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- The Gifts of Imperfection: Let Go of Who You Think You're Supposed to Be and Embrace Who You Are
- Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams
- The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science that Will Transform Your Sex Life
- Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science that Will Transform Your Sex Life
- Postmortem
- Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis Thomas Jefferson and the Opening
- Love and Respect: The Love She Most Desires; The Respect He Desperately Needs
- The Bone Labyrinth: A Sigma Force Novel
- Self-Compassion: The Proven Power of Being Kind to Yourself
- Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
- Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead
- Team of Teams: New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World
- The Highly Sensitive Person
- Radical Remission: Surviving Cancer Against All Odds
- How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence
- Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness
- Out of My Later Years: The Scientist, Philosopher, and Man Portrayed Through His Own Words

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Chapter 12

Analysis of Variance

1. 9.01 from Appendix B.6 (LO12-1)

2. 9.78 (LO12-1)

s 2 (10) 2

F 12 2

2.04

F = 2.04, found by: s 2 (7)

Do not reject Ho. There is no difference in the variations of the two populations. (LO12-1)

s 2 (12) 2

F 12 2

2.94

F = 2.94, found by: s 2 (7)

Do not reject Ho. There is no difference in the variations of the two populations. (LO12-1)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2

2 2 2 2

5.

Reject Ho where F > 3.10 (3.10 is about halfway between 3.14 and 3.07)

(12) 2

F 2

1.44

F = 1.44, found by (10)

Do not reject Ho. It is reasonable to conclude variations of the two populations could be the

same. (LO12-1)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2

2 2 2 2

6.

(3.9) 2

F 1.24

Reject Ho when F > 3.68 F = 1.24, found by (3.5) 2

Do not reject Ho. There is no evidence the variations in stock 1 is larger than stock 2.

(LO12-1)

b. Reject Ho if F > 4.26

c&d Source SS df MS F

Treatment 62.17 2 31.08 21.94

Error 12.75 9 1.42

Total 74.92 11

e. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all the same. (LO12-2)

b. Reject Ho if F > 3.89

c&d Source SS df MS F

Treatment 70.40 2 35.20 5.12

Error 82.53 12 6.88

Total 152.93 14

e. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all the same. (LO12-2)

12-1

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

9. Step 1: Ho: Southwyck = Franklin = Old Orchard H1: Treatment means are not all the same

Step 2: The 0.05 significance level was chosen

Step 3: Use a F-statistics

Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 4.26

Step 5: Source SS df MS F

Treatment 276.50 2 138.25 14.18

Error 87.75 9 9.75

Reject Ho.

Step 6: The mean incomes are not all the same for the three tracks of land. (LO12-2)

10. Step 1: Ho: Banking = Retail = Insurance H1: Treatment means are not all the same

Step 2: The 0.05 significance level was chosen

Step 3: Use a F-statistics

Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 3.89

Step 5: Source SS df MS F

Treatment 22.93 2 11.45605.7325

Error 24.00 12 2.0

Reject Ho as 5.7325 > 3.89.

Step 6: The mean number of hours spent at the computer are not equal by industry. (LO12-2)

11. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same

b. Reject Ho if F > 4.26

c. SST = 107.20 SSE = 9.47 SS total = 116.67

d. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 107.20 2 53.600 50.96

Error 9.47 9 1.052

Total 116.67 11

e. Since 50.96 > 4.26, Ho is rejected. At least one of the means differ.

( X 1 X 2 ) t MSE (1/ n1 1/ n2 )

(9.667 2.20) 2.262 1.052(1/ 3 1/ 5)

f. 7.467 1.69

[5.777, 9.157] Yes, we can conclude that the treatments 1 and 2 have different means.

(LO12-3)

12. a. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Treatment means are not all the same

b. Reject Ho if F > 3.47

c. SST = 46.96 SSE = 53.00 SS total = 99.96

d. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 46.96 2 23.48 9.30

Error 53.00 21 2.52

Total 99.96 23

e. Since 9.30 > 3.47, Ho is rejected. At least one of the means differ.

( X 1 X 2 ) t MSE (1 / n1 1 / n2 ) (6.0 4.25) 2.080 2.52(1 / 101 1 / 8)

f. or

which is 1.751.57 or [0.18, 3.32]

Yes, we can conclude that the treatments 2 and 3 are different. (LO12-3)

12-2

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

13. There are two methods to answer this question. Using the six-step method we have the

following.

Step 1: Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 H1: Treatment means are not all equal

Step 2: 5% level chosen for us.

Step 3: Use an F-statistic

Step 4: Reject Ho if F > 3.71

Step 5: Here is the ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F

Treatment 32.33 3 10.77 2.36

Error 45.67 10 4.567

Total 78.00 13

Since 2.36 is less than 3.71, Ho is not rejected.

Step 6: There is no difference in the mean number of weeks.

Alternatively we can interpret the p-value given in the output. A p-value of 0.133 is

above the significance level, so we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Regardless of the

method used to test the hypothesis, we find there is no difference in the mean number

of weeks. (LO12-2)

H1: At least one mean differs

The critical value is 3.74 as the numerator degrees of freedom is 2, the denominator

degrees of freedom is 14, and a significance level of 5%.

Since 15.61 > 3.74, Ho is rejected. At least one mean rate of return differs.

b. Since 0 is not between -7.121 and -2.935 the mean rates of return from utility stocks

and retail stocks are different.

Since 0 is between -3.066 and 1.121, the mean rates of return from utility and banking

stocks may be the same.

Since 0 is not between 2.060 and 6.051, the mean rates of return from retail and

banking stocks are different.

(LO12-3)

15. a. Ho: 1 = 2 H1: Not all treatment means are equal

b. Reject Ho if F > 18.5

c. Ho: A = B = C H1: Not all block means are equal

Reject Ho if F > 19.0

d. SSTotal = (46.0 36.5)2 + (35.0 36.5)2 = 289.5

SSE1 = (46.0 42.3333)2 + (35.0 30.6667)2 = 85.333

SST = 289.5 85.333 = 204.16667

SSB = 2(38.5 36.5)2 + 2(31.5 36.5)2 + 2(39.5 36.5)2 = 76

SSE = 289.5 204.1667 76 = 9.333

e. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 204.167 1 204.167 43.75

Blocks 76.000 2 38.000 8.14

Error 9.333 2 4.667

Total 289.5000 5

f. 43.75 > 18.5, so reject Ho. There is a difference in the treatments. 8.14 < 19.0, so fail

to reject Ho for blocks. There is no difference between blocks. (LO12-4)

b. Reject Ho if F > 6.94

c. Ho: A = B = C H1: Not all block means are equal

12-3

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

d. SSTotal = (12 86/9)2 + + (8 86/9)2 = 42.222

(28) 2 (33) 2 (25) 2 (86) 2

SST 10.889

3 3 3 9

(34) 2 (29) 2 (23) 2 (86) 2

SSB 20.222

3 3 3 9

SSE = 42.222 20.222 10.889 = 11.111

e. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 10.889 2 5.444 1.96

Blocks 20.222 2 10.111 3.64

Error 11.111 4 2.778

Total 42.222 8

f. 1.96 < 6.94, so fail to reject Ho. There is no difference in the treatments. 3.64 < 6.94,

so fail to reject Ho for blocks. There is no difference between blocks. (LO12-4)

Ho: Day = Afternoon = Night Ho: S = L = C = T = M

H1: Not all means equal H1: Not all means are equal

Reject if F > 4.46 Reject if F > 3.84

Here is the ANOVA table

Source SS df MS F

Treatment 62.53 2 31.2667 5.75

Blocks 33.73 4 8.4333 1.55

Error 43.47 8 5.4333

Total 139.73 14

As 5.75 > 4.46 the null for treatments is rejected, but the null for blocks is not rejected as

1.55< 3.84. There is a difference in means by shifts, but not by employee. (LO12-4)

Ho: St Lukes = St Vincent = Mercy Ho: Mon = Tue = Wed = Thu = Fri

H1: Not all means equal H1: Not all means are equal

Reject if F > 4.46 Reject if F > 3.84

Here is the ANOVA table

Source SS df MS F

Treatment 58.13 2 29.0667 1.97

Blocks 75.73 4 18.9333 1.29

Error 117.87 8 14.7333

Total 251.73 14

Since 1.97 < 4.46 the Ho for treatments is not rejected. Likewise, since 1.29 < 3.84 Ho for

blocks is not rejected. There is no difference in the mean number of surgeries by hospital or by

day of the week. (LO12-4)

Source SS df MS F P

Size 156.333 2 78.1667 1.98 0.180

Weight 98.000 1 98.0000 2.48 0.141

Interaction 36.333 2 18.1667 0.46 0.642

Error 473.333 12 39.4444

Total 764.000 17

a. Since the p-value (0.18) is greater than 0.05, there is no difference in the Size means.

12-4

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Thus, there is no difference in those means.

c. There is no significant interaction because the p-value (0.642) is greater than 0.05.

(LO12-5)

Source SS MS

Factor A 75 25

Factor B 25 12.5

Interaction 300 50

Error 600 12.5

Total 1000

Critical values to test for equal means are 2.80, 3.19 and 2.29, respectively. Thus, there is no

difference in either the Factor A or Factor B means, but there is interaction. (LO12-5)

46 Position

Inside

44 Outside

42

40

Mean

38

36

34

32

30

D-320 J-1000 UV-57

Machine

21. a. There appears to be an interaction. Sales using the UV-57 are better inside and the D-

320 does better outside.

b. Two-way ANOVA: Sales versus Machine, Position

Source SS DF MS F P

Machine 16.333 2 8.167 0.72 0.502

Position 104.167 1 104.167 9.12 0.007

Interaction 457.333 2 228.667 20.03 0.000

Error 205.500 18 11.417

Total 783.333 23

Since the machine p-value (0.502) is greater than 0.05, it appears there is no

difference in the mean sales by machine. The p-value for position (0.007) is less than

0.05 indicating there is evidence that mean sales inside and outside are different.

However, there is a considerable interaction between those factors. Further study is

recommended.

c. T-statistics for the null hypothesis that sales inside are equal to sales outside for each

of the machines are: -6.39, -2.41, and 3.22 for the D-320, J-1000, and UV-57,

respectively. We would not reject the null hypothesis of equal means if the t value is

between -2.571 and 2.571 for the J-1000 and D-320 and if the t-value is between

-2.776 and 2.776 for UV-57. Thus, at the 0.05 level of significance, you can conclude

that D-320 does better outside and the UV-57 does better inside. (LO12-5)

12-5

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

1050 Gender

Female

Male

1000

950

Mean

900

850

800

Area

22. a. It appears males do much better than females in the R & D area.

b. Two-way ANOVA: Salary versus Gender, Area

Source DF SS MS F P

Gender 1 62220 62220.2 6.50 0.020

Area 2 14071 7035.3 0.73 0.494

Interaction 2 80148 40073.8 4.18 0.032

Error 18 172430 9579.4

Total 23 328868

The p-value for gender (0.02) is less than 0.05 indicating a difference in mean

salaries by gender. Since the area p-value (0.494) is greater than 0.05, it appears there

is no difference in the mean salaries by area. However, there is interaction between

those factors and further investigation is needed.

c. The t-statistics for the null hypothesis that mean female salaries is equal to mean male

salaries by area are 0.34, -0.92 and -5.87 for manufacturing, marketing, and R & D,

respectively. These test statistics assume unequal variances. At the 0.05 level of

significance the critical values are 2.776, 2.776 and 2.571 respectively.

You deduce there is no difference in the first two areas but there is a substantial

difference in R & D. (LO12-5)

Ho: 1 2 H1: 1 2

2 2 2 2

23. Subscript 1 denotes oceanfront and 2 the others.

df1 = 21 1 = 20 df2 = 18 1 = 17 Ho is rejected if F > 3.16

2

(45,600)

F 4.57

(21,330) 2

Reject Ho. There is more variation in selling price of ocean front homes. (LO12-1)

Ho: n o H1: n o

2 2 2 2

24.

df1 = 16 1 = 15 df2 = 16 1 = 15 Ho is rejected if F > 2.40

(22) 2

F 3.36

(12) 2

Reject Ho. There is more variation in processing time of the new machine. (LO12-1)

White: n = 8 sw = 22.95

H : w s H : w s

2 2 2 2

o 1

dfs = 7 1 = 6 dfw = 8 1 = 7 Ho is rejected if F > 8.26

12-6

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

(22.95) 2

F 2.41

(14.79)2

Fail to reject Ho. There is no evidence the variation of the monthly sales for Sharkey is less

than White. (LO12-1)

b. = 0.05 Reject Ho if F > 3.89

c. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 40 2 20 4

Error 60 12 5

Total 100 14

d. Reject Ho. The treatment means are not all equal. (LO12-2)

b. = 0.05 Reject Ho if F > 3.10

c. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 50 3 50/3 1.67

Error 200 20 10

Total 250 23

d. Do not reject Ho. The treatment means could be equal (LO12-2)

28. Source SS df MS F

Treatment 320 2 160 8.00

Error 180 9 20

Total 500 11

a. 3

b. 12

c. 4.26

d. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all means are equal

e. Ho is rejected. The treatment means differ. (LO12-2)

29. Ho: Discount = Variety = Department H1: Not all means are equal

Ho is rejected if F > 3.89

Source SS df MS F

Treatment 63.33 2 31.667 13.38

Error 28.40 12 2.367

Total 91.73 14

Ho is rejected. There is a difference in the treatment means. (LO12-2)

30. a. Step 1: Ho: Goust = Jet Red = Cloudtran H1: Not all means are equal

Step 2: 5% level chosen for us.

Step 3: Use an F-statistic

Step 4: Ho is rejected if F > 3.29

Step 5: Here is the ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F

Treatment 127.1 2 63.6 3.04

Error 669.9 32 20.9

Total 797.0 34

Ho is not rejected since 3.04 < 3.29.

12-7

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

1 1

(50.5 55.714) 2.037 20.9

b. 14 7 This reduces to -5.21 4.31. So the

difference is between -0.90 and -9.52 minutes. (LO12-3)

31. Ho: Rec Center = Key Street = Monclova = Whitehouse H1: Not all means are equal

Ho is rejected if F > 3.10

Source SS df MS F

Factor 87.79 3 29.26 9.12

Error 64.17 20 3.21

Total 151.96 23

Since computed F of 9.12 > 3.10, the null hypothesis of no difference is rejected at the 0.05

level there is evidence the number of crimes differs by district. (LO12-2)

Source DF SS MS F P

Factor 2 3182.0 1591.0 35.56 0.000

Error 29 1297.5 44.7

Total 31 4479.5

Pooled StDev

Level N Mean StDev -------+---------+---------+---------+--

Clothes 9 28.000 8.139 (----*----)

Food 12 46.417 6.186 (---*---)

Toys 11 52.636 5.887 (---*---)

-------+---------+---------+---------+--

30 40 50 60

The hypothesis of identical means can definitely be rejected since the p-value is virtually zero.

As seen from the non-overlapping confidence intervals, clothes have a mean attention span at

least ten minutes below the other groups.

(-24.45 , -12.38) Clothes Food

(-30.78 , -18.49) Clothes Toys

(-11.93 , - 0.51) Food Toys

The confidence intervals suggest the differences in means are not associated to random

chance, rather there is a difference between all of the commercial types. (LO12-3)

Critical value of F = 4.75, Reject Ho if the F-stat > 4.75

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 219.43 1 219.43 23.10 0.0004

12-8

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Total 333.43 13

Reject Ho in favor of the alternative.

19 27

t 4.806

1 1

9.5

b. 6 8

Since t2 = F. That is (4.806)2 23.10 (actually 23.098, difference due to rounding).

The p-value for this statistic is 0.0004 as well. Reject Ho in favor of the alternative.

c. There is a difference in the mean scores between lecture and internet based formats.

(LO12-2)

34. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (9.61) is greater than the

critical value (3.49). The pvalue (0.0016) is also less than the significance level (0.05). The

mean waiting times are different. (LO12-2)

35. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (8.26) is greater than the

critical value (5.61) using the 0.01 significance level. The pvalue (0.0019) is also less than

the significance level (0.01). The mean gas mileages are different. (LO12-2)

36. a. The null hypothesis of equal means is rejected because the F statistic (11.33) is greater

than the critical value (6.36). The pvalue (0.0010) is also less than the significance

level (0.01). The mean production rates are different.

1 1

( 43.333 41.5) 2.947 0.5444

b. 6 6

This reduces to 1.833 1.255. So the difference is between 0.578 and 3.088.

(LO12-3)

12-9

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

39. For color the critical value of F is 4.76, for size it is 5.14

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 25.0 3 8.3333 5.88 0.0227

Blocks 21.5 2 10.75 7.59 0.0321

Error 8.5 6 1.4167

Total 55.0 11

Ho for both treatments and blocks (color and size) is rejected. At least one mean differs for

color and at least one mean differs for size. (LO12-4)

Source SS df MS F P

Treat 31533.00 3 10511 2.865 0.0717

Blocks 35402.83 5 7080.57 1.930 0.1488

Error 55033.50 15 3668.90

Total 121969.50 23

a. Ho: Metro = Interstate = University = River

Reject Ho if F > 3.29

Do not reject Ho because the computed F-statistics 2.865 is less than 3.29 or because

the p-value of 0.0717 is larger than the significance level. There is no difference in the

mean by location.

b. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6

Reject Ho if F > 2.90

Do not reject Ho as the F-statistic , 1.93, is less than the critical value and p-value is

more than the significance level There is no difference in the mean by week. (LO12-

4)

Source SS df MS F P

12-10

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Blocks 4278.7 4 1069.675 100.204 0.0000

Error 128.1 12 10.675

Total 4428.2 19

a. Critical value for Ho is 3.49. Computed F is 0.668, do not reject Ho.

b. Critical value for Ho is 3.26. Computed F is 100.204, Reject Ho for block means.

There is a difference in mean home values.

Ho: A = B = C Ho: R = SR = U = SU

H1: Means not equal H1: Means not equal

Ho is rejected if F > 5.14 Ho is rejected if F > 4.76

Here is the two-way ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 3.92 2 1.96 1.39 0.3189

Blocks 10.21 3 3.40 2.41 0.1650

Error 8.46 6 1.41

Total 22.59 11

a. There is no difference between the two types of gasoline because 2.41 is less than

4.76, and the p-value of 0.1650 is above the significance level.

b. There is no difference in the cars because 1.39 is less than 5.14, and the p-value of

0.3189 is above the significance level. (LO12-4)

Ho: R = M = S Ho: 1 = 2 = 7

H1: Mean mileage is not the same for gas H1: Mean mileage is not the same for cars

Ho is rejected if F > 3.89 Ho is rejected if F > 3.00

Here is the two-way ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F P

Gasoline 44.095 2 22.048 26.71 0.0000

Autos 77.238 6 12.873 15.60 0.0000

Error 9.905 12 0.825

Total 131.238 20

Both null hypothesis are rejected, with p-values below 0.05, thus there is a difference in mean

mileage by both autos and gasoline. (LO12-4)

44. Ho: S = R = L H1: There is a difference in the store means Reject Ho if F > 3.63

Ho: 1 = 2 = 9 H1: There is a difference in the items Reject Ho if F > 2.59

Here is the two-way ANOVA Table

Source SS df MS F P

Stores 0.1370 2 0.0685 3.10 0.0726

Items 71.6136 8 8.9517 405.62 0.0000

Error 0.3531 16 0.0221

Total 72.103 26

There is a difference in the mean price of items but not in the mean price by stores, as the p-

value for items is less than the significance level but not for stores. (LO12-4)

Reject Ho if F > 2.37

Source SS df MS F P

12-11

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Error 0.10439 58 0.00180

Total 0.13917 63

Ho is rejected. There is a difference in the mean weight of the M&M colors. (LO12-2)

Sector

1250

Private

Public

1200

1150

Mean

1100

1050

1000

Men Women

Gender

47. a.

b. Here is the ANOVA table:

Source DF SS MS F P

Sector 1 156468 156468 40.61 0.000

Gender 1 44086 44086 11.44 0.004

Interaction 1 14851 14851 3.85 0.067

Error 16 61640 3853

Total 19 277046

Fail to reject the null hypothesis of the interaction effect. The interaction p-value

(0.067) is larger than 0.05. There is no significant interaction between the two factors.

c. Since both p-values are less than 5% and very small, means are different by gender

and by sector.

d. Private sector mean wages and male mean wages are higher than the converse of

either public sector wages or female wages. (LO12-5)

12-12

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McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Cycle

0.20

18 Min

20 Min

22 Min

0.18 24 Min

0.16

Mean

0.14

0.12

0.10

A B C D

Brand

48. a.

Here is the MINITAB output: Two-way ANOVA: Dirt versus Cycle, Brand

Source DF SS MS F P

Cycle 3 0.017225 0.0057417 27.02 0.000

Brand 3 0.005725 0.0019083 8.98 0.001

Interaction 9 0.002200 0.0002444 1.15 0.386

Error 16 0.003400 0.0002125

Total 31 0.028550

Pooled StDev

Cycle Mean -+---------+---------+---------+--------

18 Min 0.12875 (----*-----)

20 Min 0.13250 (----*-----)

22 Min 0.17500 (----*-----)

24 Min 0.17875 (----*-----)

-+---------+---------+---------+--------

0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180

Pooled StDev

Brand Mean -----+---------+---------+---------+----

A 0.14500 (-------*------)

B 0.15750 (------*------)

C 0.17375 (------*------)

D 0.13875 (-------*------)

-----+---------+---------+---------+----

0.135 0.150 0.165 0.180

b. Since the interaction p-value (0.386) is larger than the 0.05 significance level, there is

no evidence of an interaction effect.

c. Both the cycle time means and the brand means are significantly different with

12-13

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Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

d. The confidence interval plots indicate that cycle times of 22 and 24 minutes are

superior to shorter cycle times and that detergent Brand C is better than the three other

alternatives. (LO12-5)

2 np2 2 np2

49. a. Ho: p H1: p

Reject Ho if F > 2.05 (estimated from table or found using software), where df1 = 66

and df2 = 37

(50.57) 2

F 2.25

(33.71) 2

Reject Ho. There is a difference in the variance of average selling prices between

houses with pools and houses without pools.

2 ng2 2 ng2

b. Ho: g H1: g

Reject Ho if F > 2.11 (estimated from table or found using software) with df1 = 71 and

df2 = 33

(44.88) 2

F 2.57

(28.00) 2

Reject Ho. There is a difference in the variance of average selling prices between

house with garages and houses without garages.

c. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 H1: Not all treatment means are equal

Reject Ho if F > 2.46 with dfN = 4 and dfD = 100 at the 5% level.

Source SS df MS F P

Township 13,263 4 3316 1.52 0.2008

Error 217,505 100 2175

Total 230,768 104

Fail to reject Ho. There is no statistical evidence of differences in the mean selling

price between the five townships. (LO12-2)

a2 g2

50. a. Ho: H1: Reject Ho if F > 2.45

a2 g2

(44.422) 2

F 2.37

(28.845) 2 Do not reject Ho.

There may be no difference in the variances of team salary by league.

b. Sample 1, 2, and 3 are Less than 2, 2 up to 3, and 3 or more, respectively, for

remainder of solution.

Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal.

Reject Ho if F > 3.35.

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 235 2 117.5 0.81 0.4538

Error 3895 27 144.3

Total 4130 29

Do not reject Ho. The mean numbers of games won could easily be equal across the

three different attendance categories.

c. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal

Reject Ho if F > 3.35.

12-14

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of

McGraw-Hill Education.

Chapter 12 - Analysis of Variance

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 42 2 21 0.02 0.9824

Error 31490 27 1166

Total 31531 29

Do not reject Ho. The mean numbers of home runs could be the same across the three

different attendance categories.

d. Ho: 1 = 2 = 3 H1: Not all treatment means are equal.

Reject Ho if F > 3.35.

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 25296 2 12648 24.31 0.0000

Error 14046 27 520

Total 39342 29

Reject Ho. The mean salaries are likely not the same across the three different

attendance categories. (LO12-2)

Reject Ho if F > 4.89.

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 28996 2 14498 5.62 0.0053

Error 198696 77 2580

Total 227692 79

Reject Ho. The mean maintenance costs are different between bus manufacturers.

b. Ho: B = K = T H1: Not all treatment means are equal.

Reject Ho if F > 3.12.

Source SS df MS F P

Treatment 5095 2 2547 1.45 0.2415

Error 135513 77 1760

Total 140608 79

Do not reject Ho. The mean miles traveled are not different between bus

manufacturers.

1 1

(441.81 506.75) 1.991 2580

c. 47 8

This reduces to 64.94 38.68. So the difference is between 103.62 and 26.26. To

put it another way, Bluebird is less costly than Thompson by an amount between

$26.26 and $103.62. Because the confidence interval does not include zero we know

the difference is statistically significant at the 5% level. (LO12-3)

12-15

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of

McGraw-Hill Education.

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