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Biology

STAAR-EOC

KEY
Biology Review
Activity Booklet
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

Review Booklet
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

Table of Contents

Activity A - Biomolecules and Cellular Transport 3

Activity B - Cellular Energy 9

Activity C - Cell Structure and Virus 16

Activity D - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis,


DNA Structure and Replication 24

Activity E - Protein Synthesis and Point Mutations 32

Activity F Genetics 40

Activity G - Taxonomy and Stability of Environment 48

Activity H - Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles,


and Relationships of Organisms 58

Additional Notes - Things I need to remember 71

Credits 79

Review 3
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

Activity A
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport

Station 1
Biomolecules Content Frame & Card Sort

1. Locate the biomolecule characteristics cards and the


summarizing biomolecules content frame. Examine
each card and determine the correct placement of
each card on the content frame. Then fill in the
Biomolecules Content Frame below.

Biomolecules Content Frame

Contain Building
Macromolecule
the Blocks Examples Functions Picture
(Polymer)
Elements (Monomer)

Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides and


glucose, fructose, Disaccharides: Provide
honey Energy
Disaccharides:
sucrose, maltose, Polysaccharides: Store
CARBOHYDRATES C, H, O Monosaccharide
table sugar Energy
Polysaccharides: Plants store it as
starch, cellulose, STARCH
glycogen, pasta, Animals store it as
potatoes, rice GLYCOGEN

Long term energy


storage and
insulation.
Fats
Repel or retain
1 glycerol Waxes
LIPIDS C, H, O
3 Fatty Acids Phospholipids
water.
Structure in cell
Steroids
membranes.
Helps to control cell
functions.
Aid in movement.
Provide structure.
Found in
Controls chemical
muscles and
reactions.
bones.
Amino Acids Regulates cell
PROTEINS C, H, O, N
(20)
Enzymes/Biolog
processes.
ical Catalyst
Transports
Hemoglobin
materials.
Antibodies
Helps to fight
disease.

Carries the
DNA
instructions that
(Deoxyribonucl
control the activities
eic acid)
of a cell
NUCLEIC ACIDS C, H, O, N, P Nucleotides
RNA
Carries the
(Ribonucleic
instructions that
Acid)
make proteins.

Review
Station 2
Analyzes of Macromolecules
Locate the three structural formula cards for glucose,
lipid, and protein. Use the information on the cards to
answer the questions below.

1. Which elements do all biomolecules have in common?

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

2. Which element does protein contain that lipids and


carbohydrates lack? Nitrogen

3. Give dietary examples for the following organic


compounds:

-Protein: Poultry, Beef, Dairy, Cheese, Legumes, Nuts,


Fish, Eggs
-Carbohydrates: Wheat, Fruits, Vegetables, Grains,
Bread, Pasta
-Lipids: Oils, Waxes, Butter, Fats

4. Most biomolecules are macromolecules. How do a


biomolecules size and the number of bonds it
contains affect the amount of energy that is
available? Hint Where is energy stored and how
is it released?

As the molecule size increases, so does the


number of chemical bonds needed to hold the
structure together. These bonds contain energy,
which enables the molecule to perform its
functions. The more energy contained within the
molecule, the more work the structure can do
once the energy is released. Energy is released
when the bonds holding the atoms together are
broken.
Station 2: Part 2
Using the biomolecule flash cards, match the
appropriate definition with the word or phrase.

Review
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

*Check your answers with key when


finished*
Key on countertop

5. Which body system breaks polymers into


monomers for the body to use and store?
Digestive

Station 3

Review
Analyzes of Osmosis
1. Below is a copy of the data tables sheet you
will find at the station table. Copy onto it the
before measurements from the sheet at the
station. These measurements indicate the
length and mass of the potato cores when
freshly cut.
SStutudd
e n
e n
ts
ts

Students

a n
answ
swers
erswwilill l

answers
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Using the forceps, remove the potato core from


Beaker A (blue liquid) and pat it dry with a paper
towel. With the metric ruler, measure the length of the
potato core to the nearest millimeter. Record the

Review
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

results in the after submersion row of Table 1. Then


use the metric balance to determine the mass of the
potato core to the nearest gram. Record the results in
the after row of Table 1. Return the potato core to
the sucrose solution in Beaker A.

Repeat these procedures for the potato cores in Beaker


B (red liquid) and the Distilled Water beaker (clear
liquid). Record the results in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively.

Determine the differences between the before and


after measurements in each column, and record your
findings in the gain or loss rows.

2. Using the information recorded in the data


tables, draw arrows on the beakers below to
illustrate what happened to the potato cores
in each of the different solutions.

3. Determine which beaker contains a


hypertonic solution, which contains a
hypotonic solution, and which contains an
isotonic solution. Label each beaker below
with the name of the solution it contains.

Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic


Type of Solution Type of Solution Type of Solution
4. If a fresh potato core is placed in a solution
that contains more sucrose than the solution
in Beaker A, predict what will happen to the
potato cores mass. Explain your answer.

Review
The potato core will lose more mass than any
of the other potato cores because more water
will diffuse from it.

5. Human body cells are constantly moving water into


and out of themselves. Under what conditions can a
human body cell achieve homeostasis?

A cell would achieve homeostasis when the number of


water molecules outside the cell is the same as the
number of water molecules inside the cell.

6. Using the pictures below of a blood cell, answer the


following questions.

a.

Which cell above is in a hypotonic solution? _3__

b. Which cell above was placed in saltwater?


_1___

c. Which cell above is maintaining homeostasis?


_2___

Station 4:
Active Transport

Review
Biomolecules & Cellular Transport STAAR-EOC

1. Use your mobile learning device to scan the QR code


below. Watch the video about Active Transport until
3:40. Then answer the following questions.

a. List out the ways that Active Transport differs


from Passive Transport.
Passive Transport Active Transport
Does not require Requires energy to
energy. Includes transport molecules
diffusion, osmosis, and against the
facilitated diffusion. concentration gradient.

b. Explain the process of Active transport and


make sure to use the following terms: protein
pump, concentration gradient, ATP, ADP,
solute, solution, semi-permeable
membrane
Active transport may be needed to move solute
molecules out of a solution and into a cell. Molecules
that are transported against the concentration gradient
require ATP energy to cross the semi-permeable
membrane. ATP is converted to ADP to release energy
for protein pumps to transport these molecules.

Active transport is mainly used to bring vitamins, minerals,


and ions across the cell membrane. For example, many
plants use active transport to bring minerals from the soil into
the roots of the plant. Circle the correct answer: The soil is
LOW/HIGH in minerals and the roots are LOW/HIGH in
minerals.

Review 10
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Activity B
Cellular Energy

Station 1
Analyzes of Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

Locate the Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Formula


sheet and the envelope with the Photosynthesis and Cellular
Respiration Formula cards.

1. Select the cards that show the reactant and product


parts of the formulas for photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. Place the appropriate card over the correct
box on the sheet. Continue until you have covered all
the boxes.

2. Write the formulas for photosynthesis and cellular


respiration in the space below.

Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis


6H2O + 6CO2 + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration


C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP

Bromothymol blue is an indicator that


changes from blue to yellow in the
presence of an acid. When you
exhale through a straw into a test tube
of Bromothymol blue and water, the
water will turn yellow because the
carbon dioxide being exhaled
combines with the water to form a
weak carbonic acid.

H2O + CO2 H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

Review 11
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

In an experiment, four test tubes were filled with a mixture of


Bromothymol blue and water. The first test tube contains only
the liquid. An aquatic plant was added to the second test
tube, and a snail to the third one. The last test tube contains
both an aquatic plant and a snail.

The four test tubes were placed in sunlight for 48 hours.


When the test tubes were observed at the end of the 48
hours, the following changes had occurred.

Review 12
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

1. What cellular process took place to cause the color


change from blue to yellow in Tube S-3 containing
water, Bromothymol blue, and a snail?

The process that caused the color change is called cellular


respiration. The Bromothymol blue indicator changes from
blue to yellow in the presence of an acid. In this case, the
acid resulted from the organisms cellular respiration
process. During this process, the organism exhales carbon
dioxide, which combines with water to form a weak carbonic
acid, which in turn changes the color of the water from blue
to yellow.
H2O + CO2 H2CO3
2. Why did the other tubes containing water,
Bromothymol blue, and plants not change color?

The plants were going through the process of


photosynthesis, which uses up carbon dioxide in the water.
If carbon dioxide is not present, the weak carbonic acid
cannot form, and the solution does not turn acidic.
Therefore, the Bromothymol blue indicator remains blue.
Four more test tubes were set up the same as the original
four. These test tubes were placed in a dark room for 48
hours. At the end of the 48 hours, the following changes were
observed.

The water in three of the test tubes (D-2, D-3, and D-4)
turned yellow, as shown above.

Review 13
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

3. What process caused the liquids to change from blue


to yellow?

The process is called cellular respiration.

4. What reactants in the formula were responsible for the


color change?

The reactants responsible for the change are CO2 and


O 2.

Examine the two test tubes below.

5. Explain the cellular processes illustrated by these two


test tubes, including energy conversions and any new
molecules that result.

The two cellular processes illustrated by the test tubes are


cellular respiration and photosynthesis. During cellular
respiration, the reactants glucose (sugar) and oxygen
combines together to form new products: carbon dioxide
molecules and water molecules. Adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) is produced as the form of energy that can be used for
other cellular processes. During photosynthesis, light energy
(sunlight) combines with the reactants water and carbon
dioxide to form new products: glucose (sugar) and
oxygen.

Review 14
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 2
Comparing Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration

Locate the Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


Venn diagram and the envelope with the Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration cards. Determine which cards represent
facts about cellular respiration and which represent facts
about photosynthesis. Some cards may represent facts
common to both processes.

Place the cards in the correct area of the Venn diagram and
record your placements below.

Review 15
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 3
Cellular Energy Concept Map

Locate the Cellular Energy Concept Map and the envelope


with the Cellular Energy cards. Place the cards in the correct
area of the diagram and record your placements below.

6. Analyze the map. Explain in a series of steps the


transfer of energy from sunlight to a molecule of ATP.
Be sure to include the processes of photosynthesis and
cell respiration.

Photosynthesis takes the energy from sunlight and


uses it to put together large sugar molecules from the
raw ingredients of CO2 and H2O. Cellular respiration
occurs when organisms break down large sugar
molecules to use energy to do work and release the
waste products of CO2 and H2O.

Review 16
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

7. What results from the removal of a phosphate group


from ATP?

Energy is the expected result. Additionally, ATP can


either become ADP (Adenosine Di-phosphate) or AMP
(Adenosine Mono-Phosphate)

8. A. Which organelle is used for aerobic respiration?


Which organisms undergo this process?

Mitochondria. All living organisms.

B. Which organelle is used for photosynthesis? Which


organisms undergo this process?

Chloroplast. Protists, Plants, Bacteria

Review 17
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Activity C
Cell Structure & Viruses

Station 1
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
Structure and Function

1. Locate the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell


Comparison Table and the envelope containing
the Cell Structure and Function cards. Remove
the cards from the envelope and place them in
the correct column on the table. Note that there
are three copies of each card; this is because
some cards may belong with more than one cell
type.

2. When you have finished placing the


cards on the table, record your
placements on the table below.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Comparison Table

DNA
Cell wall Chloroplast Golgi body
Ribosomes Golgi body Nucleus
Cell membrane Nucleus Ribosomes
Ribosomes Mitochondrion
Mitochondrion DNA
DNA Cell Membrane
Cell membrane Endoplasmic
Endoplasmic reticulum
reticulum Lysosome
Lysosome
Cell wall

Review 18
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 2
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell
Characteristics

1. Locate the Characteristics of Prokaryotic and


Eukaryotic Cells cards and accompanying Venn
diagram. Make a comparison between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells by placing each card in the appropriate
place on the Venn diagram.

2. Record your Venn diagram placements on the table


below.

DNA floats freely DNA found inside the Exhibits higher levels
around inside the cell. cell. of division of labor.

Reproduces asexually, Ribosomes found Ten times larger than


usually by fission or within the cell. the other cell type.
budding.
Found in organisms
Found in organisms that belong to the
that belong to the domain Eukaryota.
Kingdoms
Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria. Some organisms are
unicellular; others are
multicellular.
Exists only as single-
celled organisms.
Some can move DNA found within a
around using a membrane-covered
flagellum. nucleus.

Some organisms with Cells organelles are


the cell type produce surrounded by a
endospores during membrane.
extreme conditions.

Station 3
Review 19
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Determining Unknown Cells

1. Locate the envelope that contains the Unknown


Cell Types cards. Determine the type of cell each
card represents and record your results below by
putting a .

Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

Bacteria Protist Fungus Plant Animal


Unknown
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K

2. Select one of the Unknown Cell Types cards and


justify how you decided to classify it as either
prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

Unknown___________
Students answers
Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?________________
will vary
Justify

Review 20
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 4
Comparing Virus and Cell Structures

1. Locate the Structures of Viruses and Cells sheet at


this station. Carefully examine the structures of
the plant cell, animal cell, bacteriophage virus,
and influenza virus. Then fill in the Comparing
Virus Structures to Cell Structures Venn diagram
below.

2. Scientists consider viruses to be nonliving. Based on


the information you used to fill in the Venn diagram,
would you support or refute this statement? Explain
your position in the space below.

According to the information in the Venn diagram, the only


structure or component that a virus and cell have in
common is nucleic acid. The virus lacks all the other cellular
structures, and without them; it cannot exist, thrive, and
reproduce on its own. Thus unlike living cells, viruses do not
reproduce: They replicate by controlling the DNA and protein
production of a living cell.

Review 21
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

3. Some disinfectants, like the one pictured below, claim


that they are effective at killing viruses. Does your
knowledge of the structures and functions of a virus
support or refute this claim? Can viruses really be
killed? Explain your position in detail below.

Viruses do not exhibit characteristics of a living


organism and are there for considered to be nonliving.
The products claim that it kills viruses is
questionable since only living things can be killed. A
virus structure may be destroyed, rendering the virus
incapable of entering a living cell to make copies of
itself, but it is inaccurate to say a virus can be killed.

Review 22
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 5
Analyzing the Lytic Cycle

Locate the Lytic Infection Cycle sheet and the envelope


containing the Lytic Infection cards. Place the cards in the
proper sequence on the Lytic Infection Cycle sheet to
represent how a virus can infect a living cell and cause the
cell to replicate the virus. Draw the sequence of events below.

Review 23
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

Station 6
Analyzing the Lysogenic Cycle and HIV

1. Locate the Lysogenic Infection Cycle sheet. Not all


viruses replicate through lytic infection. Some viruses
replicate by another method, called lysogenic infection.

a. Just like in the lytic cycle, the virus injects DNA into
the host cell. However, what is different about the
next step(s) of the lysogenic cycle?

During the lysogenic cycle the viruss nucleic acid


integrates into the host cells genetic material, and
a provirus is formed and replicated each time the
host cell reproduces. The host cell will not be killed
until the lysogenic cycle activates.

b. Viruses that replicate using the lysogenic cycle may


not cause any damage to the cell for weeks,
months, or years. Then the virus DNA begins a
process of replication similar to that found in lytic
infection and the virus becomes active. Can you
think of viruses that may linger in a human for
years before the person shows symptoms? If so,
name the virus(s).

Answers could include:


1. Herpes simplex
2. Shingles
3. Warts
4. HIV
5. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Review 24
Cell Structure & Viruses STAAR-EOC

c. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates


by the lysogenic infection method, attacking the
cells of our immune system. Why do you think a
person infected with HIV has difficulty fighting
pathogens, such as the common cold or
pneumonia?

HIV replicates by lysogenic infection, meaning that


the virus DNA and the immune system cells DNA
combine. Once the virus has replicated, it breaks
out of the host cell by a process called lysic. The
newly replicated viruses repeats the process with
other immune system cells, destroying them and
eventually weakening the immune system to the
point that it is unable to fight off infection.

d. Vaccines, deactivated pieces of pathogens, stimulate


the immune system to defend against the actual
pathogen. Vaccines are used to prevent polio,
measles, chicken pox and mumps. Explain why
vaccines are not effective in preventing the common
cold or HIV viruses. (hint: mutations)

Generally, there are so many different viruses


which can cause the common cold. They are similar
but over time mutations have an assortment of
varieties which exist.

Review 25
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Activity D
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis,
& DNA Structure /Replication

Station 1
Cell Cycle Characteristics

1. Locate the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle sheet and review the


information on the sheet. Remove the Cell Cycle
Characteristics cards from the envelope. Place each
card on the part of the cell cycle that corresponds to
the information on the card.

Stages in the Cell Cycle


M G1 G0 S G2
2 1 5 3 9
Card
4 7 6
number
8

2. What must happen to a eukaryotic cell before it can go


from the G1 phase to the S phase?

The cell must grow and conduct normal cell activities in


preparation for the replication of the DNA. Certain cell
components, such as the centrosomes, duplicate.

3. What happens to a cell in the G0 phase?

It may remain in the G0 phase and carry out normal


functions. It can be stimulated to reenter the cycle if needed
or it may be terminated.

4. What purpose do checkpoints serve in the cell cycle?

The G1/S checkpoint confirms the presence of all necessary


conditions, such as nutrients and enzymes required for DNA
replication. If the conditions are not favorable for DNA
replication, the cell is arrested in the cycle.
The G2/M checkpoint confirms that the DNA has been
replicated correctly and is ready to go through mitosis and
cytokinesis.

Review 26
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Station 2
Comparison of Eukaryotic Mitosis and Cytokinesis

1. Arrange the Phases of Eukaryotic Mitosis and


Cytokinesis cards in the order they follow during cell
division. Next, remove the Plant and Animal Cell
Mitosis and Cytokinesis cards from their envelope and
match them to the correct stages.

2. Locate the Mitosis in an Onion Root Tip sheet. This


sheet shows cells in various stages of mitosis. Count
the number of cells in each phase of mitosis and enter
the numbers in the table below.

Phase of Mitosis # of Cells in the Phase


Interphase 24
Prophase 3
Metaphase 2
Anaphase 1
Telophase 0

3. Which phase showed the largest number of active


cells? Explain why this phase, of all the phases, would
most likely have the most abundant number of active
cells.

Interphase has the largest number of active cells. Cells in


an organism are dividing only when the organism needs to
replace damaged cells or when the organism is actively
growing. The necessary resources must be available before
mitosis can begin again.

4. Were some of the cells difficult to classify into a


particular stage of mitosis? Explain why or why not.

Yes, because the process of mitosis is continuous, and


there are no sudden pauses in the process, such as from
prophase to metaphase. The process continues without
stopping.

Review 27
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

5. Explain what can happen to a cell that can cause it to


become a cancer cell.

There are genes that tell the cell how fast to divide
and when to stop. If these genes are mutated, the
mutation can cause the cell cycle too go to fast like
running down a hill to fast to be able to stop. The
cancer cells divide too quickly and pile up in one area
this is called a tumor.

6. What is the relationship between mitosis and growth


in an organism?

Mitosis is the process that enables an organism to


grow. Growth is the physical increase in size and
weight of an organism over a period of time. As cells
divide and grow to maturity in the G1, they cause the
organism to physically grow.

Review 28
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Review 29
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Station 3
Mitosis and Meiosis Comparison

1. Locate the Mitosis vs. Meiosis sheet and review the


comparison charts.

2. Circle the type of cell division(s) in which you would


observe the following:
a. two new cells are formed from the
Mitosis Meiosis
original
b. four new cells are formed from the
Mitosis Meiosis
original
c. cells with a reduced number of
Mitosis Meiosis
chromosomes are formed

d. chromosome number is maintained Mitosis Meiosis

e. results in forming somatic body cells Mitosis Meiosis

f. results in forming gamete sex cells Mitosis Meiosis

g. each parent cell divides only once Mitosis Meiosis

h. each parent cell divides twice Mitosis Meiosis


i. associated with growth and asexual
Mitosis Meiosis
reproduction

j. associated with sexual reproduction Mitosis Meiosis


k. daughter cells are identical to parent and
Mitosis Meiosis
each other
l. daughter cells are different from the
Mitosis Meiosis
parent and each other

m. begins diploid (2n) and ends haploid (1n) Mitosis Meiosis

n. begins diploid (2n) and ends diploid (2n) Mitosis Meiosis


o. crossing over occurs, whereby genes
Mitosis Meiosis
switch chromosomes

Review 30
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Circle the appropriate statements below for


each diagram:
2n or n 2n or n
23 or 46 chromosomes 23 or 46 chromosomes
Identical/Different Identical/Different
Sexual/Asexual Sexual/Asexual

Review 31
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Station 4
DNA Structure

1. Locate the envelope containing the DNA Bases cards.


Use the cards to complete the DNA molecule on the
DNA Strands sheet. Then record the information on
the sheet below.

2. What are the components of a DNA molecule?


Four nitrogen bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and
guanine, Deoxyribose sugar, Phosphate group, Hydrogen
bonds
3. Which structures make up the DNA backbone?
Repeating deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups
4. All living organisms contain hereditary material. What
components of hereditary material are the same for all
living organism? Differ? Adenine, Thymine, Guanine,
Cytosine. The sequence or order of the nitrogenous bases.

Review 32
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Station 5
Facts about DNA

1. Take the DNA Facts cards out of the plastic bag and
sort them according to whether the fact is correct or
not. Record the correct facts in the space below.

DNA Facts:

Found in all living organisms.

Composed of a double helix.

Contains four bases: adenine, guanine, thymine,


and cytosine.

The amount of adenine found in DNA is the same


as the amount of thymine.

Weak hydrogen bonds hold the DNA molecules


together.

Called the blueprint of life.

There are two types of pyrimidines in DNA,


thymine and cytosine.

Nucleotides are made up of sugar, phosphate, a


base, and a hydrogen bond.

Genes are pieces of DNA that pass traits to


offspring.

There are two types of purines in DNA, adenine


and guanine.

DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid.

Review 33
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

Station 6
DNA Replication Videos

1. Use your mobile leaning device (MLD) to scan the QR


codes. Watch the videos about DNA Replication and
answer the following questions.

a. When would a cell need to undergo DNA replication


and make a copy of its own DNA?

DNA replication happens prior to cell division.

b. When DNA replication begins, the original strands


separate between the base pairs by an enzyme
called helicase . The location where this
occurs along the original strand is between the
nitrogenous bases .

c. New nucleotides are added to the original parent


strand by an enzyme called DNA polymerase.
a. If the original strand contains adenine (A)
what base pair with be added to compliment
it on the new strand? Thymine
b. If the original strand contains guanine (G)
what base pair will be added to compliment
it on the new strand? Cytosine

d. If DNA replication is occurring in a eukaryotic cell,


in which organelle could it be observed happening?

The nucleus

Review 34
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Meiosis, & DNA Structure/Replication STAAR-EOC

e. Explain why this statement is true: The two


strands after replication are identical to the original
strand prior to replication.

During the process of DNA replication the parental


double helix is separated and used as a template.
Two strands are copied according to the
complementary base pairing rules of DNA. This
procedure produces two identical DNA molecules
which are referred to as daughter cells.

Review 35
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Activity E
Protein Synthesis &
Point Mutations

Station 1
Transcription

1. Locate the transcription information page, identify the


base-pairing rules for transcription and complete the
following chart. This chart will serve as a tool to help you
synthesize the mRNA molecule.

DNA Complementary
nucleotide nucleotide in RNA
G C
C G
T A
A U

2. Notice that the process of transcription is similar to the


process of DNA replication. List some similarities
between transcription and DNA replication?

In both cases:
An enzyme will copy one strand of DNA to make a new
strand.

The new strand can be made because DNA will base pair
with a complimentary base. Thus, the new chain is
generated using the old/DNA strain as a template.

Additional answer will exist

3. There are also a few important differences between


DNA replication and transcription. Fill in the blanks in
the following table to summarize these differences.

Review 36
Genetics STAAR-EOC

DNA
Transcription
replication

The whole
___A single gene______is
chromosome is
transcribed.
replicated.

DNA is double- mRNA is made.


stranded. DNA mRNA is __single ___ -stranded, will
remains in eventually leave nucleus for
nucleus. translation.

DNA polymerase
is the enzyme
_RNA_ polymerase is the enzyme
which carries
which carries out transcription.
out DNA
replication.

T = thymine is
T = thymine is replaced
used in DNA,
by _U_ = uracil in RNA,
so A pairs with
so A in DNA pairs with _U_ in mRNA.
T in DNA.

Review 37
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Station 2
Translation
1. Use the mRNA codon chart shown in the translation
information page to help complete the following chart.
Amino acid threonine has been complete for you as an
example.

Anti-codon in tRNA
mRNA molecule
Amino acid
codon that carries this
amino acid
Threonine (Thr) ACU UGA
Histidine (His) CAU GUA
Proline (Pro) CCU GGA
Leucine (Leu) CUG GAC
Glutamic acid (Glu) GAG CUC
Valine (Val) GUG CAC

2. tRNAs bring amino acids to which organelle in a cell to


be synthesized into a protein? Ribosomes
3. Each codon codes for how many amino acids?
1 amino acid
4. How many codons are needed for 3 amino acids?
3 codons
5. True or False? The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA
determines the order of amino acids in proteins?
True
6. Explain why it makes sense to use the word translation
to describe protein synthesis.
During translation, the genetic code, carried by mRNA,
is decoded/translated to produce a specific sequence
of amino acids in a poly peptide chain.
7. Explain why it would not make sense to use the word
translation to describe mRNA synthesis.
During transcription, the genetic code is
processed/transcribed into a copy of genetic
information. This genetic information is stored in DNA
and a complimentary strand, mRNA, is created to
move this information into the cytoplasm.

Review 38
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Station 3
Point Mutations

1 Locate the colored plastic cubes and colored


cube key at this station. Arrange the cubes in
the order shown in the picture below. These
cubes are arranged in groups of three, and
each group represents a codon.

G U G C A U C U G A C U C C U G A G

2 Some genetic mutations are caused by changes


in the bases of some codons. Examine the
sequence of codons below.

In the sequence below, uracil (U) has been


replaced with cytosine (C) in one of the codons.

G U G C A U C C G A C U C C U G A G
These types of mutations are called point mutations.
What effect do the point mutations have on the protein
strands coded in the sequence above? Be sure to
translate both mRNA molecules when answering.

Valine Histindine Leucine Threonine Proline


Glutamate
Original Sequence Amino Acid Strand

Valine Histindine Proline Threonine Proline


Glutamate Mutated Sequence Amino Acid Strand

Review 39
Genetics STAAR-EOC

The protein strand has not been assembled correctly. This


mistake is only found in one amino acid. Leucine should have
been added into the chain, instead proline was added.
3. Locate the sequence of codons assembled for Question 1.
Find the codon CUG. Add one additional uracil base to the
beginning of the CUG codon. It now reads UCUthe G
base shifts to the next codon, causing all the subsequent
codons to shift one of their bases to the next codon as
well. This type of mutation is called a frame-shift
mutation.

Rearrange all the plastic codons to reflect the frame-shift


mutation describedthat is, after youve added a uracil
base to the beginning of the CUG codon, shift the last
base of each remaining codon to the next codon, all the
way to the end of the strand.

4. Write the new codon arrangement below and identify the


amino acids using the mRNA Genetic Code Chart.
Insertion of new base

GUG CAU UCU GAC UCC UGA G

5. What is the significance of this frame-shift mutation for


the structure of the protein?

The point mutation shifted the remaining nucleotide bases


which will cause different amino acids to be coded for.
This mutation will result in an amino acid which differs
greatly from the expected result.

6. What other mutations could cause a frame-shift?

Deletion, Duplication, Translocation, Insertion, etc.

Review 40
Genetics STAAR-EOC

7. Sickle cell anemia results from a mutation at the Number


6 codon that causes the beta globin gene to be misread,
which results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin.
Use the information on the genetic mutation cards and the
mRNA genetic codes chart to fill in the protein strand with
the mutation that could cause this kind of anemia.

CAT

GUA

What type of point mutation is this? (multiple choice)


A. Substitution
B. Deletion
C. Insertion
D. Duplication
E. Repeating

8. Review the Genetic Mutation cards. Which mutations are


considered beneficial to humans? Why these mutations
considered beneficial?

The orchid plant mutation (extra sets of chromosomes) is


considered beneficial because it results in larger, more
showy, and, in some cases more fragrant flowers.

Review 41
Genetics STAAR-EOC

The strawberry mutation, which produces extra sets of


chromosomes, is considered beneficial because it results
in larger fruit, which is more desirable to consumers.

Station 4: Protein Synthesis Simulation

1. Locate the Nucleus and Ribosome mats and the


Protein Synthesis Cards.

2. You will begin in the nucleus of the cell (Nucleus


Mat). Find the strip of DNA that starts with the
gene for hemoglobin. Place this down on the mat
in the appropriate location.

3. Find the correct RNA codons that complement the


strand of DNA before leaving the nucleus as
mRNA.

4. What was this process called?


Transcription

5. Find the corresponding tRNA anticodons and lay


them on the mat in the correct boxes.

6. Lastly, you will need to use your Codon Chart and


determine the order of the amino acids that the
tRNA will bring in as it matches up with each of
the mRNA codons.
*REMEMBER YOU WILL LOOK AT THE CODONS
(mRNA) TO DETERMINE THE RIGHT AMINO ACIDS.

7. Write your amino acid sequence:


_Valine__-Histindine__- Leucine__

Review 42
Genetics STAAR-EOC

8. When this chain of amino acids is complete, what


will your product be? __Protein__

9. What was this second part of the process called?


Translation

Gene Expression:
All cells contain a set of genes, which can be thought of
as a set of instructions for making each of a very large
number of proteins. The creation of a protein from
its gene is called gene expression. However, for a
given cell not all of these instructions are actually used,
and among those that are, some are used more than
others or only under certain circumstances. Controlling
gene expression is critical to a cell because it allows it to
avoid wasting energy and raw materials in the synthesis
of proteins it does not need. Thus, it allows a cell to be
a more streamlined and versatile entity that can
respond to changing conditions by adjusting its
physiology.

Why dont cells express all their genes at one time?


It would be an excessive waste of energy and materials
Adrenaline is a chemical secreted by the adrenal glands.
Describe a moment when the genes for adrenaline
would be expressed.

During and emergency situation.

Gene expression is a regulated process. What would be


a disadvantage of secreting adrenaline all the time?
A waste of energy and materials during a time when it
is not needed. Could cause more damage to body than
actual help.

Read more: http://www.biologyreference.com/Ce-


Co/Control-of-Gene-Expression.html#ixzz3VQMjsVkS

Review 43
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Post Assessment:
Answer the following questions over Protein Synthesis.

Correct Answer: C, Messenger RNA

Correct Answer: B, The offspring of the organism

Review 44
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Correct Answer: A, GTT produces Glutamine

Review 45
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Activity F
Genetics

Review 46
Vocabulary Definitio Example
Word n
Genetics STAAR-EOC
Genetics Study of
how
traits are
passed
from
parent to
offspring

Gene

Is a
segment
of DNA
that
determine
s a trait.

Alleles Are Tt = Brown eyes


different
TT = Brown eyes
genes
(possibiliti Tt = Blue eyes
es) for the
same
trait

Homologous Pairs matching


genes
one from
female
parent
Review and one 47

from male
Genetics STAAR-EOC

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:

MONOHYBRID CROSSES

In pea plants, tall (T) is dominant to short (t).

1. What is the genotype for a homozygous tall plant?


___TT_____

2. What is the genotype for a heterozygous tall plant?


__Tt_____

3. What is the genotype for a short plant?_tt_______

4. What is the genotype for a hybrid plant? __Tt______

In guinea pigs black coat (B) is dominant while


white coat (b) is recessive. Use a Punnett square
to show all possible offspring. Give the genotypic
and phenotypic ratios for problem 5.

5. Cross a homozygous black with a white parent.

BB x bb

Genotype: 4 Bb

Phenotype: 4 Black

Review 48
Genetics STAAR-EOC

DIHYBRID CROSSES

In guinea pigs, rough coat (R) is dominant over


smooth (r) and Black (B) is dominant over white
(b). Give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for
the below cross.

6. Cross a male guinea pig that is heterozygous for both


traits with a female white smooth coat.

Gametes RrBb x rrbb

RrBb rrbb

RB rb

Rb

rB

rb

Genotype: 4 BbRr, 4 Bbrr, 4bbRr, 4 bbrr (1:1:1:1


ratio)

Phenotype: 1 Black/Rough, 1 Black/Smooth, 1


white/rough,

1 white/Smooth

INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE/CODOMINANCE

7. In four oclock flowers, red (R) is incompletely


dominant over white (r) and the hybrid are pink
flowered. For the following cross give the genotypic
and phenotypic ratios for the F1 generation.

Review 49
Genetics STAAR-EOC

a. Rr X RR

Genotype: 2 RR, 2 Rr

Phenotype: 2 Red, 2 Pink

SEX LINKED TRAITS

8. A female homozygous for normal color vision (N)


marries a color-blind (n) male. What are the possible
genotypic and phenotypic ratios of their offspring?
Which offspring are carriers for colorblindness?

Female XNXN x Male XnY

Genotype: 2 XNXn , 2 XNY

Phenotype: 2 Carrier, Normal Vision Females, 2


Normal Vision Males

PEDIGREES

Draw a pedigree for the following couple. Dana is


color blind; her husband Jeff is not. They have
two boys and two girls. HINT: Colorblindness is
a recessive sex-linked trait.

Review 50
Genetics STAAR-EOC

2 CARRIER
FEMALES

2 COLORBLIND MALES

MULTIPLE ALLELES

9. A man with type O blood marries a woman with type


AB blood. What will be the possible genotypes and
phenotypes of their children?
iO iO x IAIB

A = Dominant

B = Dominant

AB = Codominant

o= Recessive

Genotype: 2 IA iO , 2 IB iO

Phenotype: 2 A Blood, 2 B Blood

Review 51
Genetics STAAR-EOC

At times, mutations happen during the process of


meiosis. This can lead to significant changes in the
offspring of an organism. Below are some common
types of chromosome mutations. Determine how the
genes would be affected in each situation.

Deletion
ABCEF
(Resulting Chromosome Structure)

Duplication
ABBCDEF
(Resulting Chromosome Structure)

Inversion

AECDBF
(Resulting Chromosome Structure)

Translocation
ABCIJKL

GHDEF
(Resulting Chromosome Structure)

1. Which of the following could only be a result of


nondisjunction during meiosis of sperm formation and
not egg formation? (multiple choice)

Review 52
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Justify your answer:


A XYY
.
A double Y is the only possibility
B. XXX
because egg formations dont
C. XXY include Y chromosomes. Being
D. XO doubled concludes nondisjunction.

Which of the following types of Gene/Point


Mutations demonstrates an additional gene
added to the original chromosome?
___Insertion___

Which of the following types of Gene/Point


Mutations demonstrates the loss of a gene

Review 53
Genetics STAAR-EOC

from the original chromosome?


___Deletion________

Examine the karyotype on the right, which


chromosomal abnormality is present?
__Trisomy 21 (Downs Syndrome caused by
nondisjunction (failure of chromosomes to
separate).

GENE-POINT or CHROMOSOMAL are less


drastic and more common of the two
mutations.

Post Assessment:
Answer the following questions on genetic crosses.

Correct Answer: A, 25%

Review 54
Genetics STAAR-EOC

Correct Answer: F, 0 BB: 2:Bb 2: bb

Review 55
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Review 56
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Activity G
Taxonomy & Stability of Environment

Station 1
Taxonomy

1. Locate the envelope containing the Domain and


Kingdom cards. Make sure you have plenty of space on
your table, then place the domain cards in a row as
shown, with Archaea on the left.

2. Place the kingdom cards beneath the domains to


which they belong. Use the DomainKingdom
Arrows to indicate precisely the domain to which
each kingdom belongs.

3. Now, select a Kingdom Characteristics card


from the envelope and place it under the
appropriate kingdom (see below). Continue
until all of the cards are correctly placed. Leave
these cards in place.

Review 57
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

4. The Kingdom Characteristics cards are shown below


in random order. Referring to your work, write the
name of the kingdom that best fits the characteristics
listed in the space at the top of each column.
Animalia Eubacteria Plantae Archaebacteria Fungi Protista

5. Locate the Organism cards envelope. Examine the


pictures of the different organisms and discuss their
characteristics with your team. Determine the
kingdom to which each organism belongs and place
each organism picture under the appropriate
kingdom card. (You may need to take up the
Kingdom Characteristics cards to make room.)

Review 58
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

6. Fill in the six kingdoms in the top row of the table.


Then, referring to your work, list the names of the
organisms that belong to each kingdom in the columns
below.
Organisms in the Six Kingdoms
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista
Ameba
Methanobacterium Paramecium
bacteria Cocci bacteria
Spirogyra green algae
Halophile bacteria Bacillus bacteria
Saragassum brown algae
Thermophile Spirullium bacteria
bacteria Red marine algae
Diatoms
Fungi Plantae Animalia
Bread mold Grasses Earthworm
Penicillum mold Equisetum (horsetail) Jellyfish
Bracket fungi Oak tree Starfish
Mushrooms Venus fly trap Crayfish
Fern plants Clam
Moss Diamond back
Spruce tree rattlesnake
Squirrel
Bluejay
Bull frog
Catfish
Swallowtail butterfly

7. Select an organism from one of the kingdoms and


explain why you placed it in that kingdom.

Organism___________
Students answers
Kingdom________________
Justify will vary

Review 59
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Station 2
Hierarchical Classification System, Cladograms &
Dichotomous Key

1. Locate the Taxonomy cards and arrange them on the


Hierarchical Classification System sheet. The card that
represents the largest number of organisms should be
placed at the top of the column. Record your results
below.

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

species

2. Why is it important to scientists to have a


standardized classification system?

Having a standardized classification system


means that all scientist follow the same system.
This brings clarity to the study of organisms by
ensuring that scientists in different parts of the
world dont end up giving different names to the
same organisms.

Review 60
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

3. Use the chart below to answer the following questions.

Organism House cat Red fox Dog Wolf Gopher


Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia

Phylum Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata


Class Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia

Order Carnivora Carnivora Carnivora Carnivora Rodentia


Family Felidae Canidae Canidae Canidae Geomyidae

Genus Felis Vulpes Canis Canis Thomomys


Species domesticus fulva familiaris lupus bottae

a. How does the table below indicate that a dog is


more closely related to a red fox than house cat?

The table displays the entire hierarchical


classification for each organism. The more an
organism matches each level of the classification
the more closely related they are.

b. At what taxonomic level does the relationship


between gophers and house cats diverge?

Their relationship diverges at the order level.

c. What two animals are most closely related?

The dog and wolf

d. What type of animal is a Vulpes fulva? How do you


know?

Red fox

Review 61
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

4. Refer to the Cladogram below and answer the


following questions.

a. Identify and label with a


which dinosaur has
the most recent common ancestor of the robin
and Archaeopteryx.

b. Which traits are shared by the Archaeopteryx


and robins?

Light bones, 3-toed foot; wishbone, down


feathers, feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs

5. What factors do scientists use to construct a


cladogram?

-Shared derived characteristics


-DNA sequences
-Fossils
-Anatomical structures
-Embryology

Review 62
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

6. A dichotomous key is a tool used to identify


organisms. It consists of pairs, or couplets, of
descriptions of organism. By choosing the
description in each pair that matches the
description of an unknown organism, you can
identify the organism.

Locate the Cockroach Classification sheet. Utilize


the dichotomous key to identify each cockroach.

B C E

German Cockroach Australian Cockroach Cuban Cockroach


____________ _____________ ____________

1 2 3

Review 63
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Station 3
Stability of Environment

1. Using the Desert Food Web (pictured below) for


guidance, create a food web with the animal
cards provided. Write it down in the blank box on
the next page:

Review 64
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Students answers will


vary

Review 65
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Post Assessment: Answer the following


questions over Taxonomy, Ecological
Relationships, and Classification.

Correct Answer: G

Correct Answer: G, Mutualism

Review 66
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Correct Answer: J, Arthropods of the same


species

Correct Answer: D, Platyhelminthes

Review 67
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Correct Answer: G, Decomposers

Correct Answer: C, Have a common understanding


in the classification of organisms.

Review 68
Plants, Nitrogen & Carbon Cycles, & Relationship of Organisms STAAR-EOC

Correct Answer: H

Review 69
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Biomolecules:
Sugars, the smallest carbohydrates, serve as
fuel.
Lipids store large amounts of energy.
A proteins function depends on its unique
sequence of amino acids.
Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary
information.
Organic molecules contain carbon-hydrogen
bonds and are produced by organisms.

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic:


Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus.
In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is surrounded by a
membrane.
Both types of cells have ribosomes.
Some eukaryotic cells and all prokaryotic cells are
surrounded by a cell wall.
Eukaryotic cells have organelles surrounded by
membranes.
Prokaryotic cells can reproduce only asexually, by
fission or budding.
Eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually and sexually.

Cellular Processes/Energy:
The products and reactants for photosynthesis
are reverse in cellular respiration: The reactants
of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water,
which are the products of cellular respiration. The
reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and
sugar, which are the products of photosynthesis.
Cellular respiration occurs in plants and anima
cells.
Plants use sunlight during photosynthesis to
convert energy from the sun in order to
manufacture sugar and the chemical energy ATP
and to release oxygen.

Review 70
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Cellular Processes/Energy Cont.:


ATP is used by plant and animals cells.
As cellular respiration occurs, ATP is converted to
ADP.
When plants are placed in darkness, cellular
respiration continues, using ATP to convert sugar
into ADP and releasing carbon dioxide.
Photosynthesis stops in the absence of light
energy.
The chemical formula for photosynthesis is:
6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 + ATP
The chemical formula for cellular respiration is:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + ADP

Transport of Molecules & Homeostasis:


Osmosis is the movement of water molecules
across a semipermeable membrane.
Sometimes the movement of molecules across a
semipermeable membrane requires energy.
When the number of molecules inside a cell is
equal to the number of molecules on the outside
of the cell, homeostasis has been reached the
cell is in equilibrium.

Viruses:
Viruses lack the cell structures necessary for
reproduction.
Viruses are considered nonliving.
Viruses can replicate by two methods lytic
infection and lysogenic infection.
Lysogenic infections occur when the nuclear
material of the virus combines with the DNA of a
cell before replication of the virus begins.
Viruses and cells have one structure in common,
nucleic acids.
HIV is a virus that infects and destroys immune
system cells.

Review 71
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

6HI2need
O + to6CO 26H2O + 6CO2
remember

Cell Cycle:
The cell cycle is a continuous process of cell
growth and reproduction.
The cell cycle goes through interphase, the
longest phase, before undergoing mitosis and
cytokinesis.
A cancer cell can develop during any part of
interphase. A cancer cell is a cell that goes
through the cell cycle continuously, never
stopping in G0. These cells consume the bodys
resources.
Growth results from mitosis.
There are checkpoints during the cell cycle to
help cells divide correctly.
DNA:
DNA molecules contain four nitrogenous bases:
adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
Two bases adenine and guanine are called
purines.
Two bases thymine and cytosine are called
pyrimidines.
Genes are pieces of DNA that pass traits to
offspring.
Nucleotides are made up of a sugar, a phosphate
group, a base, and hydrogen bongs.
The amounts of adenine and thymine found in
DNA are equal.
DNA molecules are made up of a double helix
containing two strands.
Weak hydrogen bonds hold the DNA molecule
together.
DNA is found in all living organisms.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA us referrd to as the blueprint of life
because it contains all the information in a living
organism.

Review 72
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Protein Synthesis:
RNA stands for ribonucleic acid.
RNA is single stranded.
RNA molecules contain four nucleotide bases:
adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil (replaces
thymine)
Transcription is the process of creating an mRNA
molecule and this takes place inside the nucleus.
Translation is the process of decoding mRNA
using tRNA triplets/codons. These codons carry a
specific amino acid they connect and create a
protein.
Changes in the Genetic Code:
Mutations are changes in DNA that can be
inherited.
Certain codons are responsible for starting the
production of a protein, and other codons stop
the process.
Mutations occur when bases are added or deleted
and when segments of DNA are missing.
Not all mutations are harmful some are very
beneficial.
Genetic Variations (I need to be able to):
Analyze and make inferences about dominant
and recessive traits.
Interpret and make predictions about genotypes
and phenotypes.
Determine and interpret phenotypic ratios.
Understand the difference between Mendelian
and non-Mendelian traits.
Use Punnett squares and other models to predict
the results of genetic crosses involving X-linked
traits.
Interpret results and make predictions from
monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
Evaluate the limitations of biological models.

Review 73
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Evidence of Ancestry (Evolution):


DNA sequences are used to determine how
closely related organisms are to one another.
Examining fossil remains enables scientists to
understand how modern organisms developed
over time.
Natural Selection:
No organism or population of organisms is
perfectly adapted to its ecosystem.
Natural selection does not produce perfection in
the organisms that are adapted to an ecosystem.
Adaptations are due to genes that are heritable.
Natural selection occurs as the result of three
conditions: variations in characteristics in a
population, heritable traits, and differences in
fitness among organisms within a species.
Survival of the fittest does not refer to how
physically fit or strong an orgasm is; rather, it
refers to an organisms ability to reproduce and
pass on its traits to the next generation.
Natural selection does not act on an individual to
make it better adapted to its environment.
There are biological and physical influences that
determine the survival and success of organisms.
There are three types of evolution that occur as a
result of natural selection divergent evolution,
convergent evolution, and coevolution.
Taxonomy:
Scientists use internal and external
characteristics to classify organisms into similar
groups.
Within the hierarchical classification system, the
domain is the group that includes the greatest
number of organisms and exhibits the greatest
diversity of organisms.
The species is the group that includes the fewest
number of organisms and exhibits the least
diversity of organisms.

Review 74
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Taxonomy Cont.:
Taxonomy is a branching classification system
that provides a standardized method for grouping
organisms.
Trophic Level Interactions:
Organisms in an ecosystem interact in ways that
can be shown in food chains and food webs.
Ecological pyramids are used to illustrate how
organisms in an ecosystem transfer matter and
energy from one trophic level to another.
Approximately 10 % of the available energy in a
trophic level is passed on to the next trophic
level. The remaining energy, approximately 90%,
is used for metabolic functions or dissipated as
heat.
Sunlight radiant energy is transferred to
plants through photosynthesis. Organisms that
feed on plants are able to use about 10% of the
energy that was available to the plants. The
transfer and dissipation of energy continue from
one trophic level to the next.
Ecological Succession:
Species living in an ecosystem gradually change
over time, as do the physical and chemical
environments within that ecosystem.
Succession takes place because organisms
interact with one another in an ecosystem.
Left undisturbed, succession follows predictable
stages: primary, secondary and climax
communities.
Autotrophs are the first pioneer species to
inhabit an ecosystem in the primary stage; they
create conditions that may be favorable to other
autotrophs.
Heterotrophs follow autotrophs in the stages of
succession first herbivore heterotrophs and
then carnivores and omnivores.

Review 75
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Ecological Succession Cont.:


An ecosystem reaches stability when it becomes
a climax community. In this stage it is stable,
mature, self-sustaining, and has reached an
ecological equilibrium.
Changes in Ecological Stability:
Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and
predator/prey relationships are all types of
interactions that occur among organisms in an
ecosystem.
The stability of an ecosystem can be affected by
a natural disaster.
Natural disasters such as hurricanes, droughts,
floods, and so on can alter the stability of an
ecosystem. These disasters can cause some
organisms to diminish in number or become
extinct so that their niche in an ecosystem is
altered. It can take years for an ecosystem to
recover from a natural disaster and regain
stability.
Relationship of Organisms:
Organisms in an ecosystem exhibit different
types of relationships as they interact.
Some ways organisms interact is by competing
for food and other resources.
Relationships that may be found in an ecosystem
include parasitism, commensalism, mutualism,
and predator/prey.
Plant Systems:
Plants, like animals, are composed of different
systems that interact to benefit the plant.
Some systems enable the plant to respond to
stimuli it receives from its environment, such as
touch, light, and gravity.
One system cannot survive without interacting
and depending on other systems in the plant.

Review 76
Additional Notes STAAR-EOC

I need to remember

Plant Systems Cont.:


Each system is composed of smaller systems; for
example, the transport system is composed of
xylem and phloem found in the leaves, stems,
and roots of plants.
The reproductive system reproduces either by
sexual or asexual means, depending on the plant.
Animal Systems:
Systems do not stand alone; they must work with
other systems to enable the organism to function
properly.
Each system has specific function that it must
perform, but each system is closely connected to
other systems in the body and works with them
to perform its functions.

Review 77
Credits

Charles A. Dana Center at The University of Texas at


Austin, STAAR Biology Assessments: Module 1

McGraw-Hill, http://tx-science.cinchlearning.com, CINCH-


Science for Texas

Serendip, http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology, Hands-


on Activities for Teaching Biology to High School
Students

Windows to the Universe, National Earth Science Teachers


Association, http://windows2universe.org, Teacher
Resources