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CHAPTER I

BACKGROUND

1. Background

The term profession in our life is used to indicate someone for having a job. We can
assume that someone who works to help people becoming healthy at the hospital has a
profession as a doctor. While someone who works to teach the students at school has a
profession as a teacher. People may say that a singer, an actor, an entrepreneur, or even a
carpenter is profession. In this context, a profession refers to a job or activities which people
do every day for living.
If we take a closer look, profession is not that simple. Becoming a professional means
that a person who become expertise in a specific field. The word expert can be understood as
very good at your job. Someone needs to have a long process in becoming a professional. A
person needs to have a job and make it as profession. There are several criteria in
categorizing a job as a profession; such as theoretical basic knowledge skills, professional
association, extensive education, competency test, institutional training, license, working
autonomy, ethic code, independent, public services and altruism, status and high revenue.
Hence, it needs a long process and high dedication to reach a profession title.
A teacher is a person who teaches and gives instruction to help the students to acquire
knowledge, competence, and value. It sounds simple and easy. In the contrary, becoming a
teacher is not only about transferring the knowledge, but the role of a teacher is critical for
students development. A teacher has to be sensitive in dealing with each student. A teacher
needs to know the students needs. A teacher has to be able position himself/herself to
communicate with the students. Consequently, becoming a teacher requires skill, long process
of training, and high dedication in order to becoming a profession.
Language teaching is one kind of subjects which a teacher also deliver to the students.
In this context, a teacher teaches the students another language who have different first
language; for example, English is one of the compulsory school subjects in Indonesia.
Therefore, Indonesian teachers teach how to speak and do exercises in English. Indonesia has
good images in English. If you speak English well, people may consider you as a smart
person. English becomes one of school subjects for final examination. A lot of companies
make TOEIC and TOEFL as one of the recruitment requirements. In other words, English is
important to be learnt in Indonesia.
Teachers may face a lot problems while they are doing their profession. Language
teaching is not the same as teaching the other sciences. Language teaching is based on
constructivism which is socially constructed. We need interaction with other people to
produce the language. So, language teachers somehow need extra effort to make preparation
and to implement it in the class. It is an obligatory for a teacher to keep developing their
profession. If a teacher is walking on the same spot, he/she will be crushed by the language
growth. In this case, teacher professional development takes its place.

2. Objectives

In this paper, the writer will discuss the importance of professionalism, especially for
language teachers. The writer will focus to discuss how English teacher professional
development works. Then, it can be related with Indonesian language teachers development.
By discussing these matters, the reader will know how important the teachers
professionalism in English education field and become a self-reflection for the language
teachers.
CHAPTER II

DISCUSSIONS

1. Teacher Professional Development

As mentioned earlier in the background, profession may be considered simply


someone who is very good at their job. A person who wears white collar at work may be seen
as professionals. Seeing a professional cannot be compared to those simple things. To have a
profession in your occupation needs several steps and process and it will take years. The
simplest and comprehensive was enumerated by Goode (1960),
We should think of occupations as falling somewhere along a continuum of
professionalism The core characteristics are prolonged specialized training in a
body or abstract knowledge, and a collectivity or service orientation As an
occupation becomes more professionalized, it acquires several features which may be
viewed as sociologically derivative from the two just noted. These include the following
traits: (1) The profession determines its own standards of education and training, (2)
The student professional goes through a more far-reaching adult socialization
experience than the learner in other occupations, (3) Professional practice is often
legally recognized by some form licensure, (4) Licensing and admission boards are
manned by members of the professions, (5) Most legislation concerned with the
profession is shaped by that profession, (6) The occupation gains in income, power, and
prestige ranking, and can demand higher caliber students, (7) The practitioner is
relatively free of lay evaluation and control, (8) The norms of practice enforced by the
profession are more stringent than legal control, (9) Members are more strongly
identified and affiliated with the profession than are members of other occupations with
theirs, (10) The profession is more likely to be a terminal occupation. Members do not
care to leave it, and a higher proportion assert if they had it to do over again, they would
again choose that work
Based on this definition, it can be concluded that to have a profession have several
characteristics, they are:
a. Professionals are assumed to have extensive knowledge, process skill based on that
knowledge, and able to apply in practice.
b. Professionals need to have association. Professions usually have professional bodies
organized by the members to enhance the status of their members. The association have
carefully controlled entrance requirements.
c. Becoming a professional need to have extensive period of education. Nowadays, a
profession usually requires at least three years at study in university then take several
years for the extensive training, or taking doctoral research which can take 4 to 5 years.
d. A professional need to have competence. Before being admitted to membership of a
professional institution, there are some requirements and examinations to pass through.
e. To become a professional need to attend institutional training. In addition to
examinations, there are some requirements for the institutional itself. It has to be a long
period of institutionalized training. It also has to be a member of a professional body. The
institution needs to keep upgrading skill continuously through professional development.
f. Profession seek to establish a register or membership. Individual will get license so he/she
can be considered as bona fide.
g. Professional tends to retain control over their work and their own theoretical knowledge.
h. Professional bodies tend to insist that they should be self-regulating and independent from
government. It also tends to be policed and regulated by senior, respected practitioners
and the most highly qualified members of the profession.
i. It has code of professional conduct or ethics includes disciplinary procedures for those
who infringe the rules.
j. Public service and altruism. The earning of fees for services rendered can be defended
because they are provided in the public interest.
k. The most successful professions achieve high status, public prestige and rewards for their
members.

Practice
Profession

Trilogy of
Profession

Basic
Knowledge Object of
of Profession
Profession

Figure 1. Trilogy of Profession (Nasrul, 2014: 33)


Nasrul (2014: 13) stated that to become a professional, in any field, someone needs to
fulfill three of the requirements in the trilogy of profession. Firstly, basic knowledge of
profession deals with basic concepts, knowledge, skills, value, and attitude which someone
needs to have to become a professional. Second is object of profession. It refers to the focus
and specific practical object which are going to be dealt with. The last one is practice
profession. It refers to the implementation of the profession trough experience. For teachers,
it is obvious that teachers have to master their own subject before they transfer it to the
students. Teachers have to focus to the students as the object of the profession. Teachers have
the responsibility of the students development. The crucial part is practice. Teachers have to
attend specific teacher training in such a long process then they can implement it into real
classes.
There are so many institutions which provide teachers training. People may think
professional development as a formal process; such as learning through conferences,
seminars, or workshop; or collaborative learning among members of a work team; or a course
at a college or university. However, college and university programs only provide graduate
who fulfill the passing grade standard. They prepare their graduates with basic skills and
knowledge. They dont provide their graduates become effective teachers. The graduates will
learn more through experiences. The other way of teacher development can be from informal
context, such as discussion with the colleagues; reading journals and researches; or
observation of colleagues works.
Ingersoll (2013) stated that the complexity of teaching is so great that one-third of
teachers leave the profession within three years and 50% leave within five years. In other
words, teachers who dont want to develop themselves will not survive. Teachers and
educators will take years to gain skills to be effective in their roles. A new teacher may need
to adapt himself/herself with the new school culture and operation, classroom management,
instruction, administration, and interaction with other teachers. It will take a long process to
adjust in new environment. Other teachers challenges will occur every year and it may vary.
It can be changes in subject content, new curriculum or instructional methods, changed law
and procedures, and the students need.
Regarding to these cases a teacher need to have a competence to be a professional.
Competence is understood as excellent capability. Teacher competence refers to the teacher
ability to carry out defined tasks in particular context at higher level of excellence (Slavik,
2008). It includes professional knowledge and understanding, professional skills and abilities
and professional values and personal commitment. In a general view, teacher competence is a
pattern of thinking, feeling, acting or even speaking that cause a teacher to be successfully to
his or her job. It may also involve qualification (in terms of certification) and competences (in
terms of thought and action).
Cogan (1997) stated that teachers competence includes these criteria, they are:
1. the ability to perceive and approach the educational issues from the perspective of
global society,
2. the ability to work with others cooperatively and responsible based on the role and
duties in society,
3. the capacity to think critically and systematically, and
4. the desire to keep improving intellectual ability regarding to the changing era and the
knowledge and technology development.
Nasrul (2014: 39) also stated that there are ten basic abilities which a teacher need to
have, they are:
1. ability to master the basic of education,
2. ability to master teaching materials,
3. ability to manage teaching and learning program,
4. ability to control class,
5. ability to manage classroom interaction,
6. ability to evaluate students learning outcomes,
7. ability to implement curriculum,
8. understanding function, guidance, and counseling program
9. understanding the principle learning outcome, and
10. abide the education administration.
It can be concluded that a teacher is not only going to transfer the knowledge to the
students, but also needs to have these criteria. A teacher does not only deal with the students
development and evaluation. He/she also needs to have a good understanding about the
curriculum and materials. A good teacher may lead his/her students through the guidance and
counseling program. An important aspect which a teacher needs to follow is administration.
By fulfilling administration orderly, it will be valuable documents for the future. Therefore,
becoming a teacher need to have academic qualifications, competence, education certificate,
healthy physically and mentally, and the desire and ability to actualize national education
objectives.
Teaching Professional in carrying out their duties have various competence required
in transferring knowledge to their students, based on PP No. 19 Year 2005 on National
Education Standards. It includes pedagogical competence, personal competence, professional
competence and social competence.
PEDAGOGICAL COMPETENCE
According Mulyasa (2007), pedagogical competence is the ability to manage the
learning of learners includes an understanding of learners, instructional design and
implementation, evaluation of learning outcomes, and the development of learners to
actualize their potential.
Sub Competence Indicators
Understand the learners based on the
cognitive development principles

Understand the learners based on the


Understand the students thoroughly
personality principles

Identify the learners entry behavior

Understand the basic of education


Apply teaching and learning theories
Design the teaching and learning process, Determine the teaching strategies based on
including understand the basic of education the learners strategies, competency, and
for the sake of learning teaching materials
Design lesson plans based on the chosen
teaching strategies
Arrange the teaching and learning setting
Implement the teaching and learning
Implement the conducive teaching and
process
learning process
Design and conduct sustainable evaluation
and assessment process and learning result
with various methods
Design and conduct the teaching and Analyze the evaluation process result to
learning evaluation determine the level of mastery learning
Use the learning assessment result for the
improvement the quality of learning and
teaching program in general
Facilitate the learners to develop based on
Develop the learners to actualize their the academic potential
various potential Facilitate the learners to develop various
non-academic potential

PERSONALITY COMPETENCE
Komara (2007) stated that personal competence includes steady, noble, wise and
prudent, dignified, stable, mature, honest, becoming role models for students and the
community, to objectively evaluate their own performance, and develop themselves
independently and sustainably.
Sub Competence Indicators
Law abiding citizen
Act based on the social norms and proud to
Steady and stable personality
be a teacher
Consistence in every action
Adult personality Show independence in acting as educators
and have a work ethic as an educator
Wise personality Display the actions which are beneficial to
the students, school and community and
demonstrate openness in thinking and acting
Authoritative personality Have a positive attitude towards the
students, and respected behaviors
Noble character Act based on religious norms and well-
behaved as the example for the learners

SOCIAL COMPETENCE
Mulyasa (2007) stated that social competence is the ability of teachers as part of the
public to communicate and interact effectively with others include: learners, follow
teachers, parents or guardians of the students and the community.
Can communicate and interact with the Communicate effectively with the learners
learners
Can communicate and interact effectively
Can communicate and interact effectively
with the other teachers
with the other teachers and education
Can communicate and interact effectively
personnel
with the other education personnel
Can communicate and interact effectively
Can communicate and interact effectively
with the parents or guardians of the students
with the parents or guardians of the students
Can communicate and interact effectively
and the society
with the society

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
Komara (2007) stated that professional competence is the ability of dealing with the
adjustment tasks and competence of lecturers is very important because it directly
relates to the performance shown.
Master the science which are related to the Understand the teaching materials which are
school subjects arranged in school curriculum
Understand the science structure, concept,
and methods which are related to subject
competence or still coherent with the
material
Understand the correlation between the
related subjects
Apply the science concepts in daily life
Master the science structure and methods Master the steps of conducting researches
and critical journals to expanding the
knowledge and subject materials

Each country has different schools role and functioning. Every school also have
different expectation for their teachers. Mostly teachers are asked to give a great emphasize
on integrating students based on learning needs in the classroom, to use more of useful
information, to implement communication technologies, to engage more planning within
evaluative and accountability framework, and to do more involve parents in schools. No
matter how good the teachers training which a teacher has been through, it cannot be
expected to prepare teachers for all the challenges which might happen in the future.

2. English Teacher Professional Development

Language is always developing. Every year, hundreds of new words are created. The
changes in language might also happen. Nowadays, English as the international language,
doesnt belong to the native speakers only. In this world, more than non-native speakers
speak English than the native speakers. The needs of learning English are paramount. There
are a lot of students choose to study overseas and use English as their language. Many people
do business around the world and use English as the unified language. Teaching language
deals with dynamic process. It doesnt merely deal with the grammar, but also the culture as
well. These challenges may be faced by language teacher in the next 10 or 20 years or so on.
Teachers need to be ready for various reasons of learning English.
Thus, teachers need to keep developing themselves to be considered as professional.
The best teachers are the title for those who wont stop learning. Being a professional is
something which you earn it. Teachers need to learn it by process and keep practicing.
Teachers need to be sensitive and aware of the learners needs. Qualified teachers will affect
the learners outcomes.
Figure 2. Continuing Professional Development from British Council, 2012
Based on British Councils Going Forward: Continuing Professional Development for
English Language Teachers in the UK, a qualified teacher needs to not stop practicing and
developing. Keith Harding (in Modern English Teacher Volume 18 Number 3, July 2009)
suggested that the characteristics of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are that it is
continuous. Professional should always be looking for ways to deal with new challenges and
improve performance. Professional should have the responsibility of the individual teacher,
who identifies his or her own needs and how to meet those needs. Professional should be
evaluative rather than descriptive so that the teacher understands the impact of the activity.
Teachers should think that developing is an essential component of professional life, not an
extra.
Based on Figure 2, teachers need to make a reflection of themselves, on what stages
they are in. There are three stages of a teachers career, they are:
STAGES
Starting Learning the principles
Inexperienced Teacher
Newly Qualified Putting principles into practices
Developing Building confidence and skills
Teachers with Experiences Proficient Demonstrating confidence,
experience, and reflection
Teachers Progressing into Advanced Exemplifying good practices
Specialist Leading and advising
More Advanced Roles

The first stage is Starting. In this stage, teachers are studying for your initial certificate and
planning your first job in English language teaching. Teachers may attend the teacher training
courses or college or university to learn the theories about teaching methodology, technique,
and strategy. Then, after teachers have an initial qualification and are in first years of
teaching, they are putting the principles theyve learned on the course into practice. This is
called Newly Qualified. Next stage is when teachers are already gaining experiences through
their practices. Then, it is time to Develop stage. In this stage, teachers may build the
confidences and take another course to enhance more about teaching techniques. Then,
teachers may take Proficient stage, which they can demonstrate the confidence, experience,
and make some reflections. After years of practices, teachers may come into the progress
where they are in more advance roles. Advance stage is where teachers are in highly qualified
teachers. In this stage, teacher exemplify the good practices and may be taking on further
responsibilities and roles, such as a senior teachers or mentors. Lastly, Specialist stage is the
leading and advising stage. In this stage, teachers may take the greater role as in leading and
advising, for example director of studies, teacher trainer, materials writer, or inspector.
Identifying teachers stage is a crucial thing. By knowing on what stages that a
teacher is in, he/she can start to plan, which part that he/she will need to develop and how can
he/she do to develop his/her career. Then, he/she can decide what kind of courses which meet
his/her needs for intensive training. A teacher may also look for networking. Conducting
discussion with fellow teachers, attending conferences and workshops will help to enhancing
the knowledge and know the current issues about education and teaching techniques.
Teachers may also need resources as the basic knowledge and science, such as the journals
and researches. After gaining the courses, networking, and resources, teachers may do
practices for their students. The more practices are the better so that teachers can decide the
best practice which can fulfill the students needs. Teachers cannot just stop with practices,
they need to trace back again about what stages they are in and start to learn and practice all
over again. So, they can be considered as qualified teachers.
Teaching and learning process deals with learners. Language classroom needs
interaction between the learners so that classroom instructions are needed. Classroom
instructions for English teaching and learning process vary depending on the schools law or
the national curriculum. Each school and country give specific curriculum to adjust the
learners need. It is the teachers job to implement the curriculum into the classroom.
As language teachers, there are some key terms which are need to be considered in
implementing language in the classroom. Based on Samson and Collins (2012), teachers need
to have strong understanding of oral language development, academic language, and cultural
diversity.
a. Oral language development
Teachers must have a working knowledge and understanding of language as a system
and of the role of the components of language and speech, specifically sounds, grammar,
meaning, coherence, communicative strategies, and social conventions. Teachers must be
able to draw explicit attention to the type of language and its use in classroom settings, which
is essential to first and second language learning. Teachers must need to know about the
typology universal between the first and second language in order to choose materials and
activities which promote development. Teachers also need to have a sense of what signs to
look for when the learners struggle with language learning and communication, in addition to
knowing how to assess or refer struggling students to the appropriate specialist.
b. Academic language
Teachers must have a working knowledge of academic language and of the particular
type of language used for instruction as well as for the cognitively demanding tasks typically
found in textbooks, classrooms, assessments, and those necessary for engagement in
discipline-specific areas. Teachers must know teaching conversational language and
academic language are different. Learners need to know first the fundamental how
conversational language works in the target language. Understanding the academic language
will take longer because it deals with multiple contexts and critical thinking. Opportunities to
learn and practice academic language are essential but the learners must learn about
sophisticated and varied vocabulary and grammatical structures and avoid slang and idioms.

c. Cultural diversity
Teachers must have a working knowledge and understanding of the role of culture in
language development and academic achievement. Cultural differences often affect learners
classroom participation and performance in several ways. The norms for behavior,
communication, and interactions with others that learners use in their homes often do not
match the norms that are enforced in the school setting. One way this plays out is with the
cultural conventions that children learn in the home about eye contact, voice volume, or
attributing work to an individual versus to the group, which may conflict with the teachers
expectations in the classroom. This can result in misunderstandings or confusion on the part
of the student. Teachers understanding and appreciation of these differences help them to
respond in ways that help to create a reciprocal learning environment.
In order to be a professional teacher, it takes long process and several steps to reach it.
A professional teacher will always evaluate himself/herself to keep learning. Teachers who
keep learning and practicing will know whats best practice for their learners. Conducting
discussions and attending conferences and workshop will gain more knowledge about the
issues. Teaching resources will be helpful to make eclectic practice in the classroom.
Controlling classroom interaction also takes important matter. From the interaction, teachers
can introduce about the cultural inclusion about the target language.

3. Teacher Professional Development in Indonesia


Teacher system in Indonesia is established and managed by the government.
University of education became the institutions which hold responsibility to produce teachers
since 1989. Originally, the university of education was called Institute for Teacher Training
and Education (IKIP Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan) and established across the
country in 1963. In 1998, the status of IKIP was changed from institute of education to
university of education in order to improve the equality of existing tertiary teacher trainings
and enable them to produce better qualified teachers.
Indonesia government has been giving great concern on teacher professional
development. During 1980s, PKG (Pemantapan Kerja Guru) or Improving the Work of
Teachers Program was established. It was a government-initiated in-service teacher training
program which directly targeted thousands of teachers in junior and secondary schools
throughout Indonesia. The aim of PKG was to transform teachers traditional instructional
practices (chalk-and-talk teaching and teacher-centred approaches) into active learning and
student-centred learning.
In the early 1980s, due to the popularity of PKG among teachers, many non-PKG
teacher participants wanted to join the PKG. Also, due to requests from principals and
teachers for faster dissemination of the PKG methodology and materials, the PKG was then
developed into Sanggar Pemantapan Kerja Guru (SPKG) or centres for disseminating PKGs
methodologies and materials.
In 1993, the Minister of Education introduced a new program to replace the PKG and
SPKG projects. They were the Kelompok Kerja Guru (KKG, Primary School Working
Group) and Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP, Subject Teacher Working Group for
Secondary School Teachers). The Minister of Education envisioned KKG and MGMP as
local networking forums for in-service training and self-improvement activities conducted by
local teachers. KKG and MGMP adopted the concept of teacher networking that recognizes
the idea that teachers can help each other to improve competencies based on their own
expertise. The common activities of these teacher working groups range from curriculum and
instructional material development and test item design to more advanced activities such as
lesson study and classroom action research. Both KKGs and MGMPs are cluster-based, and
are made up of teachers from neighboring schools. More recently, MGMP has been extended
to include subject teachers at the same school. The fact that thousands of KKGs and MGMPs
still exist may indicate their particular importance for the government and for teachers.
The government of Indonesia issued Undang-undang Guru dan Dosen No. 14/2005
(UUGD, Teacher and Lecturer Law No. 14 Year 2005) which has had a significant impact on
the Indonesian teaching workforce across the system from early childhood education to
higher education. The law completely reformulated the roles and responsibilities for
teachers/lecturers and proposed strategies to improve teacher quality and welfare. The UUGD
included the following fundamental reforms:
the core principle that teaching is a profession,
the requirement that all teachers must meet a minimum qualification of a four-year
degree (bachelors degree or diploma 4) before being certified, and that all teachers
should be formally certified after the four-year degree has been gained,
the edict that teachers who can fulfil the academic requirements and adequately perform
their specified competencies are considered professional and are therefore entitled for
a professional allowance,
the reform of pre-service teacher education institutions
a mandatory 24-hour contact time (18 hours) workload per week required to gain and
maintain certification,
a special area allowance to be paid to teachers in defined areas such as remote
locations, border regions and natural or social disaster areas,
improved processes of in-school induction and probation,
a comprehensive system of teacher appraisal and public service salary increases,
a more systematic program of continuing professional development, and
the merit-based appointment of principals and supervisors based on mastery of the four
core competencies (pedagogic, personal, social and professional) for educators.
UUGD initiated a fundamental transformation of teachers positions and functions in
the education system. According to UUGD, teachers are now regarded as professionals or
professional educators compared to teaching staff in the former system. Teachers are now
expected to perform their duties based on the competence, responsibility, commitment, etc.
Based on this law, the government will take care of teachers prosperity, concerning the
Indonesian teachers was in quite low situation. This law also motivates for more Indonesian
to become educators and for the fellow teachers to work proportionally.
PPG (Pendidikan Profesi Guru) or Teacher Profession Education is a one-year
professional development program for pre-service teacher to prepare graduates who hold
bachelor degree from education and non-education university and have talents and interests
as teachers to master full teacher competencies based on national standards to be able to
obtain certificate of professional educators in early childhood education, primary education,
and secondary education (Regulation of Minister of Education No 87, 2013). The background
of this program is based on UUGD 2005 in which the candidate teachers must have academic
qualification, master teacher competencies, hold certificate of educators and have the ability
to realize national education goals. PPG program aims to produce competent prospective
teachers in planning, implementing, assessing learning, following up the results of the
assessment, coaching and training learners, conducting research, and able to develop
sustainable professionalism. Graduating from this program, participants are expected to
master their field of study especially in the area of knowledge and pedagogy. They are also
expected to be able to organize educational learning, knowing in-depth about their students,
and develop sustainable professionalism.
There are two types of PPG program for pre-service teacher, they are PPG-SM3T and
PPG regular. Basically, these two programs have similar management. The differences are
explained as follows:
Components PPG-SM3T PPG Regular
Input Specific for graduates of For graduates of education
university of education or non-education university
Fee Free Need to pay tuition
Joining SM3T program for Joining one-year
one year beforehand matriculation program
Specific Requirements
beforehand
Boarding program Non-boarding program

Specific for PPG-SM3T program, participants in this program are required to join SM3T
program for one year beforehand. SM3T program (Program Sarjana Mendidik di daerah
Terluar, Terdepan, dan Tertinggal) is a program where the participants are sent by the
government to teach at schools in areas such as underdeveloped regions, border regions, and
the countrys outermost regions. After completing this one-year program, all the participants
have opportunity to join PPG program for free (PPG-SM3T). During PPG-SM3T,
participants are required to stay in a dorm together with other participants (which is called
boarding program) and obliged to follow all the rules in this boarding program.
Areas of expertise to be taken of students in PPG program must comply with levels of
education as well as teaching subject. Otherwise, participants whose qualification do not
match with the specified academic qualification must take matriculation program for one
year. Academic qualifications for participants of this program are:
a. Bachelor degree in education which linear to teacher professional development program
to be pursued,
b. Bachelor degree in education which allied with teacher professional development
program to be pursued, with additional matriculation program,
c. Bachelor or diploma 4 degree from non-education university which linear to teacher
professional development program to be pursued, with additional matriculation program.
d. Bachelor or diploma 4 degree from non-education university which allied with teacher
professional development program to be pursued, with additional matriculation program.
e. Bachelor in Psychology for PPG program in early childhood education or elementary
school, with additional matriculation program.
PPG program is organized by universities which run the required teacher education
program and recognized by the Minister of Education (Regulation of Minister of Education
No 87, 2013). In the second year of the program, there were 14 state universities spread
throughout the nation assigned to established PPG program for pre-service teacher. Students
who pass the selection then reported to the Director General of Higher Education to obtain
PPG registration number. Quota of participants for each major in PPG program in each
assigned university is determined nationally by Minister of Education. Each assigned
university established different number of majors. Any shortage of participants occurred in
the assigned university can be covered by accepting students from different university or
moving their participants to other university.
Structure of curriculum in PPG program for pre-service teacher consists of workshop
in developing learning media, teaching practice through micro teaching, peer teaching, field
teaching practice, and subject enrichment program. In workshop, participants are given
knowledge and practice of teaching based on their field of study to prepare them for field
teaching practice. Activities during workshop include preparation of learning media and
assessment, presentation and discussion/reflection on the outcomes of learning media
preparation, revision of the learning media, and micro teaching/peer teaching. In the end of
workshop, participants are expected to produce syllabus, lesson plan, student worksheets,
teaching materials, learning media, assessment tools, and a proposal for classroom action
research. Participants do their field teaching practice at the assigned public schools.
Workshop and field teaching practiced are organized with direct and intensive monitoring by
program supervisor and supervising teachers officially assigned for the program. Same model
of curriculum applied for both PPG-SM3T and PPG regular.
Lecturers at PPG program must have educational qualifications at the lowest holding
a master degree, having background in education, and preferably those who have certificate
in accordance with the level of expertise and areas of expertise they teach. Competency test
as part of the final exam consists of a written test and exam performance. Written test is
conducted by the assigned department. Exam performance also organized by the assigned
department in the university where the examiners consist of program lecturers and
representative of professional organization and/or other external parties. Participants who
pass the competency test will obtain a registered professional certificate of educator issued by
the assigned university. Participants will also be entitled as professional teacher indicating
that they are qualified as professional teacher.
Another program which similar with PPG is PLPG (Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Profesi
Guru) or Education and Training for Teaching Profession Program. It consists of a 90-hour
in-service training program. It is designed to support teacher certification for those from
education or non-education program. The background of this program is the same with PPG
which teachers have academic qualification, master teacher competencies, hold certificate of
educators and have the ability to realize national education goals. PLPG is designed to
facilitate teachers learning and acquiring those competencies. The PLPG is undertaken by
selected teacher training institutions and takes the form of lectures and workshops.
Institutionally, Indonesia has a number of government agencies to support the
professional development of its teaching workforce. All of those programs were established
in accordance of Pusat Pengembangan Pendidikan Guru (PPPG, Centers for Teacher
Professional Development) in the mid-1970s. These PPPGs were initially introduced to
supplement and support the existing national teacher professional development programs
such as PKG and SPKG. Over time, PPPGs were also designed to train specific subject-area
teachers (mathematics, science, social studies, language, technology and vocational subjects).
At the same time, the government also initiated teacher training centers at regional and
provincial levels called Balai Pendidikan Guru (BPG, Teacher Training Agencies) to expand
teacher professional development opportunities.
Along with the evolution of the education system, PPPGs and BPGs have now
transformed into Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga
Kependidikan (P4TK, Centres for Professional Development and Empowerment of Teachers
and Educational Personnel) and Lembaga Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan (LPMP, Institutes for
Educational Quality Assurance) respectively. Currently, there are 12 P4TKs at the national
level. At the provincial level, there are 33 LPMPs that, in addition to their main role of
quality assurance, have a role in providing teacher professional development opportunities.
CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

This paper has been discussing about teacher professional development, English
teacher professional development, and teacher professional development in Indonesia. It can
be concluded that teacher is one of an example of a profession. A teacher can be seen as a
professional work because it takes higher education, knowledge, skill, and academic
education. It takes quite long process, dedication, and commitment.
A professional teacher requires competence. There are four competence which are
needed to be a professional teacher, they are pedagogical competence (which means the
ability to manage the learning of learners), personality competence (which means the state of
mind and attitude), social competence (which refers to interaction with the learners, parents,
colleagues, and society), and professional competence (which means the ability of dealing
with the adjustment tasks and competence of lecturers). By combining these competence, a
professional teacher may lead and can take care of the challenges that might happen now and
the future.
This paper focus on English teacher professional development. English is an
international language which everyone use it for various reasons. Teaching language is
dynamic process and it deals with several aspects. Teachers are expected to have the learners
outcomes based on written and spoken. Teachers are expected to take control in classroom
interaction. Being a professional English teacher also is not easy. There are several levels
which English teachers should be aware of themselves. Then, they can decide on how
development which they can do. Practicing is the key success to be a professional teacher.
Indonesia has been giving a great concern for teachers. Since 1980, the government
established the institution for teacher development. In the current era, there are two kinds of
institution which can be attended by the candidate teachers from education or non-education
field. They are PPG (Pendidikan Profesi Guru) or Teacher Profession Education Program and
PLPG (Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Profesi Guru) or Education and Training for Teaching
Profession Program. The government also formed Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan
Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (P4TK, Centres for Professional Development and
Empowerment of Teachers and Educational Personnel) and Lembaga Penjaminan Mutu
Pendidikan (LPMP, Institutes for Educational Quality Assurance) as the center of the teacher
development progam.
Based on the discussion, teacher as profession needs to keep developing. A lot of
issues and challenges will may happen in the future. Teachers need to face it bravely and
positively. By attending the teacher professional development, teachers can be aware and
sensitive and even can choose the best practice for the learners. Furthermore, teachers as
educators will lead the nation to achieve the better future.
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