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Hatties influences on student achievement

1. Student Self-Reported Grades

Self reported grades comes out at the top of all influences. Children are the most accurate when predicting how
they will perform. In a video Hattie explains that if he could write his book Visible Learning for Teachers again, he
would re-name this learning strategy Student Expectations to express more clearly that this strategy involves the
teacher finding out what are the students expectations and pushing the learner to exceed these expectations. Once a
student has performed at a level that is beyond their own expectations, he or she gains confidence in his or her
learning ability.

Example for Self-reported grades: Before an exam, ask your class to write down what mark the student expects to achieve. Use this information to
engage the student to try to perform even better.

2. Piagetian programs
Piagetian programs are teaching methods based on Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development and his concept
of childrens stages of learning. Example for Piagetian programs: Focus on the thinking processes rather than the
outcomes and do not impose the adult thinking process on to children.

3. Response to intervention
Response to intervention (RTI) is an educational approach that provides early, systematic assistance to children
who are struggling in one or many areas of their learning. RTI seeks to prevent academic failure through early
intervention and frequent progress measurement. Watch this video to learn more about Response to intervention.
Examples and more information for Response to intervention: www.interventioncentral.org

4. Teacher credibility
According to Hattie teacher credibility is vital to learning, and students are very perceptive about knowing which
teachers can make a difference. There are four key factors of credibility: trust, competence, dynamism and

Examples for teacher credibility: Earn trust by showing trust towards pupils. Appear highly organised in the presentation of the
subject matter. Develop a powerful style of speaking that uses few verbal hesitancies such as OK or you know. Reduce distance
between teachers and students by moving or moving away from barriers (e.g., desk, podiums). Source: cie.asu.edu

5. Providing formative evaluation

According to Hattie (2012) and Black & Wiliam (2001) formative evaluation refers to any activity used as an
assessment of learning progress before or during the learning process itself. In contrast with formative assessment,
the summative assessment evaluates what students know or have learned at the end of the teaching, after all is
done. Watch this video to learn more about the difference between formative and summative assessment methods.
In another video you can learn from teachers who describe their experience with formative evaluation.
Example for formative evaluation: Spend the same amount of time or even more on formative assessment as you spend on summative assessment.
Give descriptive feedback to students: What is the goal? Where are you in relation to it? What can you do to close the gap?
6. Micro-teaching
Micro-teaching is a video recording of a lesson with a debriefing. The lesson is reviewed in order to improve the
teaching and learning experience. In Visible Learning Hattie describes micro-teaching as a practice (often in
laboratory settings) that typically involves student-teachers conducting (mini-) lessons to a small group of students,
and then engaging in a post-discussion about the lessons (Hattie 2009, 112).
Examples for micro-teaching: Since its invention in the 1960s at Stanford University by Dr. Dwight Allen, microteaching has become an established
teacher-training procedure in many universities and school districts. You can find more information on micro-teaching here or here.

7. Classroom discussion
Classroom discussion is a method of teaching, that involves the entire class in a discussion. The teacher stops
lecturing and students get together as a class to discuss an important issue. Classroom discussion allows students to
improve communication skills by voicing their opinions and thoughts. Teachers also benefit from classroom
discussion as it allows them to see if students have learnt the concepts that are being taught.

Examples for an effective classroom discussion: Create a series of questions for the students to think about. Allocate enough time in the lesson for an
elaborate discussion. Make sure that students can freely express their opinion without being laughed at or ridiculed. You can find helpful tips on
planning, moderating and reflecting on classroom discussion in a paper by William E. Cashin (PDF).

8. Comprehensive interventions for learning disabled students

The presence of learning disability can make learning to read, write, and do math especially challenging. Hattie
admits that it would be possible to have a whole book on the effects of various interventions for students with
learning disabilities (Hattie 2009, 217) and refers to a meta-study of Swanson, Hoskyn and Lee (1999).

9. Teacher clarity
Hattie defines teacher clarity quoting the (unpublished) work of Fendick (1990) as organization, explanation,
examples and guided practice, and assessment of student learning such that clarity of speech was a prerequisite
of teacher clarity. (Hattie 2009, 126) One of the main points of Hatties books about Visible Learning is the
importance to clearly communicate the intentions of the lessons and the success criteria. Clear learning intentions
describe the skills, knowledge, attitudes and values that the student needs to learn.

Examples for teacher clarity, learning goals and success criteria: This short video provides a great example for a lesson intended to let students write a
good How-to book. The teacher explains how to develop and set clear learning goals and success criteria beforethe students actually start the writing

10. Feedback
According to Hattie and Timperley (2007) feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and
achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. They developed a model of effective feedback that
identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it work. Feedback on task, process and self
regulation level is far more effective than on the Self-level (e.g. praise wich contains no learning information).
Descriptive feedback is closely related to providing formative assessment (see above). In an interview Hattie
emphasized that the most powerful feedback is that given from the student to the teacher. This feedback allows
teachers to see learning through the eyes of their students. It makes learning visible and facilitates the planning of
next steps.
Examples: Related to the notion of feed up, feed back and feed forward teachers must answer three feedback questions: Where am I going? How
am I going? Where to next? Constantly ask the students in order to maximize the feedback from the learner back to the teacher. Create a classroom
climate where error is welcomed. In this short video John Hattie talks about what feedback means and how to make feedback work effectively for
learning in the classroom.