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## I assume that "x is a limit point of S " means that:

Every open ball that is centered at x contains some point of S other than x .

## For metric spaces.

Suppose there is an > 0 such that B(x, ) S {x} = {s1 , , sn } is finite. Let
i = d(x, si ) be the distance from x so si for each i . Now let = 12 min(1 , , n ) . Then
B(x, ) S {x} = , which means that x cannot be a limit point of S .

## By contrapositive, if x is a limit point of S , then every open ball centered at x contains

infinitely many points of S .

## For topological spaces.

Modifying the proposition by replacing "open ball containing x " with "open set containing x "
(i.e., "open neighborhood of x "), the result is false in general but true in T1 (or better) spaces.
A space is T1 if and only if for every x and y , x y , there are open subsets U and V such that
x U V and y V U .

One argues as above: suppose there is an open set U containing x such that
U S {x} = {s1 , , sn } is finite. For each i , let Ui be an open set containing x but not
containing si (the existence of Ui is guaranteed by the separation property). Then
V = U U1 Un is a finite intersection of open sets, hence open, it contains x , and
V S {x} = , so x is not a limit point of S .

However, the proposition fails if X is not T1 . Let x and y be elements that witness the fact that
X is not T1 . So either all open sets that contains x also contain y , or all open sets that contain
y also contain x . Assume without loss of generality that all open sets that contain x also
contain y . Then S = {y} has x as a limit point, but every open set that contains x intersects S
at a single point, not infinitely many.

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