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TECHNICAL CORRECTION

February 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STF05501
Fixed Ladders and Cages
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team
and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or
withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at
www.pip.org.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.
PRINTING HISTORY
November 1994 Issued August 2000 Technical Correction
December 1999 Revision February 2002 Technical Correction

Not printed with State funds


TECHNICAL CORRECTION
February 2002

Process Industry Practices


Structural

PIP STF05501
Fixed Ladders and Cages
Table of Contents

1. Introduction .................................. 2 List of Details


1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2 Side Elevation ............................................ 4
1.2 Scope................................................. 2 Minimum Clearances at Unavoidable
Obstructions....................................... 4
2. References ................................... 2 Minimum Clearances for Ladder Wells
2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 2 and Platforms .................................... 4
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 2 Section A-A - Step Through....................... 5
2.3 Government Regulations ................... 3 Detail 1 - Rung Detail................................. 5
Section B-B - Typical Cage........................ 6
3. Design........................................... 3 Ladder Cage at Elevated Platform............. 6
Section C-C................................................ 6
Side-Step Ladders ..................................... 7
Section D-D - Cage at Side Step ............... 7
Detail 2 - Supporting Connection to
Concrete ............................................ 8
Detail 3 - Ladder Base Details ................... 8
Detail 4 - Supporting Connection to
Steel................................................... 9
Detail 5 - Guide Connection to Steel.......... 9

Process Industry Practices Page 1 of 9


PIP STF05501 TECHNICAL CORECTION
Fixed Ladders and Cages February 2002

1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose
This Practice provides the fabricator and erector with a standard fixed ladder and
cage design to be used in process industry facilities. This Practice also provides
process industry companies with design guide information to be used in specifying
and locating fixed ladders and cages.

1.2 Scope
This Practice shows the design details for fabrication and installation of typical
Occupational Safety and Health Administration-regulated ladders for structures,
miscellaneous platforms, and vessels for regular operational access/egress.
These details are intended to be issued to the fabricators supplying these ladders and
to the erectors for use in installation.
Any conflicts or inconsistencies between this Practice, the design drawings, or other
contract documents shall be brought to the attention of the buyer for resolution.

2. References
Applicable requirements in the following PIP Practices, codes and standards, and
government regulations shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in
effect on the date of contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will
be used herein when appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)


PIP STS05120 - Fabrication of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel
PIP STS05130 - Erection of Structural and Miscellaneous Steel

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)


ANSI A14.3 - American National Standard for LaddersFixedSafety
Requirements
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A36/A36M - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM A123 - Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot Galvanized) Coatings on
Products Fabricated from Rolled, Pressed, and Forged Steel Shapes, Plates,
Bars, and Strips
ASTM A307 - Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Externally Threaded
Standard Fasteners
ASTM A385 - Standard Practices for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings
(Hot-Dip)

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TECHNICAL CORRECTION PIP STF05501
February 2002 Fixed Ladders and Cages

2.3 Government Regulations


The following government document has been used as a reference in the
development of this Practice.

U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)


Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D (Walking-Working Surfaces)
Modifications or deviations from this Practice should be reviewed by appropriate
personnel to assure compliance with applicable safety regulations and requirements
by state or local agencies that have jurisdiction where the ladder is to be erected.

3. Design
3.1 The project design drawings and data sheets specify the ladder location and
orientation, whether or not a cage is required, special fabrication details, and any
changes to the requirements of this Practice. Unless noted otherwise on the contract
documents, a self-closing double bar safety gate, in conformance with OSHA, shall
be provided for all ladders.
3.2 All structural material shall be ASTM A36 steel unless otherwise noted.
3.3 The entire ladder shall be welded construction except as shown. All welds shall be
smooth, continuous, and sealed. Fabrication shall comply with PIP STS05120.
3.4 All ladder bolts shall be 5/8-inch (16-mm) ASTM A307 bolts unless otherwise noted.
3.5 Ladder rung design is based on a 200-pound (890-N) concentrated live load.
3.6 Ladder connections are designed for a maximum total load (dead plus live) of
1000 pounds (4.4 kN) on one side rail.
3.7 Cages shall be provided on ladders of more than 20 feet to a maximum unbroken
length of 30 feet, where the length of ladder refers to the vertical distance between
landings. Cages are also required on ladders less than 20 feet in length where the
ladder is located at an elevated platform that does not provide adequate fall
protection. Consideration of cage protection for these applications should be made in
the design process for each particular case. Ladder safety devices may be used in lieu
of the required cage protection.
3.8 Ladder assemblies shall be coated after fabrication in accordance with the design
drawings and specifications governing the project.
3.8.1 Galvanizing (when required) shall be done after fabrication and in
accordance with PIP STS05120.
3.9 Erection of ladders shall comply with PIP STS05130.

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