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# Tugas Matematika Diskrit: Inferensi Logika

Kel. 4 :

## - Abdul Halim Arraisuli (11160910000075)

- Eka Darma Ayu Hidayati (11160910000067)

1. Find the argument form for the following argument and determine whether it is valid.
Can we conclude that the conclusion is true if the premises are true?

## If Socrates is human, then Socrates is mortal.

Socrates is human.

Socrates is mortal.

p = Socrates is human
q = Socrates is mortal

Maka:

Hipotesa 1 : p q
Hipotesa 2 : p
Konklusi : q

Jadi harus ditunjukkan bahwa apabila p q dan p bernilai benar maka konklusi
q juga benar.

## Hal ini ditunjukkan sebagai berikut :

1. pq Hipotesa 1
2. p Hipotesa 2
3. q Modus ponens pada step 1 dan 2

2. Find the argument form for the following argument and determine whether it is valid.
Can we conclude that the conclusion is true if the premises are true?
If George does not have eight legs, then he is not a spider.
George is a spider.

## George has eight legs.

p= George have eight legs
q= George is a spider

Maka :
Hipotesa 1 : pq
Hipotesa 2 : q
Konklusi : p

## Jadi harus ditunjukkan bahwa apabila p q dan p bernilai benar maka

konklusi q juga benar.

## Hal ini ditunjukkan sebagai berikut :

1. pq Hipotesa 1
2. q Hipotesa 2
3. qp Contrapositive pada step 1
4. p modus ponens pada step 2 dan 3

## 4. What rule of inference is used in each of these argumen

b) It is either hotter than 100 degrees today or the pollution is dangerous. It is less than
100 degrees outside today. Therefore, the pollution is dangerous.

## p = today is hotter than 100 degrees

q = the pollution is dangerous

Maka :
Hipotesa 1 : pq
Hipotesa 2 : q
Konklusi : q Using Disjunctive Syllogism

c) Linda is an excellent swimmer. If Linda is an excellent swimmer, then she can work as
a lifeguard. Therefore, Linda can work as a lifeguard.

## p = Linda is an excellent swimmer.

q = Linda can work as a lifeguard

Maka :
Hipotesa 1 : p
Hipotesa 2 : pq
Konklusi : q Using Modus Ponens

13. For each of these arguments, explain which rules of inference are used for each step

d) Everyone in New Jersey lives within 50 miles of the ocean. Someone in New Jersey
has never seen the ocean. Therefore, someone who lives within 50 miles of the ocean has
never seen the ocean.

## P(x) = x lives in New Jersey

Q(x) = x lives within 50 miles of the ocean
R(x) = x has seen the ocean

Maka :
Hipotesa 1 : x (P(x) Q(x))
Hipotesa 2 : x (P(x) R(x))
Konklusi : x (Q(x) R(x))

Step :
1. x (P(x) Q(x)) Hipotesa 1
2. x (P(x) R(x)) Hipotesa 2
3. P(x) Q(x) Universal Instantiation from step 1
4. P(x) R(x) Existential Instantiation from step 2
5. P(x) Simplification from step 4
6. R(x) Simplification from step 4
7. Q(x) Modus Ponens from Step 3 and 5
8. Q(x) R(x) Conjunction from step 6 and 7
x (Q(x) R(x)) Existetial Generalization from step 8