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CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS
2/21/10
2-1) Square waves and triangular waves for voltage and current are two examples.
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v2 t [170sin 377t ]2
2-2) a) p t v t i t 2890sin 2 377t W .
R 10
b) peak power = 2890 W.
c) P = 2890/2 = 1445 W.
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2-3)
v(t) = 5sin2t V.
a) 4sin2t A.; p(t) = v(t)i(t) = 20 sin22t W.; P = 10 W.
b) 3sin4t A.; p(t) = 15sin(2t)sin(4t) W.; P = 0
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2-4) a)
0 0 t 50 ms

p t v t i t 40 50 ms t 70 ms
0 70 ms t 100 ms

b)
T 70 ms
1 1
P v t i t dt
100 ms 50ms
40 dt 8.0 W .
T 0
c)
T 70 ms

W p t dt 40 dt 800 mJ .; or W PT 8W 100 ms 800 mJ .


0 50 ms

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2-5) a)
70 W . 0 t 6 ms
50 W . 6 ms t 10 ms

p t v t i t
40 W . 10 ms t 14 ms
0 14 ms t 20 ms

b)
1
T 6 ms 10 ms 14 ms
1
P
T p t dt
0
20 ms

0
70 dt 50 dt
6 ms 10 ms
40 dt 19 W .

c)
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T 6 ms 10 ms 14 ms

W p t dt 70 dt 50 dt 40 dt 0.38 J .;
0 0 6 ms 10 ms
or W PT 19 20 ms 380 mJ .
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2-6)

P Vdc I avg
a ) I avg 2 A., P 12 2 24 W .
b) I avg 3.1 A., P 12 3.1 37.2 W .
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2-7)
a)
vR t i t R 25sin 377t V .
p t v t i t 25sin 377t 1.0sin 377t 25sin 2 377t 12.5 1 cos 754t W .
T
1
PR p t dt 12.5 W .
T 0

b)
di t
vL t L 10 10 377 1.0 cos 377t 3.77 cos 377t V .
3

dt

pL t v t i t 3.77 cos 377t 1.0sin 377t


3.77 1.0 sin 754t 1.89 sin 754t W .
2
T
1
p t dt 0
T 0
PL

c)
p t v t i t 12 1.0sin 377t 12sin 377t W .
T
1
Pdc
T p t dt 0
0
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2-8) Resistor:
v t i t R 8 24sin 2 60t V .
p t v t i t 8 24sin 2 60t 2 6sin 2 60t
16 96sin 2 60t 144sin 2 2 60t W .
1
T 1/60 1/60 1/60
1
P p t dt 16 dt 96sin 2 60t dt 144sin
2
2 60t
T 0 1/ 60 0 0 0
16 72 88 W .
Inductor: PL 0.
dc source: Pdc I avgVdc 2 6 12 W .
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2-9) a) With the heater on,

P
Vm I m
1500 W . I m
1500 2 12.5 2
2 120 2

p t Vm I m sin 2t 120 2 12.5 2 sin 2t 3000sin 2t
max p t 3000 W .
b) P = 1500(5/12) = 625 W.
c) W = PT = (625 W)(12 s) = 7500 J. (or 1500(5) = 7500 W.)
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2-10)
t
1 1
iL t vL t dt
0.1 0
90 d 900t 0 t 4 ms.
L
iL 4 ms 900 4 10
3
3.6 A.
a)
1 2 1
Li 0.1 3.6 0.648 J .
2
W
2 2

b) All stored energy is absorbed by R: WR = 0.648 J.

c)
WR 0.648
PR 16.2 W .
T 40 ms
PS PR 16.2 W .

d) No change in power supplied by the source: 16.2 W.


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2-11)
a)
1 2 2W 2 1.2
W Li , or i 15.49 A.
2 L 0.010
t t
1 1
i t v d
0.010 0
14 d 1400t A.
L0
15.49 1400ton
ton 11.1 ms
b) Energy stored in L must be transferred to the resistor in (20 - 11.1) = 8.9 ms. Allowing five
time constants,
L 8.9 ms L 10 mH
1.7 ms.; R 5.62
R 5 1.7 ms 1.7 ms
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2-12)
a) i(t) = 1800t for 0 < t < 4 ms
i(4 ms) = 7.2 A.; WLpeak = 1.296 J.

b)
10A

5A Inductor current
SEL>>
0A
I(L1)
10A
Source current
0A

-10A
-I(Vcc)
1.0KW
Ind. inst. power
0W

-1.0KW
W(L1)
1.0KW
Source inst. power (supplied)
0W

-1.0KW
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms 100ms
-W(Vcc)
Time
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2-13)
a) The zener diode breaks down when the transistor turns off to maintain inductor current.
b) Switch closed: 0 < t < 20 ms.
diL t
vL 12 V . L
dt
diL vL 12
160 A/s
dt L 0.075
at t 20 ms, iL 160 0.02 3.2 A.

Switch open, zener on:


vL 12 20 8 V .
diL vL 8
106.7 A/s
dt L 0.075
t to return to zero :
i 3.2
t 30 ms
106.7 106.7
Therefore, inductor current returns to zero at 20 + 30 = 50 ms.
iL = 0 for 50 ms < t < 70 ms.

c)
40mW

Inductor inst. power


0W

-40mW
W(L1)
80mW

Zener inst. power

40mW

SEL>>
0W
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms 70ms
W(D1)
Time
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d)
PL 0.
T
1 1
0.03 64 13.73 W .
1
PZ pZ t dt
T 0 0.07 2
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2-14) a) The zener diode breaks down when the transistor turns off to maintain inductor current.
b) Switch closed: 0 < t < 15 ms.
diL t
vL 20 V . L
dt
diL vL 20
400 A/s
dt L 0.050
at t 15 ms, iL 400 0.015 6.0 A.

Switch open, zener on:


vL 20 30 10 V.
diL vL 10
200 A/s
dt L 0.050
t to return to zero :
i 6.0
t 30 ms
200 200
Therefore, inductor current returns to zero at 15 + 30 = 45 ms.
iL = 0 for 45 ms < t < 75 ms.

c)
200W

Inductor inst. power

0W

-200W
W(L1)
200W

Zener inst. power

100W

SEL>>
0W
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms
W(D1)
Time
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d)
PL 0.
T
1 1
0.03 180 36 W .
1
PZ pZ t dt
T 0 0.075 2
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2-15) Examples are square wave (Vrms = Vm) and a triangular wave (Vrms = Vm/3).
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Phase conductors: P I R 12 0.5 72 W .


2 2
2-16)


2
Neutral conductor: PN I 2 R 12 3 0.5 216 W .
Ptotal 3 72 216 432 W .
PN 72
RN 0.167

2 2
IN 12 3
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2-17) Re: Prob. 2-4


Vrms Vm D 10 0.7 8.37 V .
I rms I m D 4 0.5 2.83 A.
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2-18) Re: Prob. 2-5

14
Vrms Vm D 10 8.36 V .
20
0.006 0.01 0.02
1
5 4
2
I rms 7 2 dt dt 2
dt 27.7 5.26 A.
0.02 0 0.006 0.01

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2-19)
2 2
5 3
Vrms 22 4.58 V .
2 2
2 2
2 1.1

I rms 1.5
2
2.2 A.
2 2

V I
P V0 I 0 m m cos n n
n 1 2
5 2 3 1.1
2.0 1.5
cos 20 cos 115 7.0 W .
2 2 2 2
Notethat cos(4 60t 45) is cos 4 60t 135
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2-20)
dc : V0 3 100 300 V .
1 2 60 : Y1 1/R jC 0.01 j 0.0189
I1 4 0
V1 187 62.1
Y1 0.01 j 0.0189
2 4 60 : Y2 1/R jC 0.01 j 0.0377
I2 60
V2 153 75.1
Y2 0.01 j 0.0377

Vm I m
P V0 I 0 cos n n
n 1 2

300 5
187 4 cos 153 6 cos
62.1 75.1
2 2
1500 175 118 1793 W .

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2-21) dc Source:
50 12
Pdc Vdc I avg 12 114 W .
4

Resistor:
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P I rms
2
R
I rms I 02 I1,2rms I 2,2 rms
I 0 9.5 A.
30
I1 3.51 A.
4 j 4 60 0.01
10
I2 0.641 A.
4 j 8 60 0.01
2 2
3.51 0.641
I rms 9.5
2
9.83 A.
2 2
PR I rms
2
R 386 W .
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2-22)
P I rms
2
R
V0 6
I0 0.375 A.
R 16
5
I1 0.269 A.
16 j 2 60 0.025
3
I2 0.0923 A.
16 j 6 60 0.025
2 2
0.269 0.0923

I rms 0.375 2
0.426 A.
2 2
R 0.426 16 2.9 W .
2
I rms 0.623 A.; P I rms
2

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2-23)

Vm I m
P V0 I 0 cos n n
n 1 2
n Vn In Pn Pn
0 20 5 100 100
1 20 5 50 150
2 10 1.25 6.25 156.25
3 6.67 0.556 1.85 158.1
4 5 0.3125 0.781 158.9
Power including terms through n = 4 is 158.9 watts.
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2-24)

Vm I m
P V0 I 0 cos n n
n 1 2
n Vn In n - n Pn
0 50.0000 10.0 0 500.0
1 50.0000 10.0 26.6 223.6
2 25.0000 2.5 45.0 22.1
3 16.6667 1.11 56.3 5.1
4 12.5000 0.625 63.4 1.7
Through n = 4, Pn = 753 W.
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2-25)

Vm I m
P V0 I 0 cos n n
n 1 2
V V 50 36
I 0 0 dc 0.7 A
R 20
P0, R I 02 R 0.7 20 9.8 W (dc component only )
2

PVdc I 0Vdc 0.7 36 25.2 W


PL 0
Resistor Average Power
n Vn Zn In angle Pn
0 50.00 20.00 0.7 0.00 9.8
1 127.32 25.43 5.01 0.67 250.66
2 63.66 37.24 1.71 1.00 29.22
3 42.44 51.16 0.83 1.17 6.87
4 31.83 65.94 0.48 1.26 2.33
5 25.46 81.05 0.31 1.32 0.99
PR = Pn 300 W.
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2-26) a) THD = 5% I9 = (0.05)(10) = 0.5 A.


b) THD = 10% I9 = (0.10)(10) = 1 A.
c) THD = 20% I9 = (0.20)(10) = 2 A.
d) THD = 40% I9 = (0.40)(10) = 4 A.

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2-27) a)
170 10

P Pn cos 30 0 0 736 W .
2 2
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b)
2 2 2
10 6 3
I rms 8.51 A.
2 2 2
170
S Vrms I rms 8.51 1024 VA.
2
P 736
pf 0.719
S 1024
c)
I1,rms 10/ 2
DF 0.831
I rms 8.51

d)
2 2
6 3

2 2
THDI 0.67 67%
10/ 2
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2-28) a)
170 12

P Pn cos 40 0 0 781 W .
2 2
b)
2 2 2
12 5 4
I rms 9.62 A.
2 2 2
170
S Vrms I rms 9.62 1156 VA.
2
P 781
pf 0.68
S 1156
c)
I1,rms 12/ 2
DF 0.88
I rms 9.62
d)
2 2
5 4

2 2
THDI 0.53 53%
12/ 2
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2-29)
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8 4
I1,rms 5.66 A.; I 2,rms 2.82 A.;
2 2
I rms 5.662 2.822 6.32 A.; I peak 10.38 ( graphically )

a) P V1,rms I1,rms cos 1 1 240 5.66 cos 0 1358 W .

P P 1358
b) pf 0.895 89.5%
S Vrms I rms 240 6.32

I 2,rms 2.82
c) THDI 0.446 44.6%
I rms 6.32

I1, rms 5.66


d) DF 89.6%
I rms 6.32

I peak 10.38
e) crest factor 1.64
I rms 6.32
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2-30)
12 9
I1,rms 8.49 A.; I 2,rms 6.36 A.;
2 2
I rms 8.492 6.362 10.6 A.; I peak 18.3 A. ( graphically )

a) P V1, rms I1,rms cos 1 n 240 10.6 cos 0 2036 W .

P P 2036
b) pf 0.80 80%
S Vrms I rms 240 10.6

I 2,rms 6.36
c) THDI 0.60 60%
I rms 10.6

I1, rms 8.49


d) DF 80%
I rms 10.6

I peak 18.3
e) crest factor 1.72
I rms 10.6
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2-31)
5V: I = 0 (capacitor is an open circuit)

1 1
25cos(1000t ): Z R j L j 2 j1000(.001) j 2 j0
C 1000 1000 106
25
I cos(1000t ) 12.5cos(1000t ) A
2
10cos(2000t ): Z 2 j1.5
10
I10 4 37 A.
2 j1.5
2 2
12.5 4
I rms 9.28 A
2 2
2
PR I rms R 9.282 2 172.3 W

PL 0

PC 0

Psource 172.3 W

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2-32) PSpice shows that average power is 60 W and energy is 1.2 J. Use VPULSE and IPULSE
for the sources.
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Energy
2.0 (20.000m,1.2000)

0
S(W(I1))
400W
Avg Power (20.000m,60.000)

0W
Inst Power

-400W
W(I1) AVG(W(I1))
20

SEL>>
-20
0s 4ms 8ms 12ms 16ms 20ms
I(I1) V(V1:+)
Time

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2-33) Average power for the resistor is approximately 1000 W. For the inductor and dc source,
the average power is zero (slightly different because of numerical solution).

2.0KW
Average Power

(16.670m,0.9998K)
Resistor
1.0KW

Inductor
(16.670m,-30.131u)
0W
(16.670m,189.361u)
Vdc

-1.0KW
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
AVG(W(R1)) AVG(W(L1)) AVG(W(V1))
Time
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2.0KW
Instantaneous Power

Resistor

1.0KW

Inductor

0W

Vdc

-1.0KW
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
W(R1) W(L1) W(V1)
Time

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2-34)
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Rms voltage is 8.3666 V. Rms current is 5.2631 A.

10V

Voltage
(20.000m,8.3666)
5V

0V
V(V1:+) RMS(V(V1:+))
10A
(20.000m,5.2631)

Current
0A

SEL>>
-10A
0s 4ms 8ms 12ms 16ms 20ms
I(I1:+) RMS(I(I1))
Time

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2-35) See Problem 2-10.


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0W

(40.022m,-16.200)
Source Power
-100W

SEL>>
-200W
AVG(W(V1))
4.0

Inductor

2.0
(4.0000m,648.007m)
Resistor
(40.021m,647.946

0
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms
I(L1) S(W(L1)) S(W(R1))
Time

The inductor peak energy is 649 mJ, matching the resistor absorbed energy. The source power is
-16.2 W absorbed, meaning 16.2 W supplied.

b) If the diode and switch parameters are changed, the inductor peak energy is 635 mJ, and the
resistor absorbed energy is 620 mJ. The difference is absorbed by the switch and diode.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
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2-36)

The inductor current reaches a maximum value of 3.4 A with the resistances in the circuit: I = 75/
(20+1+1) = 3.4 A.
4.0A

2.0A Inductor Current

SEL>>
0A
I(L1)
4.0A

Source Current

0A

-4.0A
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms 100ms
-I(V1)
Time
Quantity Probe Expression Result
Inductor resistor average AVG(W(R1)) 77.1 W
power
Switch average power AVG(W(S1)) 3.86 W each
Diode average power AVG(W(D1)) 81 mW each
Source average power AVG(W(Vcc)) -85.0 W
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2-37)
a) Power absorbed by the inductor is zero. Power absorbed by the Zener diode is 13.8 W.

4.0A

2.0A
Inductor Current

0A
I(L1)
4.0A

2.0A Zener Diode Current

SEL>>
0A
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms 70ms
-I(D1)
Time

b) Power in the inductor is zero, but power in the 1.5 resistor is 1.76 W. Power absorbed by the
Zener diode is 6.35 W. Power absorbed by the switch is 333 mW.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
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3-38)
See Problem 3-37 for the circuit diagram.
a) Power absorbed by the Zener diode is 36.1 W. Power absorbed by the inductor is zero.

10A

5A
Inductor Current

SEL>>
0A
I(L1)
10A

5A Zener Diode Current

0A
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms
-I(D1)
Time
b) Power in the inductor is zero, but power in the 1.5 resistor is 4.4 W. Power absorbed by the
Zener diode is 14.2 W. Power absorbed by the switch is 784 mW.
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2-39)

40A

Total Current

20A

0A

-20A
0s 4ms 8ms 12ms 16ms 20ms
I(I1) I(I2) I(I3) I(I4) -I(V1)
Time

Quantity Probe Expression Result


Power AVG(W(V1)) 650 W
rms current RMS(I(V1)) 14 A
Apparent power S RMS(V(I1:+))* RMS(I(V1)) 990 VA
Power factor AVG(W(V1)) / (RMS(V(I1:+))* RMS(I(V1))) 0.66

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2-40)

DESIRED QUANTITY ORIGINAL RESULT NEW VALUES


Inductor Current max = 4.5 A. 4.39 A
Energy Stored in Inductor max = 2.025 J 1.93 L
Average Switch Power 0.010 W. 0.66 W
Average Source Power (absorbed) -20.3 W. -19.9 W
Average Diode Power 0.464 W. .449 W
AVG(W(D1)) 0.464
W.
Average Inductor Power 0 0
Average Inductor Voltage 0 0
Average Resistor Power 19.9 W. 18.8 W
Energy Absorbed by Resistor 1.99 J. 1.88 J
Energy Absorbed by Diode .046 J. .045 J
Energy Absorbed by Inductor 0 0
rms Resistor Current 0.998 A. 0.970 A

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2-41) Use the part VPULSE or IPULSE (shown). Here, the period is 100 ms, and the rise times
chosen are 20 ms, 50 ms, and 80 ms. The fall times are the period minus the rise times. Each rms
value is 0.57735, which is identical to 1/3.
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1.0A

(100.000m,577.350m)

0A

-1.0A
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms 100ms
-I(R1) RMS(I(R1))
Time
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