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Corrosion Resistant Overlay Study

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Project 50107-I Final Report

A Technical Bulletin from

ARC Specialties Engineering &
Consulting Services
December, 2012 Houston, TX
50107 SAW 625 CRO - 1
Compare performance of five (5) SAW fluxes for INCONEL
625 in terms of
Bead shape and edge wetting
Slag release
Determine effects of welding parameters on resulting iron
content (Percent Fe)
Travel speed
Step-over (bead overlap) distance
Compare DCEP vs. DCEN for performance and bead

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Study conditions - welding

Welds were made on 1 in [25mm] carbon

steel test coupons
Minimum preheat & interpass 500 F
Maximum interpass 650 F
Electrodes: 0.094 in [2.5mm] ERNiCrMo-3
Contact tip-to-work (CTTW) distance = in

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Study conditions - fluxes

Welds were made with five (5) different fluxes

Special Metals - INCOFLUX NT100
Soudokay - RECORD NiCrW
Soudakay - RECORD NiCrW-412
ESAB OK 10.90
Sandvik 50SW
Fluxes were heated overnight at 300 F

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Study conditions
welding parameter selection
Initial welding parameters selected based on
Minimizing dilution in first layer to
Meet iron content in 1st layer of 10% maximum
Meet iron content in 2nd layer of 5% maximum
First layer thickness about 1/8 in [3mm]
Chemistry for WPS measured on a surface 0.125in
[3mm] above original base metal surface so greater
assurance that the chemistry will be taken in the
second layer

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Effect of first layer thickness on


0.125 chemistry is in first layer


0.125 chemistry is in second layer

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Weld series #3 07-S3

Two layers
Welds were 6 in [150mm] long for both layers on
1 in [25mm] thick carbon steel
Five fluxes:
ESAB OK 10.90
Sandvik 50SW
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07-S3 Weld appearance



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07-S3 Flux performance
Poor slag peeling
Slag sticks to surface of weld bead
Unacceptable performance
Slag was self peeling
Edge wetting was acceptable
Has small slivers of fused slag sticking to surface

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07-S3 Weld appearance

ESAB OK 10.90


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07-S3 Flux performance
ESAB OK 10.90
Excellent slag peeling
Would be a first choice, but no longer stocked in US
Good slag peeling
Very fine flux with some dust and it tends to pock
on surface of weld bead
Some minor undercutting

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07-S3 Weld appearance

Sandvik 50SW

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07-S3 Flux performance
Sandvk 50SW
Good slag peeling
Some stripes on weld surface
Edge wetting at 200 amps was not good but
acceptable at 260 amps.
Excellent wetting and bead shape at 300 amps

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07-S3 - Testing

Weld chemistry was taken in two locations:

Surface of second layer
0.125 in [3mm] above original surface
Transverse side bends were used to verify fusion and
detect presence of micro fissuring
All side bends were bent around 1 in [38mm] diameter to
subject them to ~20% elongation
All were acceptable

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Test Procedures

Weld metal chemistry:

Chemistry was checked with the Thermo PMI
(Positive Material Identification) gun.
Prior to testing, test surface prepared with sanding
disk (used only on INCONEL) to produce a clean, flat
test surface
For the 0.125 in [3mm] test surface, the specimen was first
milled to thickness and then sanded

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S3 test coupon & side bend

Side bend


Surface of
Second Layer


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07-S3-E Additional test coupon

Special Metals NT100

First layer 200 amps, 32 volts, 16 ipm
Second layer 300 amps, 30 volts, 16 ipm

First Layer

Second Layer at 2X step-over

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07-S3 Chemistry test results
Chemistry with 1.5X Step-over
Sample ID 0.125" above BM

Manufacturer Designation Type Ni/Cr/Mo % Fe

07-S3-A Soudokay NiCrW Neutral 59.6 / 20.7 / 8.2 7.4

07-S3-B ESAB 10.90 Neutral 59.9 / 20.0 / 7.7 7.3

07-S3-D Special Metals NT100 Neutral 59.2 / 20.0 / 8.0 7.2

Chemistry with 2X Step-over

07-S3-E Special Metals NT100 Neutral 62.2 / 20.8 / 8.2 4.5

07-S3-F Soudokay NiCrW-412 Neutral 59.2 / 20.6 / 8.2 5.9

07-S3-H Sandvik 50SW Neutral 60.6 / 20.2 / 8.5 6.6

Welds 07-S3-E F & H with greater step over were getting more
penetration into the first pass so our iron is lower at 0.125 above
original surface.

50107 SAW 625 CRO - 18

Straight vs. reverse polarity


The INCONEL 625 weld metal does not wet and
flow as easily as stainless steel
When using DCEN, this is even more pronounced,
with resulting toe reentrant angles nearly 90
With weld bead overlap, arc attracted to previous
weld bead, causing subsequent weld beads to pile
Using sufficient current and step-over to achieve bead
control, there is potential for loss of chemistry control
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Special Metals INCOFLUX NT100 was the flux

of choice
Excellent slag release and weld appearance
Excellent properties
Welding parameters like travel speed and step-
over are key to minimizing dilution.
Dilution controls chemistry and ability to obtain
Fe-5 at 0.125 in [3mm] above base metal.

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