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WHEN on

EARTH?
HISTORY AS YOUVE NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE
CONTENTS
DK London
Senior editor Rob Houston
Senior art editor Rachael Grady
Editors Suhel Ahmed, Joanna Edwards, Chris Hawkes,
Anna Limerick, Susan Reuben, Fleur Star
US editor Margaret Parrish
Designers David Ball, Carol Davis, Mik Gates, The ancient
Spencer Holbrook, Steve Woosnam-Savage
Illustrators Adam Benton,
Stuart Jackson-Carter, Arran Lewis
world
Creative retouching Steve Willis
Cartography Simon Mumford, Encompass Graphics
Ancient times 6
Consultants Reg Grant, Philip Parker Out of Africa 8
Jacket editor Claire Gell The Ice Age 10
Jacket designer Mark Cavanagh
Jacket design development manager Sophia MTT Cave art 12
Picture research Sakshi Saluja
The rst farmers 14
Producer, pre-production Lucy Sims
Senior producer Mandy Inness Megaliths 16
Managing editor Gareth Jones
The rst cities 18
Managing art editor Philip Letsu The origins of writing 20
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Publishing director Jonathan Metcalf Land of the Pharaohs 22
Associate publishing director Liz Wheeler
Art director Phil Ormerod The Bronze Age 24
DK Delhi Ancient Americas 26
Senior art editor Anis Sayyed
Assistant art editor Tanvi Sahu
Ancient Greece 28
Managing editor Kingshuk Ghoshal The Persian Empire 30
Managing art editor Govind Mittal
Alexander the Great 32
First American Edition, 2015
Published in the United States by DK Publishing Chinas Great Wall 34
345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014
Rome and Hannibal 36
A Penguin Random House Company
The Roman Empire 38
15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bible stories 40
001193419April/15
Pacic settlers 42
Copyright 2015 Dorling Kindersley Limited
All rights reserved Ancient wonders 44
Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part Ancient inventions 46
of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise),
without the prior written permission of both the copyright
owner and the above publisher of this book.
Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.

A catalog record for this book is available from the Bison carved
Library of Congress. from mammoth
ISBN: 978-1-4654-2940-7 ivory

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www.dk.com Lion Man ivory gurine
The medieval The modern The 20th and 21st
world world centuries
Medieval times 50 Modern times 76 Beyond 1900 124
The Silk Road 52 The age of exploration 78 The race to
The Vikings 54 Conquistadors 80 the South Pole 126
Chinas golden age 56 The great World War I 128
Castles 58 food exchange 82 The Russian Revolution 130
The Crusades 60 The Reformation 84 The story of ight 132
The age of the Mongols 62 Caribbean Pirates 86 The Great Depression 134
The Black Death 64 Colonial America 88 Chinas Long March 136
The Chinese Slavery 90 World War II 138
treasure eet 66 The American The Eastern Front 140
Great African kingdoms 68 Revolutionary War 92 D-Day 142
15th-century Americas 70 Exiled to Australia 94 Gandhi and Indian
Medieval inventions 72 The French Revolution 96 Independence 144
Napoleon 98 The Cold War 146
Free South America 100 The Space Age 148
Darwins voyage 102 Moon landings 150
The Industrial The internet 152
Revolution 104 The rise of China 154
A year of revolutions 106
The American frontier 108 Index 156
Gold Rushes 110 Acknowledgments 160
The US Civil War 112
Japan faces the future 114
The age of steam 116
Europes empires 118
Modern inventions 120

Space Shuttle Montgolers


hot-air balloon
Chinese monk
Xuanzang Kissing bug captured
by Charles Darwin
The ancient world
The Immortals
These gures are from the
palace of the emperor of
Persia. They are thought
to show the emperors
bodyguards, known as
the Immortals. The guards
seemed immortal because
if one died, he was replaced
before anyone noticed.
Upright man BIRTH OF EARTH STONE TOOLS (2.5 mya)
Homo erectus, ancestor of modern (4.6 billion years ago) Early human ancestors called
humans, developed longer legs and planet Earth forms. Homo habilis (able man)
shorter arms, helping it to walk
make tools for the rst time.
upright. Its brains and intelligence
grew, allowing it to use Most are made of stone.
nely crafted tools
to catch food. 4.6 bsilaligoon
year
UPRIGHT MAN (1.8 mya)
Homo erectus (upright man)
appears. It is the rst human
ancestor that is similar to
modern humans.

ANCIENT EGYPT BRONZE (3200 BCE)


(3100 BCE) The civilization People in Egypt and
of ancient Egypt begins Mesopotamia learn
to grow around the to make the durable
Nile River. pp2223 metal bronze. pp2425

SOAP (2800 BCE) WHEELED TRANSPORTATION WRITING (3400 BCE)


The rst soap, made of (3200 BCE) Two-wheeled The rst forms of writing
oil and salt, is used for cartsthe earliest wheeled are created in Sumer
washing fabric, not vehiclesare made in what is (in Mesopotamia) and
people. pp4647 now Slovenia. pp4647 Egypt. pp2021

The Great Pyramid at Giza

THE GREAT PYRAMID PACIFIC SETTLERS OLMECS AND CHAVN


(2500 BCE) The pyramid tomb (2000 BCE) Lapita people (1200 BCE) The Olmecs are
of the pharaoh Khufu is become the rst of ve waves the rst civilization in Mexico,
completed in Giza, Egypt. of settlers moving to islands while the Chavn culture
pp2223; 4445 in the Pacic. pp4243 dominates Peru. pp2627

ANCIENT GREECE
(700400 BCE) The ancient
Greek civilization becomes
the most inuential power

Ancient times in the Mediterranean


region. pp2829
Greek vase showing a temple

MOCHE CULTURE (100 CE)


The Moche people of
Humans have come a long way since their ancestors northern Peru create
sophisticated art and
walked the planet 2.5 million years ago (mya). For many textiles. pp2627
thousands of years, people lived simple lives as hunter-
gatherers, spending their time looking for food and 600 CE
SPREADING CHRISTIANITY
defending themselves from wild animals. Then, with (60 CE) Paul the Apostle
sets up churches across the
the advent of farming, civilizations grew. Inventions Roman Empire. pp4041
and discoveriesthe wheel, irrigation, and writing
were slow at rst, but progress has sped up ever since.

6 IF THE 4.6 BILLION YEARS OF EARTHS HISTORY IS REPRESENTED AS


The ancient world
FIRE! (790,000 years ago) THE SECOND MIGRATION
The rst evidence of humans (65,000 years ago) Modern
using controlled re dates humans leave Africa. They
to this time. pp4647 reach Asia and Australia
15,000 years later. pp89

MODERN HUMANS THE FIRST MIGRATION CAVE ART (40,000 years ago)
(195,000 years ago) Modern (100,000 years ago) The rst The earliest known paintings
humans, Homo sapiens modern humans leave Africa are made in Spain, France,
(thinking man), evolve for the Middle East, but do and Australia. pp1213
in Africa. pp89 not survive long. pp89

Cave art of sh from


GLASS (3500 BCE) MEGALITHIC EUROPE ICE AGE (20,000 years ago) Ubirr, Australia
People in Mesopotamia (50002000 BCE) Now settled, The most recent of Earths
(modern-day Iraq) make people build huge stone ice ages reaches its peak.
the rst glass. pp4647 temples, tombs, and pp1011
ceremonial sites. pp1617

CITY LIVING (4500 BCE) NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION EARLY MUSIC (40,000 years ago)
The worlds rst cities (9000 BCE) People begin to settle in The earliest known musical
are established, in places and start to farm, leading instrumentsutes crafted
Mesopotamia. pp1819 to a change also known as the from animal bonesare made in
Agricultural Revolution. pp1415 what is now Germany. pp4647

COINS (610 BCE) EXILE FROM ISRAEL ALEXANDER THE GREAT


The rst coins are made (597539 BCE) The Babylonian (334323 BCE) Alexander III of
in the kingdom of Lydia king Nebuchadnezzar exiles Macedonia expands his Greek Temple of Artemis
(in modern-day Turkey). the Jews from the kingdom empire through Asia and The remains of this 2,000-year-
pp4647 of Judah to Babylon. pp4041 northern Africa. pp3233 old Greek temple to Artemis,
the goddess of hunting, stand
in modern-day Seluk, Turkey.
HANGING GARDENS OF PERSIAN EMPIRE
BABYLON (600 BCE) (550330 BCE) Cyrus the Great
The spectacular stepped establishes an Asian empire
gardens in Babylonia are centered in Persia (modern-
one of the wonders of the day Iran). pp3031
ancient world. pp4445

DEATH OF JESUS CHRIST GREAT WALL OF CHINA


(c.30 CE) After Jesus is killed by (221 BCE) Qin Shi Huangdi unites
the Romans, his followers call the states of China and joins
him Christ and establish the their small defensive walls
Christian religion. pp4041 into one Great Wall. pp3435

ROMAN EMPIRE (27 BCE) PUNIC WARS (264146 BCE)


Octavian declares himself The Roman Republic expands
Emperor Augustus and the after destroying the powerful
Roman Republic becomes state of Carthage during the
an empire. pp3839 Punic Wars. pp3637

ONE YEAR, THE FIRST HUMANS APPEAR AT 11:35 P.M. ON DECEMBER 31! 7
Pestera cu Oase, Romania
Lagar Velho, These caves yielded some of the Tianyuan Cave, China
Portugal oldest remains of Homo sapiens in The oldest Homo sapiens remains
The 24,000-year- Europe, at 30,00034,000 years old. discovered in eastern Asia are 37
old remains of At this time, another human species, bone fragments found in this cave.
a child found in called Neanderthals, greatly They belonged to a single person and
this rock shelter outnumbered Homo sapiens. are dated to 37,00042,000 years old.
have made the
cave famous. Mugharet es-Skhul and Qafzeh, Israel
Human remains that are 90,000110,000 years
old have been found here. They suggest
that a rst wave of Homo sapiens
migration happened earlier
EUROPE than 100,000 years ago.
40,000
years ago

ASIA
40,000
years ago

Homo sapiens MIDDLE


60,000
skull, Herto years ago
125,000 EAST 50,000
years ago years ago

Herto, Ethiopia
The 160,000-year-old Niah Caves,
skulls found here show
Malaysia
some features of human
Human remains,
ancestors, such as heavy,
including a skull
or robust, facial bones.
dating to 40,000
195,000 years ago, have
years ago been found here.
Omo Kibish, Fa Hien Cave, Sri Lanka
Ethiopia Bones from this cave show
The human bones
AFRICA that humans had arrived
discovered here in Stone tool, in Sri Lanka around
196774 have been Klasies River 33,000 years ago.
dated to 195,000 1,500
years old, making years ago Bone tools,
Malakunanja, Australia 50,000 Lake Mungo
them the earliest Archeologists have discovered years ago
known in the world.
120,000
that humans were living in the AUSTRALASIA
years ago protection of this rock shelter
Blombos Cave, 40,000 years ago.
South Africa
This cave contains The story told by DNA
engraved objects, Scientists study the DNA of modern
shell beads, and Lake Mungo, Australia
ne tools of stone
people from around the world to show
The oldest human remains
and bone, all up to how closely related they are. This data found in Australia (around
100,000 years old. can shed light on how their remote 40,000 years old) were
ancestors might have spread discovered here in 1974.
across the globe.

Klasies River, KEY


South Africa Spread of humans
The caves at this Date of rst arrival, based
site have revealed 65,000
years ago on both archeological and
that humans were living DNA evidence
here 125,000 years ago. DNA is a complex molecule shaped like a spiral ladder.
The order of chemicals along the rungs of the ladder
Site of major
forms the unique DNA code of every human. archeological nds

8 AS OUR SPECIES, HOMO SAPIENS, SPREAD AROUND THE WORLD, OLDER


The ancient world
Beringia land route
Scientists think that humans crossed
into North America when the sea
level was lower during the Ice Age.
At that time, they could have walked
across the dry land here.

2016,000 NORTH
years ago
AMERICA

Meadowcroft Rockshelter,
Pennsylvania, US
This is possibly the
Clovis spearheads, St. Louis oldest inhabited site
Wallys Beach, Canada in the Americas. Tools,
Evidence of horse hunting from 11,000
blades, and spearheads
years ago has been found here, including
discovered here may be
blades and bones marked by butchering.
16,00019,000 years old.

Arlington Springs, California, US St. Louis, MIssouris, US


The remains of a man from 13,000 years ago Spearheads such as those from
were discovered on Santa Rosa Island, off the St. Louis belong to the Clovis
coast of California. They suggest that humans culture, widespread in North
explored North America along its coast. America 13,0009,000
years ago. Most experts
now think that the
Experts think that 50,000 Clovis people were not
Taima Taima, the rst Americans.
years ago, there were only Venezuela
Spearheads and
1 million people the cut bones of
mastodons (extinct
elephants) showed
on the Earth. that human hunters
were here up to
14,000 years ago. SOUTH
AMERICA
195,000
15,000
years ag
o Out of Africa
1,000
years ago
The rst members of our species, Homo sapiens,
emerged around 195,000 years ago in east Africa. 15,000
years ago

One population ventured into the Middle East more


than 100,000 years ago, but most humans seem to
have stayed in Africa for the next 85,000 years.
Humans left Africa more permanently 65,000 years
ago. Their journeymade over many generations
Monte Verde, Chile
took humans to Asia, Europe, Australia, and, Excavations at this site in
northern Patagonia have
eventually, to the Americas. revealed bones and charcoal
thought to be 14,800 years old.

SPECIES, SUCH AS NEANDERTHALS AND HOMO ERECTUS, DIED OUT. 9


Laurentide Ice Sheet
This ice sheet was 2 miles (3.2 km) thick at its
center. It scraped huge hollows as it crept
over the land. When it melted, Greenland
the hollows became Ice Sheet
Short-faced the Great Lakes.
bear

Laurentide Ice
Bering Land
Sheet
Bridge Cordilleran
ice sheet NORTH
AMERICA

British Isles
The British Isles
Cordilleran Ice Sheet were joined to the rest
The Rocky Mountains region of Europe, and northern
of Canada was covered by a Smilodon England, Wales, and all
giant glacier called the American of Scotland were
Cordilleran Ice Sheet. mastodon covered by ice.

Bridge to Europe
Lower sea levels
meant that Europe
and Africa were

When the Ice Age was


joined.

Glyptodon
at its height, ice covered
SO

TH
one-third of the
U

AM
Gia ER Sea ice
Earths surface. nt g
rou
nd
sl
ICA During the Ice Age, sea
o ice extended farther from
th

the Antarctic continent


than it does today. Sea ice,
eet

however, is never more


20,00 0
The Ice Age than a few yards thick, so
Ice Sh

ago
years it is insignicant compared
to the great sheets of ice
covering the land.
onian

Ice ages happen when global temperatures


Patag

drop a few degrees and ice builds up in


great sheets. Since water is trapped in the
ice sheets, the oceans shrink, turning areas
of seabed into land. The last ice age, called
simply the Ice Age, reached its peak 20,000
years ago. After this, the ice began to melt.
Today, the largest remaining ice sheets
are over Antarctica and Greenland.
ANTARCTICA

10 THE WORLDS SEA LEVELS FELL SOME 400 FT (120 M) DURING THE ICE
The ancient world

Woolly
mammoth

Siberian Ice Bering


Scandinavian
Sheets Land
Ice Sheet SIBERIA
Bridge A L A S K A
EUROPE Irish
elk

Woolly
rhinoceros ASIA
Bering Land Bridge
Siberia and Alaska were
Ice on the Tibetan connected, creating a
Plateau land bridge over which
early humans migrated
from Asia to North America.

Northern
Europe
An enormous Sahul
ice sheet covered Reduced sea levels created
Scandinavia and a landmass known as Sahul.
large parts of It was made up of modern-
Northern Europe. Persian Gulf day Australia and the island
The Persian Gulf (today, of New Guinea.
a shallow sea) was dry
land during the Ice Age.

AFRICA
Giant
wombat
Sunda
The Malay Peninsula and Indonesia
formed a landmass known as Sunda. AUSTRALASIA
It was separated from Sahul by deep
water, and wildlife in each place did not
mix. Today, monkeys live on land that
Moa
was once Sunda, while marsupials
live only on former Sahul.

New Zealand ice sheet


New Zealands ice sheet carved deep valleys as it
owed slowly from its center to the coast. When the
ice melted, the valleys were ooded by the sea,
KEY creating long, narrow inlets called fjords. Fjords
Present-day Animal present also formed in Norway, Alaska, and Chile.
coastline during Ice Age
(orange line)
Ice sheet at its Antarctic Ice Sheet
greatest size Sea ice
(20,000 years ago)

AGE, UNCOVERING PARTS OF THE SEABED, WHICH BECAME DRY LAND. 11


Chauvet, France
Cave lled with
CZECH
Cave art hot spots REPUBLIC magnicent
Among the richest places GERMANY paintings of lions,
in the world for Ice Age cave bears, hyenas, and
Woolly rhino, woolly rhinos,
paintings are the Dordogne (in FRANCE Chauvet discovered
southwest France) and Cantabria in 1994.
(in northern Spain). Southern
Germany and the Czech
ITALY
Republic have abundant
ancient carvings and other
art objects, including SPAIN
some made from the
worlds rst known
ceramics (pottery).

Newspaper
Rock, Utah
A rock covered in NORTH
petroglyphsimages Brassempouy,
scratched into the AMERICA France
surfacemade by Venus of Cave where
artists during the Brassempouy
a tiny ivory
last 2,000 years. gurine was
found. The Venus
of Brassempouy,
at 25,000 years AFRICA
old, is possibly
the worlds oldest
realistic image of
a human face.

Petroglyphs,
Newspaper
Rock SOUTH AMERICA
KEY
100,000
5,r0s 0
yea
0
ago Cave art Cave paintings
More than 20,000 years ago
(height of the Ice Age)
20,00010,000 years ago
(end of the Ice Age)
People have been making decoration, Stenciled 10,0005,000 years ago
paintings, (after the Ice Age)
patterns, and jewelry for more than Cueva de
las Manos
Carved objects
100,000 years. However, the oldest
More than
known works of art that depict Cueva de las 20,000 years ago
Manos, Argentina
people and animals (rather than Cave with walls covered 20,00010,000 years ago
patterns) are up to 40,000 years in paintings of hands.
Strangely, these are Earliest jewelry
old. They were carved from bone identical to others More than
found in Spain and 20,000 years ago
or painted in caves in Europe Australiaplaces
at the height of the Ice Age. that could never have Earliest pots
been in contact.
20,00010,000 years ago

12 VISITORS TO LASCAUX, FRANCE, TOUR A MODERN COPY OF THE CAVES,


Zaraysk, Russia The ancient world
Site where archeologists have
found many gurines
nely carved from
mammoth ivory.
Jomon pot, Jomon pottery sites, Japan
EUROPE Japan Several sites bearing traces
of some of the worlds earliest
Bison carving,
ASIA pottery vessels, some more
Zaraysk than 16,000 years old.

Lion Man, Hohlenstein, Germany


Hohlenstein
Site where archeologists found an ivory carving of a
Lion Man, which, at 41,000 years old, could be the
earliest known art that pictures an animal.

Bhimbetka, India,
Rock shelters containing
30,000-year-old paintings of
bison, rhinos, and deer. Deer,
Bhimbetka

Cave of
swimmers,
The Cave of Egypt
Fish,
Swimmers, Ubirr

Egypt
Cave in the Ubirr, Australia
Sahara with Rock faces that artists
10,000-year-old have painted and repainted
paintings of people during the last 40,000 years.
swimming. At the
time, this region
Many cave
lay beside
a huge lake. paintings are
so old they record
a time when
mammoths AUSTRALASIA

Shell
beads,
roamed Europe.
Blombos
Cave

Spitting image
Blombos Cave, Aboriginal artists in Australia are
South Africa still adding to paintings in some
Cave containing ancient rock-art sites. Some paint
shell beads
and decorated
the pictures by spitting paint from
stones that are their mouths. Experts think this
an amazing technique was used around the
70,000100,000 world thousands of years ago.
years old.

COMPLETE WITH PAINTINGS, BECAUSE THE ORIGINALS ARE SO FRAGILE. 13


KEY
Main crops being farmed Animals domesticated The spread
by 4000 BCE by 4000 BCE of agriculture
9000 BCE
Bactrian Llama
Corn Barley camel 8500 BCE
Pig 8000 BCE
Buffalo
7000 BCE
Cattle Sheep 6000 BCE
Rice Millet
5000 BCE
Chicken Turkey
4750 BCE
Goat Yak 4500 BCE
Wheat 4000 BCE
Guinea pig Direction of spread

4500 B
CE
North America
Corn reached North
America from Central
America around 2100 BCE.
Southern Europe
Farming spread
to southern Europe
in the 7000s BCE from
the Fertile Crescent
Central America in the Middle East.
Agriculture started
around 4750 BCE. Sahel
Corn became the 3000 BCE
staple crop. 3000
BC
E

The first
9000
4000 BCE South America
Farming began in the
Andes around 5,500 years
Africa
Agriculture developed
independently in three
areas of Africa: the

farmers ago. Guinea pigs were Sahel, west Africa,


domesticated for food. and the Ethiopian
Highlandsall in
the 4000s BCE.

Starting around 9000 BCE, the Neolithic Farming had some


(also called the Agricultural) Revolution
transformed the way humans lived. drawbacks. It led to an
People grew crops and kept animals increase in disease.
for the rst time, produced greater
amounts of food, and started Smallpox, inuenza, and
to live in permanent farming villages. measles all spread from
In the end, farming led to people
living in towns and cities. animals to humans.

14 THE FIRST PLANTS THAT FARMERS GREW AS CROPS WERE TALL, WILD
The ancient world

Domestication
All crops and farm animals
are descended from wild
plants and animals, which
people have changed through
Northern China selective breeding over many
Agriculture developed generations. People would sow
The Middle East independently in only the seeds of plants that
Northern Europe The Neolithic northern China produced the largest grains
Farming began in Revolution started around 8000 BCE. and breed only from animals
northern Europe in an area known as that were both strong and
around 4500 BCE. the Fertile Crescent tame. This process is called
around 9000 BCE. domestication.

Central Asia
The Bactrian camel
was rst domesticated
(tamed) in central Asia
5000 B
around 2500 BCE. CE

Early cattle might have looked like


this ancient breed, the heck cow.

East Asia
Domesticated rice was grown
Ethiopian as early as 8500 BCE in Chinas
Highlands Yangtze Valley.

Indus Valley
Agriculture was well 100
0B
established in the Indus 2500 BC
E CE

Valley by around 6000 BCE.


CE

The Fertile Crescent Caspian


0B

Sea
Anatolia
100

Farming is thought to have


started around 9000 BCE Me
in an arc-shaped area so
po
of land known as the Fertile ta
m
Crescent. Stretching from ia
the Persian Gulf in the east Ti g
J o rd a n R i v e r

Eu
Mediterranean Sea ph
ris

to Egypt in the west, the soil ra


Ri

in the region was watered es


t

ve

Riv r
by several important rivers, er
Egypt
including the Tigris, the Sinai Persian
Euphrates, and the Nile. Gulf
N i le R i v er

Arabian
Desert
KEY Red
The Fertile Crescent Sea

GRASSES, INCLUDING PRIMITIVE VARIETIES OF BARLEY AND WHEAT. 15


Newgrange, Ireland
Burial chamber at the Stoplesteinan
end of a narrow passage
of giant stone slabs, built Goseck Circle, Germany
5,200 years ago and buried Ales Circular enclosure built in 4800 BCE
in an earth mound. Stones as a Sun observatory. Its gates align
with sunrise and sunset on the summer
and winter solstice (the longest and
Vera
shortest days of the year). Island

EUROPE
Grand Menhir
dEr Grah
Stonehenge, England
The worlds most Hot
famous stone circle, Bulls of Stones
built from 3100 to Guisando
1600 BCE. No one Giants Graves
knows exactly what Antequera
it was used for. Gbleki Tepe, Turkey
Almendres Ancient ruins in Turkey
Cromlech that may be remains of
Mzoura the worlds oldest temple,
Atlit Yam dating back to 9000 BCE.

Temples of Malta
11 complex and spectacular temples
built as long ago as 3000 BCE on the
islands of Malta and Gozo. Nabta Playa

Stone circles of Senegambia


(The Gambia and Senegal)
93 stone circles and many burial AFRICA
mounds in a wide area of sacred
land along the Gambia River.
Tiya

Bouar

9000 BCE
1300 CE Megaliths
During the megalithic (giant stone) period, people in many places
built structures (megaliths) from huge stone blocks. These structures
included tombs, temples, ceremonial sites, and observatoriesused
to measure the position of the Sun, Moon, and stars. The megalithic period in
Europe started 7,000 years ago, but later megalithic traditions began in east
Asia 3,000 years ago, and in west Africa 1,000 years ago.

16 MANY OF THE STONES USED TO BUILD STONEHENGE WERE TRANSPORTED


The ancient world

KEY
This map shows the global pattern Ganghwa Dolmens,
of megaliths. Megalithic cultures South Korea
developed where people settled in More than 120 dolmens
communities that were big enough (tombs) in the mountains
to organize grand building projects. of the island of Ganghwa.
Built in 1000800 BCE,
Areas of megalithic culture these are some of the
Major megalithic monuments oldest dolmens in Korea.
Other important megalithic sites

Deer stones, Mongolia


More than 550 granite
stones carved with pictures
of deer, dating to 1000 BCE.

ASIA Mozu
Kofungun
Furuichi
Kofungun
Plain of Jars, Laos Kochang
Several hundred
Hwasun
huge stone jars, dating
Burzahom from 500 BCE to 200 CE,
spread over more than
90 separate sites.

Birbir

Chokahatu
Chang
Kuang Ishibutai
Kofun, Japan
Largest megalithic
tomb in Japan, built
in the Asuka Period,
592710 CE.

Dolmens of
Kerala, India Marayoor Dong Nai
Mushroom-
shaped burial Ibbankatuwa
monuments dating
from 300 BCE to 200 CE.

Nias
Megaliths in
the Americas
The Americas are home
to megaliths, too, including
those in eastern Canada,
Central America, Peru,
and Bolivia. Some are up Gunung
Padang
to 3,400 years old. The Sumba
giant stone blocks (right) Lore Lindu, Indonesia
of the Pumapunku temple Over 400 megaliths,
complex in Bolivia date some carved in the shape
to around 600 CE. of humans. They date from
3000 BCE to 1300 CE.

FROM 150 MILES (240 KM) AWAY. THE LARGEST WEIGH OVER 40 TONS. 17
Mesopotamia
KEY The fertile land between
the Tigris and Euphrates
Area of early Former sea rivers was perfect
city-based civilizations (today, this area
for farming.
Early city is dry land, due
to silting up of
Trade route
the river mouths)

Nineveh
E u p h r at eM Tell Brak
s es

Tigris
op Nuzi
ot

Ri
am

ve

Riv
r
ia

er
Nile River Mari
The Nile River ooded at the same

ant
time every year. This meant the land

Lev
next to the river was fertile and ideal Sippar
for growing crops.
Kish
Eridu SUMER Uruk
Eridu was possibly
Memphis Ur
the rst city to be
The city of Memphis built in Mesopotamia, Eridu
Memphis Iunu (Heliopolis)
Saqqara in around 4500 BCE.
N i le R i v

rst appeared
around 3100 BCE
and became the City of Ur
The Sumerian city of Ur was
er

largest in Egypt
established around 4000 BCE
Ni

and possibly, EGYPT and by 2000 BCE, with nearly


le

the world.
100,000 inhabitants, it
Va

Temple precinct, rivaled Memphis as the


lle

Memphis
biggest city in the world.
y

Abydos A great temple, called a


Naqada

The
4500 ziggurat, sat at its heart.
Nekhen
1000 BCE

first cities
Ziggurat of Ur

Arabian Desert

As farmers started to produce more


food, people moved from villages into
townsthe rst in about 7000 BCE. By
4500 BCE, some towns had become the rst cities. This
started in Mesopotamia, but cities also emerged early
on in the Nile and Indus valleys. These three city-building
regions were in contact with each other through trade. Egyptian statue from Saqqara

18 ARCHEOLOGISTS THINK THAT BY 2800 BCE, THE CITY OF URUK


The ancient world

Early cities worldwide NORTH Yellow


EUROPE
AMERICA
In time, cities started to spring up ASIA River
Valley
independently in other parts of the Olmec civilization
Chinese
world. In South America, the city civilization

of Caral, and other cities of Perus Mesoamerica AFRICA

Norte Chico civilization, appeared


Norte Chico
in 26002000 BCE; in Asia, around civilization
1800 BCE, city-based kingdoms grew Peru
SOUTH
around Chinas Yellow River; and in AMERICA

Mesoamerica, the Olmec civilization KEY


had taken root by 1000 BCE. Sites of Chinese and American
city-based civilizations,
30001000 BCE

Harappa
street layout
Zagros Mountains
Irrigation (controlling the
ow of water to grow crops)
was invented in the Zagros Indus River
Mountains. The idea soon The mighty Indus
spread to Mesopotamia and River gave rise to the
Egypt and became a vital rst cities in Asia. Rakhigarhi
part of the city-based

River
Za

civilizations there.
gr

Harappa

Indus
os

y
lle
M

Mohenjo-Daro Va Harappa
ou

Mohenjo-Daro existed from dus At its height


In
nt

around 2500 BCE and had a in 25001900 BCE,


ai

population of more than 50,000. Mohenjo-Daro Harappa had a


ns

As in Harappa, every house population of up to


had both running water and 40,000 people. Like
plumbing to carry away waste. other Indus cities,
Chanhu-Daro it was laid out on
a precise grid
pattern of streets.

Dholavira

City walls, built for defense, were Lothal

common in Mesopotamia by 2900 BCE. Rojadi

Nile Valley Mesopotamia Indus Valley


The cities of the Nile Valley In Mesopotamia, the earliest The Indus Valley civilization
became part of the Old cities were built in Sumer. appeared around 2600 BCE,
Kingdom of Egypt. Egyptians Sumerians developed the but by 1700 BCE, most cities
developed medicine, math, worlds rst writing, used had been mysteriously
astronomy, and a 365-day-a- accurate calendars, and abandoned. The people left
year calendar. Their number were the rst people to some artifacts, such as
system was based on 10s, create laws to govern many this statue, which is known
just as ours is today. people living together. as the priest-king.
Sumerian statue from Mari Priest-king from Mohenjo-Daro

IN MESOPOTAMIA HAD A POPULATION OF AROUND 80,000 PEOPLE. 19


The rst alphabet
Alphabets, used today to write many languages,
were originally an idea of people (below) living in
Canaan and Egypts Sinai Desert around 1800 BCE.
They adapted Egyptian hieroglyphs and Sumerian
cuneiform writing to stand for the sounds in
their language, inventing the Proto-Canaanite
script. The alphabet idea was passed on to the
Phoenicians, then the Greeks, and then the
Romans. Each time, people changed slightly
the shape and order of the symbols.

Germanic runes, 150 CE


Runes were the writing EUROPE
symbols used in Germany
and Scandinavia. They were
also called futhark, after the
Olmec glyphs, 900 BCE
NORTH sounds of the rst six symbols
in the runic alphabet (above).
Writing in North America AMERICA
may have begun with the
Olmecs. Their writing
was rst found when road
builders discovered the
Cascajal Block in
the 1990s. It was AFRICA
covered in Olmec
picture symbols,
or glyphs. Quipu knots, 650 CE
People used this method
of record keeping, also
known as talking knots,

The
3400 BCE in the Inca Empire and older
civilizations in ancient Peru.
650 CE Information was coded by the
color and pattern of knots in
threads of llama or alpaca wool.

origins SOUTH
AMERICA
of writing
In Chinese legend,
People began recording things the day the rst writing
by writing them down more
than 5,000 years ago, in Sumer (in symbols were born
modern-day Iraq), and Egypt. Later, marked the second
in China and the Americas, other
groups of people invented totally beginning of the world.
different systems of writing.

20 SOME ANCIENT SCRIPTS WERE WRITTEN LEFT-TO-RIGHT, WHILE OTHERS


The ancient world
Indus Valley script, 2600 BCE
Experts have not yet cracked the
code of these mysterious symbols,
Phaistos disk written by people of the long-lost KEY
script, 1800 BCE Colors show
Indus Valley civilization.
This disk from Crete, the date by which
Greece, carries a unique writing had arrived.
hieroglyphic script that 3000 BCE
has not been decoded. 2000 BCE
Phoenician alphabet, 1100 BCE
Traders of the eastern Mediterranean, called 1250 BCE
the Phoenicians, had their own alphabet, 500 BCE
which they passed on to the Greeks. 500 CE
Location of a key
form of writing

Chinese Shang Dynasty


oracle bone script, 1500 BCE
an
na The earliest recognizable
Ca ASIA Chinese writing was carved
Sinai
Desert
on bones and turtle shells
by oracles (fortune-tellers).

Indian Brahmi script, 500 BCE


Brahmi appeared on announcements
of the emperor Ashoka (left, from the
200s BCE) throughout India. Its origins
are unknown, but it is the ancestor of
dozens of writing systems in India
and Southeast Asia.
Sumerian pictographs, 3400 BCE
Merchants in Sumer (southern
Mesopotamia) developed the earliest
known writing. They recorded quantities
of goods by scratching pictographs
(picture symbols, above) on clay tablets.
Over centuries, the symbols evolved into
simple cuneiform (wedge-shaped)
marks pressed into the clay.
AUSTRALASIA
Ethiopic script, 300s CE
When writing arrived in Ethiopia,
scribes adapted it to write the Geez
language used in church. People
The Rosetta Stone
now write modern Ethiopian Egyptian hieroglyphs might be
languages with this script. meaningless to us if it werent
for the Rosetta Stone. It bears
an inscription in three scripts
hieroglyphics, demotic (another
form of Egyptian writing), and
Egyptian hieroglyphs, 3100 BCE ancient Greek. Since experts
A unique type of picture writing called could read the Greek, the stone
hieroglyphics developed in Egypt. provided the key to breaking
Some of the pictures, or hieroglyphs, the code of the hieroglyphs.
stood for sounds, but others acted
as words, or parts of words.

WERE WRITTEN RIGHT-TO-LEFT, DOWNWARD, OR EVEN IN A ZIGZAG! 21


Bastet Karnak Temple
Mediterranean Sea Cat goddess who Largest temple
represented the complex in Egypt,
power of the Sun to dating from the
Rosetta Stone ripen crops. People Middle Kingdom.
Stone slab, carved worshiped statues Colossus
with three different
Sinai
of her at Bubastis. of Memnon
scripts, which provided One of two great
the key to deciphering statues of Pharaoh
hieroglyphs in the Amenhotep III, built
19th century. Tanis about 1350 BCE.
Avans
Rosetta Bubastis

Heliopolis
Great Pyramid Memphis Nefertiti
Giza
One of the Seven Queen of Egypt in 135336
Saqqara
Wonders of the World, BCE, when her husband
this is the largest and Low er
Akhenaten moved the capital
oldest pyramid
at Giza.
Egypt to Amarna. Nefertiti is famous

Cr
for a beautiful sculpture of her,
Upper
oc
now in a museum in Berlin.
od
ilo
o li Egypt
p
s
Amarna
Hermopolis
Thebes
Sobek Nekhen
In Crocodilopolis, Valley of the Kings
people prayed to Burial ground of
statues like this, pharaohs of the
Sphinx which shows New Kingdom.
Great statue of a Sobek the Tutankhamun's
lion with a human head, Crocodile, tomb was found,
built 4,500 years ago. god of rivers untouched, containing
and lakes. the golden mask of his
mummy, in 1922.

If anyone would know Narmer Palette

how great I am, let him Thoth


Baboon god of wisdom whose
Decorated stone that
depicts the victories of
King Narmer, the
cult center was at the ancient
surpass one of my works. city of Hermopolis, where people
prayed to statues like this.
pharaoh who rst
united Egypt.
Pharaoh Ramesses II, inscription in his memorial
temple, the Ramesseum, 13th century BCE

3100
30 BCE Land of the pharaohs
Egypt was a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River, surrounded
by desert. It was in the Nile Valley that the Egyptians built their immense
pyramids, colossal temples, and secret tombs, containing mummies of their
dead, cut deep into hillsides. Pharaohs were the rulers of Egypt for more than 3,000
years, from around 3100 BCE until the country became a province of Rome in 30 BCE.

22 THE GREAT SPHINX IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST STATUES:


The ancient world

KEY 3,000 years of history


Major city Ancient Egypt was one of the great
Pyramid Temple civilizations of the world. It survived
Built as tombs for the pharaohs. Sacred monuments dedicated
Pyramids of the Old Kingdom sit to the gods and goddesses of
many invasions but ended when the
near Memphis; those of the Late Egypt. Temples were built in Romans conquered it in 30 BCE.
Period are in Nubia, or Kush (in every major city in both
YEARS BCE ROMAN CONQUEST
modern Sudan). Egypt and Nubia. Egypt became a province of the
30 Roman Empire, ending 3,000
years of rule by pharaohs.
GREEK PERIOD
Greek pharaohs, installed by
332 Alexander the Great, ruled Egypt.

LATE PERIOD
Period when Egypt was controlled
alternately by native rulers and
747 the rulers of foreign powers.
R ed S e a
THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
Egypt conquered by various
civilizations, such as the Libyans,
1069 the Nubians, and the Assyrians.

NEW KINGDOM
Era of wealth and good relations
with other countries.
Philae

R
Island in the Nile River, near 1550

E
SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
Aswan, that houses a complex

D
1650 Period when Egypt was again split
of temples built in Greek and into Upper and Lower parts.

L
Roman times to worship

O
Aswan MIDDLE KINGDOM
Return to rule by pharaohs,
the goddess Isis. bringing stability and wealth.
2055
r
ndu FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
De 2181 First of three periods of instability
and power struggles between
different rulers.

OLD KINGDOM
Amada All-powerful pharaohs ruled and
Abu Simbel were buried in vast pyramids.
Two huge temples carved out of
2686
Abu Simbel a mountainside in 126444 BCE
in honor of the reigning
EARLY DYNASTIC
pharaoh, Ramesses II. Period following the unication
of Upper and Lower Egypt.

3100

N i le
Rive
r

Nubia, o r K ush Mero

Gebel Barkal Mero


Nuri Ancient city that was
Kerma capital of Nubia during
Ni rru the Greek period of
le Ku
Kawa El- Egypt. It is the site of
Riv
er over 200 pyramids built
as burial chambers.

King Taharqa
Pharaoh of both Egypt and Nubia, shown
in this statue, worshiping an Egyptian
falcon-god. He made Nuri his capital and
his pyramid was the rst to be built there.

IT IS LONGER THAN SIX SCHOOL BUSES AND TALLER THAN A HOUSE. 23


Cornwall
Cornwall in Britain
supplied tin, through Ore Mountains
middlemen, to the The Erzgebirge, or
Bronze Age cities Ore Mountains
of the eastern were mined for tin
Mediterranean. ore (the source
of tin) on a large
scale even before
2000 BCE.

Britain

Brittany U r n f i e l d c u l t u r a l a re
Brittany (in todays a
France) had some tin of
its own, and merchants
here may have passed
this, as well as Cornish EUROPE
tin, on toward markets
in the Middle East.

HITTITE

GREECE
Central Europe Mycenaean Greece
People in central Europe did not build In the Bronze Age,
cities, but they created beautiful objects from the people who lived in
Greece belonged to what Mediterranean
bronze. Modern-day Austria was the center of a
bronze-working culture called the Urneld culture, is called the Mycenaean S ea
because their dead were buried in pottery urns. civilization. Its main
city was Mycenae.

AFRICA

NEW
3200
The Bronze Age
OF EG
1200 BCE

KINGDOM
YPT
In around 3200 BCE, people in Egypt and Mesopotamia (now Iraq)
rst added tin to copper at high temperatures to form a durable
metal called bronze. This new metal could make tools, weapons,
armor, and beautiful jewelry. In Mesopotamia and the Middle East, cities
and civilizations grew, and bronze working spread widely. The cities hunger
for rare tin reserves increased, and by 1250 BCE, the worlds biggest powers
needed a long trade network to maintain the tin supply.

24 IN AROUND 1200 BCE, THE BRONZE AGE POWERS OF EGYPT, GREECE, AND
The ancient world

KEY
Chinese bronze This map shows Bronze Age Europe
Both China and Southeast and western Asia in 1250 BCE.
Asia had thriving bronze
industries tooas early as Great Middle Eastern city-based
civilizations based on bronze working
2000 BCE. People in these
Other areas with settlements that
regions may have invented had developed bronze working
bronze separately, or
may have gained the Areas without bronze technology
technology from the Source of copper
West via the steppes Copper was widespread across
of northern Asia. the Bronze Age world.
Shang Dynasty Chinese
bronze blades (c.1500 BCE)
Source of tin
Tin is the other metal needed to
make bronze, but the main sources
were found nowhere near the city-
based civilizations of the Middle East.
Great powers, such as Egypt and
Babylonia, had to import tin from
as far away as Britain.
ASIA Afghanistan
Afghanistan was
rich in tin, but
B la ck S e a experts cannot
be certain that
the tin reached
the cities of the
Middle East.

EMPIRE

ASSYRIA
Me
so
po
BA t a
BY
MIDDLE
m

LO
NI
ia

A ELAM
EAST

Death claimed
them for all their
erceness, and
they left the bright
sunlight behind them. I N D I A N
Re

Hesiod, ancient Greek poet writing about the O C E A N


d

Bronze Age in Works and Days (c.700 BCE)


Se
a

BABYLONIA ALL COLLAPSED, LEAVING LITTLE RECORD OF WHAT HAPPENED. 25


Maya culture, 400 BCE900 CE
Maya civilization was made up of many
separate cities in what is now Mexico, Belize,
Guatemala, and Honduras. The classic Maya Maya
calendar
cities declined after 800 CE, but parts of their
culture live on even today.

MEXICO Giant Olmec


stone head
Dzibilchaltn
Chichn Itz
Laguna de los Cerros
San Lorenzo
La Venta Calakmul Cuello

El Mirador
Zapotec clay Palenque Tikal
urn showing the Tres Zapotes Xunantunich
Chiapa de
rain god Cocijo Corzo Tonina Yaxchilan
Monte Seibal Caracol
Altar de Quirigua
Albn Santa Cruz Sacricios

Aquiles Sardn
Altamira Copn CENTRAL
Kaminaljuy Las Victorias
La Victoria
La Blanca AMERICA
Zapotec culture, 500 BCE900 CE Olmec culture,
Zapotec culture emerged in the 1200400 BCE
Oaxaca valley, now in southern The Olmecs built several cities
Mexico. The capital, Monte Albn, in what is now southern Mexico.
dominated the region for 1,000 They invented a writing system,
years. At its center was a hilltop a calendar, a family of gods,
ceremonial platform shaped like and pyramid-shaped temples,
the base of a pyramid. all of which they passed on
to the Zapotecs and Maya.
The intricate Maya
calendar includes the
Long Count dating system,
Ancient
1200 BCE
900 CE which lasts 5,126 years.

Americas Mayan writing


The Maya developed advanced astronomy,
math, and medicine, and a complex
More than 3,000 years ago, city-based writing system. It was made up of 500
or so symbols called glyphs. They were
civilizations were developing in two arranged in glyph blocks organized in
different areas of the Americas. pairs. You had to read the glyphs in a
zigzag pattern down each pair of columns.
In what is now southern Mexico, the Olmecs
became experts in growing corn. They grew
wealthy and began to build great ceremonial
centers with pyramid temples. At the same time,
shing and farming people in Peru developed
a civilization called the Chavn. Their cities,
too, were centered on temples in the shape
of at-topped pyramids.

26 WEALTHY MAYAN PEOPLE TIED BOARDS TO CHILDRENS HEADS TO


The ancient world

The Mound Builders


At the same time as the Maya were
building their pyramid temples,
people in North America were
NORTH
building mysterious monuments
mounds of various shapes and AMERICA
patternsin the Mississippi and
Ohio river valleys. Some were
burial mounds, but the reason
most were built is still unknown. KEY
Hopewell and
Together, these peoples are called Adena mound sites
Mound Builders, but they belonged
to several different cultures. Serpent Mound, Ohioa Hopewell culture monument Mounds of the Hopewell and Adena cultures,
700 BCE400 CE

A T L A N T I C
O C E A N

SOUTH AMERICA

Moche culture, 100800 CE


Moche earring
The Moche people ourished Nazca culture,
on the northern desert coast of 350 BCE450 CE
Peru. They were skilled weavers The Nazca people of Peru
and goldsmiths, and created are famous for their painted
pottery in many shapes and pottery and the Nazca Lines
designs, sometimes as portraits Chavn tenon head incredible carvings in the
and often with stirrup spouts. desert soil of the region.
The pictures are so large,
they are visible only from
P A C I F I C an airplane, so the artists
could never have admired
O C E A N their work.
Cerro
Vics

KEY Sipn
Pacatnam Nazca Lines
Area of Olmec Olmec site
civilization Huaca del Brujo monkey gure
Moche
Area of Zapotec Shillacoto
civilization Zapotec site Tornaval Chavn de
Paamarca Huntar
Area of Maya
Chavn culture, Ancn
civilization Mayan site 1000 BCE200 BCE
Garagay
Area of Chavin
The Chavn culture of Peru
Chavn site may have evolved slowly from PE
civilization RU
Area of Nazca
the earlier Norte Chico civilization,
Nazca site which built the rst cities in the
civilization Paracas
Americas. Chavn buildings had tenon Nazca
Area of Moche Moche site
Pampa Ingenio
civilization headsstone carvings of jaguar faces
Cahuachi Tambo Viejo
with long canine teethprojecting
from the tops of the walls.

CONTROL THEIR SHAPE AS THEY GREWTO ENHANCE THEIR BEAUTY. 27


ITALY Adriatic Sea
Temple
Poseidonia
The Greeks built grand temples in all their
colonies to honor their many gods. The
oldest temple in Poseidonia was dedicated
to Hera, the goddess of marriage and women.

Poseidonia

KEY
This map shows ancient Greece
and its colonies (areas under
Greek control) in 431 BCE, and
Tyrrhenian
also which states supported
Athens or Sparta. Sea
I am not
Athens and allies Warship Athenian or
Sparta and allies
Neutral states and colonies Greek, but a citizen
of the world.
Attributed to Socrates, ancient
Greek philosopher, 469399 BCE
Sicily Ionian Sea
Olympia
Syracuse From 776 BCE,
One of the most inuential athletes from across
Greek cities, Syracuse was the the Greek world
Syracuse target of an attack by Athens competed in
in 415 BCE. Athens had the best running, discus-
warships, including triremes throwing, and
(ships powered by both sails other games at
and three banks of oars), the sanctuary (holy
but their expedition ended place) of Zeus
in spectacular defeat. Throwing in Olympia.
the discus

700
400 BCE Ancient Greece Athens versus Sparta
Athens and Sparta fought each
other in the Peloponnesian War,
431404 BCE. Athens gained
territory and built up a strong
Ancient Greece was a collection of city-states, navy, but Sparta had many
including Athens and Sparta, whose people allies, and soldiers trained
from the age of seven. The
shared the same language, believed in the war ended in Spartan victory.
same gods, and enjoyed sports, theater, and poetry. The
states sometimes united to ght against a common
enemy, such as Persia, but they also fought each other.
The ercest rivals were Sparta, a proud warrior nation,
and Athens, the birthplace of democracy and the home
of great scientists and politicians.

28 EVERY GREEK TOWN HAD A POTTERS QUARTER WHERE BEAUTIFUL


Thermopylae The ancient world
Spartans fought to the death against the Persians here in 480 BCE,
allowing Athenian troops to regroup and take on the mighty
Persian Empire.

Byzantium
THRACE
N IA
DO
ACE
M
Spartan
warriors

IAN EMPIR
PERS E
Running from
Marathon Marathon
Lemnos After defeating Persia at the
battle of Marathon in 490 BCE,
the Greek army quickly
G

marched to Athens, warning


R

them to take up arms against


Lesbos the Persian eet sailing
Phocaea
E

Thermopylae around the coast. According


Delphi to legend, it was the runner
E

Thebes Pheidippides who took the


Euboe IONIA message. Modern marathons
a Chios
C

Marathon
are named after the legend
E

Corinth Athens of the heroic runner.


Aegean Sea
Olympia se
e
Ephesus
Marathon
n n Argos
po
Miletus
o
P el
Sparta
CARIA

Athens
Athenians worshiped
Athena, goddess of wisdom, war, Rhodes
Sparta and the arts. Socrates, Plato, and other
Spartan children were famous Greek thinkers lived here.
trained to be strong
and healthy. Boys
hoped to join their
mighty army, but girls Crete
Mediterranean Sea
were not allowed.

Mediterranean superpowers
Apollonia Ancient Greece started expanding in EUROPE
An important trade the 8th century BCE, founding colonies
center, this city in Turkey, Italy, France, Spain, Libya, and
ET

Black S ea
RU

also had an
Egypt. But Greece was not the only power ONIA
RI

outdoor theater ED
M AC
A

near the sea. All of the time. The Phoenicians, energetic


NICIA

Greek cities had sailors and traders, had colonies as far GREECE
theaters, where away as Spain and along the North CARTHAGE Medite
rranean S ea
PHOE

tragedies and African coast. The Etruscans, skilled KEY


comedies could in bronze working and sculpture, Etruscans
EGYPT
last for hours. dominated northern Italy until Rome Phoenicians
AFRICA
Masks worn in
took over around 280 BCE. Greeks

Apollonia the theater

CUPS, POTS, AND VASES WERE MADE IN THE LATEST STYLES. 29


5. Fall of Lydia
After a two-week
siege at Sardis in the 4. Battle of Pteria Caucasus
winter of 547 BCE, 11. Ionian Revolt Cyrus repelled an
Cyrus conquered The Persians crushed invasion by Croesus,
the Lydians. a revolt by rebellious king of Lydia, at Pteria.
THRA states in Ionia, who
DO NIA CE were supported by the
M ACE Greeks, at the battle of
Lade, the port of Miletus.
Pella 4 547 BCE
THERMOPYLAE
PTERIA
12 480 BCE

SARDIS 5
547 BCE
490 BCE
479 BCE Sardis
PLATEA
MARATHON Ephesus
ION
GR

480 BCE
SALAMIS Athens IA
EE

CE 479 BCE Cavalryman of the


Sparta 11 Persian Empire
12. Battle of MYCALE 13 494 BCE Nineveh
Thermopylae

ME
MILETUS
The Persians Aleppo

SO
PO
achieved their only Crete s TA
victory over the Greeks C ypru MI
in this battle. It was part of A
13. Battle of Mycale
a second invasion of Greece, The Persian war against
by Darius Is son, Xerxes. the Greeks ended when the Persian
539 BCE
OPIS
eet was sunk at the battle of Mycale. Babylon 6

Mediterranean Sea Nippur

8 525 BCE
PELUSIUM

Battle of Opis

8. Battle of Pelusium
Cambyses II conquered
Egypt after victory at 6. Capture of Babylon
the battle of Pelusium. Cyrus took Babylon in
539 BCE, after defeating the
EGYPT Babylonians at the battle
of Opis. His empire had
become the largest the

The
550
330 BCE
Thebes
world had ever seen.

Persian Empire Arabian


Desert

The Persian Empire expanded quickly and brought


together many nations, stretching from present-day
Greece to Pakistan. At its height in the 5th century BCE,
Re

the empire spanned three continents and contained more than


d
Se

two-fths of the worlds population. When it invaded Greece,


a

however, it entered into years of war that ended with defeat.

30 PERSIAN EMPEROR CYRUS THE GREAT IS FAMOUS FOR CREATING THE


TAE The ancient world
S AGE
Ca
S
MA 7. Death of Cyrus
sp Cyrus was defeated and
7 530 BCE
AXARTES I am Cyrus who
ia killed in battle against
n
Se
the Massagetae people
of central Asia in 530 BCE.
won the Persians
a His son became emperor
Cambyses II (named after their empire. Do not
Cambyses I, Cyruss father). SOGDIANA
begrudge me this
3. Defeat of the Medes
Cyrus captured Ecbatana, the capital
of Media, in 549 BCE. His conquest of
piece of earth that
the Medes made him emperor of the
rst Persian Empire. covers my bones.
Merv Epitaph of Cyrus the Great, died 530 CE

D IA
ME
Glazed bricks from
the palace of Susa
3 Ecbatana show Darius Is
bodyguards, known BACTRIA
as the Immortals.

GANDHARA
10 Susa
2. Battle of Pasargadae
Cyrus defeated King Astyages Kandahar
PERSIS 10. Building of palace at Susa at the battle of Pasargadae.
Emperor Darius I made Susa Pasargadae later became
another important capital and Cyruss capital.
built a palace there in the
Babylonian style.

1. Cyrus crowned 1 550 BCE 2 9. Building of Persepolis The eastern


Cyrus became leader PASARGADAE Darius I, successor staircase at
Persepolis
of the Parsa tribe of 9 Persepolis to Cambyses II, is famous for
Persis in 559 BCE. His lands ordered work to start its images of
the people
were part of the huge territory on a new capital of the empire.
of Astyages, king of the Medes. city at Persepolis
around 520 BCE.

KEY
1 Key location
Growth of the Persian Empire (550480 BCE)
Persian homeland 525 BCE Battle (with date)
before 550 BCE
Persian Royal Road
Land gained by 549 BCE Built by Darius I, it ran 1,700 miles Cyrus the Great
Land gained by 525 BCE (2,700 km) from Susa to Sardis.
Empire at its greatest Royal messengers could travel the
Cyrus the Great was more than
extent, 480 BCE length of the road in nine days. a great conqueror. He became
the standard for the qualities
Greek Wars (490479 BCE) expected of a ruler: tolerance
Darius I launched a doomed invasion of the Greek mainland toward other religions and
in 492 BCE. His son, Xerxes, tried again in 480 BCE. cultures, and generosity
480 BCE Greek victory (with date) toward those he defeated.
480 BCE Persian victory (with date) He was the rst king in
history to be called great.
Persian campaign against Greece

WORLDS FIRST POSTAL SYSTEM AND THE FIRST CODE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. 31
334
323 BCE Alexander the Great
One of the greatest military leaders in history, Alexander the
Great single-handedly united far-ung lands by conquering them
and imposing on them Greek ideas, customs, and culture. In little
more than a decade, the young king defeated the mighty Persian Empire
and established a huge kingdom that stretched from India
in the east to Egypt in the west.

EUROPE
Alexander
the Great
2. Cities surrender
By spring 333 BCE, over 30 cities
in Asia Minor had surrendered
to Alexander.
3. Cutting the knot
Pella 1 Alexander reached
GRANICUS
A
ONI 334 BCE Gordium where he cut
CED 2 the Gordian Knot (the
MA 3
ASIA impossible puzzle) with
KEY Gordium his sword. According
MINOR
GREECE to legend, it was a sign
Alexanders empire Sardis
Athens he would rule Asia.
Dependent regions ISSUS
GAUGAMELA 7
331 BCE
Alexanders route 333 BCE
4
Signicant battles Nineveh

Mountain pass
Thapsacus
Key town or city 1. Invasion
Alexander launched
1 Key event his invasion of the 4. Enemies meet
Persian Empire in In November 333 BCE, Alexander met TYRE
334 BCE Date of event Persian emperor Darius III in battle
334 BCE. 332 BCE
Damascus
for the rst time. The Persian army
was outmaneuvered and suffered
heavy losses. Darius ed.
GAZA 8. Taking Babylon
332 BCE The great city of Babylon
Paraetonium Alexandria 5 surrendered in 331 BCE;
Alexander entered the
gates in triumph.
Heliopolis
6 Memphis
Siwa
5. Siege of Gaza
Changing the world In 332 BCE, Alexander
EGYPT was wounded by a
As Alexander the Great
catapult bolt during
conquered empires, he the Siege of Gaza.
took Greek language, 6. Consulting the Oracle
Alexander visited the oracle
customs, and culture of Ammon at Siwa. The oracle
with him. Greek-style (a person thought to be able to
portraiture has been found predict the future) told him he
from Turkey in the east to was the son of Ammon-Zeus,
Greek-style coin from Bactria
central Asia in the west. (in modern-day Afghanistan). the ruler of the Greek gods.

32 MANY OF THE COUNTRIES AND REGIONS THAT ALEXANDER CONQUERED


The ancient world

Battle of Alexander III of Macedonia


Gaugamela Alexander spent his childhood watching his
father, Philip II of Macedonia, unify Greece.
Just 21 when he became king, he soon
showed his qualities as a fearsome ghter
and military genius who never lost a battle.
However, he is also remembered as a
leader who displayed great diplomacy
and compassion to those he conquered.

My son, you must nd a kingdom


big enough for your ambitions.
Philip II of Macedonia, Alexanders father, 346 BCE
7. Battle of Gaugamela 14. Mutiny
At the Hyphasis River,
Alexander faced Darius ASIA 11. Exploring the far north after nine years of
for the second timein
In 329 BCE, while exploring the empire he ghting, the Greek troops
October 331 BCE at Gaugamela.
had conquered, Alexander made raids north refused to go farther. The
Victory for Alexander signalled
towards the Jaxartes River, before turning back. army turned back.
the end of the Persian Empire.
Darius ed again.
10. Death of Darius
The next summer, Alexander passed 11
Maracanda
through the Caspian Gates in pursuit (Samarkand)
of Darius. He found Darius on the SOGDIANA
far side, dying. 12. Marriage 12 328 BCE
Alexander captured SOGDIAN ROCK
Sogdian Rock, then
married Roxanne, the AORNOS

Meshed
daughter of Sogdian 327 BCE 13. Battle of
Bactra
Persian emperor, 10 baron Oxyartes. Hydaspes
Darius III, ees BACTRIA Alexander defeated
330 BCE PARTHIA
Ecbatana CASPIAN GATES King Porus at the
Battle of Hydaspes.

HYDASPES
331 BCE
13 326 BCE 14
BABYLON
Susa
8
Sangela
16 323 BCE

PERSIAN Pasargadae iver


GATES
16. Death 9
sR

330 BCE
of Alexander
du

PERSEPOLIS
Alexander died In
of unknown causes PERSIA
in Babylon on June Trek across the
10, 323 BCE, at just 32. Makran Desert 15

MAKRAN DESERT
9. Sacking the capital Gwadar 325 BCE
Alexander reached
Persepolis, the capital of Pattala
INDIA
Persia. His troops sacked
the city. Later he torched 15. Death in the desert
the Royal Palace. Alexander led his troops through
the Makran Desert. Many died.

REMAINED UNDER GREEK CONTROL FOR THE NEXT 200300 YEARS. 33


Xiongnu
The modern Wall The Xiongnu were expert horsemen and
The Great Wall of China that exists archers who had repeatedly invaded
China since the 3rd century BCE.
today is not the wall shown on this
When Shi Huangdi united the Great
map, but a stone wall that was Wall, it slowed the erce warriors,
built much later, during the Ming but their raids continued into the
Dynasty (13681644). The original time of the Han Dynasty, which
Qin earth wall no longer exists. followed the Qin Dynasty in 202 BCE.

o
Zha

Jinyang

Yellow
River
Yuezhi
Zhon
The Yuezhi were an Luoyang
Indo-European people
(they spoke a language Qin Xinzheng
more closely related to Han
European, Indian, and Qin
Xianyang
Iranian languages than
Chinese). They were
frequently at war with the
Xiongnu, but traded with
the Chinese during the
Qin Dynasty, supplying
them with war horses. Terra-cotta
gures buried with
Qin state Qin Shi Huangdi
Xianyang The original Qin (pronounced chin) in Xianyang
Xianyang, near todays Xian, was state was one of seven states during
the capital of the Qin Empire. the time known as the Warring States
When Shi Huangdi died in 210 BCE, period (c.475221 BCE). After two
he was buried there in a vast centuries of ghting, Qin emerged as
tomb, which was guarded by the the strongest state and defeated the
Terra-cotta Armyaround 8,000 other six to form a united China.
life-sized clay soldiers carrying
bronze weapons. They were
meant to protect the emperor
from evil spirits in the afterlife.

The revival of
KEY
Qin state in around 260 BCE
states ... will never
Expansion of Qin state
Border of Qin Empire in 221 BCE
bring about stability!
State capital city Attributed to Qin Shi Huangdi,
Qin First Emperor, 259210 BCE

34 NO ONE KNOWS HOW LONG THE WALL WAS, BUT ESTIMATES RANGE FROM
The ancient world
Beacon tower
There were beacon towers at intervals along the
Great Wall. The original wall was built of rammed
earthsoil that was poured into a wooden
frame then compacted, layer by layer.

Dong-hu
The Dong-hu, or
ongshan Yan Eastern Barbarians,
Zh were the ancestors
of the Mongols. They
were conquered by the
Xiongnu in 206 BCE, just
Ji
before the start of the
Han Dynasty.

Qi

Korea
Linzi Ye l l o w S e a
Lu
CHINA Qufu
The northern wall
In 215 BCE, Shi Huangdi sent 300,000
citizens to build a wall across the
Daliang Song north of the country. It was made
Shangqin
by joining many smaller walls,
which had been built previously by
the Warring States. Many workers
Shouchun
died during the construction.

r
ve
Ri
e
tz

Chu
ng

East China Sea


Ya

221
206 BCE Chinas Great Wall
The rst parts of Chinas Great Wall were built when the
country was split into many states, which were always
at war with each other. Some of these states built walls
to stop nomadic tribes from invading from the north. In 221 BCE,
Ying Zheng, king of Qin state, having conquered the other states
and unied China, began joining up the shorter walls into one great
wall. He renamed himself Qin Shi Huangdi (First Sovereign Emperor
of Qin) and ruled over his empire until he died in 210 BCE.

5,50013,200 MILES (8,850 TO 21,200 KM) AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT. 35


KEY 1. River Ebro
Campaigns of the Second Punic War. In 226 BCE, Hannibals brother-in-
law, Hasdrubal the Fair, signed a
Roman land at the start treaty with Rome. It set down in
of the Second Punic War writing that the River Ebro was
Carthaginian land at the start the border between Carthaginian
of the Second Punic War and Roman territory.

Scipios route Key town P E


Hannibals route Capital city
R O
202 BCE Roman victory 1 Key event
EU
202 BCE
Carthaginian 12 Key event in
victory a capital city
Py Gaul

Eb
re

ro
ne

Riv
es

er
3. Carthago Nova
Determined to take the war to the 1
4
heart of Italy, Hannibal and his forces Tarraco
departed from Carthago Nova (where
SAGUNTUM
he had withdrawn after the Siege of
an
Saguntum) in the spring of 218 BCE.
Iberi
219 BCE

n i n s ula 2
Pe
Carthago Nova 3

2. Saguntum
The people of Saguntum feared the
Carthaginians, so they asked Rome
to be their ally. In 219 BCE, in an 4. Pyrenees
attempt to provoke Rome, Hannibal After ghting his way
laid siege to Saguntum. This led to through Roman-occupied
the second Punic War between land in what is now Spain,
Rome and Carthage. Hannibal led his army
over the Pyrenees and
entered Gaul.

Rome
219
202 BCE
AFR
ICA

and Hannibal
In 219 BCE, Hannibal of Carthage renewed
a war between Rome and its greatest rival, the
Carthaginian Empire. The Romans called these
conicts the Punic Wars, after the Punici, their name for the
Phoenician people who founded Carthage. Hannibal led his army
over the mountains and on into central Italy; he inicted a string
of victories that came close to toppling the entire Roman Republic.
The war nally ended when he was defeated near Carthage.

36 THE CARTHAGINIANS WERE CALLED PUNICI, OR TRADERS IN PURPLE,


5. Rhne River The ancient world
Hannibal and 6. The Alps
his forces (now In one of the most brilliant feats of
numbering 38,000
Hannibal
military strategy in history, Hannibal
infantry, 8,000 led his massive army across the One of the great military
cavalry, and 38 war Alps and into northern Italy. Few leaders of ancient times,
elephants) crossed of his war elephants, survived Hannibal of Carthage was
the Rhne River in the journey, however. the most ingenious and
September 218 BCE. formidable opponent the
Romans ever faced. If he
had received the support
from Carthage he needed,
he would almost certainly
5
have defeated Rome.
r
ve
Ri
ne
Rh

Alps 6
9. Journey through Italy 11. Metaurus
Hannibal traveled through Hannibals brother and
Narbo central and southern Italy general, Hasdrubal
7. Trebia in an attempt to stir up a Barca, was defeated at
Rhodae In December 218 BCE, Hannibal general revolt against the battle of Metaurus
defeated Roman forces at the Roman Republic. in 207 BCE. His head was
the battle of Trebia. Placentia cut off and paraded
I swear, so 7
218 BCE

TREBIA
around Italy before
being thrown over the
wall of Hannibals camp.
soon as age will
permit I will use re I TA L
9

and steel to arrest Y


LAKE TRASIMENE 11

the destiny 8 217 BCE


Perusia
207 BCE
METAURUS
10. Cannae
At the battle of

of Rome.
Cannae in 216
ROME BCE, Hannibals
8. Lake Trasimene army captured or
Hannibals oath to killed 50,00070,000
In June 217 BCE,
his father, Hamilcar, Romans. It was one
Hannibal ambushed and
when he was a child of the worst defeats
defeated the Romans on the
shores of Lake Trasimene. the Romans ever
He decided against attacking suffered.
Rome because he lacked Capua
the equipment to do so. 10
216 BCE
Utica 12. Scipio
CANNAE
In 204 BCE, Roman forces
ZAMA
CARTHAGE 12
led by Scipio invaded Africa.
14 202 BCE

Lilybaeum Tarentum

Hadrumentum Thurii
Agrigentium

Ecnomus Croton
Rhegium
13
Messana
Syracuse

14. Zama 13. Croton


The Romans, under Scipio, defeated In 203 BCE, after nearly
Hannibal and the Carthaginians at the battle 15 years in Italy, Hannibal
of Zama on October 19, 202 BCE. Defeat for returned to Carthage to face Roman
Carthage marked the end of the Second Punic War. general Scipio. He left from Croton.

BECAUSE THEY SOLD A PURPLE DYE USED TO COLOR ROYAL CLOTHES. 37


Teutoburg Forest
Hadrians Wall In 9 CE, the Sicambri
Emperor Hadrian and other Germanic
Caledonians tribes destroyed
ordered the building Raided Roman-held
of a wall across the CA three Roman
L lands to the south, legions.
northern frontier of ED breaching Hadrians Wall.
the Roman Empire ON
in Britain. Building IA
began in 122 CE.
Cannae
HIBERNIA Sicambri
In 216 CE, Carthaginian
warriors general Hannibal
BRITANNIA GE massacred the
RM Roman army.
Londinium ANIA
Colonia
Alesia
In 52 CE, Julius Caesar BEL Agrippina
defeated Vercingetorix, leader
GI C
of the Gauls, and made Gaul
A
a Roman province. Augusta
Vindelicorum

ILL
YR
Lugdunum Mediolanum
Cantabrians Burdigala

ICU
Fought for control GAUL Ravenna

DA

M
of northwest Spain
Nemausus Massilia LM
in 2919 BCE AT
ITALIA IA
Rome
Carthage Ostia
Tarraco Pompeii
In 146 BCE, the
Romans besieged
and destroyed
HISPANIA the city that
Carthago had been their
Corduba Nova bitter rival.
SICILIA
Carthage
Syracuse
Gades Caesarea
NUMIDIA
ANIA Sufetula
Tingis
URET
MA (M Mare
ed Nos
ite trum
rra
nean
Se a)
A F R Leptis Magna
I C A

27BCE
476 CE The Roman Empire
At the end of the reign of Emperor Trajan in 117 CE, the Roman Empire
was at its largest, stretching across Europe and North Africa, from Britain
at its farthest northwest frontier to the Middle East in the far southeast.

38 AT ITS HEIGHT, THE ROMAN EMPIRE RULED OVER 6588 MILLION


The ancient world

KEY
Kingdom of the Franks
The end of the empire

Pic
s By the 5th century CE, the

t
Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
Dacians BRITAIN
Conquered by Trajan, Iris
h Danes Kingdom of the Burgundians Roman Empire was nearly

ns
Saxolo-
s
500 years old, but it had

on
Kingdom of the Visigoths

Ang
who made their Br
it
Slavs
kingdom a Roman Thuringia
Kingdom of the Vandals broken in two, into eastern
ton

s
ns
province in 106 CE. Bre Alemanni L Eastern Roman Empire and western halves. The
ombards
Persian Empire
Bas
que
s
Alps map shows Europe in 500 CE.
Ravenna
Actium The eastern Roman Empire
Rome
In 31 BCE, Octavian, had survived, ruled from
Constantinople
soon to become its capital, Constantinople.
Romes rst Carthage The western half had been
emperor, beat overrun by peoples from
his rivals Antony the northGoths, Franks,
and Cleopatra.
Vandals, and Burgundians.

Napoca Parthian forces


Lost Armenia, Assyria, and
Mesopotamia to Emperor Trajan in
114117 CE, despite the famous
DACIA skill of their horsemen.

THRACE
MACEDON
Thessalonica
IA

Byzantium
Nicopolis ARMENIA
Corinth Athens ASIA MINOR
Ephesus
GREECE OTAMIA

AS
P
ESO

SY
M RI
A
SYRIA

PA MP
CYPRUS

RT IR
Palmyra

E
HI E
Jerusalem

AN
Roman forces ruined the city and
IA

EA
Cyrene JUD
AB

its temple after the Great Revolt


AR

by the Jews of Judea in 70 CE.

Alexandria
Petra

KEY
Major battle during the
empires expansion
EGYPTUS
Major Roman city

I came, I saw, Roman provinces

I conquered. Border of Roman Empire


at its largest, 117 CE
Julius Caesar, after victory over Pharnaces II
of Pontus in Asia Minor, 47 BCE

PEOPLEMORE THAN 20 PERCENT OF THE WORLDS POPULATION. 39


Paul the Apostle The origin of Christianity
Paul left lots of evidence Jesus and his early followers
of where he went
the churches that he were Jewish by faith, although
established and the many of their beliefs differed
letters, or epistles, that from traditional Judaism. After
he wrote to the people Antioch in Pisidia
his death, Jesuss followers
he had visited. Pictured 9 called him Christ (savior) and
here is his rst journey, it was through these followers,
as described in the Iconium such as Paul the Apostle, that
Bibles Book of Acts. the Christian faith was born and
Lystra Early Christian painting
spread throughout the world. in the Catacombs
Derbe (tunnels) of Rome

Attalia Perga

GALATIA
Antioch
Seleucia

Rezeph
Salamis
Owe no man any CYPRUS
The Crucixion
Historians agree that
Jesus was crucied
thing, but to love Paphos around 30 CE, but
the location of his
one another. The Conversion of Paul
deathCalvary,
outside Jerusalem
Paul described his conversion to is not conrmed.
Paul the Apostle, Letter to the Romans 13:8 Damascus
Christianity in his Epistle to the
8
Galatians in the Bible. He said
God revealed his Son to him. ISRAEL
Mediterranean Sea Historians cannot conrm that
it happened on the road from
The Plagues of Egypt Jerusalem to Damascus, but they
J o rd a n
River
Some scientists explain the Biblical agree on a date of 3336 CE.
Plagues of Egypt, which included livestock
disease and boils, as natural phenomena.
The plague of blood, which turned the Nile 7
Jerusalem
River red, may have been caused by red Bethlehem 6
microbes called blood algae.
JUDAH
Nile
Delta The Nativity story
Most historians agree that Jesus was
born in Judah, also known as Judea,
between 7 and 2 BCE. Most also accept
3 that he was born in Bethlehem, the
KEY birthplace described in the Bible.
This map shows where scientists,
historians, and archeologists have
The Ten Commandments
found independent evidence connected
The site of the biblical Mount
with the events described in the Bible.
Sinai, where Moses received the
r

EGYPT Ten Commandments, could be


ve

1 Location in a Bible story Mount


this mountain of the same name.
N i le R i

Sinai
Mountain in a Bible story No other evidence survives of
4
Journey of the exiled Jews the event, however, nor of the
Journey of Paul the Apostle Jews eeing Egypt.
Place visited by Paul the Apostle

Red S ea

40 THE BIBLE IS THE WORLDS BEST-SELLING BOOKMORE THAN 2.5


The ancient world
Mount
Ararat
1 What the Bible says
1 Noahs Ark
An ark, or vessel, survived Gods great ood, saving the man
Noah, his family, and many animals. It settled on Mount Ararat.
2 The Tower of Babel
Noahs descendants built a tower to reach heaven. God
stopped them, split them up, and gave each a language.
3 The Plagues of Egypt
God sent 10 plagues, such as locusts and darkness, to force the
Noahs Ark Egyptian king to free the Jews from their slavery in Egypt.
Tig Evidence of an epic
r ood has been found in 4 The Ten Commandments
is

Mesopotamia. What is more, On the top of Mount Sinai, God gave to Moses, leader
Ri

a Babylonian tablet from of the freed Jews, a set of 10 rules for peaceful living.
ASSYRIA
ve

1800BCE describes an ark


r

5 The exile of the Jews


surviving such a ood. The Babylonians conquered Judahkingdom of the Jews
Some experts think that and took many Jews into captivity in Babylon for 70 years.
Mount Ararat in Turkey
may be the mountain 6 The Nativity story
described in the Jesus (the Son of God) was born in a stable in Bethleheman
Bible story. event celebrated by Christians with the Christmas festival.
Eu
ph

7 The Crucixion
e
ra

so

Jewish and Roman authorities saw Jesus as a dangerous


s
te

Ri rebel. They arrested him and put him to death by crucixion.


p

ve
o

r
ta

8 The Conversion of Paul


m

Paul, a man against Jesus, had a vision of him on the road


ia

The exile of the Jews to Damascus and immediately became a devoted follower.
Documents found in the ruins
of Babylon show that the 9 Journeys of Paul the Apostle
Jewish people were exiled Paul traveled through the Roman Empire preaching the word
here in 597539 BCE. Yet of Jesus. He was arrested and executed in Rome in c.60 CE.
little is known about their
lives in Babylonia.
The Tower of Babel
5 Babylon Ziggurats (temples) in Babylonia, PERSIA
2
which were built on a series of
levels up toward the sky, have
BABYLONIA been linked with the Bibles
idea of people trying to build
a tower to heaven.
1800 BCE
60 CE Bible stories
The Bible is a sacred text in two parts. The
Old Testament (a Jewish and Christian text),
claims the Jews as Gods chosen people and
says that a holy leader, called a savior, will come to Earth.
The New Testament (a Christian text) tells the life of Jesus
Christ, whom Christians believe to be that savior. Some Persian
Gulf
historians have compared the Bible with separate historical
and archeological evidence to build the history of the Jews,
of Jesus, and of his early followers.

BILLION COPIES HAVE BEEN SOLD, IN A TOTAL OF 491 LANGUAGES. 41


KEY Departure, 2000 BCE Settling of the
The Pacic islands were settled The people who settled Marshall Islands,
in several waves of migration. the Pacic islands came from 1500 CE
a group of islands now called Seafarers from Fiji or
Origin of the Pacic settlers Mariana Samoa discovered the
Islands the Bismarck Archipelago.
20001000 BCE The people belonged Marshall Marshall Islands.
Guam to a group known as Islands
1000 BCE1 CE
the Lapita culture.
1500 CE
Palau
10001400 CE

Caroline
Islands
Gilbert
Islands

Indonesia New Bismarck


Guinea Archipelago Tuvalu
Solomon
Islands

Samoa

Vanuatu
Australia Coral Sea
Islands

How shall we account Fiji


New
for this nation spreading Caledonia Tonga

itself so far over this Lapita migration,


20001000 BCE
vast ocean? The Lapita people spread as far
east as Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga. We
know this, because archeologists
Captain James Cook, have found distinctive Lapita
on arriving in Hawaii in 1778 pottery in these places.

Final landfall, 1000 CE


The islands of New
Innovative navigators Zealand were the last of
The Pacic settlers found amazing the Pacic islands to be
discovered, by Polynesian New
ways to navigate the vast Pacic Ocean.
seafarers from either the Zealand
They watched the direction and size
Society Islands or the
of ocean waves, studied the movement
Cook Islands.
of stars and clouds, and followed the
ight of birds that shed at sea. They
then placed all this information, Chatham
plus the location of islands, on Islands
a map made of sticks. (New Zealand)
Stick map

42 THE PACIFIC IS THE WORLDS LARGEST OCEAN, COVERING ONE-THIRD


The ancient world
Discovery of Hawaii, 400 CE
Polynesian voyagers from the Plants and animals
Marquesas Islands or the Cook
Pacic settlers took supplies with
Hawaii Islands discovered Hawaii.
them to survive the journey and to
help them establish settlements
on the islands they found.

Taro
The taro plant,
Exploration of which has an edible
eastern Polynesia, tuber, was grown in
200 BCE freshwater marshes
Seafarers from Tonga and man-made pits.
and Samoa discovered and Tuber
Line settled what we now know
Islands as eastern PolynesiaTahiti
(in the Society Islands), the
Cook Islands, the Marquesas Pig
Phoenix
Islands, and the Tuamotus. The pigs of
Islands Polynesia were
descendants of
wild boars native
to Eurasia.
Marquesas Polynesian rat
Islands Rats were not taken as
suppliesthey were
stowaways. They
PA C I F I C settled in every
island colonized
OCEAN by humans.

Society
Islands
Cook Tuamotu Islands
Islands

Austral Islands Gambier


Islands Rapa Nui

2,000 BCE
1400 CE Pacific settlers Arrival at humans
most distant
outpost, 500 CE
Polynesians from
the Tuamotus or the
Gambier Islands
The discovery and settling of the Pacic islands discovered and
is a dramatic story of human migration. Daring settled Rapa Nui, or
Easter Islandone
explorers, the worlds rst deep-sea sailors and of the most remote
islands on Earth.
navigators, crossed the vast Pacic Ocean in simple, double-
hulled boats called outriggers. They did so at a time when
Europeans were still afraid to sail out of sight of dry land.

OF THE EARTHS SURFACE AND CONTAINING 20,00030,000 ISLANDS. 43


EUROPE
Temple of Artemis
This temple was rebuilt three Hagia Sophia
times, each time bigger and Built in 537 CE in Istanbul,
better than the last. The third the magnicent domed
temple had 127 columns, but church was converted to a
it didnt survive a fourth mosque in 1453. Today the
destruction in 401 CE. building is a museum.

MAC
EDO
NIA

GR
EE
CE

Statue of Zeus in Olympia


In 430 BCE, Greek sculptor
Phidias made a statue of the
god Zeus from gold, ivory,
ebony, and precious stones.
It was destroyed by re
Colossus of Rhodes
The enormous (indeed
in the 5th century CE.
colossal) statue of
Acropolis the Greek god Helios
Built around the 5th was built to thank him
century BCE, this gated Mausoleum at for saving the city of
citadel in Athens included Halicarnassus Rhodes from attack. It
an epic temple called Stately tombs are known stood for just 54 years
the Parthenon. as mausoleums after before an earthquake
this tomb of the Persian destroyed it in 226 BCE.
governor Mausolus,
built around 350 BCE.
KEY Lighthouse of Alexandria
This map shows the Lighting up the island of
locations of ancient Pharos from 283 BCE, the light
wonders around the from the furnace on top of the
Mediterranean. lighthouse could be seen from
30 miles (50 km) away. It was
Seven Wonders damaged by three earthquakes
and nally destroyed in 1323 CE.
Petra
of the World This ornate city,
Other ancient which was hewn
wonders out of rock between
AFRICA 100 BCE and 100 CE,
was a wealthy Arab
trade hub in what
is now Jordan.
When I saw the sacred Great Pyramid at Giza
house of Artemis that The Great Pyramid is the
tomb of the pharaoh
Khufu. It contains
towers to the clouds, the 2 million stone
blocks and took
more than 20 years Red S ea
others were placed to build, around
2500 BCE.
in the shade.
E GY P T
Antipater of Sidon, ancient Greek writer, c.140 BCE

44 AT 481 FT (146.5 M), THE GREAT PYRAMID AT GIZA WAS THE TALLEST
The ancient world

3 EUROPE

4
5
NORTH ASIA
AMERICA 9
Area of 8
enlarged
map 6
1
B l ack S ea
AFRICA
7
SOUTH
AMERICA
AUSTRALASIA
2

Worldwide wonders
Other marvels of engineering from ancient times can be found across the world today.
Here are nine of them.
A N ATO L I A
1 Great Pyramid of Cholula 4 Pont-du-Gard This Roman 7 Sigiriya This Sri Lankan
Built in Mexico in 300 BCE, aqueduct (water-carrying palace was carved into a
this is the largest pyramid bridge) in France dates back massive column of rock in
in the world by volume. to 19 BCE. It stands 165 ft 495 CE. It is guarded by a
(50 m) high. gateway shaped like a lion.
2 Nazca Lines These
extraordinary carvings 5 Colosseum This 50,000- 8 Terra-cotta Army An army of
patterns, animals, and plants seater stadium in Italy was 8,000 life-sized clay warriors
were etched into the desert built in 80 CE, when crowds that was buried with the rst
in Peru in 350 BCE650 CE. gathered to watch gladiators. emperor of China in 210 BCE.
3 Stonehenge The arches
6 Temples of Abu Simbel 9 Daisen Kofun Built in the 5th
made of 4-ton stones
Twin temples made of rock century, this Japanese tomb
were erected in Britain in
in 126444 BCE mark the reign is the worlds largest burial
31001600 BCE. No one knows
Sea
of Pharaoh Ramesses II and mound. Seen from above, it
what they were used for.
a n his wife Nefertari. has the shape of a keyhole.
rra ne
ite
Med
ASIA Hanging Gardens
of Babylon
In around 600 BCE, King
Nebuchadnezzar built a
2500 BCE
650 CE Ancient wonders series of beautiful stepped
gardens for his wife, Amytis.
They were destroyed in the
1st century CE and no
evidence remains today.

There were some incredible feats of engineering BA


in the ancient world. The Seven Wonders BY
LO
of the World were especially famous. N
IA
The ancient Greeks considered this group of
buildings and statues to be more spectacular
than any other. All seven were located around the
Mediterranean region, where the Greeks traveled.
Only onethe Great Pyramid at Gizasurvives today.

ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURE IN THE WORLD FOR NEARLY 4,000 YEARS. 45


Musical instruments,
43,00040,000 years ago
The oldest known musical
instruments are utes
made of mammoth bone, EUROPE
found in the Swabian
Alps, Germany.
Wheeled vehicle, 3200 BCE
The oldest known wheel
used for transportation was
unearthed in Slovenia in
2002 and is believed to
have belonged to a Aqueduct, 2000 BCE
two-wheeled cart. Aqueducts were channels
running along the ground,
Brick, 7500 BCE underground, or above ground
The earliest known on bridges, that supplied
bricks were made of fresh spring or river water to
mud and straw. Experts wherever people needed it.
believe they originated Aqueducts were rst built
in Anatolia (Turkey). in the ancient city of
Map, 13,000 years ago
A stone tablet found in Abauntz Nineveh (Mosul
Cave, Spain, in 1993 contains the in Iraq).
earliest known map, which is
of the surrounding area.

Glass, Soap, 2800 BCE


3500 BCE Soap made of oils
Archeologists and salts was rst
Coin, believe that used in Babylon
610600 BCE glass was (modern-day Iraq)
Bronze, 3200 BCE rst used in to clean wool
The rst coin
Archeological ndings Mesopotamia and cotton.
was used in the
suggest that bronze was rst (modern-day Iraq)
ancient kingdom of
used in ancient Egypt to make more than 5,000
Lydia, in modern-day
tools and weapons. years ago to make
Turkey. It was marked
with a roaring lion. ornamental beads.
Shadow clock, 1500 BCE
The ancient Egyptian shadow clock was a Potters wheel, 3500 BCE
simple pillar. The length of the shadow it Fire,
The potters wheel allowed
cast indicated the time of day. 790,000 years ago people to make perfectly round
AFRICA (See box below)
pots. Experts believe that it was
invented in Mesopotamia.
Mastery of re
Archeologists have found evidence in
Israel of the earliest known use of
reby ancestors of humans, such
as Homo erectus. They discovered
that burning happened in specic
spots, which shows that hearths
existed. The control of re meant
that Homo erectus was able to
spread to colder regions, drive away
dangerous predators, and cook food.

46 THE WHEEL WAS ACTUALLY INVENTED FOR USE IN MAKING POTTERY


The ancient world
790rs,0ag0o0
yea
50 BCE Ancient inventions
It is impossible to know the origin of most of the great
inventions of the ancient world because they occurred
before people recorded things in writing. Therefore,
historians have had to rely on archeological discoveries to trace
the earliest known appearance of many of these inventions.

Necessity is the Blast furnace, 100 BCE


Invented in China, blast furnaces
mother of invention. were used to make cast ironan
important metal that was used for
making tools and cooking pots.
English proverb

ASIA
Plumbing,
2600 BCE
Remains of the
earliest known
drainage systems Paper, 1st century BCE
were found in the Paper was invented during
Indus Valley (modern- Chinas Han Dynasty. It
day Pakistan). They was cheap to produce and
directed rainwater into replaced more expensive
drains and stopped writing materials, such
the cities of Harappa as bamboo and silk.
and Mohenjo-Daro
from ooding.

Ink, 2600 BCE


Made of soot and glue, the rst
ink was used in China for shading
artwork. It came in a solid block;
water was added before use.

Stirrup, Pottery,
500200 BCE 18,000 BCE
Ancient sculptures In 2012,
suggest that stirrups archeologists
were rst used in found shards
India. The stirrup gave of the earliest
riders greater control known pots in
of their horses, which Jiangxi, China.
helped them to ght
on horseback.

AND WAS ONLY ADAPTED FOR TRANSPORTATION 300 YEARS LATER. 47


The medieval world
Aztec calendar
One of the most advanced
civilizations of medieval times,
the Aztecs developed their
own calendar. The Sun Stone
represents this calendar and
shows Tonatiuh, the Sun
god, at the center.
BYZANTINE EMPIRE TANG DYNASTY RULES
(555) The eastern Roman CHINA (618907) The
empire, known as the Chinese empire expands
Byzantine Empire, west, meeting the Persian
reaches its greatest size. Empire. pp5657

500 CE
CLASSIC MAYA MOHAMMADS FLIGHT
PERIOD (500s) The Maya TO MEDINA (622) The Prophet
civilization of Central Mohammad ees from Mecca and
America is at the height establishes the new religion of
of its powers. pp7071 Islam in Medina, Saudi Arabia.
Viking longship
Advanced sail power
enabled the Vikings
to cross oceans to
trade and settle in
new lands.
FOURTH TO EIGHTH THIRD CRUSADE ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE
CRUSADES (120270) Five (118992) Another (11371974) The Ethiopian
more major Crusades take attempt fails to Empire of east Africa begins
place. They are all attacks claim Jerusalem for under the rule of the Zagwe
on non-Catholics. pp6061 Christianity. pp6061 dynasty. pp6869

SILK ROAD (1200s) SECOND CRUSADE KINGDOM OF ZIMBABWE


The trade route from (114748) The Crusader (1100s1450) Zimbabwe
China to India and Europe armies are defeated in controls trade in ivory and
is at its busiest in the Anatolia (modern-day gold from the African coast
13th century. pp5253 Turkey). pp6061 to the interior. pp6869

Mongol MONGOLS UNITED (1206) PEAK OF THE MONGOL MONGOL KHANATES (1294)
warrior Genghis Khan stops the Mongol EMPIRE (1279) The Mongol The Mongol Empire splits
tribes from ghting and unites Empire stretches from into four khanates under the
them, forming the rst Mongol Ukraine to eastern authority of the Yuan dynasty
khanate (empire). pp6263 China. pp6263 in Beijing, China. pp6263

EYEGLASSES (1286) OTTOMAN EMPIRE (13011922)


The rst glasses are Ruler Osman I founds the Ottoman
invented in Italy. state in Turkey. It later expands to
pp7273 become a major Islamic power in
the eastern Mediterranean.
Glasses

Medieval times END OF THE


BYZANTINES (1453)
Ottoman sultan (ruler)
Mehmet II conquers
Constantinople, ending
the Byzantine Empire.
At the start of the Middle Ages in 500 CE, the Roman
Empire was crumbling, but clung on in the eastern 1500 CE
Mediterranean, becoming the Byzantine Empire. In
the 600s, a new powerthe Islamic Caliphatespread
quickly from the Middle East. Meanwhile, China was
Ottoman
the worlds most advanced and prosperous country. Sultan Mehmet II

50 THE OLDEST SURVIVING COMPLETE PRINTED BOOK IN THE WORLD TODAY


The medieval world

SPREAD OF ISLAM MOORISH SPAIN VIKINGS ARRIVE (793) PAPER MONEY (900)
(632750) Islam spreads quickly (7111492) North African The rst Viking raid outside The worlds rst paper
after the death of Mohammad. A Moors invade and rule Scandinavia destroys the money is used in China.
Caliphate (Islamic state) stretches over Spain, bringing it abbey on the British island pp7273
from Morocco to India. pp6869 under Islamic rule. of Lindisfarne. pp5455

WINDMILL (644) HEAVY PLOW (c.650) THE VIKING AGE (840s900s)


Windmills are invented in The invention of the heavy Viking seafarers spread from
Persia for grinding grain plow allows people to Scandinavia into England,
and pumping water. live and farm in places with Ireland, Iceland, Greenland,
pp7273 dense, clay soil. pp7273 and France. pp5455

FIRST CRUSADE END OF ANCIENT HEIGHT OF CASTLE


(109699) After much GHANA (1076) The west BUILDING (1000s)
Krak des Chevaliers castle,
slaughter, the Crusaders African kingdom of Ghana Fortied residences are Syria, built by Crusaders
take Jerusalem, but lose it is conquered by Moroccan built across Europe and in the 12th century
50 years later. pp6061 Berbers. pp6869 the Middle East. pp5859

CRUSADER CALL (1095) COMPASS (104044) FINDING AMERICA SONG DYNASTY RULES
Pope Urban II calls for The Chinese military (1001) Viking Leif CHINA (9601279) Guns,
Christians across Europe is the rst to use the Eriksson becomes the rockets, and printing with
to reclaim Jerusalem from magnetic compass for rst European to land in movable type are invented
Muslim rule. pp6061 navigation. pp7273 the Americas. pp5455 in this period. pp5657

THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR BLACK DEATH INCA EMPIRE (1400s1531)


(13371453) Battles between (134751) The plague sweeps The largest empire in South America
France and Englandwhich across Europe, carried by rats spreads from Peru throughout the
last 116 years in totalare from central Asia. Andes before being destroyed by
mostly won by the English. pp6465 Spanish Conquistadors. pp7071

HOURGLASS (1338) END OF THE MONGOLS Machu Picchu


Possibly invented for (1368) The Mongol Built around 1450, this
use at sea, the hourglass Yuan Dynasty of China spectacular mountaintop
is the rst accurate way of is overthrown by the Inca site was unknown to the
counting one hour. pp7273 Chinese Ming Dynasty. Spanish conquerors and so
escaped destruction.

END OF THE ROAD


(1450s) The Ottoman AZTEC EMPIRE (14281519)
Empire stops trade The Aztec Empire rules the
along the Silk Road Valley of Mexico until it is
in protest against the conquered by Spaniard
West and the Crusades. Hernn Corts. pp7071

PRINTING PRESS ZHENG HES VOYAGES


(1440) The invention (140533) Chinese admiral
of the printing press Zheng He sails to Africa
causes a revolution to encourage trade with
in communication in the West. pp6667
Europe. pp7273

IS A COPY OF THE BUDDHIST DIAMOND SUTRA, PRODUCED IN 868. 51


Glassware

Gold coins Olives

Venice
EUROPE Nothern route
An alternative trade route
Wine
Rome ran north of the Caspian
AFRICA Mediter Black
Sea on the way to ports on
ran the Black Sea.
ea Sea
Cairo n Constantinople
A Sea
xa
Lying at the end of sea lend
and overland routes, ria
Cairo and Alexandria Cairo Metalwork p ian
s
became major centers Ca ea
of global commerce. Salt S
Baghdad

Baghdad
Dates Bukhara
The capital of the Wool rugs
Islamic world was a hub of
commerce and trade along Brassware
the Silk Road. PERSIA

Sandalwood
Delhi
Bharuch
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was the
Silk Roads most
Spices
famous traveler.
INDIA
The account of
his 24-year Asian
journey in the 13th
century CE helped
introduce Europe Delhi
to the customs Indian ports In the 1200s and 1300s CE,
and geography Goods passed through Delhi was a major center for
of the East. major ports on the Indian the exchange of goods and
Ocean, such as Bharuch, ideas between India and China.
on their way to Islamic
countries to the west.

200BCE
1400 CE The Silk Road
Stretching 4,500 miles (7,000 km)
from China to the Mediterranean
Sea, the Silk Road was one of the
worlds longest lasting and most important
trade networks. It led not only to the
exchange of goods but also of
ideas, beliefs, and cultures.

52 SO MUCH GOLD WAS SHIPPED OUT OF ROME IN EXCHANGE FOR SILK IN


The medieval world

New products
The Silk Road saw the import and export
of certain goods from the East and West
for the rst time in history.
WEST
Kashgar EAST
Kashgar lay at a junction Glass
Horses at the western end of the
Silk
Taklamakan Desert. Dunhuang
Dunhuang was an important Woolen goods

oasis town near the junction Paper


of the Silk Roads northern Grapes
and southern branches.
Gunpowder
Figs
Almonds
Porcelain
Walnuts

Oranges
Kashgar
Lapis lazuli Camel

Ta k l a m a k Gaochang
a n Desert
Changan
Chinas capital had the
Jade Dunhuang Textiles biggest population of
any city on Earth.
Lhasa A S I A

Lanzhou
Cotton
Lanzhou
An important crossing
Lhasa point over the Yellow River, Changan
The capital of Tibet was CHINA
Lanzhou was a major link
a major stop-off point
on the northern branch of
on what is commonly
the Silk Road.
called the Southwest Ivory
Silk Road.
Ceramics
Exotic goods
Ivory was moved along the
I have not told Silk Road from China to
the West as early as the
half of what 1st century BCE.

I saw.
Marco Polo, on his deathbed in 1324
KEY Town or city
The Silk Road was one of the Major routes
worlds major trade routes
from the 3rd century BCE Alternative routes
until the 14th century CE. Sea routes
This map shows the Silk
Road in 1200 CE. Goods traded

THE FIRST CENTURY CE, THE EMPEROR BANNED THE EXOTIC FABRIC. 53
KEY
Scandinavian homeland Viking exploration
Viking settlement by: Erik the Reds voyage
9th century CE to Greenland, 983986 CE
10th century CE Vinland voyages,
11th century CE c.10001015 CE
Areas the Vikings Hunting and trading
raided but did not settle routes, 10501350 CE
Major Viking raids

Greenland
In 986 CE, Erik the Red
became the rst to make
a permanent settlement
HELLULAND in Greenland.

ICELAND

GREENLAND

Iceland
Vikings began to settle on
AT L A N T I C Iceland around 870 CE.

Markland
In 1001 CE, the son of Erik
OCEAN
the Red, Leif Eriksson, LAnse aux Meadows Dublin
M

became the rst European Archeologists have found a Viking


AR

Vikings founded a
to land in North America. settlement at LAnse aux Meadows in
KL

permanent settlement in
Newfoundlanda place the Vikings
AN

It may have been in a Dublin, Ireland, in 841 CE.


place the Vikings named LAnse aux may have called Vinland.
D

Marklandthought to be Meadows
here on the Labrador coast.
793

NORTH
VINLAND
1001 CE The Vikings
AMERICA
The Vikings were the great raiders,
traders, explorers, and settlers of
medieval Europe. From their base in
Scandinavia, they established outposts in the British
North America Isles, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, France, the
The Greenland Vikings
had no wood for building Mediterranean, and Russia. They were probably
or fuel. Expeditions also the rst people from Europe to set foot in
south along the North
American coast were North Americaalmost 500 years before the
mainly to get lumber.
arrival of Christopher Columbus.

54 THE WORD VIKING COMES FROM THE OLD NORSE LANGUAGE AND
The medieval world

Viking longships
Never before The Vikings used superbly designed
boats called longships to raid and
has such terror explore. Powered by oar or sail,
Scandinavia these boats had shallow bottoms
appeared in Britain. The Vikings came
from Norway,
and could be sailed far inland
on rivers and lakes. They had
Alcuin of York, on the Viking raid on Sweden, and the added advantage of being
Lindisfarne, in a letter to King Ethelred of Denmark in light enough to drag over land
Northumberland (northeast England), 793 CE modern-day to another lake or river.
Scandinavia.

Lindisfarne
In 793 CE, Vikings raided
the abbey at Lindisfarne,
a center of learning famous
throughout Europe.

Novgorod
The Vikings
Faeroe expanded to the
Islands east and became
SCANDINAVIA
rulers of Novgorod,
in what is now
Norwegians Russia, in 862 CE.
Orkney
Islands Shetland Swedes Kievan Russia
Islands A Scandinavian
Novgorod tribe known as Rus
appeared for the rst
Lindisfarne Danes time in what is now
Russia, around 880 CE.
L AND KIEVAN RUSSIA
IRE York
Dublin BRITAIN EUROPE
Normandy
Frances Charles the Simple gave land Kiev
in northern France to a band of Vikings
led by Rollo. Rollos great-great-great
grandson was William the Conqueror,
who became king of England in 1066 CE.
FRANCE

BYZANTINE
EMPIRE
CALIPHATE
OF Constantinople
Constantinople
CORDOBA In 860 CE, the
Vikings launched
Sicily their rst assault
on Constantinople
(which the Vikings
Noirmoutier Me called Miklegard).
Vikings attacked a dit
err Further failed
monastery on the French anea
island of Noirmoutier in 799 CE. n Sea raids followed.
It was the rst recorded attack
on mainland Europe.

TRANSLATES AS SOMEONE WHO GOES ON AN OVERSEAS EXPEDITION. 55


Porcelain
SOGDIANA In Tang times, Chinese craftspeople
used porcelain techniques, unique DZUNGARIA The journey of Xuanzang
to China, to create pots, vases, and The monk Xuanzang traveled to
ornaments that were then exported India in 627645 CE on a mission
elsewhere in Asia and to Africa. to get sacred Buddhist writings.
Talas His adventures inspired the
classic novel Record of a
Journey to the West.
WESTERN
FERGHANA TURKESTAN

Dunhuang

Talas
The Tang Empire stopped expanding Leshan giant buddha
west when it met the forces of the Arab

er
Buddhism spread from India in the
Abbasid Caliphate at the battle of Talas low Ri v
River in 751 CE. According to legend,
Tang Dynasty and ourished. This buddha, Yel
carved into a cliff in 713803CE, is by far
Chinese captives passed the secret
of making paper to the West.
TIBET the largest ancient or medieval statue
in the world at 233 ft (71 m) tall.

Tang Dynasty, 618907 CE


When Tang rulers siezed power, they
Brahma
expanded Chinese rule into central Asia. putra
River
Changan, their capital, rivaled Baghdad
as the worlds largest city. Technology
and art ourished. The oldest surviving Chengdu
printed book comes from Tang China. Leshan

Rocket arrows and guns


Gunpowder was introduced
to warfare in the 10th or
11th century. The formula
Page from the Diamond Sutra, oldest printed book, 868 CE for gunpowder was
printed for troops in
Song Dynasty, 9601279 CE 1044 CE. Rocket arrows
Song rulers took charge after a period of and guns were in use
upheaval in China after the Tang Dynasty by the 13th century.
ended. They moved the capital to Kaifeng,
which became the new worlds largest
city. The Song period was a high point
of poetry and painting.
KHMER
EMPIRE
Angkor
MPA

Andaman
CHA

Sea
Illustration in ink on silk, Song Dynasty, 12th century CE

56 THE TANG CAPITAL, CHANGAN, WAS A FOCUS OF WORLD TRADE, AND


The medieval world
The ruler depends on KEY
the state, and the state China under Tang
Dynasty control, 750 CE
Silla kingdom, 750 CE

depends on its people. China under Song


Dynasty control, 1000 CE
Khmer Empire, 750 CE

Taizong, ruler of Tang China, 626649 CE Important city Champa kingdom, 750 CE
State capital

Wild Goose Pagoda


This pagoda, which still stands today, was built in
652CE in Changan (modern Xian), to store the Buddhist
writings brought back from India by Xuanzang. Compass
Song Dynasty sailors, at some time before
1117 CE, were the rst to use a magnetic
compass to nd their way at sea. Compasses
had been invented more than 1,000 years
earlier, during the
Han dynasty.

Kyongju
The capital of the Korean kingdom
Kor of Silla was modeled on Changan.
Luoyang ea It was laid out in a grid pattern
of enclosed, gated blocks.
Changan
Kaifeng SILLA
S ea of Japan
Ye l l o w Kyonju (E a s t S ea)
Yangtz CHINA
eR JAPAN
iv Yangzhou Sea
Kyoto
er

Nara
Linan

Nara
Movable type Fuzhou
The Japanese capitals
Printing with movable of Nara and Kyoto were
type was invented in Song modeled on Changan.
Chinaa world rst. Warship
The Song government established Chinas
Wuzhou Guangzhou
rst permanent navy to protect merchant
ships sailing to the ports of Korea, Japan,
Champa, and the Khmer Empire.

South
China
618
1279 CE Chinas golden age
Sea
China under the Tang and Song dynasties was the wealthiest state
in the world and the state with the biggest population. Chinese
ideas, such as their writing system and their grid-pattern city
layouts, spread to Korea and Japan, and China also led in the world in
many technologies, including printing, porcelain, and gunpowder.

ITS 1 MILLION INHABITANTS INCLUDED 20,00050,000 FOREIGNERS. 57


Windsor Castle Prague Castle
Built by William I of The largest medieval
England in the 1070s castle in the world, this
as a fortress to control was the home of Czech
his new territory, it has royalty from the 9th
been occupied ever century. Its fortications
since by English and have been renovated
British monarchs. several times.

NORTH Trim Castle,


AMERICA Chateau St.
Ireland
Louis, Canada
Castle of So Jorge, EUROPE
Portugal
San Juan de Alhambra,
Ula, Mexico Europe Spain
The earliest At Benhaddou,
medieval castles were built Morrocco
in Europe. Rulers and local
lords alike had to keep
order, raise armies, and
AFRICA
defend their homes Ruins of Loropni,
against neighbours Burkina Faso
Palace of Corts
Conquistador Hernn Corts
and invaders.
built this castle in Mexico as
his home in 1526, to protect
him from the Aztec people Chan Chan,
he had conquered. Peru
Sacsayhuaman,
Peru

SOUTH
AMERICA
Harlech Castle
in Wales once
Krak des Chevaliers
withstood a siege
lasting 7 years.
This 11th-century castle in
Syria was built as a fortress
by Christian Crusaders who
fought to conquer Jerusalem.

Castle of Good Hope


Built in 166679 by
the Dutch East India
Company, this castle
is the oldest surviving
colonial building in
South Africa.

58 AT 1,870 FT (570 M) LONG AND 420 FT (128 M) WIDE, PRAGUE


The medieval world

Moscow Kremlin The Summer Palace


This vast fortress Built in the 12th
contained several century as a fortied
palaces for Russian home for the Chinese
royalty inside its emperor, this castles
defensive walls. defenses survived
It was once ringed two major attacks
by a wide moat. during the 1800s.

Matsumoto Castle
Built in Japan in 1593,
this was the stronghold
of a series of powerful
daimyo (lords) for 300
years. It was also known
as Crow Castle.

Pakistan and
northwest India
This is a region rich in
castles. Here, they are called
ASIA forts. The sultans of Delhi,
and later, Mogul emperors,
built many of them.
Bala Hissar
Castle, Altit Fort, Forbidden City and
Afghanistan Pakistan Summer Palace,
Beijing, China Inuyama Castle,
Kirkuk Arg-e Bam Qila Murbarak,
Japan
Citadel, Castle, Iran India Potala Palace, Tibet, China
Iraq Kunamoto Castle, KEY
Gwalia Fort, India
Japan
Mehrangarh Lalbagh Fort,
Ranikot Fort,
Pakistan Nawar Fort, Fort, India Bangladesh Featured castle
India or fortication
Fasil Chandragiri
Ghebbi, Fort, India
Ghondar, Other selected castles,
Ethiopia Galle Fort, forts, citadels, and
Sri Lanka fortied cities

Great
Zimbabwe,
Zimbabwe

Australia
Castles did not develop here. British AUSTRALASIA
settlers built forts to defend harbors
in the 1800s, but unlike medieval castles,
they were not homes for important people.

800s
1600s Castles
The Middle Ages were the highpoint of castle building.
There were frequent breakdowns in law and order, which led
rulers, nobles, and other rich and powerful people to build their
homes as impregnable fortresses, to keep raiders at bay.

CASTLE COVERS AN AREA LARGER THAN SEVEN SOCCER FIELDS. 59


10. Vezelay
English and French troops
assembled at Vezelay, France, Let none hesitate; they
must march next summer ...
to form the main army of the
Third Crusade.

ENGLAND
Crusader knights
God wills it.
Pope Urban II, during his speech
London at the Council of Clermont
Mainz
12. Constantinople
GERMANY In April 1204, forces of the Fourth
Crusade ransacked the Byzantine
Speyer capital of Constantinople, which
although Christian, had become an
FRANCE Metz Vienna
enemy of some groups of Crusaders.
Vezelay 10
Without the support of the Byzantine
Clermont Empire, however, the Crusader army
1. Clermont was destroyed by Greeks and
1 Venice
Pope Urban II Bulgars and did not
delivered a Belgrade reach Jerusalem.
powerful call to Genoa
Zara
arms to Christians IT
at the Council of AL
Clermont in 1095. Y BULGARIA
Marseille

Rome

BYZA
NTIN
E EM
PIRE

Messina GREE
CE
SICILY

Medit
erra
nea
n S
ea
1095
1204 The Crusades
In 1095, at the Council of Clermont in France, Pope Urban II delivered
one of the most inuential speeches of the Middle Ages. In it, he
urged French barons and knights to take up arms to recapture the
holy city of Jerusalem, which had been in Muslim hands since 673 CE. What
followed was a series of wars between Christians and Muslims that lasted
for over 200 years. Together, these wars are known as the Crusades.

60 AFTER MUSLIM LEADER SALADINS VICTORY IN BATTLE IN 1187, HE


The medieval world

Knightly virtues
Chivalry is a code of conduct
followed by knights. The Crusades
introduced a golden age of chivalry,
2. Nicaea in which Crusaders, such as King
The rst ofcial Crusaders Richard the Lionheart of England
attacked the important fortress (right), and his rival Saladin, sultan
city of Nicaea in May 1097. of Egypt and Syria, were thought of
The city surrendered in June. as the perfect knights, living
their lives according to honor,
courage, valor, and pride.

7. Dorylaeum
At the start of the Second Crusade in October
1147, Muslims crushed King Conrad of
Germanys forces at the battle of Dorylaeum.
3. Antioch 5. Crusader States
12 The Crusaders defeated Muslim Following the end of the First Crusade,
2 forces following the eight-month the Crusaders established four Crusader
Nicaea siege of Antioch (10971098). States: the County of Edessa; the County
of Tripoli; the Principality of Antioch;
and the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
7
Dorylaeum
5 6. Edessa
6
Muslims retook Edessa
Edessa in 1144, leading to the loss
3 of one of the Crusader States.
Antioch
Pope Eugenius III called
for the Second Crusade.
Tripoli
Damascus 8
8. Second Crusade
Tyre The Second Crusade ended in
humiliation in July 1148, after
Jaffa 11 9 Crusader forces under Louis VII
of France failed to take Damascus.
11. Jaffa
King Richard I of England (Richard 4 Jerusalem
the Lionheart) and Saladin signed a 9. Battle of Hattin
peace treaty on September 2, 1192. United under a new leader, Saladin,
The Crusader States were preserved, Muslim forces defeated the Christians
but, because the Third Crusade did not at the battle of Hattin in 1187
retake Jerusalem, it was a failure. and retook Jerusalem. This
sparked the Third Crusade.
Saracen horsemen
KEY
Muslim lands in 1096, First Crusade, 109599 4. Jerusalem
apart from those that In 1099, Jerusalem fell to
Second Crusade, 114749
became Crusader States the Crusaders. Thousands
Third Crusade, 118792 of Muslims and Jews were
Christian lands in 1096
Fourth Crusade, 120204 massacred. This marked the
Major battles 1 Key location end of the First Crusade.
Crusader States in 1135 Key town
(these were Muslim in 1096)

ORDERED DOCTORS TO HELP ALL THE WOUNDEDINCLUDING CHRISTIANS. 61


KEY
Genghis Khans homeland Campaigns under Mongol raids
Mongol territory by 1207 Genghis Khan Mongol victory
Mongol territory by 1227 Mongol defeat
Mongolian Empire at its Campaigns from Merkits Tribe name
greatest extent in 1279 122894 1 Key event

4. Empire of the Khwarizm Shah


The Mongols invaded the Empire of the
9. Liegnitz Khwarizm Shah between 1219 and 1221
The Mongols defeated with an army of 200,000 men. They
a combined army of devastated the empire and massacred
Poles, Templars, and 7. Kalka much of the civilian population.
Teutonic Knights at Outnumbered
Liegnitz in 1241. four to one, the
Mongols defeated
the Russians Vladimir
at the battle of Ryazan
Kalka in 1223.
10. Pest
Following their 9
victory at Liegnitz, Liegnitz Cracow
the Mongols sacked Kiev
Pest in modern-day EMPIRE
Hungary later that 10
Pest Kalka OF THE
same year. Yanikant KHWARIZM
Soldaia SHAH
11. Kose Dag
The Mongols defeated
Otrar 4
the army of the Seljuk
Balasaghun
Dynasty at the battle of
Tashkent
Kose Dag in 1243. 11 Bukhara
Kose Dag Kashgar
Tabriz 5 Samarkand
SELJUK
Balkh
SULTANATE Aleppo
Alamut
Mosul Nishapur
Homs
Qum
Damascus Baghdad Kabul

us River
12 Ghazni
13 Ain Jalut 5. Samarkand
13. Ain Jalut Genghis took Samarkand in
The Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt defeated 1220, using captives from

Ind
the Mongols at the battle of Ain Jalut Bukhara as human shields. 7
in 1260. Defeat saw the end of the
Mongols western campaign. INDIA
12. Baghdad
The Mongols occupied
Genghis Khan Baghdad, the greatest
Revered in his homeland, but city in the Islamic world,
feared among those he conquered, in 1259. Legends tell
Genghis Khan was both a brilliant that 800,000 people
leader and a brutal warrior. He were killed.
was responsible for millions of
deaths, but he also brought peace 7. Battle of the Indus
to a vast empire that stretched In 1221, Genghis defeated
across 5,000 miles (8,000 km). Jalal-ud-Din, son of the
Khwarizm Shah, at the
Battle of the Indus.

62 FIVE TIMES THE SIZE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AT ITS GREATEST, THE
The medieval world

1206
1294 The age of the Mongols
During the 13th century, the Mongols were the most feared
warriors on Earth. United under Genghis Khan in 1206, they
terrorized people from Russia and Poland in the west to China and
Korea in the east, and established the largest empire the world had ever seen.

1. Mongolia
Temujin completed his conquest
of rival Mongol tribes in 1206 and
received the title Genghis Khan,
meaning universal ruler.
6. Karakorum
Genghis
established Buryats
Mongol 1
Tatars
headquarters Mongols
at Karakorum Merkits
Karakorum
in 1220. 3. Zhongdu
6 RE
In 1215, Genghis starved
PI

Naimans the city of Zhongdu into


EM

submission. The city


KARA was sacked and burned.
KHITAI JI N
EMPIRE 3 14. Japan
Zhongdu
The Mongols made
XIA EMPIRE two attempts to invade
Ningxia KOREA Japan (in 1274 and
2 Ningbo Kaesong
Ye l l o w

1281). Both failed due


14 JAPAN to bad weather. These
were the only attacks
2. Ningxia River on Japan in its history,
During the siege of Ningxia, in Feng
until World War II.
his rst campaign against the
Xia Empire in 1210, Genghis 8
dammed the Yellow River. Xianyang 15 15. Hangzhou
Hangzhou The Mongols marched into
Hangzhou in 1276 and replaced
8. Xianyang SOUTHERN SONG the Chinese Song Dynasty with
General Meng of the the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty.
Southern Song Dynasty DYNASTY OF CHINA
(the remnants of Chinas
Song Dynasty) retook
Xianyang in 1239. The 16
Daluo
The Mongol army
Mongols had captured the
city three years earlier. ANNAM swarmed in like ants
and locusts from
16. Annam
In 1288, the Mongols all directions.
four-year campaign against
Annam was halted by a Rashid-ad-Din, Persian politician and historian,
combination of guerilla on the Mongol attack on Baghdad in 1258
warfare, heat, and disease.

MONGOL EMPIRE WAS THE LARGEST UNBROKEN LAND EMPIRE IN HISTORY. 63


1347
1351 The Black Death
The Black Death was the greatest natural disaster
in European history. It killed an estimated
75200 million people (3060 percent of
Europes population) between 1347 and 1351. It began
in central Asia, was carried along
the Silk Road by eas living
on rats, and was then passed
from person to person.

4. Weymouth, England
A ship from Gascony, France,
carrying infected sailors docked
in Weymouth, England, on July 7,
1348. The Black Death spread
across the British Isles in a year.
4
Weymouth Gascony
EUROPE
KEY
Area reached by the
Black Death by 1351

Major outbreaks
of Black Death Genoa

1 Key location in the


story of the spread
of the Black Death

Percentage of population known


to have died in major cities:
3
Bremen, Germany: 60% Messina

Hamburg, Germany: 60%


Venice, Italy: 60%
Florence, Italy: 55%
Paris, France: 50% 3. Messina, Italy
Galleys from Caffa carrying the
Avignon, France: 50% plague arrived in Messina, Sicily,
Cairo, Egypt: 40% in October 1347. The Black Death
soon spread into mainland Italy.
London, England: 40%
Damascus, Syria: 38% And so many died that
Baghdad, Iraq: 33%
Isfahan, Iran: 33% all believed it was the end
Other key town
of the world. AFRICA
Agnolo di Tura, in The Plague in Siena:
An Italian Chronicle, 1351

64 THE BLACK DEATH KILLED NUMEROUS ROYALS, BUT KING ALFONSO XI OF


The medieval world

Plagues progress
The Black Death arrived
in Messina, Sicily, in EUROPE
September 1347, on ships London
arriving from the Black Paris Tana Sarai ASIA
Sea. The key below Genoa Venice Caffa Astrakhan
Bordeaux Constantinople
shows how, by 1351, it Valencia Trabzon
had spread throughout Seville Messina Mosul
western Europe. Baghdad
Alexandria
2. Caffa KEY
Traders from Genoa 1347 1350
AFRICA
contracted the 1348 1351
plague during the
Siege of Caffa in 1349 Town
1346, during which Route of plague spread
plague-riddled
corpses were
catapulted over
the city walls.
1. Lake Issyk Kul
The rst record of the
Black Death can be traced
to Lake Issyk Kul in central
Asia in 1339.

2
Caffa ASIA
1

5. India
European history
records that the plague
ravaged India. However,
Indian history does not
record the event at all.


CASTILLE AND LEON (SPAIN) WAS THE ONLY REIGNING MONARCH TO DIE. 65
Pilgrimmage to Mecca PERSIA
Zheng He was a Muslim Presents from Hormuz
On Zheng Hes fth voyage KEY
and he wanted to make a
pilgrimmage to Mecca. Zheng (141719), the ruler of Hormuz Major trade center
did not manage to make the presented him with lions,
trip himself, but on his nal Hormuz leopards with gold spots, Other city
voyage (143133), he sent and large western horses.
crew members Battle
on his behalf.
Gifts from Aden
In Aden, the sultan gave
Jeddah Mecca Zheng He giraffes and
long-horned oryx.
INDIA
Arabia
Dhofar

Al Mukalla
Spices of Calicut
Aden The nal destination of
Zheng Hes rst three voyages
AFRICA was the major spice center
of Calicut, India.
Calicut
Arabian Cochin
Tribute from Mogadishu
Quilon
The gifts from this port Sea

CE
included zebras and lions.

YL
Conquest of Kotte

ON
King Alekeshvara of Kotte in Ceylon Galle
was hostile to the Chinese. The
t

king and his family were captured


s

and taken to Nanjing, but were


a

pardoned by the emperor.


o

Offerings
C

Mogadishu
from Barawa Barawa

The Chinese
1405
i

Barawa offered
1433
il

Zheng He
camels and Lamu
h

camel-birds

treasure fleet
a

(ostriches). Malindi
w

Mombasa S

The Yongle Emperorthe third ruler


of Chinas Ming Dynastywanted to
connect his country with the wider
Trade with Sofala
Some records show world in order to spread its inuence. He sent his
that a number of admiral, Zheng He, on seven incredible voyages,
Zheng Hes vessels
reached as far starting in 1405. Zheng Hes enormous eet of
r

south as Sofala
sca

in modern-day ships toured Asia and Africa, exchanging gifts,


Mozambique. transporting diplomats, and punishing anyone
ga

who opposed Chinas wishes. After the emperors


da

death, the foreign missions ended.


Ma

Sofala

66 ZHENG HES FIRST FLEET WAS A FLOATING CITY OF OVER 200 SHIPS
Nanjing
The medieval world

First voyage Fifth voyage


MING
Second voyage Sixth voyage EMPIRE OF
Third voyage Seventh voyage CHINA
Changle
Fourth voyage Side journeys Quanzhou
Chinas capital, Nanjing
Chinas capital was the
Chittagong starting point for all seven
Temple to Zheng He of Zheng Hes voyages. A
Such was the impact of foreign language institute
the vast Chinese eet in was established here to
Malacca that people built train linguists for the trips.
a temple to Zheng He
and worshiped Treasure ship
him there. According to traditional
SIAM accounts, the largest
vessels were treasure
Ayutthaya
Bay of Qui Nhon ships 440 ft (134 m)
long with nine masts and
Bengal CHAMPA South four decks. This would
KINGDOM make them the largest
China ships ever built until
iron hulls were
Sea invented in the
19th century.

Aceh

Samudera

Malacca
Battle with Sekandar
Su

On the fourth voyage Bor n eo


m

(141315), Zheng Hes


at

eet punished Sekandar,


ra

a false king who had


taken the throne of
Palembang
Semudera without
Chinese permission.

Java
INDIAN OCEAN Surabaya

Our sails, loftily Battle with pirate Chen Zuyi


On its rst voyage (140507) Zheng
unfurled like clouds, day Hes eet defeated and executed a
pirate who was terrorizing the strait
and night continued between Sumatra and Malacca.

their course with


starry speed.
Zheng He, inscription left in Changle, Fujian, China, 1431
AUSTRALASIA

CARRYING SILKS, PORCELAIN, AND A CREW OF MORE THAN 30,000. 67


Arabia

Round their necks are Ummayad Caliphate,


661750
collars of gold This northern empire was a vast

Nil
Muslim state that spread from Arabia.

eR
iv e
and silver.
Unlike the others pictured, it did r
not have African roots.

Al-Bakri, 11th-century Spanish Muslim geographer, Kanem Empire,


describing the dogs owned by the king of Ghana 7001380; 1380s1800s
Kanem was founded by nomads,
later breaking up and re-forming
as Kanem-Bornu. Its armored
Kanem-Bornu horses and riders won
rider
Songhay Empire, many battles in the
14641591 16th century.
After raids on Mali, the
Songhay became the leading Oyo Empire,
14001895
A F
power in west Africa until they
Oyo became one of R
themselves were invaded.
the largest and most I
powerful west African
states in the 18th century. Benin, 1300s1897
This empire was
famous for its skilled
Golden eagle,
Asante
craftsmen, who
Queen
Trans-Saharan created renowned
camel caravan NIger R Mother
bronzes using the
iv er bronze
lost wax method
developed by earlier
Timbuktu
cultures in this region.

Dahomey Empire,
1600s1894
Known for its military, including all-female
units, the Dahomey Empire warred with the
Oyo for control of the Slave Coast, selling
captives to European slave traders.

Mali Empire, Great Zimbabwes


12301660s Main Enclosure
The vast trading empire of Mali Asante Empire, The royal city of Great
became famous as far away as 16701902 Zimbabwe was constructed
Europe when its ruler, Mansa The Asante empire
Musa, traveled to Mecca in
as the kingdom grew rich
grew wealthy from
1325 loaded with gold. gold and expanded
from exporting gold to Asia.
through military In the city center, the Main
power. Its goldsmiths Enclosure was surrounded
Ancient Ghana, 500s1076 produced daggers, by walls 36 ft (11 m) high.
The kingdom of Ghana grew rich on jewelry, and animal- It contained round thatched
gold mined from its valley and exported shaped ornaments, houses for the ruler and his
along the trans-Saharan trade routes. for the king. court, a solid, conical tower, and lots of short
It was conquered by Berbers in 1076.
columns topped by birds carved in soapstone rock.

68 BY 1200, THE TRADING TOWN OF TIMBUKTU, IN MODERN MALI, WAS A


The medieval world
Stone stele
in Aksum
100BCE
Great African 1902 CE

Ethiopian Empire,
11371974
kingdoms
In around 1200, the
ruling Zagwe dynasty
of this Christian empire The lost kingdoms and empires
carved churches
directly into the rocky of Africa acquired power through
Church in Lalibela ground in the town
of Lalibela. trade and natural resources. They
Kingdom of Aksum,
100 BCE600s CE were also known for their crafts, created to
This trading kingdom is honor rulers and gods. Some kingdoms lasted
best known for building
tall stone stelae (columns), Carved hundreds of years, but none survive to the
which were probably used wooden
as burial markers. headrest present day. The later ones were
C Luba Kingdom, swallowed up in the colonization
1580s1889
A Luba was ruled by
of Africa by European powers
kings who claimed in the late 19th and early
er to be descended from
20th centuries.
g o Ri v

a mythical hunter.
Carved wooden
objects celebrated
Con

King Joo their divine status.


Nzinga Soapstone
bird carving
Lunda Kingdom,
1660s1884
This kingdom conquered
its neighbors through its
military might, expanding
signicantly in the 1740s. Great
Zimbabwe
ive
r

Ndongo, 1500s1671
be zi R Zulu shield
Ndongo broke away from Zam and spears
Kongo in the 1560s. It sold
people as slaves to Portugal, Kingdom of
but in 1623 the Portuguese Zimbabwe,
took some slaves by force 1100s1450
Kingdom and refused to return Medieval Zimbabwe
of Kongo, them, leading to war grew wealthy over
13901857 with Ndongo. hundreds of years Zulu Kingdom,
Kongo was the center by trading cattle 181697
of a trade network in and gold, reaching Warrior chief Shaka
cloth and pottery when its peak in the founded what was the
the Portuguese rst early 15th century. most powerful nation in
arrived in 1483. Their South Africauntil the
king was baptized as British took over at the
Joo Nzinga, and the end of the 19th century.
kingdom kept good
relations with Portugal
for hundreds of years.

CENTER OF LEARNING WITH THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS. 69


Chinook Inuit
The Chinook lived in permanent The Inuit adapted to the extreme
villages in the Pacic Northwest Arctic climate where they lived,
region. Peoples of the region such as shing through
Kutchin carved totem poles, but all holes in the ice.
The Kutchin were those carved before 1800
hunter-gatherers have since rotted away.
who lived in
Alaska and did
not make contact
with Europeans
until 1789.

Inuit

Dogrib

Kut Blackfeet
chi Sioux
n
Chin Crow Cheyenne
ook
Navajo A p a c h
Shoshone e
We do not inherit N Hopi Com
anch
e
the Earth from our ancestors; O R T
H
we borrow it from Sioux
The Sioux were great
AME
our children.
bison hunters and RICA
warriors who lived in
the North American
American Indian proverb Plains, or prairies.

1400s
15th-century Americas
Before Christopher Columbuss
arrival in 1492, the American Aztec Empire
continents had been settled Originally desert people,
the Aztecs took control of the
for thousands of years. In the North, the Valley of Mexico in the early
American Indians were a mix of hunter- 14th century. At their peak,
gatherers, who were nomadic, and they controlled an empire
of roughly 10 million people.
farmers, some of whom lived in large Their capital, Tenochtitlan
settlements. The largest settlments, (artists reconstruction, right),
was one of the largest cities
however, were in Central and South in the world, with a population
America, where developed some of of roughly 300,000 people.

the greatest empires of the time.

70 HISTORIANS DO NOT KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE LIVED IN THE AMERICAS


Inuit hunting The medieval world
Like Inuit in Canada
and Alaska, the Inuit KEY
of Greenland hunted Experts group the peoples of the Americas
seals by kayak. according to the climate and terrain (shown by
the different colors on the map). These varied
environments affected the peoples culture and
lifestyle. For example, nomadic, tepee-dwelling
bison-hunters lived on the Plains, while farming
villages dominated the Southeast.

Arctic California
Subarctic Southwest
Northeast woods Mesoamerican
Montagnais Southeast Caribbean
Abenaki
Plains Andean
ois
qu Great Basin Amazonian
I ro Plateau Cono/Southern
Shawnee Pacic Northwest
Maya
By 1492, the Maya people
lived in rival cities in Munduruc Rain-forest hunters
what is now south- After European contact, Many varied groups of people
eastern Mexico, these warriors of lived in the Amazon Rain Forest.
Guatemala, Belize, the Amazon raided Some used blowpipes
and Honduras. Portuguese villages to kill animals for food.
along the river.

Aztec
Maya Arawak
Tenochtitlan
Ter em em b

Central Amer
ica
Aztec
The Aztecs dominated Munduruc
large parts of Central Inca Macchu Pichu m b
America between the
p ina
14th and 16th centuries. Cuzco
Tu
Inca Chiquito
By 1492, the Inca Empire stretched
from what is now Colombia to Chile and SOU Qulla
At

Guaran
northwest Argentina, and the population TH
ac

could have been as high as 15 million. AM


am

Charra
ER
a

IC Northern
Inca Empire
Tehuelche
A

The Inca Empire was


the largest empire in the
Americas in 1492. It arose
from the highlands of Peru
in the 13th century, and by
the 15th century, controlled Mapuche
an area almost as large Mapuche Southern
as the Roman Empire. The The Mapuche, whose Tehuelche
territory was connected name means Earth
with a road system that was People, inhabited a vast Ona
18,000 miles (29,000 km) long. territory in what is now
Chile and Argentina.

BEFORE 1492: ESTIMATES VARY FROM 10 TO 100 MILLION PEOPLE. 71


Printing
press Printing press,
1440 CE
Invented by Johannes
Gutenberg in Germany, the
printing press could print
text quickly, unlike block
printing, which had
to be done
by hand.

Horseshoe, 400450 CE
Metal shoes, nailed to horses
Keeping time hooves, appeared in western
The rst mechanical clock Europe by about 450 CE.
was invented by Chinas Longbow, 1200 CE
Su Sung. It was powered The English longbow was much more powerful
by the energy of falling than the ordinary bow and helped the English
water and the bucket win many battles against the French. Despite
collecting the water had its name, it originated in Wales. EUROPE
to be emptied regularly. Artesian well, 1126 CE
The rst clock to use a An Artesian well allowed access to underground
clockwork mechanism water without the need for it to be pumped. The
earliest known well was dug in Artois, France.
(powered by a wound-up
spring), appeared in
Europe more than Stern-mounted rudder, 1180 CE
The rudder enabled ships to steer through
200 years later. water more easily. The earliest known evidence
of a rudder was found in Belgian art.
Hourglass, 1338 CE
Spectacles, 1286 CE Invented by the Venetians,
In 1286, Italian monk the hourglass was ideal at
Giordano da Pisa sea because its accuracy was
wrote a description unaffected by bobbing waves.
of eyeglasses
the rst mention Heavy plow, 650 CE
of them anywhere The heavy plow
in the world. allowed farmers
to farm on dense
s
clay soil, which
lasse helped to increase
Eyeg
food production
throughout
northern Europe.

Plow

SOUTH
AMERICA
The greatest inventions
Rope bridge, 600 CE
The earliest known rope bridge
were produced in the
was built in Peru. The design has
since inspired some of the worlds times of ignorance.
largest suspension bridges.
Jonathan Swift, Britsh author, in
Thoughts on Various Subjects, 1727

72 CHINESE ALCHEMISTS (EXPERIMENTERS) DISCOVERED GUNPOWDER BY


The medieval world

450
1500 CE Medieval inventions
The medieval erabetween around 450 and 1500 CEwas a
time of great technological advancements across Europe and
the Far East. During this period, European explorers also
swapped many ideas with people from the Islamic world and China.

Compass,
ASIA 104044 CE
The Chinese
military was the
Gunpowder, 850 CE rst to employ the
Gunpowder was rst used by magnetic compass
the Chinese to scare away what for navigation.
they believed were evil spirits. Chinese sailors had
Later, it became a key part of adapted it for sea
explosives and amethrowers. Spinning wheel use by 1117 CE.
Spinning wheel, 1150 CE
Horse collar, 470500 CE Invented in China,
Windmill The horse collar enabled a horse the spinning wheel
to pull three times more weight. was used to turn
Windmill, 644 CE Evidence of its earliest known animal or plant
The rst windmills appeared in use has been found in the ber into threads
Persia and were used to grind Mogao Caves in China. for making clothes.
grain and pump water.
Wood block printing, 650 CE Mechanical
Invented in China during the clock, 1088 CE
Tang Dynasty, block printing (See box on
allowed scrolls and books opposite page).
to be produced quickly.

AFRICA
Paper money, 900 CE
Paper money rst appeared
in the great trading city
of Chengdu in China.

ney
r mo
Pape

ACCIDENT WHEN THEY WERE LOOKING FOR A POTION FOR IMMORTALITY! 73


The modern world
Modern technology
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, one
of the greatest engineers of the
1800s, oversees the building
of his steamship Great Eastern
in 1857. Able to sail from
Britain to Australia without
refueling, it represents an era
of exploration and technology.
AGE OF EXPLORATION VASCO DA GAMA (1497) THE REFORMATION (1517)
(14881597) European The Portuguese explorer Martin Luther begins the
explorers discover new trade creates a new direct Protestant movement with
routes and countries across trade route from Europe his complaints against the
the Atlantic. pp7879 to Asia. pp7879 Catholic Church. pp8485

1488
NEW WORLD DISCOVERY (1492) ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE END OF THE AZTECS (1521)
Italian explorer Christopher (1500s1800s) More than Spanish Conquistador
Columbus sails from Spain to nd 12.5 million Africans are Hernn Corts conquers the
a trade route to Asia, but instead enslaved and transported Aztec Empire of Central
discovers the Americas. pp7879 to the Americas. pp9091 America. pp8081
Sextant at sea
The sextant, invented
around 1730, could tell
sailors where they were
at sea. It measured the FRENCH REVOLUTION AMERICAN WAR OF RUBBER (1735)
angle of the Sun, Moon, (178994) With the motto INDEPENDENCE (177581) French explorer Charles-
or stars above
liberty, equality, fraternity, The US becomes an independent Marie de la Condamine
the horizon.
protestors revolt against the country with 13 states, free from brings rubber to Europe
monarchy and church. pp9697 British control. pp9293 from Ecuador. pp12021

CONVICTS IN AUSTRALIA (1788) THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BLACKBEARD (171618)


Britain transports 1,500 convicts (1770s1870s) Machines begin to do Pirate Edward Teach, known as
to Botany Bay, Australia, and sets the jobs previously done by people, Blackbeard, terrorizes the
up a penal colony at Port Jackson making and transporting goods Caribbean and southeast
(modern-day Sydney). pp9495 quickly and efciently. pp10405 American coast. pp8687
HMS Sirius, agship of the rst
transportation to Australia

NAPOLEONIC WARS (1792 FIRST FREE SETTLERS SOUTH AMERICAN


1815) French leader Napoleon IN AUSTRALIA (1793) REVOLUTIONS (180826)
Bonaparte extends his control The rst voluntary After 300 years of European rule,
across Europe before being immigrants from Britain most colonies in South America
defeated at Waterloo. pp9899 move to Australia. pp9495 become independent. pp10001

VACCINE (1796) STEAM RAILROADS (1825)


Edward Jenner invents the The worlds rst public
vaccinea way of triggering steam railroad opens,
the human body to ght in northern England.
smallpox. pp12021 pp11617

Modern times TRANS-SIBERIAN


RAILROAD (18911916)
The worlds longest
The end of the 15th century signaled the start of the age railroad is built across
Russia. pp11617
of exploration. Europeans possessed new technology
to sail and navigate long distances and wanted to nd 1900
new trade routes. Christopher Columbuss discovery of SOUTH AFRICAN
GOLD RUSH (1886)
the Americasthe New Worldbrought goods to trade, Johannesburg becomes a large and
wealthy city following a gold rush
new foods, wealth, and gold. However, it also led to the in Witwatersrand. pp110111
colonization of New World countries, piracy, and slavery.

76 THE WORLDS POPULATION REACHED 1 BILLION IN 1804. TODAY,


The modern world
SULEIMAN THE END OF THE INCAS (1531) PRIVATEERING (156086) COLONIZING AMERICA
MAGNIFICENT (152066) On his third expedition to The English privateer (1585) The Spanish establish
Suleiman expands the Peru, Conquistador Francisco Sir Francis Drake carries the rst European colony in
Ottoman Empire through Pizarro conquers the Inca out sea raids all over the what is now the US.
Europe. pp11819 Empire. pp8081 Caribbean. pp7879; 8687 pp8889

AROUND THE WORLD CARIBBEAN PIRATES NEW FOOD (1565)


(152122) Ferdinand (15501720) British, French, and Potatoes rst arrive
Magellans ship completes Dutch ships try to sieze gold being in Europe, brought
the rst circumnavigation exported from the Americas by from Mexico by Spanish
of the globe. pp7879 the Spanish. pp8687 ships. pp8283

FIRST GOLD RUSH (1693) EDO PERIOD, JAPAN FRENCH QUBEC (1608)
Gold is discovered at Mina (16151868) A military leader The rst French colony
Gerais, Brazil. By 1720, 400,000 called a shogun rules Japan. in the Americas is set
Portuguese prospectors have No foreigners are allowed up in Qubecnow in
Gold nugget
moved to Brazil. pp11011 into the country. pp11415 Canada. pp8889

QING DYNASTY, CHINA NEW AMSTERDAM (1614) The Dutch JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA
(16441912) Manchu people West India Company establishes (1607) Settlers arrive to
from the north of China replace a new city in North America. In set up the rst successful
Chinas Ming ruler and begin 1664, the English claim it and English colony in North
the Qing Dynasty. pp11819 rename it New York. pp8889 America. pp8889

DARWINS VOYAGE REVOLUTION! (1848) JAPAN BEGINS TRADING Steam locomotive


(183136) Charles Darwin People take to the streets (1853) Japan is forced by The rst steam-powered railroad
develops his theory of across Europe to ght for the US into its rst trade engine ran in 1804 and steam
evolution while traveling better working conditions agreement with a foreign engines continued to pull trains
the world. pp10203 and voting rights. pp10607 country. pp11415 well into the 1900s. The King
Edward II was built in 1930.

CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH BRITISH RAJ (18581947)


(184855) More than The British take direct
300,000 people ock control of India after the Indian
to California to search Rebellion of 1857. British rule
for gold. pp11011 was called the Raj. pp11819

European
protestors in 1848

SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA MEIJI RESTORATION (1868)


(1880s1914) European powers Forces opposing Japans shogun
enter Africa to end the slave trade, restore the emperor to power,
but invade and colonize countries beginning the Meiji Period.
as they do so. pp11819 pp11415

ELECTRIC LIGHT (1879) BATTLE OF LITTLE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


Thomas Edison invents BIGHORN (1876) (186165) The deadliest
a lightbulb that is safe American Indians defeat war in US history leads to
for use in peoples the US Army in a territory the abolition of slavery.
homes. pp12021 war. pp108109 pp11213

THERE ARE MORE THAN 7 BILLION PEOPLE IN THE WORLD. 77


SPAIN PORTUGAL

The Treaty of Tordesillas Martin

S
TORDESILLA
In 1494, Spain and Portugal made a treaty so they would not Frobisher
ght over new territories. From Europe to the east of the line GREENLAND Tried a route
shown was Portugals, while Spain had the rest. The treaty to the Pacic

TREATY OF
failed as more lands were discovered. but got only
as far as
Canada.
3
55
by1
NORTH AMERICA ou
gh

l
Wil
Gaspar and Miguel
Corte Real Frobisher 1576
Explored Greenland and
C
Newfoundland. ENGLAND

or
te
Cartier 1534
CANADA 36

Rea
Jacques Cartier
NETHER-

l
Traveled inland in North Cabo
t 149
7
America and claimed LANDS

15
KEY EUROPE

00
Canada for France.

0
Magellans route

2
PORTUGAL SPAIN
Other Spanish missions John Cabot AT L A N T I C
Portuguese expeditions Crossed the Atlantic to
North America.
English expeditions OCEAN 1492
French expeditions Columbus
Dutch expeditions Caribbean
204
s 150
olumbu
C

1577
80 Christopher
Drake Columbus
His last
voyage left
PAC I F I C him stranded
in Jamaica
OCEAN for a year.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Francis Drake Discovered Brazil, BRAZIL
Raided Spanish then headed east
colonies along the to round the Cape
coast of America. He of Good Hope.

M
circumnavigated
the globe during
AT L A N T I C
ag
el
this expedition. SOUTH
la
n
AMERICA OCEAN
15

80
19

26

A new discovery
Lo 77
2

15
1

15

sa
ai
e

In 1492, Columbus thought


ak
Dr

he had landed in Asia, but it Cab


ral
150
was the Caribbean. He had 0
Loa

discovered a new continent


isa
152

known as the New World.


6

Strait of
Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan Cape Horn


Garcia Jofre de Loaisa
Found a route through Led his eet through the Strait
South America via straits of Magellan having been sent
that link the Atlantic by Charles I of Spain to colonize
and Pacic oceans. the Spice Islands.

78 SAILORS HAD TO BE AT LEAST 16 YEARS OLD, BUT BOYS AS YOUNG


The modern world
ARCTIC
OCEAN
Bare
nts 159497 SIBERIA

For the voyage


Hugh Willoughby
and William
to the Indies, I did not
Barents
Both sailed north
make use of intelligence,
mathematics, or maps.
of Siberia, but
failed to nd routes
to the Pacic.
Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer, c.1502
ASIA PAC I F I C
Ferno Pires de Andrade
Visited Canton and opened
OCEAN
up trade with China. CHINA
Juan Sebastian del Cano
Took the helm after Magellan died in
Canton the Philippines. The ship completed
the rst round-the-world voyage,
INDIA
which lasted just over 3 years.
PHILIPPINES
de 1517
AFRICA 0
50 Drake 157780
dra

l1
ra
An

b
Ca
8
9
97
a 14 Spice Is
Ga
m land s
Loa
da Vasco da Gama isa
152
6
Reached India via
INDIAN Africa, returning
to Portugal with
Mag
ella
n 15
19
21
cinnamon and pepper.
OCEAN

22
AUSTRALASIA
21
lan) 15
Cape l
age
of M
of Good er death
(aft
ano
Hope del C

Victoria
Del Canos ship was a
carrack: a large, heavy sailing
vessel developed by Portuguese
shipbuilders for crossing the Atlantic.

1488
1597 The age of exploration
By the mid-15th century, European powers began to seek alternative trade routes
from the West to the East, since the main routes were under the control of various
Muslim rulers. This led them to explore parts of the world they had never seen before.

AS SEVEN OR EIGHT COULD BE FOUND WORKING ON THE BOATS. 79


Conquest of the Aztecs NORTH
In 1519, Hernn Corts built
a huge army made of native Francisco Vsquez de Coronado, 1540 AMERICA
Led an expedition into modern-
people who wanted to rebel day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas,
against the Aztecs. They seized Oklahoma, and Kansas. One
the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, scouting party of de Hernando de Soto, 153942
but the Aztecs recaptured it Coronados became the Head of the rst European
while Corts was diverted at rst Europeans to see trek deep into the territory of
the coast, confronting a rival the Colorado River and the modern-day United States.
Conquistador, Pnlo de the Grand Canyon. Historians believe that
Narvez. On Cortss return he was the rst
in 1521, the city surrendered. European to cross
the Mississippi River.

VI
CE
Page from an Aztec book, or codex, made RO
in 155285 to tell the story of the conquest YA
LT
Y OF

Penins
Yu c a t
NE
WS
PAIN

ula
n
Tenochtitlan

Alvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca, 1528


A member of the disastrous 1528 Navrez
expedition to colonize Florida, in which
only four of 600 men survived. He tried to
nd a land-based route back to New
Mexico, but American Indians captured Hernn Corts, 1519 Francisco de Montejo, 1527
him and held him for eight years. He Mounted an expedition to mainland Tried to conquer the east of the
wrote the rst European book on the Central America. He amassed a vast army, Yucatn Peninsula in 1527, but
customs of American Indian life. marched on the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was driven back by the Maya.
and conquered the Aztec Empire. His son, also named Francisco,
completed the conquest in 1545.

1513
1570 Conquistadors Francisco Vsquez de
Coronado
Juan Ponce de Len
Francisco de Montejo
Vasco Nez de Balboa
Hernando de Soto
Hernn Corts Francisco Pizarro
Pedro de Alvarado Alvar Nez Cabeza de Vaca

Columbuss discovery of the New World NORTH AMERICA


F lo

in 1492 brought a wave of ambitious


rid
M e x ico

Spaniards, known as Conquistadors, in Cub


a
his wake. All were seeking fame and fortune, but Hispaniola
while some triumphed, conquering empires and
amassing great personal wealth, others failed Panama

and sometimes died in the process. SOUTH AMERICA

80 A CENTURY AFTER THE CONQUISTADORS ARRIVED, 90 PERCENT OF THE


The modern world

KEY
The last Inca emperor
Key city
Francisco Pizarro and his 180 men
Area under Spanish arrived in the Inca Empire in 1531.
control by 1570 They met the Inca leader, Atahualpa,
and his army at a camp in northern
AT L A N T I C Peru. Pizarro kidnapped Atahualpa
and demanded a huge ransom for
OCEAN his release. Pizarro received the
ransom, but executed Atahualpa
Vasco Nez de anyway, to please his troops.
Juan Ponce de Len, 1513 Balboa, 151314
Explored lands north of Best known for leading
Two years later, the mighty
the island of Hispaniola. an expedition across Inca Empire had fallen.
On 2 April 1513, he Panama. During the
sighted what he thought journey, he became the
was an island and rst European to reach
named it Florida. the Pacic Ocean from
the New World.

Flor Puerto Rico


ida
Cuba
Modern illustration of Pizarro and Atahualpa

an iola
Hisp
Jamaica

I and my
Panama
Santa Mari la Antigua
del Darin
companions
suffer from a
Pedro de Alvarado, 1522
A member of Cortss victorious SOUTH disease of the
expedition against the Aztecs. He
earned fame as the most brutal of the
Quito AMERICA heart that only
Conquistadors by enslaving and killing
native people. He went on to sieze more
of Central America for the Spanish. gold can cure.
Hernn Corts, in an appeal to
EUROPE
Where did they the Aztec emperor, 1519
originate?
Spain
The Conquistadors were Cuzco VI C
the hundreds of ambitious ER
men who left Spain to seek OY
fame and fortune in the A
LT

New World. This map


Y

shows how the principal Francisco Pizarro, 152433


OF

Conquistadors crossed the Tantalized by reports of Perus


PE

AFRICA
ATLANTIC Atlantic Ocean from Spain riches, Pizarro led two failed
RU

OCEAN and where they rst made expeditions there in 1524 and
1526. He returned and conquered
landfall in the New World.
the Inca Empire in 1531.

AMERICAS NATIVE POPULATION HAD DIED, MANY FROM NEW DISEASES. 81


Tomatoes to Spain
In the early 1500s, EUROPE
Conquistadors took
tomatoes from Mexico
Potatoes in Europe GREAT
After reaching Spain, potatoes BRITAIN
to Spain; by 1600 they
spread across Europe. They
had spread to Italy
were also brought to Britain
and Britain.
independently in 1599.
NORTH
The origin AMERICA FRANCE
of tomatoes
First grown by the
Aztecs in Mexico, SPAIN
tomatoes were ITALY
used in cooking
by 500 CE. Sugar in the New World
In the mid-1500s, Europeans
exported sugar cane from Asia
to their New World colonies.
MEXICO
Cocoa in Europe
Once the Spanish added
West Indies sugar to cocoa, it became
a popular drink and
quickly spread through
Central western Europe.
America
GHANA NIGERIA

The origin of cocoa AFRICA


In 1000 BCE, cocoa SOUTH
was used in Central AMERICA
America as a cold
savory drink. It PERU BRAZIL
was taken to Spain
in the 1520s.
Spread of potatoes
The origin of potatoes Spanish Conquistadors
Before the European rst took potatoes Cocoa in Africa
conquest, potatoes were from South America The French introduced
traded in the Andes as to Spain in 1565. cocoa to their colonies
early as 5000 BCE. in Brazil; from there it
spread to west Africa.

The Columbian
Exchange
Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia)
When the Old and New Fruits, vegetables, and seeds, including
worlds met in 14921600, New World (The Americas) bananas, citrus fruits, coffee, olives,
they exchanged fruits, grain, Fruits, vegetables, and seeds, onions, peaches, pears, and sugar cane;
including avocados, beans, chile grains, such as barley, oats, rice, and
vegetables, and livestock. This wheat; livestock, including chickens,
event is called the Columbian peppers, cocoa, peanuts, pineapples,
potatoes, sweet potatoes, squash, cows, and sheep; diseases, such as
Exchange. Disease-causing tomatoes, and vanilla; grains, such as chicken pox, smallpox, and malaria.
organisms (germs) were also corn; livestock, for instance, turkeys;
transferred by accident. Some nonedible plants, such as tobacco;
of these killed huge numbers diseases, including syphilis.
of Native Americans.

82 IN THE 1600S, COCOA WAS VERY POPULAR IN EUROPE AND CLASSED


The modern world

KEY
Journey of tomatoes Journey of cocoa Journey of potatoes Journey of sugar
before 1600 before 1700 before 1600 cane before 1600

ASIA

Middle
East Crops in the colonies
European powers
EGYPT CHINA possessed colonies with
warm climates ideal for
growing some crops. The
Spanish grew tomatoes
and cocoa in their
Philippines colony.
INDIA

PHILIPPINES

Spread of sugar
During the Crusades
in the 12th century,
sugar was brought
into Europe from
Sugar in Asia New
Granulated sugar Guinea
the Middle East.
arrived in India from
Southeast Asia and was
rst produced in around 300 CE.

Origin of sugar cane


In 1500, 100 lb First grown on the island
of New Guinea in 6000 BCE
(45 kg) of sugar was and used as a sweet juice,
sugar soon spread through
Southeast Asia.
worth the same as AUSTRALASIA
1 oz (28 g) of gold.

6000 BCE
1600 CE The great food exchange
When cultures meet, they discover new foods by trading with each other. Possibly the
greatest ever meeting of cultures happened when Europeans explored the New World
(the Americas) for the rst time in the 16th century. People on both sides of the
Atlantic discovered a vast range of previously unknown food plants.

AS A LUXURY FOODIT WAS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN THE BEST WINE. 83


1517
1648 The Reformation
Englands church founded
Henry VIII of England broke
The Catholic Church had been from the Catholic Church
because the pope would not let
in religious control of western him divorce his wife. In 1534,
Europe for 1,000 years when in SCOTLAND he founded a new Protestant
church, the Church of England,
1517, a monk named Martin Luther nailed with himself in charge.
Edinburgh
a list of 95 complaints against the Religious war breaks out
At the end of the 80 Years War
Church (called theses) to in 1648, the Netherlands
a church door in Wittenberg, IRELAND York was split into a Catholic
south (modern Belgium)
Germany. Luthers ideas Dublin
and a Protestant north
(modern Netherlands).
sparked 130 years of wars
and persecution, but they ENGLAND
changed, or reformed, the London
S
Church and gave birth to a new branch A ND
RL
T HE
of Christianity called Protestantism. NE

Huguenots massacred Paris


Leading Protestants (known as Huguenots in France)
were killed in Paris, in 1572, in what became known as the
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. The killing of Protestants
Troyes
was widespread during the French Wars of Religion (156298). Nantes

Protestants burnt FRANCE FRANCHE-


Protestants were persecuted in Spain. Many COMT
were put on trial and burnt to death. The rst Cognac
Geneva
to suffer were those in Seville and Valladolid
Martin Luther in 155862. Protestantism virtually Lyon
Luther wanted to reform disappeared from the country. SAVOY
the Catholic Church
rather than break away
from it, but when he was Avignon
excluded from the Church
in 1520, he became a
Valladolid
GAL

revolutionary leader.
PORTU

Barcelona
Madrid

SPAIN Everything that


is done in the world
Seville is done by hope.
Martin Luther, published in a
collection of his sayings in 1566

84 THE PRINTING PRESS ACCELERATED THE REFORMATION: COPIES OF


The modern world

SWEDEN
KEY
NORWAY This map shows Europe in 1600,
by which stage the Reformation
Church assets seized had mainly settled the pattern
In 1527, Gustav Vasa, ruler of Catholic and Protestant areas.
of Sweden, seized church Stockholm
lands and reformed the Mainly Catholic
state church according Mainly Protestant
to Luthers ideas.

Luther posts his list


On October 31, 1517,
Martin Luther posted
his 95 Theses on the
DENMARK Copenhagen
door of a church
Riga
in Wittenberg, in
modern-day
Germany.

PRUSSIA
Hamburg John Calvin
Emperor makes peace After becoming Protestant,
In 1555 in Augsburg, after John Calvin settled in
years of religious war, Berlin Geneva, Switzerland, in
the Catholic Emperor Wittenberg
1536. He developed his
Charles V allowed own strand of the new
Lutheranism in German POLANDLITHUANIA
religion, which became
states whose rulers
were Lutheran.
known as Calvinism.
Prague Calvin sent missionaries
SMALL
GERMAN
AUSTRIA who helped to establish
Cracow
STATES Protestant churches in
Augsburg Scotland, France, and
the Netherlands.
HUNGARY
Zurich

SWITZERLAND Debrecen
Trent Buda

TRANSYLVANIA
Milan VENICE
Venice
SMALL IT
ALIAN
STATES
Genoa OTTOMAN EMPIRE
GENOA
Florence Belgrade WALLACHIA
TUSCANY
ES
TAT
AL S Council of Trent meets
PAP
The Catholic Church, knowing it had to
Rome stop people from ocking to the new
NAPLES Protestant churches, met three times at
Trento in 154562. It decided to change itself
IA

Naples to draw people back. The changes are


DIN

known as the Counter-Reformation. Adrianople


SAR

Salonica
Istanbul

SICILY OTTOMAN EMPIRE

LUTHERS WRITINGS SPREAD THROUGHOUT EUROPE WITHIN TWO MONTHS. 85


1500s
1800s Caribbean pirates
In the 16th century, galleons left the Spanish Main (parts of the American
mainland under Spanish control) loaded with plundered gold. They
attracted privateers, who were licensed by other countries
to take Spanish ships as prizes, and pirates, or buccaneers, whose
robbery was against the law. The age of pirates and privateers
ended in the 1800s, when better-equipped navies restored order.
San Agustn

PA IN
S
W
NE Galleons of gold
Florida
OF In 1628, Dutch privateer
Piet Heyn captured the
TY

whole Spanish treasure


AL

eet just off Cubas coast.


OY
ER
VI C

Havana
Aztec riches
Gold was carried
in mule trains Gulf of Cuba
to ports such as
Veracruz, where it
M ex i co
was loaded on to Spanish Pirate ship
Spanish galleons. galleon in pursuit
Campeche of a galleon

Veracruz

Franois lOllonais
This notorious buccaneer was shipwrecked C aribbean
at Campeche. The Spanish killed
his crew, so he spent the next S ea
10 years attacking Spanish
eets throughout the
Caribbean in revenge.

a good sailor Old


KEY
but the most cruel This map shows the Caribbean
in the 16th18th centuries.
Providence

and hardened Area controlled


by Spain
Henry Morgan
villain Key town A skilled privateer
turned buccaneer,
Panama
Portobelo
Charles Johnson on Blackbeard, Key pirate haven Morgan raided
in A General History of Pyrates, 1724 many towns and
Sack or capture
islands, including Old
of island or town
Providence, which he used
as a base in the 1670s.

86 SAILORS FROM SHIPS CAPTURED BY PIRATES OFTEN JOINED THE CREW


The modern world

Ocracoke Island Privateer or buccaneer?


A great place to hide out while
waiting for ships to seize,
The rst pirates were privateers, sent by
Ocracoke was Blackbeards their countries to raid enemy ships in times
Ocracoke haven until he was killed in of war. The Netherlands, England, and
a battle here in 1718. France used them against Spain. They
often seized ships for gold and slaves, but
remained respected. Buccaneers were
Blackbeard AT L A N T I C pirates who robbed solely for their own
In 1718, Blackbeard blockaded the
OCEAN benet and often came to a sticky end.
port of Charleston and ransomed
Charleston the inhabitants. He was a fearsome
sight, and people said that he would
set his hat alight with fuses, so that
it would smoke as he attacked.
Pirate haven
Mary Read From the 1630s, the
In 1720, Mary joined
island of Tortuga off
pirate Anne Bonny to
Hispaniola became a
sail with Captain Calico
hideout for buccaneers.
Jack, based in New
This motley crew of
Providence. Both
ex-privateers, convicts,
women, who dressed
and escaped slaves Queen Elizabeth I of England knighting Francis
as men, were said
started to take over the Drake for his privateering services, 1581
to be braver and
seas once privateering
better pirates than
was outlawed.
their captain.
New Providence
Privateers prize
Ba

am Francis Drake seized


h

as a Spanish galleon off


Puerto Rico in 1571. He
Santa Mara del
Puerto del Prncipe
gained loot from later
Buccaneer
voyages too, including
a spree in 158586,
Tortuga
during which he sacked
Sancti- towns from Cartagena
Spritus to San Agustn.
Hispaniola Land grab
Jamaica Puerto
Santo The islands not
Domingo Rico taken by Spain
often changed
Pirate ship hands as they were
Pirates often sailed small, fought over by the
Port Royal fast ships that could overtake Dutch, French,
Ships attacking From 1655, pirates came heavy Spanish galleons. In and English.
coastal towns to this safe haven. It gained 1720, Black Bart captured
a reputation for wild partying 15 ships in three days.
until antipiracy laws were
passed in 1687.

Borburata
Maracaibo Caracas
Cartagena
Nombre
de Dios
Coast raids
Coastal towns were Gibraltar The Queens man
repeatedly raided as Sailing with Queen Elizabeth Is
gold was held there, ready to be blessing in 1564, John Hawkins made
shipped. Maracaibo had 16 cannon a prot selling seized slaves in towns
on the coast to repel attacks. along the South American coast.

OF THEIR PIRATE CAPTORS, HOPING TO GET RICHES AND MORE FREEDOM. 87


The Pilgrim Fathers
The Pilgrim Fathers were not the rst
European settlers to arrive in North
America, but they have become the
most well-known. A party of 102 men,
women, and children left England on
September 16, 1620, on a ship named
the Mayower. They landed at
Plymouth Rock on December 21.
Hudson
Bay
Hudson Bay
European traders made the most
of the fur trade routes established
by the Native Americans. In the
1670s, the British Hudson Bay
Company set up factories on Maine
the coast of Hudson Bay. Conicts between
settlers and
American Indianssuch as
King Philips War, focused in
Maine (167576)were a
constant problem for the
KEY
This map shows British, French,
NORTH early colonizers.
and Spanish possessions in North AMERICA NEW
America in 1733. FRANCE New Amsterdam
The British claimed New Amsterdam
British possession in 1664 (rst settled by the Dutch in
French possession 1614) and renamed it New York.
Spanish possession Jamestown
Santa Fe
Disputed territory The rst successful British
The Spanish explored the
Fur trading post southwest United States from colony, Jamestown, was
Mexico in the 16th century established in 1607.
onward and founded a capital
at Santa Fe in 1609. NEW Santa Fe LOUISIANA
MEXICO

Colonial
1500
1733 New Orleans

America
Colonization (or settlement) of North Spanish
gold VIC
America started in the 16th century, OF EROY
NE
W S ALTY
as European countries tried to claim PAI
N
these newly discovered lands. At rst, life for New Spain
In 15001650, Spain
the colonizers was extremely tough, with many exported 180 tons New Orleans
(164 metric tons) of Some 7,000 immigrants
people dying. Within a few years of their founding, gold and 17,000 tons arrived in New Orleans
however, many settlements began to ourish. (15,400 metric tons) of from France in 1718 to
silver from New Spain. start the growth of
French Louisiana.

88 BY 1700, THERE WERE AS MANY AS 250,000 EUROPEAN SETTLERS IN


The modern world

Ay, call it
holy ground,
The soil where rst
Qubec
RUPERTS In 1608, the French established
their rst colony at Qubec, on the
they trod
LAND
banks of the St. Lawrence River, Felicia Dorothea Hemans,
in modern-day Canada. The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1825

Mayower
The Pilgrim Fathers,
French religious refugees
pioneers hat Pilgrim from England, sailed
Qubec Fathers hat to the New World in
the Mayower, in 1620.

Plymouth

New
Amsterdam
Pilgrim Fathers shallop
(shallow boat for coasts The Thirteen Colonies
and rivers)
Jamestown
Thirteen British colonies
Charleston were founded between 1607
In 1670,
Charleston (Virginia) and 1733 (Georgia).
became
Charleston the rst AT L A N T I C New Hampshire
Spanish successful Massachusetts
helmet settlement in OCEAN Rhode
San Agustn the Carolinas. New Island
York
Fl

San Agustn
or

Spain founded San Agustn (now


ida

St Augustine, Florida), the rst European Pennsylvania Connecticut


settlement in the United States, in 1565.
New Jersey
Cuba Delaware
Virginia Maryland

North
Florida Carolina
Spain established a
number of colonies South
in Florida in the Carolina AT L A N T I C
1580s and 1590s. Ge
or OCEAN
gia
SOUTH
AMERICA

NORTH AMERICA, MAINLY FROM BRITAIN, GERMANY, SPAIN, AND FRANCE. 89


NORTH
AMERICA
Northern US
UNITED STATES Boston

Chesapeake
Gulf Coast
Charleston Whale
oil, lum
Cotton ber, furs
plantation
Cotton, indigo, tobacco
The majority of um
slaves shipped e s, wood, r
olass
to North America CUBA Sugar, m
were sent to work
on cotton plantations. Span ds
ish M
ain SAINT-DOMINGUE on

m
JAMAICA

ia
,d
KEY Caribbean

e
ffe
The thickness of the islands

co
rope represents the
number of slaves shipped

co
ac
BRITISH

ob
Slave traders GUIANA

,t
ar
SURINAM g
Slave-raiding zone Sugar plantation su
Europes craving FRENCH
GUIANA d,
Slave-trading ports for sugar drove the
gol
slave trade. Sugar r,
Goods exported from plantations dominated ilve
Amazonia S
Europe to Africa in the Caribbean.
exchange for slaves
Goods exported from
SOUTH Pernambuco
the New World AMERICA Recife

Gold mine
Sites of plantations or Most slaves brought
Salvador
mines in which slaves to South America
were sent to work: BRAZIL Bahia
worked in gold and
Cotton
diamond mines.
Southeast
More slaves were
Brazil
Sugar shipped to South
America than
Diamonds anywhere else.

Slavery
Gold
RO DE
1500s
Coffee
LA PLATA 1800s

Slavery had existed for thousands of years in many


parts of the world, but its most infamous episode
came with the Atlantic Slave Trade. Between the
16th and 19th centuries, slave traders took an estimated
12 million Africans by force and shipped them across the
Atlantic in dreadful conditions to work as slaves on the
plantations or in the mines of the Americas.

90 THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS MAAFA,


The modern world

Human cargo
Slave-trading port
By the 17th century, one in Conditions for slaves
four ships leaving Liverpool on board slave ships
was a slave-trading ship. were horrendous. Some
350600 people were
Liverpool
DENMARK crammed into the ships
BRITAIN hold, chained together for
NETHERLANDS months at a time, with
Nantes disease a constant threat.
FRANCE EUROPE
um PORTUGAL SPAIN
r,r Lisbon
ee
n ,b
ro
,i
th
lo
,c
ns
Gu

Arguin
The slave traders
Senegambia AFRICA The Portuguese and British
were the major participants
Slave-raiding zones in the slave trade. Three-
Slaves were captured in large quarters of all slaves were
Sierra Leone
areas of Africa and were then shipped across the Atlantic
Windward Gold Bight of sent to camps, which were in ships originating from
Coast Coast Benin known as slave factories, those two countries.
Bight of on the coast.
Biafra

Britain26%

France11%
Portugal48%

Netherlands4%
Spain8%
Great

United States2%

Denmark1%
West
Central
Africa
Middle Passage
The journey across The shrieks
the Atlantic Ocean
was known as the
Middle Passage. Southeast
and groans
Africa

Madagascar
rendered the
whole a scene of
horror almost
unimaginable.
Former slave Olaudah Equiano, on
the conditions on a slave ship, 1789

WHICH MEANS HOLOCAUST OR GREAT DISASTER IN SWAHILI. 91


KEY Yorktown Yor
This map shows the Major American k Riv KEY
Thirteen Colonies that troop movements The British army in er British
declared independence. American battle wins
Virginia was building positions
a harbor at Yorktown Yorktown
American
Major British Major French when a French eet positions
troop movements troop movements
defeated British ships French
British battle wins French battle wins that were coming with positions

Key town or event supplies, cutting off the


British army. American
and French armies then
surrounded Yorktown and
the British surrendered.

Pennsylvania

Virginia
American army
The Continental Congress (the governing body

e
of the whole Thirteen Colonies) raised an army Maryland

ar
called the Continentals, commanded by George

law
Washington. Supporting this were regiments

De
belonging to individual states. Like the British,
they were armed mainly with muskets, which
were inaccurate, so had to be red in volleys
(all together) to hit the target.
Yorktown 15
Cowpens 13 Charlotte

North
Carolina
Georgia Fort Camden
14

South
Carolina

Wilmington

12 Charleston
5

We have it in our
11
Savannah power to begin
the world anew.
Thomas Paine, from the best-selling pamphlet
Common Sense, 177576, which aimed to persuade
Americans to ght for independence

1 December 16, 1773 2 April 19, 1775 3 June 17, 1775 4 March 17, 1776 5 June 28, 1776
A band of American patriots Local people had an The British suffered British forces left A British attempt to
dressed as Mohawks armed conict with huge casualties in Boston, destroying take Charleston from
dumped tea into Boston British forces at Lexington. winning the battle all military supplies the Americans ended in
Harbor in a response to The rst shots of the of Bunker Hill, in the city as they failure at the battle of
British tea tax. war were red. outside Boston. evacuated. Sullivans Island.

92 WHEN THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER, LORD NORTH, HEARD THE NEWS OF
The modern world
NORTH British army
In 1776, the British army was one of
Qubec
AMERICA the best in the world. Its men were
nicknamed the Redcoats. They were
joined in some battles by green-
coated American Loyalists.

10
District of Maine
New York Saratoga
New (to Massachusetts)
Hampshire

Massachusetts
Lexington
2
Philadelphia Connecticut 1
New York 3 4
Trenton 7 Boston
8
6
9

New Jersey
Rhode
Island

AT L A N T I C
OCEAN
1775
The American 1781

Revolutionary War
After years of tension over Britains growing control, the American colonies
declared themselves independent states. War was inevitable, and Britain
and the United States fought for six years, with neither side winning a
decisive victory, until the British were nally trapped, surrendering in 1781.

6 July 4, 1776 7 August 1776 8 December 26, 1776 9 September 26, 1777 10 October 17, 1777
The Thirteen Colonies The British won a series The Americans won The British entered British general Burgoyne
approved Thomas of skirmishes against their rst signicant Philadelphia under General surrendered to the Americans
Jeffersons Declaration George Washingtons victory of the war at Howe, but they abandoned at Saratoga. The American
of Independence in army and took control the battle of Trenton, the city in 1778 and victory persuaded the French
Philadelphia. of New York. New Jersey. retreated to New York. to enter the war on their side.

11 December 29, 1778 12 May 12, 1780 13 January 17, 1781 14 April 25, 1781 15 October 17, 1781
The British defeated The Americans, under The Americans, The British defeated Lord Cornwallis surrendered
the Americans in Benjamin Lincoln, headed by Daniel American forces at Fort to a combined French-American
Savannah. The rest of surrendered to the Morgan, defeated the Camden, but suffered force after being cut off at
Georgia soon fell under British after a month- British at Cowpens, heavy losses and were Yorktown. Defeat for the British
British control. long siege of Charleston. South Carolina. forced to retreat. signaled the end of the war.

HIS COUNTRYS SURRENDER AT YORKTOWN, HE BROKE DOWN AND SOBBED. 93


Exiled
1788
1860s
INDIAN
KEY
Areas ex-convicts settled
Penal colonies

to Australia OCEAN Other important sites


Route of the First Fleet, 1788

On January 18, 1788, the rst of 11 ships


carrying 1,500 people arrived at Botany Bay,
Australia. Most passengers were British
convicts sentenced to transportation, or exile,
for crimes ranging from minor theft to murder.
From 1793, free settlers, who chose to
emigrate, also began to arrive in Australia.
All this had a devastating impact on the
Aboriginal land
300,000 Aboriginal people who lived Aboriginal people were the
original inhabitants of Australia,
there. Thousands died from disease and there were clear boundaries
or violence, and their land was around each groups territory. The
Europeans did not see this and
taken over by the immigrants. claimed the land for themselves,
with no regard for either
Aboriginal rights or heritage.

Aboriginal population A U S T R
Aboriginal people had been
in Australia for more than Swan River colony We found ourselves in a
40,000 years when the The rst colony in Western
Europeans arrived. Ravaged Australia was established
on the Swan River, Perth, in
port superior ... to all
by conict and disease, the
1828. It was a free colony, but
Aboriginal people numbered
only 100,000 by 1920. They
penal colonies were set up in we had seen before.
Western Australia, in 1850,
kept their culture alive, when immigrants wanted Captain Lieutenant Watkin Tench,
however, passing down convicts to help them farm on Port Jackson (modern-day Sydney),
traditions such as dance and the tough land. January 26, 1788
body art to todays generation. Fremantle
The last convict ship arrived in
Fremantle port in 1868. It brought
the last of more than 9,000
convicts into Western Australia.
Perth HMS Sirius
Fremantle The agship of the First Fleet
(the rst 11 ships that left England) was a
Royal Navy armed escort ship. It left England
with eet commander Captain Arthur Phillip
Albany
aboard. On reaching Botany Bay, he became
governor in chief and decided to move
the settlement to Port Jackson.

94 BETWEEN 1788 AND 1850, THE BRITISH SENT MORE THAN 162,000
ea The modern world
e w Guin
N
Crossing the world
The First Fleet left Portsmouth, NORTH Portsmouth
EUROPE ASIA
AMERICA
England, on May 13, 1787. It took
eight months to reach Botany Tenerife
Bay, with stops at Tenerife, AFRICA
Rio de Janeiro, and Cape Town
SOUTH
to restock supplies and collect AMERICA
plants, seeds, and livestock Rio de AUSTRALASIA
Janeiro Cape Town Botany Bay
(horses, sheep, and goats)
to take to the new land.

Moreton Bay
Some convicts from Port Jackson
who committed further crimes in
Australia were sent to this penal
Myall Creek colony. Conditions were particularly
In 1838, 28 Aboriginal people were murdered by harsh and many convicts tried to
white settlers at Myall Creek. There were many clashes escape, but were unsuccessful.
between the Europeans and the Aboriginal people,
started by both sides. This case was unusual, however, Castle Hill
because the European perpetrators were brought to Myall
Creek In March 1804, a group of rebel
justice. Seven of the 11 guilty men were hanged. convicts escaped from a farm in
Moreton Castle Hill. It resulted in a battle
Bay between the rebels and the
Liberty Plains military. The military won and
The rst free immigrant settlers the rebels were put to death.
arrived in 1793. They were given land
grants by the British government, Port Macquarie
plus convict labor to work the land.
Port Stephens
They were also given two years food
A L I A rations and one years clothing. Wellington
Newcastle
Port Jackson
Castle Hill Australias rst penal
Port Jackson colony (area for convicts)
Botany Bay Botany Bay was established in Port
The First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay on January Liberty Jackson, where the land
1820, 1788. The area had poor soil and little Plains
was more fertile than
fresh water, so was not suitable for settlement.
in Botany Bay. The area
later became Sydney.

Risdon Cove
In 1803, a penal colony
was set up in Risdon
Melbourne Cove, after a party of
Western Port British were sent from
Port Philip
Sydney to Tasmania to
prevent the French from
claiming the island.
Port
Dalrymple

ania Maria Island


Tasm Risdon Port Arthur
Cove From 1832,
Macquarie Harbour
Sullivans Port convicts who had
Cove Arthur broken the law
while in their penal
colonies were sent to
Port Arthur. It had some
of the strictest security
and harshest punishments
of any penal colony.

CONVICTSMOSTLY THIEVESIN 806 SHIPS TO AUSTRALIA. 95


ENGLAND
Events in Paris
Many of the key events of the revolution
took place around Paris.

July 14, 1789 An angry mob demolished the


Protest march
Bastillea fortress-prison that was a symbol
On October 5, 1789, 7,000 women
of kingship. The Storming of the Bastille was
marched on the royal palace of Versailles
the symbolic start of the revolution.
Vende uprising to protest about the shortage of bread.
Peasants in this area had a good
August 26, 1789 The new National Assembly
standard of living. They were loyal to
passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Le Havre
their lords and the church. They
Citizen. This stated that all men and women
fought erce wars against the
are born equal, and so the nobility had no
Republic from 1793 to 1799. Caen
right to rule over the commoners. This was
the start of French democracy.

August 10, 1792 An angry mob stormed the


Tuileries Palace, where King Louis XVI had
been held under guard since trying to ee the
country in 1791. The king was sent to prison.
Rennes
September 22, 1792 A new government
proclaimed that France was a republic.

January 21, 1793 King Louis XVI was executed.


Angers
May 31, 1793 The Jacobin party, led by
Maximilien Robespierre, took power and gave Nantes
itself unlimited authority. The Jacobins accused VENDE
many people of being anti-Republic, executing
40,000 of them during their Reign of Terror.
Liberty,
August 1793 The Republic called for French Poitiers
troops to ght the Revolutionary Wars. equality,
October 16, 1793 The French queen, Marie
Antoinette, was executed. brotherhood, Ruffec

July 31, 1794 The Jacobins were overthrown


and their leader, Robespierre, was executed.
or death.
French revolutionary motto

The French
1789
1794 Bordeaux

Revolution
In 1789, France was in turmoil. It was nearly
bankrupt from wars it had fought, there was a
bad harvest, and the king was demanding taxes
from the poor while the nobility lived in luxury. The people
rose up, overthrew the monarchy, and declared a republic
in a revolution that caused considerable bloodshed. SPAIN

96 THE SHARP-BLADED GUILLOTINE, NICKNAMED THE NATIONAL RAZOR,


The modern world

AUSTRIAN Revolutionary Wars


NETHERLANDS In 1794, the French won a great victory at Fleurus, in
modern-day Belgium. It was part of the Revolutionary
Jemappes Wars, which the French Republic fought against
European countries that were monarchies. The French
Fleurus
wanted to spread the revolution, while the monarchies
wished to put a king back in control of France.

Amiens Estres
Rouen
The Great Fear
Peasants armed themselves
in fear of being starved or
burned out by their landlords.
The panic, called the Great Fear,
began in Romilly-sur-Seine and Metz
Paris several other places, and spread
Versailles nationwide from July 17, 1789.
Romilly-sur-Seine
Nancy
La Fert-Bernard Strasbourg GERMAN
STATES
Orlans Saint-Florentin
Colmar
Tennis Court Oath
On June 20, 1789, the
kings ofcials locked the
National Assembly out of Dijon RAURACIAN
Bourges their usual meeting place, REPUBLIC
Meeting of so they met in his indoor Besanon SWITZERLAND
the Estates- tennis court. Here, they
swore to stay together FRANCHE- NEUCHTEL
General COMT
until they had produced KEY
On June 17,
a constitution for France. Cluny
1789, the king Louhans France in 1789
called a crisis meeting of representatives
of the clergy, the nobility, and the Third Territory gained
Estate (ordinary people) at Versailles. by France 178997
The Third Estate broke away to form
a National Assembly. Centers of revolution
SAVOY
Lyon
Siege of Lyon Centers of execution
In 1793, the population Places where
of counterrevolutionary Lyon anti-Republicans
revolted against the Republic. (counterrevolutionaries)
Government troops laid siege were guillotined.
to the city for two months.
Areas of
Cahors counterrevolution
Regions that were
F R A N C E against the revolution,
Orange because they were
AVIGNON Royalist (supporting
Toulouse the king) or for
Nmes NICE other reasons.
Montpellier
Bram Marseille Area of Vende uprising

Toulon Center of the Great Fear

Siege of Toulon Town


Republicans laid siege to the city
for four months at the end of 1793,
defeating a Royalist uprising.

WAS CONSIDERED TO BE A HUMANE METHOD OF EXECUTION. 97


KINGDOM OF
10. Battle of Waterloo, 1815 SWEDEN
KEY This was Napoleons last battle,
This map shows Europe in as he was defeated by British and KINGDOM OF
1812, when Napoleon controlled Prussian armies. He was then exiled DENMARK
an empire, across which he to St. Helenaa remote island in
imposed a legal code and the GREAT the middle of the Atlantic.
metric system of measures. The BRITAIN Lbeck,
territories outside this empire 1806
ercely rejected French inuence.

Napoleons empire
8
Dependent states and allies 10
CO Leipzig
N
Key battle OF FED Jena, 1806
Waterloo TH E R
1 Key event E R AT
HI I O N
NE
Russian campaign, 1812 2 Paris
Advance into Russia
2. Coronation, Ulm, 1805
Return from Russia 1804
Napoleon
had himself SWITZERLAND
4. Battle of Salamanca, 1812 crowned IL
KINGDOM PR LYR
This was a key battle in the Peninsular emperor OV IAN
OF ITALY IN
war, which French forces fought against here in Paris. CE
a British and Portuguese army and Mantua, S

T IC anti-French Spanish forces.


FRENCH EMPIRE
Marengo, 1800 1796

N N
LA
Corunna,
A 1805
E
AT O C
9
KINGDOM OF SPAIN 9. Exile on
Elba, 1814 K
OF ING
4 Napoleon was exiled NA DOM
PORT OM OF

PL

DIN F
Salamanca
UGAL

here in 1814, but escaped ES

SAR DOM O
IA
for one last campaign
against the British.
D

3. Battle of Trafalgar, 1805

G
KING

KIN
The French and Spanish eets
were destroyed by British ships
commanded by Horatio Nelson.
This stopped Napoleon Sea
anean
KIN
from invading Britain.
M editerr OF G D O M
SIC
ILY
3
Trafalgar

1796
1815 Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the most brilliant military commanders
of all time. In 1796, he was given command of the French army in Italy;
three years later, he was ruling France. Over the next decade, he led
France in a series of wars that left him controlling most of Europe. However, his
attempt to conquer the immense Russian Empire ended in disaster.

98 NAPOLEON WAS ALLOWED TO CONSCRIPT, OR RECRUIT BY FORCE, VAST


The modern world
Moscow
6
6. Arrival in Moscow,
September 1812
5 Having chased the Russian
Maloyaroslavets,
KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA 1812 army all the way to Moscow,
Napoleons forces found the
7 city abandoned and burned.
The Russians refused to
GRAND DUCHY accept defeat. The French
OF WARSAW retreated as winter set in.
5. Advance into 7. Retreat from Russia,
(POLAND)
Russia, June 1812 November 1812
Napoleon marched into Russia Freezing, starving, and under constant
with an army of 400,000 men from attacks from Russian forces, Napoleons
several nations, including large army retreated to Polish land,
8. Battle of Leipzig, 1813 reduced to 27,000 men.
Austerlitz, The so called Battle of numbers of Germans, Poles,
1805 and Italians, as well as French.
Nations was the biggest
I AN EMPIRE
Wagram,
battle in Europe until
R USS
1809 World War I. Armies
from Russia, Prussia,
Austria, and Sweden The fall of Napoleon
defeated Napoleons army. Under Napoleon, the French fought
nearly every other European power
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE of the time. These enemy powers
teamed up in a series of coalitions.
Napoleon couldnt defeat Britain,
so he tried to cripple its economy
with a trade blockade. To do so, he
had to force Portugal, Spain, and
Black Sea Russia to join in, and he fought
O
T

them all at the same timeat both


T

M
O

ends of Europe. This was beyond


A even Napoleon, and in 1815, he
N
was defeated and exiled.
EM
PI
RE

A cartoon of the time shows Napoleon trying


to stretch to control both ends of Europe.

You say it is
impossible. That word 1. Egyptian campaign, 17981801
Napoleon knew that if he controlled
is not French. Battle of the
Nile, 1798
Egypt, he could threaten British
dominance in India. As he occupied
1 Egypt, he brought along scientists to
Napoleon Bonaparte, in a letter demanding survey the ancient ruins, leading to
supplies for his exhausted army, 1813 a craze in Europe for all things Egyptian.
Battle of the
EGYPT Pyramids, 1798
But, although Napoleon won land battles,
the British navy forced the French to leave.

ARMIES. AROUND 1 MILLION SOLDIERS DIED BUILDING HIS EMPIRE. 99


Haiti helps Bolvars Admirable Campaign, 1813
Bolvar, 1816 Simn Bolvar was a rebel leader who
Haiti had become traveled across what is now Venezuela,
independent in 1804, winning victories against the ruling
after slaves rebelled Spanish Royalists. Although he
against France and entered Caracas victoriously,
took control. Haitis he soon had to ee to Jamaica.
president, Alexandre FRENCH
Ption, gave Bolvar GUIANA
arms and support
to reinvade the
mainlandas long as SURINAM
Bolvar agreed to free BRITISH
GUIANA
the slaves there.

HAITI Caracas

Battle of Boyac, 1819


GRAN This battle between

Camp ble
aign
a
Bolvars Independentists

Admir
CUBA COLOMBIA and the Spanish would
soon liberate Gran
JAMAICA Colombia (now Panama,
Ecuador, Venezuela,
Letter from and Colombia)
Jamaica, 1815 from Spain.
While in exile in Jamaica, Bogot
Bolvar wrote a famous
letter about his
vision of a free
South America.

Bolvar meets
San Martn, 1822
Bolvar and San Martn met Guayaquil PERU
to plan the nal conquest of
Peru. San Martn handed
this task to Bolvar.

Free
1808
1826
Lima

South America
In 180708, French leader Napoleon invaded KEY
Portugal and occupied Spain, and weakened Many revolutionary leaders,
known as Libertadores, helped
both countries hold on their empires in to free South America, but the
South America. Revolutionaries in South America, such the most famous were Simn
Bolvar and Jos de San Martn.
as Simn Bolvar, took the chance to free their nations
from 300 years of colonial rule. By 1826, all of Spains Simn Bolvars route
Jos de San Martns route
colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico had slipped Key town
out of its hands, and Portugal had lost Brazil.

100 BOLIVAR
SIMON PLAYED A ROLE IN LIBERATING SIX MODERN COUNTRIES:
The modern world
ATLANTIC
Brazil becomes
OCEAN an empire, 1822
The Portuguese royal family
was in exile in Rio de Janeiro
following Napoleons invasion
of Portugal. John, the Prince
Regent, eventually returned
and left his son, Pedro, in
BRAZIL Paraguay freed, 1811 charge of Brazil. However,
Spain had never had a strong Pedro declared Brazil
hold over Paraguay. When independent and became its
Spain imposed a tax on rst emperor, Dom Pedro I.
Peru freed, 1824 Paraguays main crop, yerba
Antonio Jos de Sucre, Simn Bolvars mate, a kind of tea, making it
lieutenant, won the Battle of Ayacucho too expensive for locals to Rio de Ro de la Plata freed, 1810
and the defeated Spanish commander- afford, the Paraguayans lost Janeiro The Spanish government in
in-chief signed the nal surrender of patience and declared these parts, then called the
the Royalist army in South America. independence. United Provinces of the Ro de
la Plata, was ousted in 1810.
Bolivia freed, 1825 Jos de San Martn then joined
Sucre stamped out Royalist the independence cause
resistance in Upper Peru and and, in 1814, marched
renamed the region Bolivia on Upper Peru (then
in honor of the Libertador. part of the same
state) to complete
the liberation.

UPPER PERU
(BOLIVIA) PARAGUAY

Potos URUGUAY

Buenos Aires
Ayacucho

UNITED PROVINCES OF
THE RO DE LA PLATA
The crossing of
PACIFIC the Andes, 1818
Jos de San Martn decided
OCEAN to approach Peru via Chile.
He took Chilean independence
leaders, including Bernado
OHiggins, with him. Together,
Santiago they led an army on a daring,
Valparaiso
dangerous crossing of the

The bonds that high Andes Mountains.

united us to Spain CHILE


have been severed. Chile freed, 1818
San Martn and OHiggins
Simn Bolvar, The Letter from Jamaica, 1815 liberated Chile after only a
few short battles, since no
one had expected an army to
attack from the mountains.

PANAMA, COLOMBIA, VENEZUELA, ECUADOR, PERU, AND BOLIVIA. 101


1831
1836 Darwins voyage KEY
Key ports
Route of
HMS Beagle
Darwins
While exploring South America, British scientist Charles overland treks

Darwin studied rocks, plants, and animals that helped


him develop his theory of evolution. This idea was
one of the biggest leaps forward
in the history of science.

Around the world


To return to Britain, the Beagle had to cross the Pacic and complete
a round-the-world voyage via Australia and South Africa.
SOUTH
AMERICA
Capybara
These huge rodents
NORTH EUROPE ASIA were a common sight
AMERICA for Darwin when on
ATLANTIC overland treks.
OCEAN PACIFIC
AFRICA OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
des
SOUTH

An
AMERICA
AUSTRALASIA
INDIAN
KEY Lima
OCEAN
Route of
HMS Beagle

The Galpagos
This island chain has
such unusual wildlife that
it started Darwin thinking
about how such variety KEY
Woodpecker
of life comes about. HMS Beagles nch
survey route Large

agos Islands
ground nch
p
PAC IFIC G al

O C EAN Green
warbler-nch Marine Floreana
Weird wildlife iguana mockingbird

Darwin found that


the wildlife of the
Galpagos
Galpagos, such as giant tortoise
the iguanas that foraged
in the sea, was like nothing else on
Earth. Some islands had their own types of mockingbird, nch,
and giant tortoise. He thought that different types of creature must
have reached the islands, before evolving in many new directions.

102 THE BEAGLES MISSION WAS ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A TWO-YEAR TRIP,


The modern world
HMS Beagle
A British survey vessel Evolution revolution
called HMS Beagle sailed Darwins discoveries seemed to conrm that
from Plymouth, England, the Earth was much older than people had
in 1831, on a mission to
thought. He formed a theory of how life-forms
chart the coast of South
America. Darwin was change over millions of years. It was such
taken along, at age 22, a new idea that Darwin spent 20 years
Salvador as the ships naturalist. collecting specimens and other evidence
to support it. When he published his theory
in 1859, it caused a revolution in science.

Gaucho
AT L A N T IC
For weeks,
Darwin lived
Rio de
Janeiro
OCEAN
as a gaucho
(a cowboy of
the pampas
grasslands).

Part of Darwins beetle collection

Giant ground sloth


In Uruguay, Darwin found
Montevideo
the fossil skeleton of ... a little world
this giant extinct sloth,

Buenos
called Megatherium. within itself; its
Aires

Guanaco
inhabitants being found
Coquimbo
This relative of
the camel was
often hunted by
nowhere else.
the crew for food. Charles Darwin, on the Galpagos Islands, 1835
Valparaiso

Darwins rhea
Darwin discovered
this smaller, southerly
Fossilized forest Valdivia
species of the giant
Some 6,000 ft (1,800m) up in ightless rhea. It is
the Andes, Darwin found trees now named after
turned to stone on top of rocks him. He realized he
that he realized had once been had a specimen
a seabed. These made him only after he and
wonder at the immense his party had
time needed for such eaten most
changes to happen. of the bird.

Kissing bug
Darwin allowed this
bloodsucking insect Storms off the cape
to drink from his arm, Darwins frog The Beagle was caught
then kept it to see Darwin discovered this bizarre frog in for weeks in storms off
how long it could live the forests of Chile. The tadpoles hatch Cape Horn.
on one meal of blood. and develop inside the males throat.

BUT IT BECAME A ROUND-THE-WORLD JOURNEY LASTING FIVE YEARS. 103


KEY
The Industrial Revolution happened
where raw materials (coal and iron)
I sell here, Sir, what
were available. This map shows
where iron ore and coal elds were, the world desires to
havepower.
and the industry and cities that
had developed nearby, by 1850.

Coal elds Matthew Boulton, British engineer, 1776


Iron ore deposits
Iron smelting LiverpoolManchester, 1830
The worlds rst passenger
Textiles
Glasgow railroad with tickets and
Industrial cities timetables ran between two of
Railroads Englands new industrial cities.
GREAT
BRITAIN Cromford, 1770
Richard Arkwrights mill
used water power to drive
Smethwick, 1796 textile machinery. The mill
Coalbrookdale, 1709
Inventor James Watt used a water frame
Abraham Darby
and Matthew Boulton Arkwrights device
produced cheap,
made high-pressure for spinning raw
high-quality iron with Leeds
steam engines at the cotton into yarn.
his innovative blast furnace. Liverpool
Soho Foundry, near In 1781, his grandson
Birmingham. The also built the worlds Manchester
Shefeld
engines powered rst iron bridge here.
factory and mine
machinery.
Birmingham
IRELAND

Cardiff London

1770s
The
1870s Lille

Industrial
Amiens

Le Havre

Revolution Paris

Orleans

Tours
In 1800, most people in Europe
worked the land and lived in villages, Nantes

but by 1900, most people in northwest FRANCE


Europe worked in industry and lived in towns. This change
Limoges
is part of the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain
in the 1700s with a series of inventions that harnessed the
energy of coal-powered steam and the strength of iron.

104 BETWEEN 1791 AND 1850, AROUND ONE IN THREE EIGHT-YEAR-OLD


The modern world

NORWAY Child labor


People ocked to towns in search
of work in the new factories, but
wages were so low that families
sent their children to work, too.
Children were in demand because
North Sea they could t through narrow
tunnels in mines and reach into
gaps in factory machinery.
Essen, 184751
Alfred Krupp perfected the
process of steel casting.
Steel technology was part DENMARK
of a second wave of the
Industrial Revolution,
which swept through
Germany, Belgium,
and Switzerland in the Child pulling a coal truck in a mine,1840s
1840s70s. Essen is
part of the Ruhr region,
which became the center
of German industry.
Hamburg
PRUSSIA

N DS
R LA Bremen
E
N ETH
Berlin
Amsterdam Pozna

POLAND
Rotterdam
Essen
Leipzig
BELGIUM Ruhr
Brussels Lige Cologne

GERMAN
Prague
STATES
Lige, 1840s Pilsen
The Meuse Valley
Nuremberg
around Lige in
southern Belgium Karlsruhe AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
was the rst part of Stuttgart
mainland Europe to
become fully industrialized.
Industrial America
Mulhouse
The fast-owing Blackstone River in New
England was the birthplace of America's
Basel
Industrial Revolution. Hundreds of mills
SWITZERLAND worked in this valley, including Slater's
Lyon, 1801 Mill, a water-powered cotton factory that,
Here, Joseph Marie
Jacquard demonstrated
in 1790, was the rst in America to use
his inventiona loom technology from Britain. Samuel Slater
Lyon that could weave had smuggled out plans of Arkwrights
patterned fabric. water frame in his head, since exporting
the machinery was illegal.
Slaters Mill

WORKING-CLASS BOYS IN ENGLAND WAS FORCED TO GO TO WORK. 105


Yorkshire Chartists Copenhagen
After earlier protests failed, Danish protestors
Chartists in Yorkshire took demanded greater
up arms and practiced personal freedom. This led
Young Irelander Rebellion drills in June. to events in Schleswig (see
On July 29, Young Irelander box on opposite page).
Yorkshire
protestors exchanged gunre London petition 5
with the Irish Constabulary. In April, the Chartist Movement Schleswig
The rebels were defeated. held a peaceful protest and
asked Parliament for
a peoples charter,
including votes
Ballingarry for all men.

London

Frankfurt
6
Mannheim
1
Rouen
In April, the working classes Rouen 7
barricaded the streets in their
Paris Karlsruhe
ght against the aristocracy.

February Revolution Lyon


Angry mobs barricaded Paris Silk workers, called canuts, SWITZERLAND
in February, overthrowing the king fought for workers rights. They
and declaring a French republic. This attacked factories that used
lasted until December 1851, when Louis machines rather than
Napoleon declared himself emperor. employing people. Milan
Limoges
Lyon
Limoges
Rural areas such as Limoges joined in a Sonderbund War
second wave of violent uprisings that started in Years of unrest in Switzerland led to Bologna
Paris when the new Republican government a 25-day war, because seven Catholic Milan
did not provide people with jobs. regions wanted to govern themselves. In March,
They lost the war, but the government Marseille people fought
gave people greater freedom. against, and drove
out, Austrian troops
Marseille and tax collectors
Inuenced by the events in Paris, workers in from the Austrian-
the port of Marseille rose up for their rights. controlled state.

1848
A year of revolutions
In 1848, people came out onto the streets to ght for their rights: for
better working conditions; for democracy (votes for all men, not just
the ruling classes); and, in the German and Italian states, for their
states to unite into independent countries. Some revolts had short-term success,
but most were put down with much bloodshed. By 1849, people had lost hope,
yet in the following decades many of their goals would be achieved.

106 THE FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY PROPOSED USING THE REVOLUTIONARIES


The modern world
Copenhagen Pozna Uprising
In March, Polish states in GERMAN CONFEDERATION
the Prussian Empire fought for Revolutions in the 39
an independent Poland and an independent states of the
end to Prussian rule. The rebels German Confederation lasted
were joined by Polish prisoners into 1849. People wanted
who had been freed during a a united Germany with
successful uprising in Berlin. freedoms for the people.

February : Mannheim
1
4
Cracow An assembly of people of the
In March, Poles in Cracow, part state of Baden demanded a bill of
Berlin of the Austrian Empire, protested rights, triggering similar demands
Pozna and then revolted against Austrian in several other German states.
rule. Like people in Pozna, they
7 wanted an independent Poland. March: Munich Thousands
2
Dresden of people met on the citys
Cracow streets demanding workers rights,
Prague such as fair pay and employment.

Prague March: Vienna The rst of


3
Czechs in Prague wanted several rebellions in the city
freedom from Austria, but did caused the exile of Metternich,
Munich Vienna not want to be part of Germany. chief minister of the ruling
3 Habsburg (Austrian) monarchy.
2

March: Berlin In an attempt


Hungarian independence 4
to quell riots, the Prussian
In March, Hungarian nationalists king offered to make Prussia the
Buda and Pest
fought to gain independence from leader of a German national state.
Venice the Austrian Habsburg Empire.
Inuenced by revolutions
March: Schleswig Ofcials
in Sicily and France, Venice 5
in this Danish-controlled
declared independence from
territory declared an independent
Venice Austrian rule in March.
government. This led to a war
Bucharest between Prussia, the German
Bologna Confederation, and Denmark.
Rebels here fought against Austrian rule.
The northern states wanted to form September: Frankfurt
a united, independent Italy.
Wallachian Revolution 6
Riots against a new German
In June, rebels installed a provisional National Assembly, created in May,
government in Bucharest for the were put down with help from
Principality of Wallachia, in deance of Prussia and Austria.
Russian and Ottoman authorities. The
Ottoman Empire then suppressed it. May 1849: Dresden,
Rome Rome 7
Karlsruhe The Assembly
In November, the people rose up against dissolved when the king of Prussia
papal rule and the pope left Rome. refused to rule Germany. Riots
Naples A Roman republic was formed in for democracy broke out in
February 1849, but lasted many places, but were violently
Naples just a few months.
In January, defeated by troops.
people revolted
against King
Ferdinand II in support of
an independent Sicily. KEY
In 1848, Germany and Italy were not unied countries,
but made up of separate states with their own rulers.

Palermo
Palermo State borders, 1848 Revolt or unrest
On January 12, Sicilians German Confederation
in Palermo revolted against (association of German- Peaceful protest
the king and central rule, and speaking states)
set up their own government.

BLACK, RED, AND GOLD FLAG AS THE FLAG FOR A UNITED GERMANY. 107
1776
1890 The American frontier
In 1776, the United States was made up of just 13 colonies along
the east coast. The Wild West was the vast, unknown land that
lay to the west. Many Americans believed that it was their duty,
which they called their Manifest Destiny, to explore and settle this
er
land. Thousands of settlers endured a brutal journey across n R iv

La ipe
W
a
ew

in
ke g
the country and came h

n
S a s k atc The Great Plains
into conict with the Tribes on the Great Plains
relied on bison for survival.
American Indians Battle of Little Settlers killed them for food
Bighorn, 1876 and sport, as well as to
living there. American Indian tribes deprive American Indians of
led by Sitting Bull food and drive them away.
Pioneers in Canada defeated the US Army
The rst Europeans to in this battle, which was R
explore the Wild West part of the war over land. RED RIVE 8
, were fur trappers. N, 81
1
CESSIO
RITISH COLUMBIA Many of them trapped ive
r
B ri R
1858 beavers in the forests Missou

er
of what is now Canada. v
Rive r
e Ri
bia ston
m lo w
Yel
Colu
r
ve
u
co
an

e Riv er
tV
r
Fo

Fort
ak

Clatsop
Sn

Oregon City Independence Rock Fort Laramie


Fort Hall
Y
RE GON TERRITOR
O 1846
CESSION, Fort Hall
Until a wagon trail was cleared, Independence Rock
journeys west from here Settlers aimed to reach here on
were made on foot or by US Independence Day, July 4, and
Salt Lake City Covered carve their names on the rock.
mule train. wagon

Prospector
panning

CESSION,
for gold
MEXICAN 8
Sacramento 184
San Francisco Sante Fe TEXAS
California ANNEXATION,
CA

Gold Rush Battle of the Alamo, 1836 1845


LI

Gold was the major This was a key battle of the Mexican
FO

reason thousands American Wars, when Texas fought


RN

of settlers followed for independence from Mexico.


IA

the California trail. Los Angeles


GADSDEN
PURCHASE, 1853
PA C I F I C
OCEAN
MEXICO

108 IN 186061, CALIFORNIA WAS LINKED BY THE PONY EXPRESS SERVICE,


The modern world

Hudson Bay Plight of the Indians


York Factory
As the American people expanded
west to nd freedom and a better
life, the American Indians found
York Factory their lands invaded, their freedom
The Hudsons Bay Company, taken away, and their culture
which controlled the fur almost entirely destroyed. Wars
trade and sent trappers between Indians and the US lasted
to explore the land, had
its headquarters here.
for over a century. Sioux leader
Sitting Bull led resistance until
he and his family were made
prisoners of war in 1881.
RUPERTS LAND Sitting Bull and family overlooked by a US cavalryman, 1882
(OWNED BY THE
HUDSON BAY
COMPANY), 1870
LOWER CANADA,
1791

Wounded Knee UPPER CANADA,


Massacre, 1890 1791 KEY
The Sioux tribe was almost
wiped out in this last key Key location
encounter between American
Indians and the US army. Battleground

Mi
ss ADDITIONAL UNITED RED RIVER Territory, with
is the year it was
STATES TERRITORY, 1783 CESSION, 1818 established
sip

LOUISIANA
pi

iv Trail of Tears EXPEDITIONS


R

PURCHASE, 1803 er
In 1830, the US government passed the LewisClark Expedition
Indian Removal Act, which allowed it to Goverment trip to explore and
Nauvoo force American Indians from the southeast map the country in 180304.
and northeast, and resettle them west of
the Mississippi River. The journey became Pike Expeditions
St. Joseph known as the Trail of Tears. Zebulon Pike sent by US to nd
St. Louis the sources of three major rivers.
Independence , PIONEER TRAILS
IES
LON Oregon Trail
CO
Earliest pioneer trail, crossing
N 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of territory.
TEE 776
California Trail
Indian Territory IR 1
TH
Tipis Key trail used to access the Gold
Plains tribes, such as the Pawnee, were E Rush in 1849.
among the many peoples resettled in Indian TH
Territorynow part of Oklahoma. In their Mormon Trail
homeland of the Great Plains, the Pawnee had Used by Mormonsreligious
lived in tents called tepees during bison hunts. refugees looking for a new home.

Natchitoches
Missis

TRADE AND POSTAL ROUTES


Sante Fe Trail
PU ORI
FL

pp
si

Great trade route opened in 1821.


RC DA

i Riv
er Used by US to invade Mexico.
HA , 18

San Antonio
SE 19

York Factory Express


Trade route chiey used by the
OF

fur trade to access seaports.


Gulf of Mexico

WHICH TOOK MAIL FROM THE EAST TO THE WEST COAST IN 10 DAYS. 109
To Klondike by boat Klondike, Canada, 189799
Some prospectors reached Klondike Accessing this gold eld was notoriously difcult
by sea, then by sailing up the gold-seekers journeyed hundreds of miles
Yukon River. across mountains and rivers in punishing conditions.

From th
e Am
eri
ca
s
NORTH AMERICA
British Columbia,

Europe
From Asia Canada,
185587
ca
Afri
Nome, Alaska, From
18991909
Porcupine,
Colorado, US, From Europe
From Asia Canada, 1909
185861

From E
urope
Fro Georgia, US,
m th
e Wes
t In
1828
die
s
Ouro Preto, Brazil,
From

1690slate 1700s EUROPE


Sou

The discovery of gold prompted


th A

400,000 Portuguese gold-seekers


me

California, to rush to Portugals Brazilian


ric

US, 184855 colony. Eventually, the government


a

In the worlds most in Lisbon forced people to


famous gold rush, stop emigrating.
some 300,000 gold-
seekersknown as AFRICA
the forty-niners,
due to the year most of
them arrivedocked to al
California. The population ortug
From P
skyrocketed and changed SOUTH AT L A N T I C

From the Americas


California into a major
AMERICA
OCEAN

From
center of manufacture,
trade, and shipping.

Euro
To California by boat

pe
The grueling 18,000-mile
(30,000-km) journey to the m Afri
ca
Fro
California gold elds by sea
Tierra del Fuego, took about six months from
stralia
Chile and Argentina, New York. Half of Californias From Au
18831906
gold-seekers took this route.

Witwatersrand, South Africa, 1886


Discovering gold transformed South
Africa from a farming country into a
1690
Gold rushes
major gold producer and led to the
establishment of Johannesburg.
1899
KEY
Icons show the locations
of historys greatest
Since the end of the 17th century, nding gold in a new region has gold rushes.
triggered gold rushesglobal migrations of thousands of people
Major gold rush
in search of fortune. Some gold rushes happened on a grand scale,
Minor gold rush
bringing lasting prosperity to an area, as populations soared and Direction of migration
trade thrived. However, such wealth came to only a small number Route by boat
of those who ocked to nd it.

110 DURING THE VICTORIAN GOLD RUSH IN AUSTRALIA, BETWEEN 1851 AND
The modern world

Striking it rich
GOLD-SEEKERS TO THE KLONDIKE
Gold rushes are linked with wealth and good GOLD FIELDS, CANADA
fortune, yet the reality was very different.
Gold-seekers endured hard journeys, and
if they reached the gold elds, they faced
high living costs and often had to pay to pan
for gold. Of the many who set out, few ever
100,000 set out 30,000-40,000 arrived 4,000
found gold, and fewer still made any money. found gold

ARCTIC
OCEAN
Gold! Gold! Gold from
the American River!
Samuel Brannan, American merchant and entrepreneur,
stirring up gold fever to boost trade, 1848
From
Asia

ASIA

Victoria, Australia, 185160s


Australias rst major gold
INDIAN rush increased the countrys
population from 430,000 in
OCEAN 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871.

PA C I F I C
From boomtown to ghost town
OCEAN
s

Boomtowns were settlements that grew


ica
er
From

rapidly as a result of the gold rushes. Once


Am
Fr
om

the

the rushes were over, some continued to


China
Eu

thrive, but others were quickly abandoned.


ro

Fro
pe
Fr

Many of these ghost towns still exist as


om
In

desolate reminders of the quest for riches.


di
a

Western AUSTRALASIA
Australia, 188594
A series of small rushes
drew in people from
Africa, the Americas,
Central Otago,
Europe, China, India, and New Zealand,
New Zealand, as well as 1861
Bonie, California from the mining areas of
eastern Australia.

1896, PROSPECTORS MINED 61,034,682 OZ (1,730,304 KG) OF GOLD. 111


KEY
This map shows the Union and I wish that I owned Wisconsin
Confederate states and which side
won each battle of the Civil War. every slave in the South,
Confederate (Southern states) for I would free them all Michigan

Union (Northern states)


to avoid this war. Chicago
Border states (stayed in Union
but allowed slavery) Robert E. Lee, leader of the Confederate
Iowa Army of Northern Virginia, 1861 Indiana
BattleConfederate victory
Industrial North
BattleUnion victory Cities in the North, such
Illinois as Chicago, had factories
Battleinconclusive and industries. They were
full of workers, many just
Blockade by Union
arrived from Europe.
March to the Sea route
Missouri

In the army Kentucky


The Union Army was vastly
superior to the Confederate
Army. Union troops were well
clothed and fed, while many Arkansas Tennessee
Confederates had to provide their
own uniforms. Many soldiers
died within a few months,
from injuries or illness.
r

e
R iv
p pi Alabama
i
Union general Confederate ss
si

and ag general and ag Atlanta


is
M

Mississippi

Confederate
cavalry

Vicksburg
In July 1863, Union troops took the port Southern plantations
of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. The Southern states, such as
The river was important to the Alabama and Florida, relied on
Confederates, as they used it slave labor to run their cotton
to transport food and troops. plantations. Slaves lived and
worked in dreadful conditions.

Louisiana

Coastal blockade
Iron-clad Union ships
blocked the coast to stop
trade and supplies from
coming in to Southern ports.
Gulf of Mexico

112 WHILE MOST OF THE SOLDIERS WERE VOLUNTEERS, HUNDREDS OF


CANADA Bull Run The modern world
Antietam The rst major battle of the war,
More than 22,000 known as the First Battle of
soldiers died in a day- Bull Run, was won by Maine
long battle near Antietam the Confederates Vermont
Creek in September 1862. on July 21, 1861.
New
New York Hampshire

Massachusetts

Connecticut Rhode
Island
Pennsylvania
Ohio Union infantry
(foot soldier) y
erse
J
New
Antietam Gettysburg
Mary De The largest battle of the war, in July
Union cavalry land la
w 1863, was won by the Union, with
Washington, D.C. ar
West Virginia e 20,000 Confederates killed or injured.
It was the turning point of the war.
Appomattox
Washington, D.C.
Virginia President Abraham Lincoln was shot in
the Union capital by a supporter of the
South on April 14, 1865, just a few days
after the war ended; he died April 15.
North Carolina
Appomattox
Confederate infantry Following a short battle, General
(foot soldier)
Robert E. Lee surrendered at
Appomattox Court House, April 9,
Charleston Harbor 1865, effectively ending the war.
The war started here on April 12,
1861, when Confederate soldiers South Carolina
red on the Union forces based
1861
at Fort Sumter.

Charleston
The US 1865

March to the Sea


In late 1864, Union
Civil War
troops destroyed much Savannah
of Georgia, as they
marched to the seaport
of Savannah.
In the 1860s, the Southern US depended
Georgia
on slaves, while there was no slavery in
the industrial North. When Abraham Lincoln,
who was against slavery, was elected president in 1860,
Fl
11 southern states, fearing the North would try to change
or
id
a their way of life, broke away from the Union and formed the
Confederacy. This led to civil war and many bloody battles
between the Confederates and Union troops. The war
ended in 1865 with Union victory; all the states were
united again and slavery was abolished.

THOUSANDS MORE MEN WERE CONSCRIPTEDFORCED TO FIGHT. 113


1853
1912 Japan faces the future
For more than 200 years, outsiders were forbidden
2. The Komei
from setting foot in Japan and Japanese people emperor lacks power
The last emperor of the
could not travel abroad. Japan traded only with Edo Period lived in Kyoto.
certain neighbors. That changed in 1854 when the United Although he was emperor,
all the real power was in the
States forced Japans shogun (military leader) to sign an unfair hands of the shogun in Edo.
international trade agreement. This caused civil war in Japan,
which led to the emperor being restored to power in place Sea of
of the shogun. In the Meiji Period that followed, Japan Japan
raced to catch up and overtake the Wests industry (East Sea)
and technology, so that the country could 2

once again be proudly independent.

1. Domains in the Edo Period


Choshu was one of many domains Tosa
that made up Japan during the Edo standard
bearer
Period (16151868). Society was
organized into strict classes, with the Choshu
soldier
shogun at the top. Below him were
daimyo, or lords, each of whom ruled
a domain. The daimyo paid samurai
warriors to defend their land.

Choshu
Satsuma 1
soldier o ku 6

h ik
Tosa
S

7. Battle of Toba Fushimi


The anti-shogun alliance
Kyushu fought the shogun's forces at
Nagasaki
several battles. Their decisive
6. Samurai march on Kyoto victory at Toba Fushimi meant
Satsuma, Choshu, and Tosa samurai that the shogun would
marched to Kyoto. In January 1868, they soon lose power.
Satsuma declared that the new, young emperor
(who had succeeded his father, the Komei
emperor) was restored to power. He was KEY
5 called the Meiji emperor, and this event
1 Key city
was called the Meiji Restoration.
Domains belonging to
5. Domains join forces the anti-shogun alliance
Satsuma was one of three southern domains Route of the
(Satsuma, Choshu, and Tosa) that formed anti-shogun alliance
an alliance in 1867 to overthrow the shogun, Key battle
because they saw he had weakened Japan.

114 IN THE MEIJI PERIOD (18681912), JAPAN LAID MORE THAN 7,000 MILES
The modern world
9. Battle of Hakodate
The last stronghold of
the shogun's army was Hokkaido
Hakodate, where it held out
for six months against the
anti-shogun forces, before
surrendering in 1869.

Oitsuke, oikose.
9
Hakodate

3. The shogun rules


During the Edo Period,
Japan was ruled from
(Catch up, overtake.)
Edo by a military leader Meiji Period slogan
called the shogun.

Sendai

4. Black ships sail into Edo


3 Nagaoka In 1853, US Commodore Matthew
Aizu Perry sailed into Edo with four
iron warships (called "Black
Ships" in Japan), bristling with
Utsunomiya
JAPAN the latest guns. He forced the
Edo shogun into a trade agreement
(Tokyo) that benetted the US and other
Koshu 8 foreign powers.
Katsunuma

Honshu

Kyoto 4

8. Edo is renamed Tokyo


7
The new emperor visited Edo
in 1868 and renamed the city
Tokyo. In 1889, Tokyo became
Japan's capital.

Meiji industry KEY


The Meiji emperor was only Manufacturing
Industrial areas
15 years old when he was swept
to power. Far from keeping Exports
Japan traditional, as some
samurai had hoped, his rule
saw sweeping changes. The Chemicals
Fans
class system, including the Machinery

samurai class, was abolished.


Japan raced to become an
industrial nation, exporting
factory-made products to Yahata Silk and
textiles
the West. In some countries, Kyoto
Osaka Tokyo
including Britain, there was No
rth
also a craze for traditional
Japanese products, such
Ceramics
as silk, pottery, and fans.

(11,000 KM) OF RAILROAD AND BUILT MORE THAN 1,500 STEAMSHIPS. 115
Canadian Pacic Railway, 1885
This railroad helped to strengthen
Canada against the powerful
neighboring United States,
by connecting its east and Locomotion
west provinces. No.1, 1825

NORTH Stockton/
AMERICA StocktonDarlington
Darlington
Berlin
Railway, 1825 London
Vancouver Montreal
The worlds rst public Paris
steam railroad carried
coal and passengers. The
CP No. 60 Jupiter Council Bluffs, Iowa railroads rst locomotive
, 1868 was the Locomotion, designed by
Sacramento, California
First Transcontinental British engineer George Stephenson.
Railroad, 1869
This railway was nished Orient Express, 1883
when the Central Pacic This luxury passenger train ran between
Railroad from California met Europe and the East. Its rst route
the Union Pacic Railroad ran between Paris and Istanbul.
from Iowa. Builders from
each end had raced towards Railroads in AFRICA
the middle in only 6 years. Africa, 18541900
European colonial
How rail changed the world powers introduced
railroads to Africa.
In addition to allowing convenient travel,
Often, tracks ran in
railroads helped develop many areas of from the coast, but
work and daily life. did not join up to
SOUTH create a network.
Railroad time
Lima
AMERICA
Time was slightly different in each town
before the railroads. Standard railroad time Callao, Lima, and Oroya
(the same everywhere) was established so
that trains could run without colliding.
Railroad, 18701908
Built to cross the Andes
Farming Mountains in Peru, linking
Fresh produce could be carried great Pacic ports with the interior
distances without spoiling, which helped of the country, this was the
farmers and improved diets. highest railroad in the world
Industry and employment for the next 100 years.
Railroads created jobs and boosted industry,
as materials were needed to build tracks,
and coal was needed to fuel the engines.

Postal Services
Mail cars were added to trains, and letters
By building the Union
were delivered in days, not months.
Trade
Pacic, you will be the
Railroads transported goods faster than
roads or canals. Global trade improved as
goods traveled quickly to ports for export.
remembered man
Military of your generation.
Railroads transported soldiers and their
equipment quickly during times of war, US President Abraham Lincoln,
which made rail vital to military success. to industrialist Oakes Ames, 1865

116 PERUS CALLAO, LIMA, AND OROYA RAILROAD CROSSES THE ANDES
The modern world

KEY
The colors show
the date of the rst
railroad line in each
country. Some nations
Trans-Siberian Railroad, 18911916 still have no railroads.
Golden Eagle, The worlds longest railroad, measuring
Trans-Siberian
Express
5,753 miles (9,259 km), played a key role 182549
during World War I in transporting 185074
military supplies to the front line.
187599
190024
Moscow 192549
195074
EUROPE 1975present
No railroads
Vladivostok
Istanbul ASIA Key historic
railroad route
Beijing
TokyoYokohama
Baghdad
Cairo Railroads in Japan, 1872
The British built Japans rst railroad,
Calcutta
between Tokyo and Yokohama. This
(Kolkata) was part of a new era in which Japan
Bombay embraced Western innovation.
(Mumbai)
Madras
(Chennai) Trans-Australian Railway, 1917
Spanning 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of
at, dry land, this railroad was vital
in uniting Western Australia with
the rest of the country.

EIR No. 22 Fairy Indian Railroads, 1853


Queen,1855
Built under British colonial rule,
this network linked the key ports
of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.

Loureno Marques Cape-to-Cairo Railway, 1890s


(Maputo) This network was planned by the
Johannesburg
British Empire as a link from the north
Kimberley to the south of Africa. The lines shown Kalgoorlie AUSTRALASIA
have still not all been completed. Port Augusta
Cape Town

1825
1917 The age of steam
The opening of the rst passenger steam railroad in Britain in 1825 revolutionized
transportation. Soon, people and goods would travel huge distanceseven abroad
quickly and easily. Railroads soon spread throughout Europe and North America, then
across the world. They connected cities, provided jobs, and improved trade. Within a
few years, rail had become the worlds most important means of transportation.

MOUNTAINS AT AN ALTITUDE OF UP TO 15,806 FT (4,818 M). 117


Canada Austria-Hungary
France gave up its Canadian The second-largest empire in Europe was
territories to Britain in 1763. invited to the Berlin Conference, which was
to decide who was going to colonize Africa.
It did not claim any
land, however.

NORTH
AMERICA

The Caribbean
Islands throughout the EUROPE
region were shared among
European empires.

AFRICA
Former colonies
Spain and Portugal had Liberia
colonized most of Central Americans created
and South America 300
SOUTH this territory in
years earlier, but in the AMERICA 1822 as a country
early 1800s, revolutions for freed African-
gained these countries American slaves.
their independence.
Congo Free State
This was a private colony,
or efdom, belonging to
King Leopold of Belgium.

Orange Free State


Now a part of South Africa, this region
was controlled by Afrikaners (Boers,
the descendants of Dutch settlers), who
revolted against British political rule.
Ethiopia
This is the only country in Africa
never to have been colonized.
The Scramble for Africa
When Europeans entered Africa to help
end the slave trade, they took the chance His majestys
to occupy territory. This turned into a
scramble for wealth and glory, so the dominions, on
Berlin Conference of 18841885 was
organized to govern it. Africa was split which the Sun
among seven European powers, giving
them land if they ew their nations
ag there and made treaties with A French political cartoon passes
never sets.
comment on the Berlin Conference.
local leaders. These treaties, however, It shows the German Chancellor cutting Christopher North (pen name of writer John
were mostly made by force. up African territory like a cake. Wilson), describing the British Empire, 1829

118 BY 1902, EUROPEANS CONTROLLED 90 PERCENT OF AFRICA, BUT


The modern world

Europes empires 1900

By 1900, the major powers in Europe had empires that stretched across
the world. (There were other imperial powers, too, including
China, Japan, and the US.) The European powers
gained global importance and also wealthby
taking it from their colonies. The
ASIA ercest competition of the
Russia India
Three-quarters of the Russian British rule, or Raj, divided
time was for control
Empire was in Asia, with one- India into eight provinces, of Africa.
quarter in Europe. It included each with its own governor.
around 200 small nations in
addition to Russia.
China
The last dynasty of
Chinathe Qingruled
a huge empire including
Mongolia and Tibet.
Japan
Japans empire building
accelerated after 1900, and the
country annexed Korea in 1910.

Ottoman Empire Siam


One of the worlds Known today as Thailand, Siam was
longest-running empires, one of the few countries not to be
this Islamic empire lasted colonized by a European power.
more than 620 years, until 1922.
Kaiser-Wilhelmsland
The farthest outpost of the
German Empire was named
KEY after the emperor Wilhelm II.
This map shows the extent of It is now the northern part
the European empires in 1900. of Papua New Guinea.

Britain and France and


possessions possessions AUSTRALASIA

Netherlands and Portugal and Australia


possessions possessions
Australia was made up
of six independent British
colonies. In 1900, they
Spain and Germany and Russian chose to become
possessions possessions Empire a federation,
which remained
a part of the
Italy and Denmark and Ottoman British Empire.
possessions possessions Empire

ETHIOPIA, MOROCCO, AND PARTS OF SOUTH AFRICA REMAINED FREE. 119


Telephone, 1876
Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell
developed his telephone in Boston.
Factory, 1771
The rst person he spoke to
When Richard
with his invention was his
Arkwright opened
assistant, Watson.
his water-powered mill
Anesthetic, 1846 in Cromford, England,
American dentist he became the rst
William Morton was person to combine
the rst person to several stages of
use anesthetic production under
succesfully during one roof.
surgery.

Steam locomotive, 1804


Invented by Briton Richard
Trevithick, the rst locomotive
NORTH ran on the road. By 1804,
Trevithick had built and run
AMERICA Air conditioning, locomotives designed
1902 for railroad tracks.
American Willis
Carrier created the
PE
modern air-cooling
machine, which
Vaccine, 1796 EURO
English scientist Edward Jenner
controlled both injected a vaccine (weakened
air temperature or killed germs) into a patients
and humidity. body to encourage it to ght
the disease smallpox. It led to the
Lightbulb, 1879 development of vaccinations
Although bulbs had already been for other diseases.
invented earlier, US inventor Thomas
Edison developed a type of bulb that Movies, 1895
could safely glow for up to 50 hours, The cinmatographe was Radio, 1895
making it suitable for home use. invented by French brothers Italian Guglielmo
August and Louis Lumire. Marconi transmitted
The device was a combined and received radio
camera and lm projector, and signals at a distance
it played a moving picture for of 1.5 miles (2.4 km).
several minutes at a public
screening in Paris.

AFRICA
Airplane, 1903
American brothers Orville and
Wilbur Wright developed the rst
powered airplane, whose maiden
ight lasted for 12 seconds and Piano, 1709
SOUTH covered 120 ft (36 m). Italian Bartolomeo
Cristofori developed
Pasteurization, 1865 the piano. Compared
AMERICA Frenchman Louis to earlier keyboard
Pasteur discovered instruments, it allowed
that liquid foods could musicians much
Eraser, 1735 be heated to destroy greater control of the
During an expedition harmful bacteria loudness of notes, and
to Ecuador, Frenchman Charles-Marie without affecting it became a mainstay
de la Condamine came across rubber. their food value. of Western music.
The material became famous back
in Europe, and in 1770, Englishman
Joseph Priestley discovered that
it could rub out pencil marks,
thus inventing the eraser.

120 ALTHOUGH MODERN CANNED FOOD DATES BACK TO 1810, PEOPLE OPENED
The modern world

The Industrial Revolution


Between the late 1700s and 1850,
Britain transformed itself into the
worlds rst industrial power. It
gained a huge commercial and
technological head start over the
rest of the world. This achievement