2 2 2
viii) @4 1
4
52 2 3 A = 4 5
3
1 12 2
6

0 2 8 1
31T
2 3T 2 3 9 3
1 2 3
B 1
0 1
1 0 1 6 7C 0 0 0
B 3 2 2 6 7C
(ix) B
B2
4 5 4 5 6
6
1
3
1
2
1 7C 4
7C = 0 0 0
5
@ 1 1
1 1 1
1 4 5A 0 0 0
3 2 3 2
5 5
3
1 2

2 3
1 18
6 7
2 3T 2 63 7
1 1
0 2 1 0 6 5
10 7
2 6 6 7
(x) 4 0 1 1
4
0 5 4 2 4 5=6
6
7
7
6 2 5 1 1
3 6 7
16 7
3 6 6 7
4 5
7
3
3

2 3T 2 1
3
1 0 1 2
0 2 5 7 7
1
(xi) 4 2 4 5 4 0 1 1
4
0 5= 6 6 3
1 18 10 16 3
3
3 6 2 5 1

3 2
0 0
2. (i) Seja A = 4 0 0 5. car A = 0; nul A = 2. No existem pivots.
0 0

1
2 3 3 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
(ii) 4 0 1 1 5 ! 4 0 1 1 5.
L1 +L3 !L3
1 2 3 0 0 0
2 3
1 2 3
Assim, sendo A = 4 0 1 1 5, tem-se car A = 2 e nul A = 1. Pivots: 1 e 1.
1 2 3

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
(iii) 4 2 4 5 ! 4 2 4 5 ! 4 0 0 5 ! 4 0 3 5.
L1 $L3 2L1 +L2 !L2 L1 $L3
1 2 2 1 2L1 +L3 !L3 0 3 0 0
2 3
2 1
Assim, sendo A = 4 2 4 5, tem-se car A = 2 e nul A = 0. Pivots: 1e 3.
1 2

2 3 2 3 2 3
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
(iv) 4 5 6 7 8 5 ! 4 0 4 8 12 5 ! 4 0 4 8 12 5.
5L1 +L2 !L2 2L2 +L3 !L3
9 10 11 12 9L1 +L3 !L3 0 8 16 24 0 0 0 0
2 3
1 2 3 4
Assim, sendo A = 4 0 4 8 12 5, tem-se car A = 2 e nul A = 2. Pivots: 1 e 4.
0 0 0 0

2 3 2 3
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
(v) 4 1 1 1 0 5 ! 4 0 1 1 1 5 !
L1 $L2 L1 +L3 !L3
1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1
2 3 2 3
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
! 4 0 1 1 1 5 ! 4 0 1 1 1 5.
L1 +L3 !L3 2L2 +L3 !L3
0 2 1 1 0 0 3 3
2 3
1 1 1 0
4
Assim, sendo A = 0 1 1 1 5, tem-se car A = 3 e nul A = 1. Pivots: 1; 1 e 3.
0 0 3 3

2 3 2 3
1 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 2
6 1 1 3 2 1 7 6 0 3 2 1 1 7
(vi) 6
4 2
7 ! 6 7 !
7 1 9 8 5 L1 +L2 !L2 4 0 3 1 3 4 5 L2 +L3 !L3
2L1 +L3 !L3 L2 +L4 !L4
3 3 2 4 6 3L1 +L4 !L4
0 3 1 5 12

2
2 3 2 3
1 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 2
6 0 3 2 1 1 7 6 0 3 2 1 1 7
! 6 7 ! 6 7.
L2 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 1 2 3 5 3L3 +L4 !L4 4 0 0 1 2 3 5
L2 +L4 !L4
0 0 3 4 11 0 0 0 2 2
2 3
1 2 1 3 2
6 1 1 3 2 1 7
Assim, sendo A = 6
4 2
7, tem-se car A = 4 e nul A = 1. Pivots: 1; 3; 1 e 2.
7 1 9 8 5
3 3 2 4 6

2 3 2 3 2 3
1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2
6 0 11 5 3 7 6 0 11 5 3 7 6 0 11 5 3 7
(vii) 6
4 2
7 ! 6 7 ! 6 7.
5 3 1 5 2L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 11 5 3 5 L2 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 0 0 5
4L1 +L4 !L4
4 1 1 5 0 11 5 3 L2 +L4 !L4 0 0 0 0
2 3
1 3 1 2
6 0 11 5 3 7
Assim, sendo A = 6
4 2
7, tem-se car A = 2 e nul A = 2. Pivots: 1 e 11.
5 3 1 5
4 1 1 5

5 1 2
(viii) Sendo A = , tem-se car A = 2 e nul A = 1. Pivots: 5 e 2.
0 2 0

2 3 2 3 2 3
3 6 9 1 2 3 1 2 3
(ix) 4 2 4 6 5 ! 4 2 4 6 5 ! 4 0 0 0 5.
L1 $L3 2L1 +L2 !L2
1 2 3 3 6 9 3L1 +L3 !L3 0 0 0
2 3
3 6 9
4
Assim, sendo A = 2 4 6 5, tem-se car A = 1 e nul A = 2. Pivot: 1.
1 2 3

2 3 2 3
2 10 6 8 4 2 10 6 8 4
(x) 4 1 5 3 4 2 5 1
! 4 0 0 0 0 0 5.
L +L2 !L2
2 10 6 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
L1 +L3 !L3
2 3
2 10 6 8 4
Assim, sendo A = 4 1 5 3 4 2 5, tem-se car A = 1 e nul A = 4. Pivot: 2.
2 10 6 8 4

2 3 2 3 2 3
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
3. (i) 4 1 5 ! 4 0 +1 5 ! 4 0 + 1 5.
L1 +L2 !L2 L2 +L3 !L3
0 1 0 1 0 0

3
2 3
1 0 1
Seja A = 4 1 5. Se 6= 0 ento car A = 3 e nul A = 0.
0 1

Se = 0 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 1.

Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 0, uma vez que s neste caso que car A = no de colunas
de A .

2 3 2 3 2 3
1 1 1
(ii) 4 2 1 2 5 ! 4 0 1+2 2+2 5 ! 4 0 1+2 2 (1 + ) 5.
2L1 +L2 !L2 2L2 +L3 !L3
3 2 1 3L1 +L3 !L3 0 2 4 1 3 0 0 3+
2 3
1
4 1
Seja A = 2 1 2 5. Se 6= 3e 6= ento car A = 3 e nul A = 0.
2
3 2 1

1
Se = 3 ou = ento car A = 2 e nul A = 1.
2
1
Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 3e 6= , uma vez que s neste caso que car A =
o
2
n de colunas de A .

2 2
3 2 2
3 2 2
3
2 2 2
4
(iii) 2 1 1 5 ! 4 0 1 2
1+ 5 ! 4 0 (1 ) (1 + ) 1+ 5.
2 L1 +L2 !L2 L2 +L3 !L3
0 1 +1 0 2 1 +1 0 0 2 ( + 1)
2 2
3
2
4
Seja A = 2 1 1 5. Se = 1 ento car A = 1 e nul A = 2.
2
0 1 +1

Se = 1 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 1.

Se 6= 1e 6= 1 ento car A = 3 e nul A = 0.

Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 1e 6= 1, uma vez que s neste caso que car A = no


de colunas de A .

2 3 2 3 2 3
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
6 0 1 0 0 7 6 0 1 0 0 7 6 0 1 0 0 7
(iv) 6
4 3
7 ! 6 7
5 L2 +L!
6 7.
0 0 5 3L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 +3 3 4 !L4
4 0 0 +3 3 5
L1 +L4 !L4
1 1 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 2

4
2 3
1 0 1
6 0 1 0 0 7
Seja A = 6
4 3
7. Se = 2 ou = 3 ento car A = 3 e nul A = 1.
0 0 5
1 1 1 2

Se 6= 2 e 6= 3 ento car A = 4 e nul A = 0.

Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 2 e 6= 3, uma vez que s neste caso que car A = no


de colunas de A .

2 3 2 3
1 0 1 1 0 1
6 0 1 1 0 7 6 0 1 1 0 7
(v) 6
4 1
7 ! 6 7.
0 2
1 5 L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 (1 ) (1 + ) 1 5
2 0 2 2 2L1 +L4 !L4 0 0 0 2( 1)
2 3
1 0 1
6 0 1 1 0 7
Seja A = 6
4 1
7. Se = 1 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 2.
0 2
1 5
2 0 2 2

Se = 1 ento car A = 3 e nul A = 1.

Se 6= 1 e 6= 1 ento car A = 4 e nul A = 0.

Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 1 e 6= 1, uma vez que s neste caso que car A = no


de colunas de A .

2 3 2 3
1 1 0 1 1 0
6 1 1 0 7 6 0 +1 1 0 7
(vi) 6
4 1 3
7
5 ! 6
4 0
7.
5
1 0 L1 +L2 !L2 0 ( 1) ( + 1) 0
2 L1 +L3 !L3
1 1 1 L1 +L4 !L4
0 0 0 ( 1) ( + 1)
2 3
1 0 1
6 0 1 1 0 7
Seja A = 6
4 1
7. Se = 1 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 2.
0 2
1 5
2 0 2 2

Se = 0 ento car A = 3 e nul A = 1.

Se = 1 ento car A = 1 e nul A = 3.

Se = 1 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 2.

Se 6= 1 e 6= 1 ento car A = 4 e nul A = 0.

Assim, A invertvel se e s se 6= 1 e 6= 1, uma vez que s neste caso que car A = no


de colunas de A .

5
1
0 1 j 1 0 1 0 j 0 1 0 1 0 1
4. (i) ! . Logo =
1 0 j 0 1 L1 $L2 0 1 j 1 0 1 0 1 0

1
1 0 1 0 1
(ii) = (iii) [1] = [1]
0 1 0 1

1 2 j 1 0 1 2 j 1 0
(iv) ! !
3 4 j 0 1 3L1 +L2 !L2 0 2 j 3 1 L2 +L1 !L1

1 0 j 2 1 1 0 j 2 1
! ! 3 1 .
L2 +L1 !L1 0 2 j 3 1 1
L !L2
2 2
0 1 j 2 2

1
1 2 2 1
Logo = 3 1 .
3 4 2 2

2 3 2 3
1 2 3 j 1 0 0 1 2 3 j 1 0 0
(v) 4 4 5 6 j 0 1 0 5 ! 4 0 3 6 j 4 1 0 5 !
4L1 +L2 !L2 2L2 +L3 !L3
7 8 9 j 0 0 1 7L1 +L3 !L3 0 6 12 j 7 0 1
2 3
1 2 3 j 1 0 0
! 4 0 3 6 j 4 1 0 5.
2L2 +L3 !L3
0 0 0 j 1 2 1
2 3
1 2 3
Logo, 4 5 6 5 singular e como tal no invertvel.
4
7 8 9

2 3 2 3
1 0 2 j 1 0 0 1 0 2 j 1 0 0
4
(vi) 0 3 0 j 0 1 0 5 ! 4 0 3 0 j 0 1 0 5 !
4L1 +L3 !L3 2
L +L1 !L1
4 0 5 j 0 0 1 0 0 3 j 4 0 1 3 3

2 5 2
3 2 5 2
3
1 0 0 j 3
0 3
1 0 0 j 3
0 3
! 4 0 3 0 j 0 1 0 5 ! 4 0 1 0 j 0 1
0 5.
2 1 3
L +L1 !L1 L2 !L2 4 1
3 3 0 0 3 j 4 0 1 3
1
0 0 1 j 3
0 3
L !L3
3 3

2 3 1 2 5 2
3
1 0 2 3
0 3
Logo 4 0 3 0 5 =4 0 1
3
0 5.
4 1
4 0 5 3
0 3

6
2 32 3 2 3
1 2 1 1 2 1 j 1 0 0 1 2 1 j 1 0 0
(vii) 4 4 0 6 5 4 4 0 6 j 0 1 0 5 ! 4 0 8 2 j 4 1 0 5 3
!
4L1 +L2 !L2 L +L3 !L3
1 8 1 1 8 1 j 0 0 1 L1 +L3 !L3 0 6 0 j 1 0 1 4 2

2 3 2 3
1 2 1 j 1 0 0 1 2 1 j 1 0 0
! 4 0 8 2 j 4 1 0 5 ! 4 0 8 2 j 4 1 0 5 !
3 2 2L3 +L2 !L2
L +L3 !L3 L !L3
4 2 0 0 32 j 4 34 1 3 3 0 0 1 j 8
3
1
2
2
3 L3 +L1 !L1

2 11 1 2
3 2 11 1 2
3
1 2 0 j 3 2 3
1 2 0 j 3 2 3
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
! 6 0 8 0 j 4
0 4 7 ! 6 0 1 0 j 1
0 1 7 !
2L3 +L2 !L2 6 3 3 7 1 6 6 6 7 2L2 +L1 !L1
L3 +L1 !L1
4 j 5 L !L2
8 2 4 j 5
8 1 2 8 1 2
0 0 1 j 3 2 3
0 0 1 j 3 2 3
2 1
3
1 0 0 j 4 2
1
6 j 7
6 7
! 6 0 1 0 j 1
0 1 7.
2L2 +L1 !L1 6 6 6 7
4 j 5
8 1 2
0 0 1 j 3 2 3
2 1
3
2 3 4 2
1
1
1 2 1 6 7
6 7
Logo 4 4 0 6 5 =6
6
1
6
0 1
6
7.
7
1 8 1 4 5
8 1 2
3 2 3

cos sen j 1 0 cos2 cos sen j cos 0


(viii) ! !
sen cos j 0 1 (cos )L1 !L1 sen2 sen cos j 0 sen L2 +L1 !L1
(sen )L2 !L2

1 0 j cos sen
! !
L2 +L1 !L1 sen2 sen cos j 0 sen ( sen2 )L1 +L2 !L2

1 0 j cos sen
! !
( sen2 )L1 +L2 !L2 0 sen cos j sen2 cos sen (1 sen2 ) sen
1
cos
L2 !L2

1 0 j cos sen
! . Note que sen cos 6= 0 para todo o .
1
sen cos
L2 !L2 0 1 j sen cos

1
cos sen cos sen
Logo = .
sen cos sen cos

(ix) Seja k 6= 0.

7
2 3 2 3
k 0 0 0 j 1 0 0 0 k 0 0 0 j 1 0 0 0
6 1 k 0 0 j 0 1 0 0 7 6 0 k 0 0 j 1
1 0 0 7
6 7 ! 6 k 7 !
4 0 1 k 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 1
L +L2 !L2
4 0 1 1 0 j 0 0 k1 0 5 1
L2 +L3 !L3
k 1 k k2
0 0 1 k j 0 0 0 1 1
L !L3
k 3
0 0 k1 1 j 0 0 0 k1 1
L !L1
k 1
1
L !L4
k 4

2 1
3 2 1
3
1 0 0 0 j k
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 j k
0 0 0
6 0 k 0 0 j 1
1 0 0 7 6 0 1 0 0 j 1 1
0 0 7
! 6 k 7 ! 6 k2 k 7.
1
L2 +L3 !L3
4 0 0 1 0 j 1 1 1
0 5 1
L +L4 !L4
4 0 0 1 0 j 1 1 1
0 5
k2 k3 k2 k k 3 k3 k2 k
1
L !L1
k 1
0 0 k1 1 j 0 0 0 k1 1
L !L2
k 2
0 0 0 1 j 1
k4
1
k3
1
k2
1
k

2 3 1 2 1
3
k 0 0 0 k
0 0 0
6 1 k 0 0 7 6 1 1
0 0 7
Logo 6
4 0
7 =6 k2 k 7.
1 k 0 5 4 1
k3
1
k2
1
k
0 5
1 1 1 1
0 0 1 k k4 k3 k2 k

(x) Sejam k1 ; k2 ; k3 ; k4 6= 0.

2 3 2 3
0 0 0 k1 j 1 0 0 0 k4 0 0 0 j 0 0 0 1
6 0 0 k2 0 j 0 1 0 0 7 6 0 k3 0 0 j 0 0 1 0 7
6 7 ! 6 7 !
4 0 k3 0 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 L1 $L4 4 0 0 k2 0 j 0 1 0 0 5 1
L !L1
k4 1
k4 0 0 0 j 0 0 0 1 L2 $L3 0 0 0 k1 j 1 0 0 0 1
L !L2
k3 2
1
L !L3
k2 3
1
L !L4
k1 4

2 1 3
1 0 0 0 j 0 0 0 k4
6 0 1 0 0 j 0 0 1
0 7
! 6 k3 7.
1
L !L1
4 0 0 1 0 j 0 1
0 0 5
k4 1 k2
1
1
L !L2
k3 2
0 0 0 1 j k1
1 0 0 0
1
L !L3
k2 3
1
L !L4
k1 4

2 3 1 2 1 3
0 0 0 k1 0 0 0 k4
6 0 0 k2 0 7 6 0 0 1
0 7
Logo 6 7
4 0 k3 0 0 5 =6
4 0
k3 7.
1
k2
0 0 5
k4 0 0 0 1
k1
1 0 0 0

2 5 2 2 8
3 2 3
13 13 13 13
5 2 2 8
6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7
6 2 7 6 2 7 6 2 7 6 2 7
6 13 13 13 13 7 6 7
(xi) 6
6
7=
7
1 6
13 6
7:
7
6 2 6 7 2 7 6 2 6 7 2 7
6 13 13 13 13 7 6 7
4 5 4 5
8 2 2 5
13 13 13 13
8 2 2 5

8
2 3 2 3
5 2 2 8 j 1 0 0 0 2 6 7 2 j 0 0 1 0
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 2 7 6 2 j 0 1 0 0 7 6 2 7 6 2 j 0 1 0 0 7
6 7 6 7
6 j 7 ! 6 j 7 !
6 7 L1 $L3 6 7 L1 +L2 !L2
6 2 6 7 2 j 0 0 1 0 7 6 5 2 2 8 j 1 0 0 0 7
6 7 6 7 5
L +L3 !L3
2 1
4 j 5 4 j 5 4L1 +L4 !L4
8 2 2 5 j 0 0 0 1 8 2 2 5 j 0 0 0 1
2 3
2 6 7 2 j 0 0 1 0
6 j 7
6 7
6 0 13 13 0 j 0 1 1 0 7
6 7
! 6 j 7 !
L1 +L2 !L2 6
6 0
7
7 L2 +L3 !L3
5
L +L3 !L3 6
13 392
13 j 1 0 5
2
0 7 2L2 +L4 !L4
2 1
4L1 +L4 !L4
4 j 5
0 26 26 13 j 0 0 4 1
2 3
2 6 7 2 j 0 0 1 0
6 j 7
6 7
6 0 13 13 0 j 0 1 1 0 7
6 7
! 6 j 7 !
L2 +L3 !L3 6
6 13 3
7
7 1
L !L1
2L2 +L4 !L4 6 0 0 2
13 j 1 1 2
0 7
2 1
1
4 5 L !L2
13 2
j 2
L
13 3
!L3
0 0 0 13 j 0 2 2 1 1
L
13 4
!L4
2 7 1
3
1 3 2
1 j 0 0 2
0
6 j 7
6 7
6 0 1 1 0 j 0 1 1
0 7
6 13 13 7
! 6 j 7 !
1 6 7 L4 +L1 !L1
L !L1
2 1 6 0 0 1 2 j 2 2 3
0 7
1
L !L2
6 13 13 13 7 2L4 +L3 !L3
13 2 4 j 5
2
L
13 3
!L3 2 2 1
1 0 0 0 1 j 0 13 13 13
L !L4
13 4

2 7 2 9 1
3
1 3 2
0 j 0 13 26 13
6 j 7
6 7
6 0 1 1 0 j 0 1 1
0 7
6 13 13 7
! 6 j 7 !
L4 +L1 !L1 6
6 2 2 1 2
7
7 L3 +L2 !L2
2L4 +L3 !L3 6 0 0 1 0 j 13 13 13 13 7 7
L +L1 !L1
2 3
4 j 5
2 2 1
0 0 0 1 j 0 13 13 13
2 7 5 8 6
3 2 1 2 2
3
1 3 0 0 j 13 13 13 13
1 0 0 0 j 13 13 13
0
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 0 1 0 0 j 2 1 2 2 7 6 0 1 0 0 j 2 1 2 2 7
6 13 13 13 13 7 6 13 13 13 13 7
! 6 j 7 ! 6 j 7.
L3 +L2 !L2 66 0 0 2 2 1 2
7
7 3L2 +L1 !L1 6
6 2 2 1 2
7
7
7
L +L1 !L1 6
1 0 j 13 13 13 13 7 6 0 0 1 0 j 13 13 13 13 7
2 3
4 j 5 4 j 5
2 2 1 2 2 1
0 0 0 1 j 0 13 13 13
0 0 0 1 j 0 13 13 13

9
2 5 2 2 8
3 1 0 2 31 1
13 13 13 13
5 2 2 8
6 7 B 6 7C
6 7 B 6 7C
6 2 7 6 2 7 B 6 2 7 6 2 7C
6 13 13 13 13 7 B1 6 7C
Logo 6
6
7
7 =B 6
B 13 6
7C
7C =
6 2 6 7 2 7 B 6 2 6 7 2 7C
6 13 13 13 13 7 B 6 7C
4 5 @ 4 5A
8 2 2 5
8 2 2 5
2 1
13
2
13
2
13 3 2
13 3
13 13 13
0 1 2 2 0
6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7
6 2 1 2 2 7 6 2 1 2 2 7
6 13 13 13 13 7 6 7
= 13 6
6
7=6
7 6
7.
7
6 2 2 1 2 7 6 2 2 1 2 7
6 13 13 13 13 7 6 7
4 5 4 5
2 2 1
0 13 13 13
0 2 2 1

2 1 1 1
3 2 3
1 2 2 2
2 1 1 1
6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7
6 1
1 0 1 7 6 1 2 0 1 7
6 2 2 7 6 7
(xii) 6
6
7=
7
1 6
2 6
7.
7
6 1
0 1 1 7 6 1 0 2 1 7
6 2 2 7 6 7
4 5 4 5
1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2
2 3 2 3
2 1 1 1 j 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 j 0 0 0 1
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 1 2 0 1 j 0 1 0 0 7 6 1 2 0 1 j 0 1 0 0 7
6 7 6 7
6 j 7 ! 6 j 7 !
6 7 L1 $L4 6 7 L1 +L2 !L2
6 1 0 2 1 j 0 0 1 0 7 6 1 0 2 1 j 0 0 1 0 7
6 7 6 7 L1 +L3 !L3
4 j 5 4 j 5 2L1 +L4 !L4

1 1 1 2 j 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 j 1 0 0 0
2 3 2 3
1 1 1 2 j 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 j 0 0 0 1
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 0 1 1 1 j 0 1 0 1 7 6 0 1 1 1 j 0 1 0 1 7
6 7 6 7
! 6 j 7 ! 6 j 7 !
L1 +L2 !L2 6 7 L2 +L3 !L3 6 7 L3 $L4
6 0 1 1 1 j 0 0 1 1 7 6 0 0 0 2 j 0 1 1 2 7
L1 +L3 !L3 6 7 L2 +L4 !L4 6 7
2L1 +L4 !L4 4 j 5 4 j 5
0 1 1 3 j 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 4 j 1 1 0 3
2 3 2 3
1 1 1 2 j 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 j 0 1 1 1
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 0 1 1 1 j 0 1 0 1 7 6 0 1 1 0 j 0 1 1
0 7
6 7 6 2 2 7
! 6 j 7 ! 6 j 7 !
L3 $L4 6
6 0
7 2L4 +L3 !L3 6 7 1

6 0 2 4 j 1 1 0 3 7
7 1
L +L2 !L2
6 0
6 0 2 0 j 1 1 2 1 7
7
L !L3
2 3
1
2 4 L !L4
4 j 5 L4 +L1 !L1
4 j 5 2 4

0 0 0 2 j 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 j 0 1 1 2

10
2 3 2 3
1 1 1 0 j 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 j 21 1
2
0 1
2
6 j 7 6 j 7
6 7 6 7
6 0 1 1 0 j 0 1 1
0 7 6 0 1 0 0 j 12 1 1 1 7
6 2 2 7 6 2 2 7
! 6 j 7 ! 6 j 7
1 6 7
1 7 L3 +L2 !L2
6 7 L2 +L!
1 !L1
2
L3 !L3 6 0 0 1 0 j 12 1
1 6 0 0 1 0 j 12 1
1 1 7
1
L !L4 4
6 2 2 7 L3 +L1 !L1 6 2 2 7
2 4
j 5 4 j 5
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 j 0 2 2
1 0 0 0 1 j 0 2 2
1
2 3
1 0 0 0 j 1 12 12 0
6 j 7
6 7
6 0 1 0 0 j 12 1 12 12 7
6 7
! 6 j 7.
L2 +L1 !L1 6 7
6 0 0 1 0 j 12 21 1 12 7
6 7
4 j 5
0 0 0 1 j 0 12 12 1
2 1 1 1
3 1 0 2 31 1 2 1 1
3 2 3
1 2 2 2
2 1 1 1 1 2 2
0 2 1 1 0
6 7 B 6 7C 6 7 6 7
6 7 B 6 7C 6 7 6 7
6 1
1 0 1 7 B 6 1 2 0 1 7C 6 1
1 7
1 6 1 2 1
1 1 7
6 2 2 7 B1 6 7C 6 2 7 6
2 2 7
Logo 6
6
7
7 =B 6
B2 6
7C
7C = 26
6
7=6
7 6
7.
7
6 1
0 1 1 7 B 6 1 0 2 1 7C 6 1 1
1 2 7 6 1 1 2 1 7
1 7 6
6 2 2 7 B 6 7C 6 2 2 7
4 5 @ 4 5A 4 5 4 5
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 1 2

2 3 2 3
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
6 1 2
+ 7 6 0 1 7
5. A ; = 6 4 0 1
7 ! 6
5 L2 $L3 4 1 2
7
5 !
+ L1 +L3 !L3
2 2 L1 +L4 !L4
1 + + 1 + +
2 3 2 3
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
6 0 1 7 6 0 1 7
! 6 7 ! 6 7 !
L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 5 L2 +L 4 0 +1 0 5
2
++1 3 !L3 0 L3 +L4 !L4
L1 +L4 !L4 2 L2 +L4 !L4
0 ++1 + 0 0 +1
2 3
1 0 1 0
6 0 1 7
! 6 7.
L3 +L4 !L4 4 0 0 +1 0 5
0 0 0

Se = 1e = 0 ento car A = 2 e nul A = 2.

Se ( = 1e 6= 0) ou ( 6= 1e = 0) ento car A = 3 e nul A = 1.

Se 6= 1e 6= 0 ento car A = 4 e nul A = 0.

Assim, A ; invertvel se e s se 6= 1e 6= 0, uma vez que s neste caso que car A ; =


no de colunas de A ; .

11
2 3 2 3
0 0 a 1 2 2 0 a
6 2 2 0 a 7 6 0 0 a 1 7
6. (a) Ba;b =6
4 0
7 ! 6 7 !
0 a b 5 L1 $L2 4 0 0 a b 5 L2 $L4
3 0 6 0 3 0 6 0
2 3 2 3
2 2 0 a 2 2 0 a
6 3 0 6 0 7 6 0 3 6 3
a 7
! 6 7 ! 6 2 7.
L2 $L4 4 0 0 a b 5 3
L +L2 !L2
4 0 0 a b 5
2 1
0 0 a 1 L3 +L4 !L4 0 0 0 1 b

Se a = 0 ou ( a 6= 0 e b = 1) ento car Ba;b = 3 e nul Ba;b = 1.

Se a 6= 0 e b 6= 1 ento car Ba;b = 4 e nul Ba;b = 0.

2 3 2 3
0 0 1 1 j 1 0 0 0 3 0 6 0 j 0 0 0 1
6 2 2 0 1 j 0 1 0 0 7 6 2 2 0 1 j 0 1 0 0 7
(b) [B1;0 j I] = 6
4 0
7 ! 6 7 !
0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 L1 $L4 4 0 0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 2
L +L2 !L2
3 1
3 0 6 0 j 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 j 1 0 0 0 L3 +L4 !L4

2 3 2 3
3 0 6 0 j 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 j 0 0 6 1
6 0 2 4 1 j 0 1 0 2 7 6 0 2 4 0 j 1 1 1 2 7
! 6 3 7 ! 6 3 7 !
2
L +L2 !L2
4 0 0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 L4 +L2 !L2 4 0 0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 1
L !L2
3 1 2 2
6L3 +L1 !L1
L3 +L4 !L4 0 0 0 1 j 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 j 1 0 1 0 1
L !L1
3 1

2 1
3 2 1
3
1 0 0 0 j 0 0 2 3
1 0 0 0 j 0 0 2 3
6 0 1 2 0 j 1 1 1 7 1 6 0 1 0 0 j 1 1 5 7 1
! 6 4 0
2 2 2 7 3 ! 6 2 2 2 7.3
1
L !L2
2 2
0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5 2L3 +L2 !L2 4 0 0 1 0 j 0 0 1 0 5
1
L !L1
3 1
0 0 0 1 j 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 j 1 0 1 0
2 1
3
0 0 2 3
6 1 1 5 7 1
Logo (B1;0 ) 1
=6
4
2 2 2 7.3
0 0 1 0 5
1 0 1 0

(c) Como B1;0 invertvel,


2 19
3
3
2 3 6
32 7
0 0 2 1
1 6 7
3 6 19 7
6 1 1 5 1 76
2 7 6 3 7
B1;0 X = C , X = (B1;0 ) 1
C,X=6 2 2 2 3 76 7=6 7:
4 0 0 1 0 54 3 5 6 6
7
7
6 3 7
1 0 1 0 1 4 5
2

12
(d) Seja X = (x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; x4 ).
2 32 3 3 2
0 0 a 1 x1 a
6 2 2 0 7 6
a 7 6 x2 7 6 0 7
Ba;1 X = D , 6
4 0
7=6 7
5 4 a 5.
0 a 1 5 4 x3
3 0 6 0 x4 6

A soluo geral de Ba;1 X = D dada por:

(Soluo particular de Ba;1 X = D) + (Soluo geral de Ba;1 X = 0).

O vector (0; 0; 1; 0) uma soluo particular de Ba;1 X = D. Determinemos a soluo geral de


Ba;1 X = 0.
2 3 2 3
0 0 a 1 0 0 a 1
6 2 2 0 a 7 6 2 2 0 a 7
Tem-se 6 4 0 0
7 ! 6 7 !
a 1 5 L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 0 0 5 L1 $L2
3 3 L3 $L4
3 0 6 0 L +L4 !L4
2 2 0 3 6 2
a
2 3 2 3
2 2 0 a 2 2 0 a
6 0 0 a 1 7 6 0 3 6 3
a 7
! 6 7 ! 6 2 7.
L1 $L2 4 0 5 L2 $L3 4 0 5
3
3 6 2
a 0 a 1
L3 $L4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
8 > x = 2x3
< 2x1 + 2x2 + ax4 = 0 >
< a2
Logo, 3x2 + 6x3 32 ax4 = 0 , x2 = 2 + x3
: >
> 2
ax3 + x4 = 0 :
x4 = ax3

Assim, a soluo geral de Ba;1 X = 0 dada por:

a2
( 2s; 2 + s; s; as) : s 2 R
2

Logo, a soluo geral do sistema linear Ba;1 X = D dada por:

a2 a2
f(0; 0; 1; 0)g+ 2s; 2 + s; s; as :s2R = 2s; 2 + s; s 1; as :s2R .
2 2

Resoluo Alternativa.
2 3 2 3
0 0 a 1 j a 0 0 a 1 j a
6 2 2 0 a j 0 7 6 2 2 0 a j 0 7
[Ba;1 j D] = 6
4 0 0 a 1 j
7 ! 6 7 !
a 5 L1 +L3 !L3 4 0 0 0 0 j 0 5 L1 $L2
3 3
3 0 6 0 j 6 L +L4 !L4
2 2 0 3 6 2
a j 6 L3 $L4
2 3 2 3
2 2 0 a j 0 2 2 0 a j 0
6 0 0 a 1 j a 7 6 0 3 6 3
a j 6 7
! 6 4
7 ! 6
5 4
2 7.
L1 $L2 0 3 6 3
2
a j 6 L2 $L3 0 0 a 1 j a 5
L3 $L4
0 0 0 0 j 0 0 0 0 0 j 0

13
8 8
< 2x + 2y + aw = 0
> < x = 2z 2
>
3 1
Tem-se ento 3y + 6z aw = 6 , y = 2z aw + 2
>
: 2 >
: 2
az + w = a w = a az

Logo, a soluo geral do sistema linear Ba;1 X = D dada por:

a2 1 a2
2s 2; 2 + s + a2 + 2; s; a as :s2R = 2s; 2 + s; s 1; as :s2R :
2 2 2

14