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Abstraction

Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and


trahere, meaning to draw) is the process of taking away
or removing characteristics from something in order to
reduce it to a set of essential characteristics. In object-
oriented programming, abstraction is one of three central
principles (along with encapsulation and inheritance).
Through the process of abstraction, a programmer hides
all but the relevant data about an object in order to
reduce complexity and increase efficiency. In the same
way that abstraction sometimes works in art, the object
that remains is a representation of the original, with
unwanted detail omitted. The resulting object itself can
be referred to as an abstraction, meaning a named entity
made up of selected attributes and behavior specific to a
particular usage of the originating entity. Abstraction is
related to both encapsulation and data hiding.

Woman in Temple
Symbolism
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement
of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other
arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857
publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The
works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired
greatly and translated into French, were a significant
influence and the source of many stock tropes and
images. The aesthetic was developed by Stphane
Mallarm and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s.
In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of
manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The
name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean
Moras, who invented the term to distinguish the
symbolists from the related decadents of literature and of
art.
Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature,
symbolism of art is related to the gothic component of
Romanticism.

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Jeunes Filles au Bord de la Mer


(Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea), 1879, Muse
d'Orsay, Paris