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MATHEMATICAL TRIPOS Part IA

Thursday 1 June 2000 9 to 12

PAPER 1

Before you begin read these instructions carefully.

Each question in Section II carries twice the credit of each question in Section I.

In Section I, you may attempt all four questions.

in Section II, at most five answers will be taken into account and no more than
three answers on each course will be taken into account.

Additional credit will be awarded for substantially complete answers.

Write on one side of the paper only and begin each answer on a separate sheet.

Write legibly; otherwise you place yourself at a great disadvantage.

At the end of the examination:

Tie up your answers in separate bundles, marked A, B, C, D, E and F according


to the code letter affixed to each question. Include in the same bundle questions
from Sections I and II with the same code letter.

Attach a gold cover sheet to each bundle; write the code letter in the box marked
EXAMINER LETTER on the cover sheet.

You must also complete a Green master cover sheet listing all the questions you
have attempted.

Every cover sheet must bear your examination number and desk number.

[TURN OVER
2

SECTION I

1D Algebra and Geometry

For k R, k > 0, the set Sk of points in the complex plane is defined by



z 1
Sk = z C : =k .
z + 1

Show that Sk describes a circle if k 6= 1. Compute its centre and radius. Give a
complete description of S1 .
Consider the function f : C C defined by f (z) =
z . Describe f geometrically
and show that
f (Sk ) = S1/k .

2D Algebra and Geometry

The linear map : R3 R3 is defined on the basis E = {e1 , e2 , e3 } by (ei ) = bi


for i = 1, 2, 3 with

1 0 0
e1 = 0 , e2 = 1 , e3 = 0 ,
0 0 1
1 1

2 2
14 6 4 2


b1 = 2 2 ,
1 b2 = 14 6 , b3 = 1 2 .
4
1 1
0 2 2 3

Write down the matrix A of with respect to the basis E.


Show that A is an orthogonal matrix and write down its inverse. Solve the linear
system
2
Ax = 2.
2
3

3C Analysis I

State the Comparison Test for convergence of series, and deduce it from the
principle that a bounded monotonic sequence converges to a limit. Show that
X
1 X
1
converges to 1, and deduce that converges for every integer
n=1
n(n + 1) n=1
nk
k > 2.
Determine whether the following series converge:

X X
n! 1 1
(i) n
; (ii) .
n=1
n n=1
n n + 1

[If you use any tests for convergence other than the Comparison Test, you should
X
1
prove them. However, you may assume the result that diverges.]
n=1
n

4C Analysis I

State and prove the chain rule for differentiation of real-valued functions.
A function f has the form

ax + b
f (x) =
cx + d

where a, b, c, d are real numbers with ad bc > 0. Show that f can be expressed
as a composite of functions of the form x 7 x + , x 7 x (with > 0) and
x 7 1/x. Deduce that f is differentiable at all x R with at most one exception,
and that its derivative is positive wherever it is defined.

[TURN OVER
4

SECTION II

5D Algebra and Geometry

Find all the solutions (x, y, z)T R3 of the linear system

x + y + ( + 2)z = 0
x + ( + 1)y + 4z = 0
x + (1 )y + ( + 2)z = 0

for all values of the parameter R.


Consider a subspace U = span{a1 , a2 , . . . , ap } of Rn with dim(U ) 6 p. Let V be
the subspace of vectors x satisfying ai .x = 0 for 1 6 i 6 p and let {b1 , . . . , bq } be a
basis for V . Let W be the subspace of vectors y satisfying bj .y = 0 for 1 6 j 6 q.
Show that U W . Given that n = dim(U ) + dim(V ) = dim(V ) + dim(W ), deduce
that U = W .
For all values of R find a homogeneous linear system with space of solutions

1 1 1
U = span 1 , + 1 , 1 .

+2 4 +2

6D Algebra and Geometry

The linear map : R3 R3 satisfies



1 1 1 0 1 1
0 = 3 ,
1 = 8,
1 = 9 .
0 3 0 6 1 5

Find the matrix A of with respect to the standard basis



1 0 0
E = 0,1,0 .

0 0 1

Find the eigenvalues of the matrix A and compute the corresponding eigenspaces.
[Hint: (1, 1, 1)T is an eigenvector of A.]
Find a basis for which the matrix of is a diagonal matrix D. Give the basis
transformation matrix S such that S 1 AS = D. (You need not calculate S 1 .)
Using a matrix C with C 2 = D show that there exists a diagonalizable matrix B
with only positive eigenvalues such that B 2 = A. What are the eigenvalues of B
and what are the corresponding eigenspaces?
5

7D Algebra and Geometry

The equation of a plane in R3 is

x.n = d

where d is a constant scalar and n is a unit vector normal to . What is the


distance of the plane from the origin O?
A sphere S with centre p and radius r satisfies the equation

kx pk2 = r2 .

For which values of the scalar product p.n does the intersection of and S contain
exactly one point?

The tetrahedron OABC is defined by the vectors a =OA, b =OB, and c =OC
with a.(b c) > 0. What does the condition a.(b c) > 0 mean geometrically? A
sphere Tr with radius r > 0 lies inside the tetrahedron and intersects each of the
three faces OAB, OBC, and OCA in exactly one point. Show that the centre P of
Tr satisfies
kb cka + kc akb + ka bkc
OP = r .
a . (b c)

Given that the vector a b + b c + c a is orthogonal to the plane of the face


ABC, obtain an equation for . What is the distance of from the origin?
Find the radius of the sphere if it also intersects the face ABC in exactly one point
(this is the inscribed sphere of the tetrahedron).

8D Algebra and Geometry

For a linear map : Rm Rn show that the kernel K() = {x Rm : (x) = 0}


is a subspace of Rm .
For x Rm we define x = {x + z : z K()}. Show for x, y Rm that x
=y if
=y
and only if x y K(). Deduce that either x or the two sets x
and y
are
disjoint.
g
Let R m = {x : x Rm } be the set of all such x , which becomes a vector space
when addition and scalar multiplication are defined on Rg m by

+y
x ^
=x +y , f ,
x = x for R and x, y Rm .

g
Show that these operations are well-defined and that in R m addition is associative.

Define a map : Rg x) = (x). Show that is well-defined, and that


m Rn by (

it is linear and injective.

[TURN OVER
6

9C Analysis I

Prove the Intermediate Value Theorem: if f : [a, b] R is a continuous function


and y a real number such that f (a) < y < f (b), then there exists c (a, b) with
f (c) = y.
State the Mean Value Theorem. Now suppose that f is the derivative of an
everywhere differentiable function F : R R, and that f (a) < y < f (b). By
considering the functions G and H defined by

F (x) F (a)
G(x) = (x 6= a), G(a) = f (a)
xa

and
F (b) F (x)
H(x) = (x 6= b), H(b) = f (b) ,
bx
show that there is an interval [a0 , b0 ] [a, b] such that (F (b0 ) F (a0 ))/(b0 a0 ) = y.
Deduce that f satisfies the conclusion of the Intermediate Value Theorem (as stated
above).

10C Analysis I

X

Let an z n be a power series with complex coefficients. Prove that there exists a
n=0
unique R [0, ] such that the series converges absolutely for all z with |z| < R
and diverges for all z with |z| > R.
X

Now consider a series of the form bn enz , where z is a complex number. Show
n=0
that there is a unique X [, ] such that the series converges absolutely
whenever Re z < X and diverges whenever Re z > X. Hence show that, if (cn )
X

is a sequence such that cn converges, there is a unique Y [0, ] such that
n=0
X

cn cos nz converges absolutely whenever |Im z| < Y and diverges whenever


n=0
|Im z| > Y .
7

11C Analysis I

Suppose the real-valued function f is (n+1) times continuously differentiable on an


open interval (a, b) containing 0. Prove by induction on n that, for any x (a, b),
we have
n
X xk (k)
f (x) = f (0) + f (0) + Rn (f, x)
k!
k=1

Zx
1
where Rn (f, x) = (x t)n f (n+1) (t) dt.
n!
0

Now let f (x) = (1 x)1/2 . Show that f is infinitely differentiable on (1, 1), with

(2n)!
f (n+1) (x) =
22n+1 n!(1 x)(2n+1)/2

for all n > 0. Hence show that the power series



X
2n xn+1
1
n=0
n (n + 1)22n+1

converges to f (x) for 1 < x < 1.


[Hint: You will need to obtain separate estimates for Rn (f, x) when 0
< x < 1 and
n n
when 1 < x < 0. You may assume Stirlings formula that n!/(n e 2n) tends
to 1 as n , if you need it.]

12C Analysis I

Explain what it means for a function f : [a, b] R to be (Riemann) integrable on


[a, b]. (If your definition involves the terms upper integral and lower integral,
then these should also be defined.)
Prove that if f is monotonic non-decreasing on [a, b] then it is integrable. Show
also that if f (x) = g(x) h(x) for all x, and g and h are integrable on [a, b], then
f is integrable on [a, b].
[You may assume the result that f is integrable on [a, b] if and only if, for each > 0,
there exist step functions fl and fu with fl (x) 6 f (x) 6 fu (x) for all x [a, b] and
Zb Zb
fu (x) dx fl (x) dx < .]
a a

Now let f (x) = x2 cos(/x) + 2x3 sin(/x) (0 < x 6 1), f (0) = 0. Find the
turning-points of f in (0, 1]. Show that f can be written as the difference of two
non-decreasing functions on [0, 1], and deduce that it is integrable.
[Hint: Construct a function g which is constant on each interval where f is
decreasing, and such that g(x) f (x) is constant on each interval where f is
increasing.]