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Introduction

Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a molecule that is present to all living species

specifically because it contains all the instructions of development, reproduction, and life

an organism would need. It contains all the vital information that will be passed on to the

next generation. It is also commonly called the blueprint of life.

It is the

hereditary

material in

humans and

almost all other

organism.

Most DNA is

located in the

cell nucleus

but a small amount can also be found in the mitochondria. DNA is a two stranded

structure consisting of two polynucleotide chain twisted about each other in a double

helix. Both chains are right handed however, since each strand has both free 5 hydroxyl

group at one end and a free 3 hydroxyl on the other end, each strand has a polarity or

directionality. The polarity of the two strands of the molecule is in opposite directions

and thus, DNA is described as anti-parallel structure. DNA spends a lot of time in its

chromosome form. But during cell division, DNA unwinds so it can be copied and the
copies transferred to new cells. DNA also unwinds so that its instructions can be used to

make proteins and for other biological processes.

Nucleic acids are polymers made up of four nucleotides (Appling, Anthony-Cahill

& Mathews, 2016). Nucleotides are joined by 3,5-phosphodiester linkages.

Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid are two types of nucleic acids. DNA

consists of the

sugar

deoxyribose;
Figure 1. The Chemical Structure of DNA
the purine
Figure2. GC base pairing with 3 hydrogen bonds GC and AT base
pairing with 2 hydrogen bonds. bases, adenine

(A) and guanine (G); the pyrimidine bases, cytosine (C) and thymine (T); and the

phosphate group. The Nucleic Acid isolation and procedures involve three steps. 1)

Disruption of cell membrane and membranes of sub cellular nucleus to release nucleic

acids. 2) Disassociation from nucleoproteins and denaturation of proteins and 3)

separation of DNA from other soluble cellular component.

Certain tests will be used in order to isolate and classify the DNA ; Isolation of

DNA from onion, Ultraviolet measurement of Isolated DNA, Acid Hydrolysis, Dische

Test, Test for Phosphates, Test for Purines, and Test for Pyrimidine.