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CHAPTER 5

MECHANISM

5.0 Introduction to Mechanism


5.1 Inversion of Mechanism
5.1.1 Four Bar Chain Mechanism
5.1.2 Slider Crank Mechanism
5.2 Velocities in Mechanism Relative Velocity Diagram
5.2.1 Rubbing Velocity at a Pin Joint
5.3 Acceleration Diagram for a Link
PROBLEMS VELOCITY DIAGRAM

5.0 Introduction to Mechanism


When any one link of a kinematics chain is fixed, it is called

a mechanism. The primary function of a mechanism is to transmit

or to modify motion.

There are 2 types of mechanism i.e simple mechanism and

compound mechanism. If there are four links it is called simple

mechanism. If more than four links it is called compound

mechanism.
5.1 Inversion of Mechanism

When different position of link is fixed, we may obtain a set

of different arrangement of mechanism. This method of obtaining

different mechanism is called inversion of mechanism.


5.1.1 Four Bar Chain Mechanism

A four bar chain is shown in Figure 5.1. It consist of four


links AB, BC, CD, DA. From Grashofs Law for a four bar
mechanism, the sum of the shortest and longest link must not be
greater than the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be a
continuous relative motion between the two links.
From figure 5.1, link AB is called crank, link CD is the
rocker or follower, link BC is the connecting rod and link AD
represents the frame of the machine.

B
C

A
D

Figure 5.1

Some of the inversions of a Four Bar Chain mechanism are;


Crank and follower mechanism - Oscillatory motion as in
Figure 5.1

Pantograph Instrument used to reproduce same motion


exactly in a reduced or enlarged scale. Refer Figure 5.2. It is
shown that AmD CmM , ADm mCM , mAD CMm .
Thus whatever the configuration, AmM will always be in a
straight line.

C
B M

A
D

Figure 5.2
5.1.2 Slider Crank Mechanism

(a)1st inversion Slider Crank. Link 1 is kept fixed. As link 2


rotates, link 4 reciprocates as in Figure 5.3.

2 3

1
4

Figure 5.3

(b) 2nd inversion Oscillating cylinder. When link 2


rotates as in Figure 5.4, the piston reciprocates in the piston
cylinder. The cylinder reciprocates at the hinge point C.
Figure 5.4
rd
(c)3 inversion Crank and Slotted Lever mechanism. In
Figure 5.5, when link 2 rotates, the slider O will reciprocates.
This action causes the link 4 to rotate and moves the block N
linearly.

Figure 5.5

(d) 4th inversion Hand Pump. In Figure 5.6,


when link 4 is kept fixed, link 2 and 3 can be rotated causing
link 3 to move up or down linearly.
Figure 5.6

5.2 Velocities in Mechanism Relative Velocity Diagram

Velocity of any point on a link with respect to another point


on the same link is always perpendicular to the link joining these
points in the free body diagram. Consider points A and B on a link
as shown in Figure 5.3(a). Let the velocity of point A is V A is
known in magnitude and direction. The direction of velocity of
point B is known that is VB . The magnitude of velocity of point B
can be found by drawing the velocity diagram as in Figure 5.3(b).

Figure 5.7
Steps in drawing velocity diagram in Figure 5.7(b);

1. A convenient point O was selected as the starting point.

2. From O, line Oa was drawn parallel and equal to magnitude


of V A to some suitable scale.

3. From a, a line perpendicular to AB to represent velocity of


B wrt A i.e VBA was drawn.

4. From O, a line parallel to VB was drawn, meeting the line


VBA at b.

5. Line Ob was measured to give the required velocity of point


B to scale.

6. The velocity of point C on AB link was determined using


ac AC
ratio ab AB . (1)

7. Line Oc was joined. The vector Oc now will represent the


velocity of point C wrt O i.e V .
C

Note: The velocity diagram must be drawn according to


suitable scale.
5.2.1 Rubbing Velocity at a Pin Joint

If r is the radius of the pin at the joint as in Figure 5.8, and 1 and
2 are the angular velocities of the two links, then;

Linear rubbing velocity at surface of pin = 1 2 r .. (2)

The angular velocities are added when links rotate in opposite


directions and subtracted when rotating in the same direction.

1 2

Figure 5.8
Example 1

The crank and connecting rod of a theoretical steam engine are 0.5
m and 2.0 m long respectively. The crank makes 180 rpm in the
clockwise direction. When it has turned 45 from the inner dead
centre position, determine;
(a)Velocity of pistons
(b)Angular velocity of the connecting rod
(c)Velocity of point E on the connecting rod 1.5 m from the
gudgeon pin.
(d) Velocities of rubbing at the pins of the crankshaft, crank and
cross-head, when the diameter of their pins are 5 cm, 6 cm
and 3 cm respectively.
Solution

1. Draw the free body diagram to some suitable scale as in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9

2. Given that speed N AO 180 rpm. Thus


2 180
AO 18.85 rad/s.
60

3. The crank length AO = 0.5 m, let V AO be the linear velocity of A wrt O. Then;
V AO AO l AO 18.85 0.5 9.425 m/s.

4. Draw line Oa perpendicular to AO to scale to represent V AO such that


V AO 9.425 = Vector Oa

5. From point a, draw vector ab perpendicular to AB to represent velocity of B wrt A


i.e VBA .

6. From point O, draw vector Ob parallel to BO to represent velocity of B wrt O, i.e


V BO . The vectors ab and Ob intersect at b. Figure 6.0 shows the constructed
velocity diagram.
Figure 6.0

By measurement;

(a) Piston velocity B = VB =vector ob=8.15 m/s


Velocity of B wrt A, VBA vector ab = 6.8 m/s

(b) Connecting rod length AB = 2m


VBA 6.8
Angular velocity of rod AB = BA 3.4 rad/s
BA 2
AE ae
(c) From ratio of
AB ab

Locate point e on the vector ab of velocity diagram


Thus ae
AE
ab 0.5 6.8 1.7 m/s
AB 2

The vector oe represents velocity of E wrt O. By measurement;


Velocity of point E, VE = vector oe = 8.5 m/s

(d) Velocity of rubbing at pin joints;

d 0 = crankshaft pin o diameter = 5 cm


d A = crank pin A diameter = 6 cm
d B = cross head pin B diameter = 3 cm

The velocity of rubbing at crank shaft pin o is



AO d 0 2 18.85 0.05 2 0.471 m/s

The velocity of rubbing at cross head pin B is



BA d B 2 3.4 0.06 2 0.102 m/s

The velocity of rubbing at crank pin A is



AO BA d A 2 18.85 3.4 0.03 2 0.3375 m/s

Example 2
ABCD is a Four Bar Chain with the link AD is fixed as in Figure
6.1. The length of the links are AB = 6.25 cm, BC = 17.5 cm, CD =
11.25 cm, DA = 20 cm. The crank AB makes 100 rpm in the
clockwise direction. Find the following when the angle BAD is 60.

(a) The angular velocity of the links CD and BC


(b)Velocity of point E, 10 cm from C on the link BC.
(c) The velocity of point F, which is 10.5 cm from B and C and
lying outside ABCD.

Figure 6.1

Solution
Given that AB = 6.25 cm, BC = 17.5 cm, CD = 11.25 cm, DA = 20 cm.

2N 2 100
Thus, angular velocity of AB is AB 10.47 rad/s
60 60
1. Draw the free body diagram as in Figure 6.2. Use scale of 1cm = 4 cm.

Figure 6.2

2. The linear velocity of B wrt A, is calculated


VBA BA AB 10.47 6.25 65.45 cm/s
3. Draw velocity diagram by using scale: 1cm = 15 cm/s. From fixed point a, draw ab
perpendicular to AB to represent VBA .
4. From point b, draw bc perpendicular to BC.
5. From pointd, draw dc perpendicular to CD. These two lines will intersect at c.
Vector dc will represent linear velocity of C wrt D, VCD . The constructed velocity
diagram is shown in Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3

6. By measurement, dc = 3 cm, thus


VCD 315 45 cm/s

7. From questions,
(a) Angular velocity of link CD and BC
V 45
CD CD 4 rad/s
CD 11.25
V 2.5 15
BC BC 2.142 rad/s.
BC 17.5
(b) Locate point e on bc using ratio;
CB cb 17.5 2.5
or
CE ce 10 ce
ce 1.428 cm

Now join ae. Now ae will represent velocity of point E on BC wrt AD


VE ae 3.66 cm (scaled down)
VE 3.66 15 54.9 cm/s

(c) Locate the point F on the free body diagram. Draw bf perpendicular to BF,
and cf perpendicular to CF to intersect atf. Then af is the velocity of F.
VF af 2.94 cm (scaled down)
VF 2.94 15 44.1 cm/s.
5.3 Acceleration Diagram for a Link

Consider two points A and B on a rigid link as in Figure 6.4.


Let point B moves wrt A with velocity rad/s and be the angular
acceleration of link AB. For an acceleration of a particle whose
velocity changes with magnitudes and direction at any instant has
two components i.e;
(i) Radial or centripetal components which is parallel to
AB.
(ii) Tangential component, which is perpendicular to AB.
Radial component of acceleration of B wrt A,
f .BA
r 2 VBA
2

BA
BA
Tangential component of acceleration of B wrt A,
t
f BA .BA

Figure 6.4
Example 1

The crank of a slider crank mechanism rotates clockwise at


constant speed of 300 rpm. The crank is 15 cm and the connecting
rod is 60 cm long. Determine (a) linear velocity and acceleration of
the midpoint of the connecting rod, (b) angular velocity and
angular acceleration of the connecting rod at crank angle of 45
from inner dead centre position.
Solution

The free body diagram of the slider crank mechanism is as Figure 6.5

Figure 6.5

2 300
Given speed N AO 300 rpm thus AO 31.415 m/s.
60

Linear velocity of A wrt O,


V AO AO AO 31.415 0.15 4.712 m/s

Draw the velocity diagram as follows;

1. Draw vector oa perpendicular to OA to represent velocity of A wrt O such


that V AO 4.712 m/s. Draw by using appropriate scale.
2. From point a, draw vector ab perpendicular to AB to represent velocity of
B wrt A that is VBA .
3. From point o, draw ob parallel to the path motion of B to represent velocity
of B. The vector ab and ob intersect at b. By measurement, VBA =
Vector ab = 3.4 m/s. and VB =vector ob= 4 m/s.
4. Since C is the midpoint of AB, then, c is also the midpoint of vector ab.
Join oc. This will represent velocity of C, that is VC . By measurement
VC 4.1 m/s.
The velocity diagram is constructed as Figure 5.19.

Figure 5.19
It can be deduced from the results, the radial component of acceleration of A wrt O, is
r
f AO
V 2 4.712 2 148.02 m/s2.
f A AO
OA 0.154
The radial component of acceleration of B wrt A is,
r
f BA
V 2 3.4 2 19.27 m/s2
BA
BA 0.6
Draw the acceleration diagram as follows;

1. Draw oa parallel to AO to represent the radial component of acceleration of


A wrt O i.e f AO f A 148.02 m/s2 according to suitable scale.
r

2. The acceleration of B wrt A must have two components that is


r t
(i) Radial component, f BA and (ii) tangential component, f BA . Both (i) and
(ii) components are mutually perpendicular.
r
3. Therefore from point a draw ax parallel to BA to represent f BA 19.27 m/s2.

4. From point x draw vector xb perpendicular to ax.

5. From o, draw vector ob parallel to the path of motion of B to represent


acceleration of B that is f B . The vectors xb and ob intersect at b.

6. Since C is the midpoint of AB, thus c is also the midpoint of ab. Join oc.
The vector oc represents acceleration of mid point of c of the connecting
rod i.e
f C Vector oc = 117 m/s2

The constructed acceleration diagram is as shown in Figure 5.20;


Figure 5.20

Angular velocity of the connecting rod BA,


V 3.4
BA BA 5.67 rad/s
BA 0.6

Angular acceleration of the connecting rod BA,


t
f BA 103 m/s (by measurement)
t
f BA 103
BA 171.7 rad/s2
BA 0.6

PROBLEMS VELOCITY DIAGRAM


1. In a slider crank mechanism shown in Figure 5.9, the crank OA rotates clockwise
about O at 120 rpm. Find (i) The linear velocity of the slider B, (ii) the linear
velocity of point P located at distance of 8 cm on the connecting rod extended.
[Ans: 102 cm/s, 136 cm/s]

Figure 5.9

2. In Figure 5.10, the angular velocity of crank OA is 600 rpm. Determine the linear
velocity of the slider D and the angular velocity of the link BD, when the crank is
inclined at an angle of 75 to the vertical. The dimensions of the various links are :
OA = 28 mm, AB = 44 mm, BC = 49 mm, BD = 46 mm and the centre distance
between the centres of rotation O and C is 65 mm. Path of the travel of slider is
11 mm vertically below the fixed point C.
[Ans: 1.48 m/s, 34.8 rad/s]

Figure 5.10

3. In the mechanism shown in Figure 5.11, O and Q are fixed centres. The crank OC
revolves at uniform speed of 120 rpm. Draw the velocity diagram and find the
velocity of C in the given configuration.
[Ans: 62.8 cm/s]
Figure 5.11

4. The lengths of various links of a mechanism as shown in Figure 5.12 are: OA = 30


cm, AB = 100 cm, CD = 80 cm, and AC = CB. Determine for the given
configuration the velocity of the sliders B and D, if the crank OA rotates at 60 rpm
in the clockwise direction. Also find the angular velocity of the link CD.
[Ans: 1.7 m/s, 0.45 m/s, 2 rad/s]

Figure 5.12

5. In the oscillating cylinder mechanism shown in Figure 5.13, the crank OA is 50


mm long while the piston rod AB is 150 mm long. The crank OA rotates
uniformly about O at 300 rpm. Determine for the position shown at angle of 30,
(a) the velocity of piston B relative to the cylinder walls, (b) the velocity of piston
B relative to the frame, and (c) angular velocity of the piston rod AB.
[Ans: J.C Hannah books]
Figure 5.13

6. In the slotted lever mechanism in Figure 5.14, the crank OA rotates at 90 rpm in
an anticlockwise direction about the fixed centre O, swinging the lever DEQ
about the fixed centre Q. Find the magnitude and direction of the angular velocity
of the lever DEQ and the velocity of the slider C when = 45. (Taken from J.C
Hannah books).
[Ans: 1.66 rad/s anticlockwise, 312 m/s]

Figure 5.14
7. In the mechanism in Figure 5.15, the crank AB drives the bent link CDE by
means of sliding block at B. AB = 120 mm, CD = 90 mm, DE = 450 mm and EF
= 450 mm. When the crank is horizontal, as shown and is rotating at 60 rpm
anticlockwise, find; (a) velocity of the slider F, (b) the angular velocity of the link
CDE. (Taken from J.C Hannah books.)
[Ans: 0.75 m/s, 1.78 rad/s]

Figure 5.15

8. .

Figure 5.16 shows a shaper


mechanism. Crank OA is 7.5 cm, lever
CBD is 35.5 cm, and link DE is 10 cm.
The crank rotates at a uniform speed of
200 rpm. Determine (a) Linear
velocity of slider link 6, (b) Angular
velocity of CD.
[Ans: 1.6 m/s, 4.57 rad/s]

Figure 5.16
PROBLEMS MECHANISM (ACCELERATION DIAGRAM)

1. The dimensions and configuration of the four bar mechanism is as shown in Figure
5.21 as follows P1 A 30 cm, P2 B 36 cm, AB 36 cm and P1 P2 60 cm. The angle
AP1 P2 60 . The crank P1 A has an angular velocity of 10 rad/s and an angular
acceleration of 30 rad/s2, both clockwise. Determine the angular velocities and angular
accelerations of P2 B and AB and the velocity and accelerations of the joint B.

Figure 5.21

2. In the steam engine mechanism as shown in Figure 5.22, the crank AB rotates at 200
rpm. Find the velocities of C, D, E, F and P. Also, find the acceleration of the slider at C.
The dimensions of the various links are; AB = 12 cm, BC = 48 cm, CD = 18 cm, DE =
36 cm, EF = 12 cm, and FP = 36 cm.

Figure 5.22

3. In the mechanism shown in Figure 5.23, O and Q are fixed centers. The crank OC
revolves at uniform speed of 120 rpm. Draw the velocity diagram and find the velocity of
C in the given configuration. Find the angular accelerations of links CP, PA and AQ.
Figure 5.23

4. In the mechanism shown in Figure 5.24, the crank AB is 75 mm long and rotates
uniformly clockwise at 8 rad/s. Given that BD = DC = DE and BC = 300 mm. Draw the
velocity and acceleration diagrams. State the velocity and acceleration of the pistons at C
and E.
[Ans: vc 0.6 m/s, ve 0.187 m/s: f c 4.16 m/s2, f e 9.06 m/s2]

Figure 5.24

5. Part of the reversing gear mechanism is shown in Figure 5.25. The block P
reciprocates along the line AB. If the crank OC turns at a uniform speed of 240 rpm, find
for the given position of the crank (a) the velocity and acceleration of the block P, and (b)
the velocity and acceleration of the point D.
[Ans: 3.72 m/s, 63.9 m/s2; 3.05 m/s, 71.4 m/s2]
Figure 5.25

6. In the simple link mechanism shown in Figure 5.26, the crank OA rotates about the
fixed point O and the piston B slides along YY. The lengths of the links are OA = 75 mm
and AB = 150 mm. For the configuration shown, the crank has an angular velocity
10 rad/s and an angular acceleration 30 rad/s2, both in the clockwise direction.
Sketch the vector diagrams for velocity and acceleration and determine: (a) the velocity
of point B, (b) the angular velocity of link AB, (c) the accelerations of point B.
[Ans: 1.06 m/s, 5 rad/s, 2.12 m/s2]

Figure 5.26