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# Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Chapter 12
Analysis of Variance
1. 9.01 from Appendix B.6 (LO12-1)

2. 9.78 (LO12-1)

## 3. Reject Ho if F > 10.5, where df in numerator are 7 and 5 in the denominator.

s 2 (10) 2
F 12 2
2.04
F = 2.04, found by: s 2 (7)
Do not reject Ho. There is no difference in the variations of the two populations. (LO12-1)

## 4. Reject Ho if F > 9.15, where df in numerator are 4 and 6 in the denominator.

s 2 (12) 2
F 12 2
2.94
F = 2.94, found by: s 2 (7)
Do not reject Ho. There is no difference in the variations of the two populations. (LO12-1)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2
2 2 2 2
5.
Reject Ho where F > 3.10 (3.10 is about halfway between 3.14 and 3.07)
(12) 2
F 2
1.44
F = 1.44, found by (10)
Do not reject Ho. It is reasonable to conclude variations of the two populations could be the
same. (LO12-1)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2
2 2 2 2
6.
(3.9) 2
F 1.24
Reject Ho when F > 3.68 F = 1.24, found by (3.5) 2
Do not reject Ho. There is no evidence the variations in stock 1 is larger than stock 2.
(LO12-1)

## 7. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same

b. Reject Ho if F > 4.26
c&d Source SS df MS F
Treatment 62.17 2 31.08 21.94
Error 12.75 9 1.42
Total 74.92 11
e. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all the same. (LO12-2)

## 8. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same

b. Reject Ho if F > 3.89
c&d Source SS df MS F
Treatment 70.40 2 35.20 5.12
Error 82.53 12 6.88
Total 152.93 14
e. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all the same. (LO12-2)
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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

9. Step 1: Ho: Southwyck = Franklin = Old Orchard H1: Treatment means are not all the same
Step 2: The 0.05 significance level was chosen
Step 3: Use a F-statistics
Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 4.26
Step 5: Source SS df MS F
Treatment 276.50 2 138.25 14.18
Error 87.75 9 9.75
Reject Ho.
Step 6: The mean incomes are not all the same for the three tracks of land. (LO12-2)

10. Step 1: Ho: Banking = Retail = Insurance H1: Treatment means are not all the same
Step 2: The 0.05 significance level was chosen
Step 3: Use a F-statistics
Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 3.89
Step 5: Source SS df MS F
Treatment 22.93 2 11.45605.7325
Error 24.00 12 2.0
Reject Ho as 5.7325 > 3.89.
Step 6: The mean number of hours spent at the computer are not equal by industry. (LO12-2)

11. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same
b. Reject Ho if F > 4.26
c. SST = 107.20 SSE = 9.47 SS total = 116.67
d. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 107.20 2 53.600 50.96
Error 9.47 9 1.052
Total 116.67 11
e. Since 50.96 > 4.26, Ho is rejected. At least one of the means differ.
( X 1 X 2 ) t MSE (1/ n1 1/ n2 )
(9.667 2.20) 2.262 1.052(1/ 3 1/ 5)
f. 7.467 1.69
[5.777, 9.157] Yes, we can conclude that the treatments 1 and 2 have different means.
(LO12-3)

12. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same
b. Reject Ho if F > 3.47
c. SST = 46.96 SSE = 53.00 SS total = 99.96
d. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 46.96 2 23.48 9.30
Error 53.00 21 2.52
Total 99.96 23
e. Since 9.30 > 3.47, Ho is rejected. At least one of the means differ.
( X 1 X 2 ) t MSE (1 / n1 1 / n2 ) (6.0 4.25) 2.080 2.52(1 / 101 1 / 8)
f. or
which is 1.751.57 or [0.18, 3.32]
Yes, we can conclude that the treatments 2 and 3 are different. (LO12-3)

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Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

13. There are two methods to answer this question. Using the six-step method we have the
following.
Step 1: Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 H1: Treatment means are not all equal
Step 2: 5% level chosen for us.
Step 3: Use an F-statistic
Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 3.71
Step 5: Here is the ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F
Treatment 32.33 3 10.77 2.36
Error 45.67 10 4.567
Total 78.00 13
Since 2.36 is less than 3.71, Ho is not rejected.
Step 6: There is no difference in the mean number of weeks.
Alternatively we can interpret the p-value given in the output. A p-value of 0.133 is
above the significance level, so we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Regardless of the
method used to test the hypothesis, we find there is no difference in the mean number
of weeks. (LO12-2)

## 14. a. The hypothesis is Ho: 1 = 2 =

H1: At least one mean differs
The critical value is 3.74 as the numerator degrees of freedom is 2, the denominator
degrees of freedom is 14, and a significance level of 5%.
Since 15.61 > 3.74, Ho is rejected. At least one mean rate of return differs.
b. Since 0 is not between -7.121 and -2.935 the mean rates of return from utility stocks
and retail stocks are different.
Since 0 is between -3.066 and 1.121, the mean rates of return from utility and banking
stocks may be the same.
Since 0 is not between 2.060 and 6.051, the mean rates of return from retail and
banking stocks are different.
(LO12-3)
15. a. Ho: 1 = 2 H1: Not all treatment means are equal
b. Reject Ho if F > 18.5
c. Ho: A = B = C H1: Not all block means are equal
Reject Ho if F > 19.0
d. SSTotal = (46.0 36.5)2 + (35.0 36.5)2 = 289.5
SSE1 = (46.0 42.3333)2 + (35.0 30.6667)2 = 85.333
SST = 289.5 85.333 = 204.16667
SSB = 2(38.5 36.5)2 + 2(31.5 36.5)2 + 2(39.5 36.5)2 = 76
SSE = 289.5 204.1667 76 = 9.333
e. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 204.167 1 204.167 43.75
Blocks 76.000 2 38.000 8.14
Error 9.333 2 4.667
Total 289.5000 5
f. 43.75 > 18.5, so reject Ho. There is a difference in the treatments. 8.14 < 19.0, so fail
to reject Ho for blocks. There is no difference between blocks. (LO12-4)

## 16. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal

b. Reject Ho if F > 6.94
c. Ho: A = B = C H1: Not all block means are equal

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Reject Ho if F > 6.94

d. SSTotal = (12 86/9)2 + + (8 86/9)2 = 42.222
(28) 2 (33) 2 (25) 2 (86) 2
SST 10.889
3 3 3 9
(34) 2 (29) 2 (23) 2 (86) 2
SSB 20.222
3 3 3 9
SSE = 42.222 20.222 10.889 = 11.111
e. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 10.889 2 5.444 1.96
Blocks 20.222 2 10.111 3.64
Error 11.111 4 2.778
Total 42.222 8
f. 1.96 < 6.94, so fail to reject Ho. There is no difference in the treatments. 3.64 < 6.94,
so fail to reject Ho for blocks. There is no difference between blocks. (LO12-4)

## 17. For treatment For blocks

Ho: Day = Afternoon = Night Ho: S = L = C = T = M
H1: Not all means equal H1: Not all means are equal
Reject if F > 4.46 Reject if F > 3.84
Here is the ANOVA table
Source SS df MS F
Treatment 62.53 2 31.2667 5.75
Blocks 33.73 4 8.4333 1.55
Error 43.47 8 5.4333
Total 139.73 14
As 5.75 > 4.46 the null for treatments is rejected, but the null for blocks is not rejected as
1.55< 3.84. There is a difference in means by shifts, but not by employee. (LO12-4)

## 18. For treatment For blocks

Ho: St Lukes = St Vincent = Mercy Ho: Mon = Tue = Wed = Thu = Fri
H1: Not all means equal H1: Not all means are equal
Reject if F > 4.46 Reject if F > 3.84
Here is the ANOVA table
Source SS df MS F
Treatment 58.13 2 29.0667 1.97
Blocks 75.73 4 18.9333 1.29
Error 117.87 8 14.7333
Total 251.73 14
Since 1.97 < 4.46 the Ho for treatments is not rejected. Likewise, since 1.29 < 3.84 Ho for
blocks is not rejected. There is no difference in the mean number of surgeries by hospital or by
day of the week. (LO12-4)

## 19. Here is the ANOVA table:

Source SS df MS F P
Size 156.333 2 78.1667 1.98 0.180
Weight 98.000 1 98.0000 2.48 0.141
Interaction 36.333 2 18.1667 0.46 0.642
Error 473.333 12 39.4444
Total 764.000 17
a. Since the p-value (0.18) is greater than 0.05, there is no difference in the Size means.
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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## b. The p-value for Weight (0.141) is greater than 0.05.

Thus, there is no difference in those means.
c. There is no significant interaction because the p-value (0.642) is greater than 0.05.
(LO12-5)

## 20. The complete table is:

Source SS MS
Factor A 75 25
Factor B 25 12.5
Interaction 300 50
Error 600 12.5
Total 1000
Critical values to test for equal means are 2.80, 3.19 and 2.29, respectively. Thus, there is no
difference in either the Factor A or Factor B means, but there is interaction. (LO12-5)

## Interaction Plot (data means) for Sales

46 Position
Inside
44 Outside

42

40
Mean

38

36

34

32

30
D-320 J-1000 UV-57
Machine

21. a. There appears to be an interaction. Sales using the UV-57 are better inside and the D-
320 does better outside.
b. Two-way ANOVA: Sales versus Machine, Position
Source SS DF MS F P
Machine 16.333 2 8.167 0.72 0.502
Position 104.167 1 104.167 9.12 0.007
Interaction 457.333 2 228.667 20.03 0.000
Error 205.500 18 11.417
Total 783.333 23
Since the machine p-value (0.502) is greater than 0.05, it appears there is no
difference in the mean sales by machine. The p-value for position (0.007) is less than
0.05 indicating there is evidence that mean sales inside and outside are different.
However, there is a considerable interaction between those factors. Further study is
recommended.
c. T-statistics for the null hypothesis that sales inside are equal to sales outside for each
of the machines are: -6.39, -2.41, and 3.22 for the D-320, J-1000, and UV-57,
respectively. We would not reject the null hypothesis of equal means if the t value is
between -2.571 and 2.571 for the J-1000 and D-320 and if the t-value is between
-2.776 and 2.776 for UV-57. Thus, at the 0.05 level of significance, you can conclude
that D-320 does better outside and the UV-57 does better inside. (LO12-5)

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

1050 Gender
Female
Male
1000

950

Mean
900

850

800

## Manufacturing Marketing Res & Dev

Area

22. a. It appears males do much better than females in the R & D area.
b. Two-way ANOVA: Salary versus Gender, Area
Source DF SS MS F P
Gender 1 62220 62220.2 6.50 0.020
Area 2 14071 7035.3 0.73 0.494
Interaction 2 80148 40073.8 4.18 0.032
Error 18 172430 9579.4
Total 23 328868
The p-value for gender (0.02) is less than 0.05 indicating a difference in mean
salaries by gender. Since the area p-value (0.494) is greater than 0.05, it appears there
is no difference in the mean salaries by area. However, there is interaction between
those factors and further investigation is needed.
c. The t-statistics for the null hypothesis that mean female salaries is equal to mean male
salaries by area are 0.34, -0.92 and -5.87 for manufacturing, marketing, and R & D,
respectively. These test statistics assume unequal variances. At the 0.05 level of
significance the critical values are 2.776, 2.776 and 2.571 respectively.
You deduce there is no difference in the first two areas but there is a substantial
difference in R & D. (LO12-5)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2
2 2 2 2
23. Subscript 1 denotes oceanfront and 2 the others.
df1 = 21 1 = 20 df2 = 18 1 = 17 Ho is rejected if F > 3.16
2
(45,600)
F 4.57
(21,330) 2
Reject Ho. There is more variation in selling price of ocean front homes. (LO12-1)

Ho: n o H1: n o
2 2 2 2
24.
df1 = 16 1 = 15 df2 = 16 1 = 15 Ho is rejected if F > 2.40
(22) 2
F 3.36
(12) 2
Reject Ho. There is more variation in processing time of the new machine. (LO12-1)

## 25. Sharkey: n = 7 ss = 14.79

White: n = 8 sw = 22.95
H : w s H : w s
2 2 2 2
o 1
dfs = 7 1 = 6 dfw = 8 1 = 7 Ho is rejected if F > 8.26

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

(22.95) 2
F 2.41
(14.79)2
Fail to reject Ho. There is no evidence the variation of the monthly sales for Sharkey is less
than White. (LO12-1)

## 26. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all equal

b. = 0.05 Reject Ho if F > 3.89
c. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 40 2 20 4
Error 60 12 5
Total 100 14
d. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all equal. (LO12-2)

## 27. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 H1: Treatment means are not all equal

b. = 0.05 Reject Ho if F > 3.10
c. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 50 3 50/3 1.67
Error 200 20 10
Total 250 23
d. Do not reject Ho. The treatment means could be equal (LO12-2)

28. Source SS df MS F
Treatment 320 2 160 8.00
Error 180 9 20
Total 500 11
a. 3
b. 12
c. 4.26
d. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all means are equal
e. Ho is rejected. The treatment means differ. (LO12-2)

29. Ho: Discount = Variety = Department H1: Not all means are equal
Ho is rejected if F > 3.89
Source SS df MS F
Treatment 63.33 2 31.667 13.38
Error 28.40 12 2.367
Total 91.73 14
Ho is rejected. There is a difference in the treatment means. (LO12-2)

30. a. Step 1: Ho: Goust = Jet Red = Cloudtran H1: Not all means are equal
Step 2: 5% level chosen for us.
Step 3: Use an F-statistic
Step 4: Ho is rejected if F > 3.29
Step 5: Here is the ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F
Treatment 127.1 2 63.6 3.04
Error 669.9 32 20.9
Total 797.0 34
Ho is not rejected since 3.04 < 3.29.

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Step 6: There is no difference in the mean flight times.

1 1
(50.5 55.714) 2.037 20.9
b. 14 7 This reduces to -5.21 4.31. So the
difference is between -0.90 and -9.52 minutes. (LO12-3)

31. Ho: Rec Center = Key Street = Monclova = Whitehouse H1: Not all means are equal
Ho is rejected if F > 3.10
Source SS df MS F
Factor 87.79 3 29.26 9.12
Error 64.17 20 3.21
Total 151.96 23
Since computed F of 9.12 > 3.10, the null hypothesis of no difference is rejected at the 0.05
level there is evidence the number of crimes differs by district. (LO12-2)

## 32. One-way ANOVA: Clothes, Food, Toys

Source DF SS MS F P
Factor 2 3182.0 1591.0 35.56 0.000
Error 29 1297.5 44.7
Total 31 4479.5

## Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on

Pooled StDev
Level N Mean StDev -------+---------+---------+---------+--
Clothes 9 28.000 8.139 (----*----)
Food 12 46.417 6.186 (---*---)
Toys 11 52.636 5.887 (---*---)
-------+---------+---------+---------+--
30 40 50 60

## Pooled StDev = 6.689

The hypothesis of identical means can definitely be rejected since the p-value is virtually zero.
As seen from the non-overlapping confidence intervals, clothes have a mean attention span at
least ten minutes below the other groups.

## The 95% confidence intervals for the difference in means are

(-24.45 , -12.38) Clothes Food
(-30.78 , -18.49) Clothes Toys
(-11.93 , - 0.51) Food Toys
The confidence intervals suggest the differences in means are not associated to random
chance, rather there is a difference between all of the commercial types. (LO12-3)

## 33. a. Ho: Lecture = Internet H1: Lecture Internet

Critical value of F = 4.75, Reject Ho if the F-stat > 4.75
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 219.43 1 219.43 23.10 0.0004

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Error 114.00 12 9.5

Total 333.43 13
Reject Ho in favor of the alternative.
19 27
t 4.806
1 1
9.5
b. 6 8
Since t2 = F. That is (4.806)2 23.10 (actually 23.098, difference due to rounding).
The p-value for this statistic is 0.0004 as well. Reject Ho in favor of the alternative.
c. There is a difference in the mean scores between lecture and internet based formats.
(LO12-2)

34. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (9.61) is greater than the
critical value (3.49). The pvalue (0.0016) is also less than the significance level (0.05). The
mean waiting times are different. (LO12-2)

35. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (8.26) is greater than the
critical value (5.61) using the 0.01 significance level. The pvalue (0.0019) is also less than
the significance level (0.01). The mean gas mileages are different. (LO12-2)

36. a. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (11.33) is greater
than the critical value (6.36). The pvalue (0.0010) is also less than the significance
level (0.01). The mean production rates are different.
1 1
( 43.333 41.5) 2.947 0.5444
b. 6 6
This reduces to 1.833 1.255. So the difference is between 0.578 and 3.088.
(LO12-3)

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

39. For color the critical value of F is 4.76, for size it is 5.14
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 25.0 3 8.3333 5.88 0.0227
Blocks 21.5 2 10.75 7.59 0.0321
Error 8.5 6 1.4167
Total 55.0 11
Ho for both treatments and blocks (color and size) is rejected. At least one mean differs for
color and at least one mean differs for size. (LO12-4)

## 40. Here is the two-way ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F P
Treat 31533.00 3 10511 2.865 0.0717
Blocks 35402.83 5 7080.57 1.930 0.1488
Error 55033.50 15 3668.90
Total 121969.50 23
a. Ho: Metro = Interstate = University = River
Reject Ho if F > 3.29
Do not reject Ho because the computed F-statistics 2.865 is less than 3.29 or because
the p-value of 0.0717 is larger than the significance level. There is no difference in the
mean by location.
b. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6
Reject Ho if F > 2.90
Do not reject Ho as the F-statistic , 1.93, is less than the critical value and p-value is
more than the significance level There is no difference in the mean by week. (LO12-
4)

## 41. Here is the two-way ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F P

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Treat 21.4 3 7.133 0.668 0.5876

Blocks 4278.7 4 1069.675 100.204 0.0000
Error 128.1 12 10.675
Total 4428.2 19
a. Critical value for Ho is 3.49. Computed F is 0.668, do not reject Ho.
b. Critical value for Ho is 3.26. Computed F is 100.204, Reject Ho for block means.
There is a difference in mean home values.

## 42. For Cars For Gasoline

Ho: A = B = C Ho: R = SR = U = SU
H1: Means not equal H1: Means not equal
Ho is rejected if F > 5.14 Ho is rejected if F > 4.76
Here is the two-way ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 3.92 2 1.96 1.39 0.3189
Blocks 10.21 3 3.40 2.41 0.1650
Error 8.46 6 1.41
Total 22.59 11
a. There is no difference between the two types of gasoline because 2.41 is less than
4.76, and the p-value of 0.1650 is above the significance level.
b. There is no difference in the cars because 1.39 is less than 5.14, and the p-value of
0.3189 is above the significance level. (LO12-4)

## 43. For Gasoline For Automobile

Ho: R = M = S Ho: 1 = 2 = 7
H1: Mean mileage is not the same for gas H1: Mean mileage is not the same for cars
Ho is rejected if F > 3.89 Ho is rejected if F > 3.00
Here is the two-way ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F P
Gasoline 44.095 2 22.048 26.71 0.0000
Autos 77.238 6 12.873 15.60 0.0000
Error 9.905 12 0.825
Total 131.238 20
Both null hypothesis are rejected, with p-values below 0.05, thus there is a difference in mean
mileage by both autos and gasoline. (LO12-4)

44. Ho: S = R = L H1: There is a difference in the store means Reject Ho if F > 3.63
Ho: 1 = 2 = 9 H1: There is a difference in the items Reject Ho if F > 2.59
Here is the two-way ANOVA Table
Source SS df MS F P
Stores 0.1370 2 0.0685 3.10 0.0726
Items 71.6136 8 8.9517 405.62 0.0000
Error 0.3531 16 0.0221
Total 72.103 26
There is a difference in the mean price of items but not in the mean price by stores, as the p-
value for items is less than the significance level but not for stores. (LO12-4)

## 45. Ho: R = O = Y = B = T = G H1: The treatment means are not equal

Reject Ho if F > 2.37
Source SS df MS F P

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Treat 0.03478 5 0.00696 3.86 0.0043

Error 0.10439 58 0.00180
Total 0.13917 63
Ho is rejected. There is a difference in the mean weight of the M&M colors. (LO12-2)

## Interaction Plot (data means) for Wages

Sector
1250
Private
Public

1200

1150
Mean

1100

1050

1000

Men Women
Gender
47. a.
b. Here is the ANOVA table:
Source DF SS MS F P
Sector 1 156468 156468 40.61 0.000
Gender 1 44086 44086 11.44 0.004
Interaction 1 14851 14851 3.85 0.067
Error 16 61640 3853
Total 19 277046
Fail to reject the null hypothesis of the interaction effect. The interaction p-value
(0.067) is larger than 0.05. There is no significant interaction between the two factors.
c. Since both p-values are less than 5% and very small, means are different by gender
and by sector.
d. Private sector mean wages and male mean wages are higher than the converse of
either public sector wages or female wages. (LO12-5)

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## Interaction Plot (data means) for Dirt

Cycle
0.20
18 Min
20 Min
22 Min
0.18 24 Min

0.16
Mean

0.14

0.12

0.10
A B C D
Brand
48. a.
Here is the MINITAB output: Two-way ANOVA: Dirt versus Cycle, Brand
Source DF SS MS F P
Cycle 3 0.017225 0.0057417 27.02 0.000
Brand 3 0.005725 0.0019083 8.98 0.001
Interaction 9 0.002200 0.0002444 1.15 0.386
Error 16 0.003400 0.0002125
Total 31 0.028550

## Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on

Pooled StDev
Cycle Mean -+---------+---------+---------+--------
18 Min 0.12875 (----*-----)
20 Min 0.13250 (----*-----)
22 Min 0.17500 (----*-----)
24 Min 0.17875 (----*-----)
-+---------+---------+---------+--------
0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180

## Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on

Pooled StDev
Brand Mean -----+---------+---------+---------+----
A 0.14500 (-------*------)
B 0.15750 (------*------)
C 0.17375 (------*------)
D 0.13875 (-------*------)
-----+---------+---------+---------+----
0.135 0.150 0.165 0.180

b. Since the interaction p-value (0.386) is larger than the 0.05 significance level, there is
no evidence of an interaction effect.
c. Both the cycle time means and the brand means are significantly different with

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Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

## p-values of 0.000 and 0.001 respectively.

d. The confidence interval plots indicate that cycle times of 22 and 24 minutes are
superior to shorter cycle times and that detergent Brand C is better than the three other
alternatives. (LO12-5)

2 np2 2 np2
49. a. Ho: p H1: p
Reject Ho if F > 2.05 (estimated from table or found using software), where df1 = 66
and df2 = 37
(50.57) 2
F 2.25
(33.71) 2
Reject Ho. There is a difference in the variance of average selling prices between
houses with pools and houses without pools.
2 ng2 2 ng2
b. Ho: g H1: g
Reject Ho if F > 2.11 (estimated from table or found using software) with df1 = 71 and
df2 = 33
(44.88) 2
F 2.57
(28.00) 2
Reject Ho. There is a difference in the variance of average selling prices between
house with garages and houses without garages.
c. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 H1: Not all treatment means are equal
Reject Ho if F > 2.46 with dfN = 4 and dfD = 100 at the 5% level.
Source SS df MS F P
Township 13,263 4 3316 1.52 0.2008
Error 217,505 100 2175
Total 230,768 104
Fail to reject Ho. There is no statistical evidence of differences in the mean selling
price between the five townships. (LO12-2)

a2 g2
50. a. Ho: H1: Reject Ho if F > 2.45
a2 g2
(44.422) 2
F 2.37
(28.845) 2 Do not reject Ho.
There may be no difference in the variances of team salary by league.
b. Sample 1, 2, and 3 are Less than 2, 2 up to 3, and 3 or more, respectively, for
remainder of solution.
Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal.
Reject Ho if F > 3.35.
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 235 2 117.5 0.81 0.4538
Error 3895 27 144.3
Total 4130 29
Do not reject Ho. The mean numbers of games won could easily be equal across the
three different attendance categories.
c. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal
Reject Ho if F > 3.35.

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McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 42 2 21 0.02 0.9824
Error 31490 27 1166
Total 31531 29
Do not reject Ho. The mean numbers of home runs could be the same across the three
different attendance categories.
d. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal.
Reject Ho if F > 3.35.
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 25296 2 12648 24.31 0.0000
Error 14046 27 520
Total 39342 29
Reject Ho. The mean salaries are likely not the same across the three different
attendance categories. (LO12-2)

## 51. a. Ho: B = K = T H1: Not all treatment means are equal.

Reject Ho if F > 4.89.
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 28996 2 14498 5.62 0.0053
Error 198696 77 2580
Total 227692 79
Reject Ho. The mean maintenance costs are different between bus manufacturers.
b. Ho: B = K = T H1: Not all treatment means are equal.
Reject Ho if F > 3.12.
Source SS df MS F P
Treatment 5095 2 2547 1.45 0.2415
Error 135513 77 1760
Total 140608 79
Do not reject Ho. The mean miles traveled are not different between bus
manufacturers.
1 1
(441.81 506.75) 1.991 2580
c. 47 8
This reduces to 64.94 38.68. So the difference is between 103.62 and 26.26. To
put it another way, Bluebird is less costly than Thompson by an amount between
\$26.26 and \$103.62. Because the confidence interval does not include zero we know
the difference is statistically significant at the 5% level. (LO12-3)

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