Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Final Report

Adaptation of Waste Tire


Rubber for Greenhouse
Media and Zinc Fertilizers
Submitted to:

Colorado Advanced Materials Institute


Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401-3852

Academic Institution Emerging Business


Principal Investigator: Program Manager:

Steven E. Newman, Ph.D. Jan C. Meneley


Associate Professor President
Horticulture and Landscape AgBio Development, Inc.
Architecture 9915 Raleigh Street
Colorado State University Westminster, CO 80030
Fort Collins, CO 80523-1173
Phone: (970) 491-7118 Phone: (303) 469-9221
Fax: (970) 491-7745 Fax: (303) 469-9598

______________________________ ______________________________
Steven E. Newman Date Jan C. Meneley Date
Project Summary

It is estimated that less than 25% of the 200-300 million used tires generated in the U.S.
annually are recycled. This project focused on the feasibility of developing horticultural substrate
products and the feasibility of extracting additional value from recycled tires by removing zinc
contaminates and converting it to a fertilizer through a washing process. These processes have the
potential to be licensed to tire recycling companies throughout North America.

The objectives of this project were to determine the feasibility of the use of waste tire
rubber in horticulture with the following sub-objectives:

Develop a root-zone medium using crumb rubber for the production of greenhouse crops;
Develop a means to produce a zinc fertilizer product and/or a zinc nitrate fertilizer
product by washing available zinc from the crumb rubber with nitric acid; and
Develop a means to produce a zinc enriched nutraceutical health supplement or a zinc
supplement for livestock.

There are many technologies available for the disposal of waste tires. One such emerging
technology under consideration is the use of shredded waste tires as a container growth medium,
which is only now being fully explored. Potting media containing waste tires could potentially
reduce the need for imported media constituents as well as remove more tires from the waste stream.
Petunia plants grown on potting media with 50% crumb rubber previously washed in nitric acid for
4 days had 129 mg ZnAkg-1. This indicated that some surface erosion was occurring making a greater
level of zinc available from the rubber for plant uptake. Petunia plants grown on rubber that was
washed in nitric acid for 8 days had a lower level of zinc in the tissue than those grown on rubber
washed for 4 days. Longer washing may reduce the zinc tissue levels even lower eliminating the
zinc toxicity risk.

Zinc is deficient in many alkaline soils of the Western U.S. and Canada and is supplied by
various types of zinc fertilizers. Zinc sulfate is commonly used to supply the zinc requirement of
field crops. Crumb rubber from waste tires has a significant level of zinc, which is readily available
for plant uptake. Nitric acid washes yielded 213 mgAL-1 after 8 days and a second wash yielded an
additional 106 mgAL-1 after an additional 8 days . This product can be reduced and concentrated into
a zinc nitrate formulation for use as a zinc fertilizer source.

Zinc formulations of nutraceutical products are important in maintaining human health. A


potential nutraceutical formulation was developed using plants known to be zinc accumulators and
when grown on soil amended with crumb rubber had high levels of zinc in its tissue. This tissue
could then be processed and evaluated as a nutraceutical product. Alfalfa is a known accumulator
of zinc with little phytotoxicity and when grown on media amended with crumb rubber, the zinc
level detected was 365 mgAkg-1, almost four times the normal concentration. To incorporate the high
zinc alfalfa into a human diet, 41 g of the dried alfalfa would yield the minimum daily requirements.
For livestock, a typical dairy cow would require 60 kg of the high zinc alfalfa to satisfy about 25%
of the minimum daily requirement.
Technical Assistance

Justification:

The floriculture and nursery industry of the United States has expanded more than 200% the
past two decades. The market value of this industry in 1979 was $1.6 billion and in 1998, $4.46
billion . The floriculture and nursery industry is an important component of the Colorado economy.
In 1998, the wholesale value was $200.4 million, which represented approximately 15% of crop
agriculture in Colorado.

Production of a traditional herbaceous flowering plants, bedding plants and potted color,
requires a sizeable investment. Of that investment, variable costs include containers, cuttings or
seeds, pots, tags, pesticides, and container growth medium. Container growth medium represents
9% of the variable cost alone (Taylor et al., 1990) and alternatives to traditional media are being
sought. The use of solid waste products, municipal and agricultural, as a container growth medium
has been proposed to be an alternative to traditional land filling and as an economical alternative
growth medium source. When developing a container medium, its components must be (1) readily
available; (2) relatively inexpensive; (3) light enough to be handled conveniently within the nursery
or greenhouse and to be transported economically to market; (4) free of pests or be capable of being
sterilized without the production of toxic substances; (5) economically blended into a uniform,
relatively stable medium; and (6) capable of being stored for short periods of time without
significant changes in the physical and chemical properties (Davidson et al., 1988).

The use of waste products as a container growth medium component for the production of
landscape plants and floriculture crops is a viable alternative to peat moss and pine bark (Neel et al.,
1978) or can be used to increase the water holding capacity of media containing bark. Amending
soils with animal and plant remains is an ancient practice (Gogue and Sanderson, 1975). Composted
sewage sludge and municipal compost has been successfully used for container plant media (Chaney
et al., 1980; Sanderson and Martin, 1974). Composted rice hulls replacing up to 50% of the pine
bark in media produced excellent growth of container-grown landscape species (Laiche and Nash,
1990). Livestock manure in media increases water and nutrient retention due to favorable water
holding properties and high cation exchange capacity (Nelson, 1985). Manure also offers the added
benefit of containing plant nutrients that are released during degradation.

There are many technologies available for the disposal of waste tires. One such emerging
technology under consideration is the use of shredded waste tires as a container growth medium,
which is only now being fully explored. Potting media containing waste tires could potentially
reduce the need for imported media constituents as well as remove more tires from the waste stream.

Zinc toxicity, however, continues to be a problem. Many tires may contain high levels of
zinc and if the pH is not maintained above 6.5, the plants will be subjected to excessive levels of
zinc. Foliar levels of zinc have been previously shown to be high by plants grown in waste rubber
products (Bowman et al., 1994; Newman et al., 1997; Ward, 1973; Zhao, 1995). Adequate levels
of foliar zinc for most crops is from 40 to 200 mg/kg (Jones et al., 1991), yet the zinc level for most
plants grown in media containing rubber was greater than 200 mg/kg Zinc. This has been attributed
to the inherently high levels of zinc available in the rubber. Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate or zinc
isopropylxanthate is used as an accelerator to reduce the time needed for vulcanization of rubber
(Roff et al., 1971), which contributes to the elevated levels of zinc in the media.

Zinc is an important minor element in crop production. Calcium and sulfur are important
minor nutrients and the contribution of nitrogen in the solution all add value to the zinc nitrate
fertilizer. Zinc is deficient in many alkaline soils of the Western U.S. and Canada and is supplied
by various types of zinc fertilizers. Zinc sulfate is commonly used to supply the zinc requirement
of field crops. Noting that tire rubber contains around 2.5% zinc, a potential zinc fertilizer could be
developed by rinsing the waste tire products, crumb rubber and fiber, with a dilute nitric acid
solution. The resulting product would be a zinc nitrate solution available, which after reduction and
concentration, would be used as a liquid fertilizer product for Western soils. This would potentially
also reduce the potential zinc phytotoxicity of intact crumb rubber.

Untreated rubber added to zinc deficient agricultural soils could provide a source of zinc plus
some calcium and sulfur as the nutrients are leached over time. Zinc would be more quickly leached
with decreasing grind sizes (Newman et al., 1997) and the rubber particles will also improve the tilth
of clay soils typical in many Western states. There is also the suggestion that some crops can be
treated with high rates of crumb rubber to provide above normal rates of zinc and accumulated in
the plant. Crops such as alfalfa, which accumulate high levels of zinc without phytotoxicity, could
be grown with rubber amended soils resulting in supra-optimal levels of zinc. Zinc enriched alfalfa
could be marketed as a nutraceutical alfalfa zinc health supplement. However, the resulting products
will require scrutiny for contamination from heavy metals or any other potential industrial pollutants
common to automobile tires.

Objectives:

The objectives of this project were to determine the feasibility of the use of waste tire
rubber in horticulture with the following sub-objectives:

Develop a root-zone medium using crumb rubber for the commercial production of
greenhouse crops;
Develop a means to produce a zinc fertilizer product and/or a zinc nitrate fertilizer
product by washing available zinc from the crumb rubber; and
Develop a means to produce a zinc enriched nutraceutical health supplement or a zinc
supplement for livestock.

Zinc Extraction from Crumb Rubber:

Initial studies from previous work have indicated that high levels of zinc can be leached
away from crumb rubber particles and waste tire fabric through a series of rinsings with dilute nitric
acid solutions. Acid rinsed crumb rubber could then be used with a reduced risk of zinc
phytotoxicity. In addition, the resulting acid/zinc solution could be neutralized, reduced, and
concentrated into a zinc nitrate fertilizer formulation.

Bench-top evaluations with standard laboratory equipment were be conducted to determine


the appropriate nitric acid concentrations required for the most efficient and economical zinc
extraction means. To 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, 50 g of crumb rubber was added and then soaked
in a 50 ml volume of either 0.5 or 2 N nitric acid for either 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks and then leached a
second time with 0.5 or 2 N nitric acid for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. The resulting leachates for each
normality and time combination, and were then analyzed for zinc, lead and cadmium using
inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry by a commercial laboratory.

Zinc extraction with nitric acid Lead extraction with nitric acid

Wash #1 0.5 N 200 Wash #1 0.5 N


80
Wash #2 0.5 N Wash #2 0.5 N
Wash #1 2.0 N 160 Wash #1 2.0 N
Zinc (ppm)

60

Lead (ppb)
Wash #2 2.0 N Wash #2 2.0 N
120
40
80
20
40
0 0

0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
Wash time (weeks) Wash time (weeks)

Figure 1 Zinc levels extracted from crumb Figure 3 Lead levels extracted from crumb
rubber after two subsequent rubber after two subsequent
washes in either 0.5 or 2 N nitric washes in either 0.5 or 2 N nitric
acid after three weeks. Vertical acid after three weeks. Vertical
bars represent the standard error bars represent the standard error
of the mean. of the mean.
Zinc was effectively removed from crumb
Cadmium extraction with nitric acid
rubber by all levels of nitric acid washes (Fig. 1).
The greatest amount of zinc, about 69 mgAL-1, was
4 Wash #1 0.5 N
Wash #2 0.5 N removed with three weeks of washing in 2 N nitric
Cadmium (ppb)

3
Wash #1 2.0 N
Wash #2 2.0 N
acid. The second wash yielded another 33 mgAL-1
zinc.
2

1 Zinc was not the only metal removed from


crumb rubber by the nitric acid washes. Lead and
0
cadmium levels were analyzed to determine the risk
0 1 2 3 for contamination (Fig. 2 and 3). After two weeks of
Wash time (weeks) washing in 2 N nitric acid, 0.15 mgAL-1 lead and after
three weeks of washing in 2 N nitric acid, 0.004
Figure 2 Cadmium levels extracted after mgAL-1 cadmium were detected.
two subsequent washes in either
0.5 or 2 N nitric acid after three Using these data, a second nitric acid study
weeks. Vertical bars represent was conducted. To a 15 liter crumb rubber volume,
the standard error of the mean. 10 liters of 2 N nitric acid was added in two washes.
Leachate was collected after 0, 2, 4, and 8 days. The
resulting leachates were analyzed as previously described for zinc extraction as well as lead and
cadmium contamination. The acid washed crumb rubber was saved for a subsequent greenhouse
evaluation.

Zinc extraction with 2 N nitric acid Lead extraction with 2 N nitric acid

250 First wash 1200 First wash


Second wash Second wash
200 1000

Lead (ppb)
Zinc (ppm)

800
150
600
100 400

50 200
0
0

0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8

Wash time (days) Wash time (days)

Figure 4 Zinc extracted with two Figure 5 Lead extracted with two
subsequent washes in 2 N nitric subsequent washes in 2 N nitric
acid after eight days. Vertical acid after eight days. Vertical
bars represent the standard error bars represent the standard error
of the mean. Bars not visible are of the mean.
hidden by the symbols.

Cadmium extraction with 2 N nitric acid

25 First Wash
Second wash
Cadmium (ppb)

20

15

10

0 2 4 6 8
Wash time (days)

Figure 6 Cadmium extracted with two


subsequent washes in 2 N nitric
acid after eight days. Vertical
bars represent the standard error
of the mean
With the increased volume of crumb rubber, much more zinc was rinsed from the rubber
granule surface (Fig. 4) than from the initial small scale study (Fig. 1). The first wash yielded 213
mgAL-1 after 8 days and the second wash yielded an additional 106 mgAL-1 after an additional 8 days
As before, a significant amount of lead and cadmium was rinsed from the crumb rubber as well. The
first wash leached 1.1 mgAL-1 lead after 4 days with no increase after an additional 4 days (Fig. 5).
The second wash yielded an additional 0.68 mgAL-1 lead after 4 days. The first wash leached 0.02
mgAL-1 cadmium after 8 days and the second wash leached an additional 0.005 mgAL-1 after 4 days
with no increase after an additional 4 days (Fig. 6).

Greenhouse Procedures:

Greenhouse trials were completed to determine an economical blend of waste tire products
with traditional media components for plant production. Commercially grown petunia plugs were
transplanted into 10 cm square pots filled with greenhouse media blended 1:1 (by volume) with
sphagnum peat moss and crumb rubber that was washed in 2 N nitric acid for 0, 2, 4, or 8 days as
previously described. The plants were grown in the greenhouse for 8 weeks and the resulting tissue
was dried for 48 hours at 70/C and weighed. The tissue was then ground to 60 mesh and delivered
to a commercial laboratory to determine zinc, lead and cadmium levels using inductively coupled
plasma emission spectrophotometry by a commercial laboratory

Tissue zinc levels in petunia grown


on media containing acid washed crumb rubber
140
Tissue zinc levels (ppm)

130

120

110

100

90

80

70
0 2 4 6 8

Time in acid wash (days)


Figure 7 Zinc tissue levels detected in petunia foliage grown on media
containing crumb rubber washed in 2 N nitric acid. Vertical
bars represent the standard error of the mean.
Tissue lead levels in petunia grown Tissue cadmium levels in petunia grown
on media containing acid washed crumb rubber on media containing acid washed crumb rubber

Tissue cadmium levels (ppb)


2800 70
Tissue lead levels (ppb)

2400
60
2000
50
1600

40
1200

800 30

400
20
0 2 4 6 8
0 2 4 6 8
Time in acid wash (days) Time in acid wash (days)
Figure 8 Lead tissue levels detected in Figure 9 Cadmium tissue levels detected
petunia foliage grown on media in petunia foliage grown on
containing crumb rubber washed media containing crumb rubber
in 2 N nitric acid. Vertical bars washed in 2 N nitric acid.
represent the standard error of Vertical bars represent the
the mean. standard error of the mean.
The 2 N nitric acid wash was developed in
part to attempt to rinse free zinc from the surface of the crumb rubber to reduce the likelihood of
excess zinc availability for plant uptake. The zinc levels in petunia tissue with crumb rubber with
no acid wash or 2 or 8 days acid wash had between 85-93 mgAkg-1 zinc in the tissue, which is
roughly double what is expected for zinc in petunia tissue, but similar to that reported for other
species grown on rubber (Fig. 7). However, after 4 days of acid washing of the crumb rubber, the
zinc tissue levels spiked at 129 mgAkg-1 indicating that some surface erosion was occurring after four
days making a greater level of zinc available from the rubber for plant uptake. Petunia plants grown
on rubber that was washed in 2 N nitric acid for 8 days had a lower level of zinc in the tissue than
those grown on rubber washed for 4 days. If the study was carried past 8 days, we are anticipating
that the zinc tissue levels would be even lower.

The lead and cadmium levels detected in the petunia tissue from plants grown on crumb
rubber were at the lower limit of instrumentation detection. The greatest amount of lead measured
was 1.9 mgAkg-1 and 0.05 mgAkg-1 cadmium (Fig. 8 and 9). The risk from lead and cadmium
apparently may not be an issue from growing plants on crumb rubber.

Nutraceutical Zinc Supplements:

Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the potential of using crumb rubber blended
into a zinc deficient agricultural soil as a zinc fertilizer source and to determine the possibility of
using crumb rubber as a means of increasing the natural levels of zinc in plant tissue for use as a
mineral supplement for livestock or human consumption. A native soil from Weld County Colorado
was obtained with an established history of zinc deficiency (0.5 ppm). Alfalfa seedlings were grown
on four levels of crumb rubber, 0, 5, 15, 35, and 50% (by volume) and compared to a standard
greenhouse sphagnum peat moss medium.

Zinc levels in alfalfa tissue

400
Zinc (ppm)
300

200

100

0
r r r r r
b be bbe bbe bbe bbe ouse
Ru Ru Ru Ru Ru enh
No 5% 15% 35% 50% Gre
Figure 10 Zinc tissue levels detected in alfalfa tissue from
plants grown on a zinc deficient soil blended
with crumb rubber. Vertical bars represent the
standard deviation.

Alfalfa is a known accumulator of zinc with little phytotoxicity. The greatest concentration
of zinc detected was 365 mgAkg-1 in the tissue. The daily requirements for zinc is well established
for livestock and for humans. Beef and dairy cattle require 30 and 40 mg zincAkg-1 body mass,
respectively. Swine, finishing, require 50-100 mg zincAkg-1 body mass. Human children, adults, and
lactating females require 5-10, 12-15, and 16-19 mg zincAday-1, respectively.

If the high zinc alfalfa was used in a human diet, 41 g of the dried alfalfa would yield the
minimum daily requirements. This could be incorporated into a nutrient bar or drink. A typical dairy
cow would require 60 kg of the high zinc alfalfa to satisfy about 25% of the minimum daily
requirement. However, more study would be required to determine any heavy metal risk.

Commercialization and Technology Implementation Plans

There are a number of commercial and industrial products made from recycled tires.
However it is estimated that less than 25% of the 200-300 million used tires generated in the U.S.
annually are recycled. New products will become available as new recycling technologies are
developed. However the cost of recycling tires and economics of new and existing products may
only be marginal. This project, in part, has demonstrated the feasibility of extracting additional
value from recycled tires by removing zinc through a washing process. The process has the
potential to be licensed to tire recycling companies throughout North America. There are three
potentially new marketable products. They are listed in order of magnitude.
Zinc nitrate fertilizer solution

The process described in this proposal will produce a liquid zinc nitrate solution that can
be blended with calcium and sulfur to develop a fertilizer solution. Zinc is an important minor
element in crop production. Calcium and sulfur are important minor nutrients and the
contribution of nitrogen in the solution all add value to the zinc nitrate fertilizer.

Zinc is deficient in many alkaline soils of the Western U.S. and Canada and is supplied
by various types of zinc fertilizers. Zinc sulfate is commonly used to supply the zinc
requirement of field crops. The wholesale price is about $640/ton and grower cost around $1.30-
1.40/lb. of zinc. U.S. consumption of zinc fertilizers in 1990 according to the TVA Fertilizer
Use Report was over 64,000 tons for a market potential of $40 million.

It is estimated that 1 ton of zinc nitrate solution can contain 10-20% zinc and 30 gals. of
70% nitric acid. In bulk nitric acid cost is $500/ton. The cost of the nitric acid in the solution
is $81. A 10% zinc sulfate solution contains $160 worth of zinc. The margin to leach the zinc
from the crumb rubber into the solution is $160-81=$79. Any increase in zinc content greater
than 10% increases the margin. A 20% zinc content may be possible which would leave a
margin of $239/ton.

AgBio, after further investigations, will license or partner with companies throughout
the U.S. that produce recycled tire products. The selected companies and their locations will
become contract production/distribution centers where zinc nitrate fertilizer is extracted from
tires and sold by AgBio to the local agricultural market. Alternatively the licensed company
may decide to sell fertilizer direct to the agricultural market. The technology will give the
recycling company additional revenue stream from tires before the rubber is further processed
into the products normally produced by the company.

One issue that will have to be resolved is if the tire rubber from which zinc, calcium, and
sulfur have been removed is compatible with further downstream processing of the rubber into
recycled products. This will be on a company by company basis, specific to the products
produced. There are some research publications and patents that demonstrated tire rubber from
which inorganic metals have been removed is superior to the contaminated tire rubber. It was
also demonstrated that zinc-calcium-sulfur free crumb rubber is an excellent pollutant-free fuel
source with a heat value of about 32 Joules/gram.

Slow release zinc fertilizer pellets

This project as presented the possibility of using tire crumb rubber as a slow release zinc
fertilizer. Tire rubber contains around 2.5% zinc and untreated crumb rubber can be added to
zinc deficient agricultural soils and provide a source of zinc as it is leached over time. The
smaller the size of the crumb the more quickly the zinc is leached. The rubber particles will also
improve the tilth of clay soils typical in many Western states.

There is also the suggestion that some crops can be treated with high rates of crumb
rubber to provide above normal rates of zinc which will be accumulated in the plant. A target
crop, alfalfa known to accumulate high levels of zinc without phytotoxicity, was grown. High
zinc alfalfa could be marketed as a nutraceutical alfalfa zinc health supplement for livestock and
human consumption.

Untreated crumb rubber will also be produced/distributed by the same licensee/partner


companies who manufacture the zinc nitrate fertilizer solution for AgBio. The crumb rubber
will be marketed by AgBio.

Soil amendment for potting mixes

The third product demonstrated with this project is the use of leached crumb rubber as
a potting mix addition. In the greenhouse and nursery industry, plants are grown in a variety of
different media. Today, soil or earth is only a minor component of nursery potting mixtures,
whereas in the past it was the primary component. Soil has been primarily replaced by
sphagnum peat moss as the main media ingredient with a wide range of common additives to
provide good aeration, mineral exchange and water holding capacity. Typical additives include
perlite, vermiculite, calcined clays, pumice, cinders, polystyrene beads, rice hulls, sawdusts and
wood chips/shavings.

Crumb rubber, which has had some of the zinc removed through washing, will be offered
as a product to substitute for the common potting mix additives. Hundreds of millions of pounds
of amendments are used in the greenhouse/nursery industry. For instance the most widely used
amendment is perlite that is made by heating siliceous volcanic rock to 1500 /F. World use of
perlite in horticulture is estimated 300,000 tons equal to 100 million cubic feet. The wholesale
price for perlite is about $ 2/cu.ft., a $200 million market. The market size of calcined clay,
pumice stone, polystyrene beads, etc. is unknown, but certainly is in the millions of dollars.

Acid washed crumb rubber potting amendment will also be produced/distributed by the
same licensee/partner companies who manufacture the zinc nitrate fertilizer solution and
unleached crumb rubber for AgBio. The potting mix amendment will be marketed by AgBio.
Literature cited:

Arrandale, T. 1992. Old tires, new solutions. Governing 5:22-23.

Bowman, D.C., R.Y. Evans, and L.L. Dodge. 1994. Growth of chrysanthemum with ground
automobile tire used as a container soil amendment. HortScience 29:774-776.

Chaney, R.L., J.B. Munns and H.M. Cathey. 1980. Effectiveness of digested sewage sludge compost
in supplying nutrients for soilless potting media. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:485-492.

Davidson, H., R. Mecklenburg, and C. Peterson. 1988. Nursery management: Administration and
culture, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Gogue, G.J. and K.C. Sanderson. 1975. Municipal compost as a medium amendment for
chrysanthemum culture. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 100:213-216.

Jones, J.B., Jr., B. Wolf, and H.A. Mills. 1991. Plant analysis handbook: A practical sampling,
preparation, analysis, and interpretation guide. Micro-Macro Publishing, Inc., Athens, Ga.

Neel, P.L., E.O. Burt, P. Busey and G.H. Snyder. 1978. Sod production in shallow beds of waste
materials. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103:549-553.

Nelson, P.V. 1985. Greenhouse operation and management, third edition. PrenticeHall, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey.

Newman, S.E., M.J. Roll, and R.J. Harkrader. 1999. A naturally occurring compound for controlling
powdery mildew of greenhouse roses. HortScience. 34:686-689.

Roff, W. J., J. R. Scott and J. Pacitti. 1971. Handbook of common polymers, fibres, films, plastics
and rubbers. The Chemical Rubber Co. Press., Cleveland, Ohio.

Rogers, J., T. Vanini, and M. Venlola. 1994. Shredded tire , a new soil amendment. Ground Maint.
29:42-49.

Sah, R.N. and R.O. Miller 1992. Spontaneous reaction for acid dissolution of biological tissue in
closed vessels. Anal. Chem. 64:230-233.

Sanderson, K. C. and W. C. Martin, Jr. 1974. Performance of woody ornamentals in municipal


compost medium under nine fertilizer regimes. HortScience 9:242-243.

Soltanpour, P.N. and A.P. Schwab. 1977. An new soil test method for simultaneous extraction of
macro- and micro-nutrients in alkaline soils. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal.. 8:195-207.

Tarricone, P. 1993. Recycled roads. Civil Engineering 63:46-49.


Taylor, R.D., E.M. Smith, D.J. Beattie, G.P. Pealer. 1990. Requirements and costs of establishing
a three-acre herbaceous perennial container nursery. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin,
354.

Ward, C. Y. 1973. Amending soybean soil, sport turf and golf greens with ground rubber. Progress
report to U.S. Rubber Reclaiming Company. Miss. Agri. and For. Expt Sta.

Zhao, X. 1995. Shredded Tire Rubber as a Container Medium for Greenhouse-Grown Plants. MS
Thesis, Mississippi State University.