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Concepts of Pipe Stress

Analysis

Linde Engineering

Nilesh o Agrawal
Plant Design, Date:28.02.2008
Linde Engineering

AIM

1. The aim of this interactive session is to facilitate understanding of the requirements of


Stress Analysis.

2. It is also aimed at reducing the possibility of changes in layout during stress analysis.

3. Anyway the interaction between stress group and layout is an ongoing process.

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Objectives of Pipe Stress Analysis

Pipe stress analysis provides the necessary techniques for engineers to design piping systems
without overstressing and overloading the piping components & connected equipment.
The objective of stress analysis can be listed as follows:

A) To limit the stresses in the piping system to the limiting value.

B) To limit the deflection in the piping system to the limiting value.

C) To ensure nozzle loads are within allowable.

D) To limit the loads on supports.

E) To check for leakage at flange joints.

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Objectives of Pipe Stress Analysis

F) Unintentional disengagement of pipes from supports.

G) Excessive displacement .

H) To Solve dynamic problems due to fluid hammer, pulsation, mechanical vibration etc.

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Working Philosophy of Stress Group

Review Bid Document Includes


Different Loading Stress Analysis
Parameters Criteria
Preparation of
Work Instruction for Pipe Stress Analysis
Piping Modeling
& Analysis
Methodology
Mark-up of Stress Systems on P&ID Layout Group

Stress isometrics with Design Parameters

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Working Philosophy of Stress Group

Safe Perform Pipe Stress Analysis Unsafe

Add Flexibility
Prepare Documentation in Piping

Prepare Final
Stress Report

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Magnitude of Thermal Load

A pipe when held between two anchors, when heated up, tries to expand
against its restraints resulting in considerable, forces, moments and
stresses.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Magnitude of Thermal Load

If the pipe is to be maintained in the heated position then there will be an axial
force P to compress the increase in pipe length of L.

The strain developed in the pipe,, is then calculated as

=L/L =

The internal stresses developed due to this strain is

= E =E ---Hookes Law

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Magnitude of Thermal Load

The force required to compress back is then defined by

P=A =A E

Where,
A=Area of c/s of pipe
E=Modulus of Elasticity of Pipe material
P=Compressive Force
= Stress developed
L=Axial compression of pipe
L=Length of Pipe

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Classification of Loads on Piping

Loads on Piping

Primary Loading Secondary Loading


Sustained Loads like Loads due to
dead weight etc. Thermal Expansion etc.

Not Self-Limiting in nature Self-Limiting in nature


i.e.; deformation will not i.e.; deformation will result
bring relaxation on stress. in redistribution of stress.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads on Piping

Loading
Static Loading Dynamic Loading

Pressure Internal/External Random

Restraint, Wind, Earthquake


Temperature
Differential Growth

Dead Weight Live Weight


Harmonic
Weight
(Pipe Wt. Insul Wt) (Operating, Snow) Vibration, Pulsation

Impulse
Friction
Relief valve, Fluid
hammer, Slug Flow

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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Stresses due to Sustained Loads:

SL <= WSh
The thickness of pipe used in calculating S L shall be the nominal
thickness less the erosion and corrosion allowance. This is calculated by
looking at Clause 302.3.5 (c)

Where,
SL =Sum of longitudinal stress to pressure weight and other sustained loading, KPa
S h =Basic allowable stress at the operating temp., KPa
W= Weld joint strength reduction factor

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Allowable Displacement Stress Range SA:

The computed displacement stress range SE in a piping system


(Para 319.4.4) shall not exceed the allowable displacement stress range S A

SE <= SA

SA = f (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)

SA = f [1.25(Sc+Sh) SL] Liberal Allowable Stress

f= 6.0 (N)-0.2
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Requirements of ASME B31.3

The range of bending and torsional stresses shall be computed using the reference modulus
of elasticity at 210C and then combined to determine the computed displacement stress range
S E as below:

SE = Sb2+4St2

Where,

S b=Resultant bending stress


S t=Torsional Stress =Mt/2Z
Mt =Torsional Moment
Z =Sectional Modulus of Pipe

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Requirements of ASME B31.3

Stresses due to Occasional Loads:

The sum of longitudinal stresses SL due to sustained loads, such as pressure and weight,
and of stresses produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earthquake, shall not
exceed 1.33 times the basic allowable stress S h.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Piping Loads on Structure

The pipe weight on structure is function of pipe supporting span.

Due to uniform loads (pipe weight, insulation weight, fluid weight) and concentrated
loads (valves and flanges) bending moment occurs.

The pipe weights are distributed uniformly across the unsupported span and lead to
maximum bending moment either at the center of the span or at the support location,
depending on the type of support used.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads on Structure

Calculate the average pipe size on the pipe rack tier.


Calculate the weight of pipe between two columns in Kg/m.
Calculate the area load considering the width of the beam.

The standard area loads for pipe racks are:

Main pipe racks: 2.00 KN/m2


Secondary pipe racks:1.50 KN/m2

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads on Structure

Consider average pipe size = DN200 (SCH STD)


Water filled weight for DN 200, SCH STD = 75Kg/m

For pipe rack width of 6m, total nos. of DN 200 pipes that can be closely spaced = 30nos.

Total Weight = 30*75*6 = 13500 KG

Area sharing the load = (Distance between 2 columns) x (Width of Pipe Rack)
= 6 x 6 = 36 m2

Total Load = (Total Weight)/(Load Sharing area) = 13500/36


Total Load = 375 Kg/m2

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Deflection of Pipe

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Deflection of Pipe

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Location of Support Concentrated Load

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Location of Support Concentrated Load

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Location of Support & Concentrated Load

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Piping Arrangement Cantilever Beam

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Basic Support Types

1. Full Anchor:
Does not allows the pipe to move or twist in any of the directions.

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Basic Support Types

2. Directional Anchor:
Stops movement along the axes of the pipe, but permits movement
along the sideways (perpendicular direction).

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Basic Support Types

3. Guides:
Stops movement along the sideways (perpendicular) direction of
the pipe, but permits movement along the axes of the pipe.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Basic Support Types

4. Resting:
Prevents downward motion of the pipe. Generally, defined to take
the weight of the pipe and its components.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads Due to Thermal Expansion

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads Due to Thermal Expansion

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Loads due to Thermal Expansion

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility on Loads

The piping arrangement of sensitive equipments like pumps, air-cooler, compressor shall be
enough flexible to take care of thermal expansion.

Study the piping routine and calculate the thermal expansion manually. Calculate the
compensatory leg required to absorb the thermal expansion.

Provide support near to the concentrated weights, to reduce load transfer directly at nozzle.

Possibly, first support shall be guiding support, to reduce nozzle loads.

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effects of Insufficient Flexibility

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Loop Size on Support Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Behaviour of Piping Loop 2D

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Piping Loop 3D

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Piping 3D Loop on Support Loads

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Restraints Location on Piping

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Restraints Location on Piping

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Restraints Location on Piping

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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ADDED FLEXIBILITY AN ADVANTAGE

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Supporting on Thermal Expansion

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Effect of Supporting on Thermal Expansion

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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EXAMPLES

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EXAMPLES

2000

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
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Comments

Linde AG Linde Engineering Division Nilesh /PD / 28.02.2008 / Concepts of Pipe Stress Analysis.ppt
Thank you
for your attention

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