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AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs

Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version


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I) HANDLED BY:
Ken Erdmann PH 918-379-6434 FX 918-379-6450, email kerdmann@matrixservice.com
Randy Kissell PH: 919-644-8250 FX: 919-644-8252, email: randy.kissell@tgbpartnership.com

II) SOURCE: Inquiry.

III) PURPOSE: Provide load combinations for cable supported internal floating roofs (IFRs). Also
address IFRs suspended from a fixed roof.

IV) IMPACT: Clarifying this issue will reduce engineering effort and variation in practice, thus reducing
cost.

V) JUSTIFICATION / DETAILED SCOPE:

The load combination agenda item did not address floating roofs. This agenda item was originally taken
out to address floating roofs suspended from fixed roofs. Since fixed roofs had established load
combinations this item was expanded to include development of load combination for IFRs as well. These
new load combinations along with additional rules would be applied to cable suspended IFRs.

Some internal floating roofs are supported by cables hung from the fixed roof rather than on legs resting
on the tank bottom. This allows changing the supported height of the floating roof without entering the
tank and eliminates roof penetrations at legs that are a source of emissions. There are added potential
hazards introduced by suspending the floating roof in this way. This agenda item will address these issues
to insure suspended floating roofs provide adequate safety against structural damage and/or personnel
safety.

API 650 specifies dead, live, snow, and vacuum loads on fixed roofs and dead and live loads on floating
roofs. When the fixed roof supports an internal floating roof, these gravity loads can act together. This
ballot addresses how to combine these loads.

Summary of Loads
The fixed roof loads are:
1) Dead load (DL)
2) Minimum roof live load (Lr) (20 psf uniform or 500 lb point load)
3) Snow (S)
4) External pressure (Pe) (at least 5.2 psf)

The internal floating roof loads are:


1) Dead load (Df)
2) Point load (H.4.2.2): 500 lb for workers (Lf1)
3) Distributed load (H.4.2.5): 12.5 psf when no roof drains are provided and 5 psf when roof drains
are provided (Lf2)
4) Load from trapped liquid in punctured compartments (Lf3)
5) Distributed Load (H.4.2.5): 5 psf minimum external pressure load on floating roof (Pfe)

The internal floating roof live loads may be categorized as follows:


For fixed roofs the minimum roof live load of 20 psf is defined (in ASCE 7) as the weight of workers
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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and their equipment. The 500 lb worker load could be considered to be an alternate minimum roof
live load (Lr). This means the minimum roof live load is either a 20 psf distributed load or a 500 lb
point load, but not both loads simultaneously.

The floating roof distributed load has been split into four components (Lf1, Lf2, Lf3 and Pfe). Two of
these (Lf1 and Pfe) have been historically covered in Appendix H with the 12.5 psf or 5 psf uniform
load defined as Lf1. This ballot will compare this historic uniform load to Pfe so that if bleeder venets
on the floating roof are designed to larger the Lf1 loads there is a means to capture this increase load.
The other two loads will be evaluated with each compared to the loads Lf1 and Pfe.

Existing Load Combinations for Fixed Roofs


API 650 requires the following fixed roof load combinations be considered:
1) D + (Lr or S) + 0.4Pe
2) D + Pe + 0.4(S or Lr)

Additional Load Combinations for Fixed Roofs Supporting Suspended Floating Roofs
When Pe is acting thru the floating roof it must be combined with other live loads of the floating roof.
Also, the external pressure setting on the floating roof may differ from the fixed roof so the new term Pfe
is used to denote external pressure on the floating roof.

Load combinations for a fixed roof supporting a suspended floating roof are:
1) Dr + Df + (Lr or S) + Pe + 0.4{ Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2 or Lf3)}
2) Dr + Df + {Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2 or Lf3}+ 0.4{(Lr or S) + Pe}

where
DL = dead load of fixed roof.
Df = dead load of floating roof including the weight of the flotation compartments, seal and all
other floating roof and attached components.
Lr = 20 psf distributed load or 500 lb point load anywhere on the fixed roof.
Lf1 = 12.5 psf if no drains are provided, 5 psf if drains are provided.
Lf2 = 500 lb point load anywhere on the floating roof.
Lf3 = Area load from liquid trapped in punctured compartments described in H.4.2.1.3.
Pe = external design pressure on tank (0 psf for tanks with Appendix H venting otherwise 5 psf
minimum).
Pfe = external design pressure on floating roof (5 psf minimum).
S = snow load on the fixed roof.

A cable supported floating roof exerts point loads on the fixed roof. Since API 650 does not dictate
floating roof support spacing, the magnitude of these point loads will vary by manufacturer. Therefore,
this ballot proposes that they must be evaluated as point loads rather than averaging them over the roof as
distributed loads. The external pressure due to emptying the tank is considered to act on the underside of
the floating roof since the underside of the floating roof has more limited venting than the vapor space
above the floating roof. Therefore two key issues to be addressed when evaluating a fixed roof supporting
a cable suspended floating roof are: 1) Floating roof uniform loads (Pfe = 5 psf for example) must be
evaluated as point loads rather than uniform loads when applied to the fixed roof through cables and 2)
Floating roof venting must be assured to limit Pfe to 5 psf or the floating roof must be designed for
external pressure consistent with vent settings.
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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Load Combinations for Floating Roofs on Supports (legs or cables)

1) Df + (Pfe or Lf1)
2) Df + Lf2

Additional Load Combinations for Floating Roofs on Supports Cables

3) Df + L3

where -
Df = Dead load of floating roof including the weight of the flotation compartments, seal and all
other floating roof and attached components.
Lf1 = Uniform live load (0.36 kPa [7.5 lbf/ft2] if no drains are provided, 0 kPa [0 lbf/ft2] if drains
are provided).
Lf2 = Point load of at least two men (2.2 kN [500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2]) walking anywhere on
the roof.
Lf3 = Area load from liquid trapped in punctured compartments described in H.4.2.1.3.
Pfe = Uniform live load from external design pressure on floating roof (0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft 2]
minimum).
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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VI) PROPOSED CHANGES:

3.2.1 Loads are defined as follows:


(a) Dead Load (DL): the weight of the tank or tank component, including any corrosion
allowance unless otherwise noted.
(b) Stored Liquid (F): the load due to filling the tank to the design liquid level (see 3.6.3.2) with
liquid with the design specific gravity specified by the purchaser.
(c) Hydrostatic Test (Ht ): the load due to filling the tank with water to the design liquid level.
(d) Minimum Roof Live Load (Lr): 1.0 kPa (20 lb/ft2) on the horizontal projected area of the roof.
(e) Snow (S): The ground snow load shall be determined from ASCE 7 Figure 7-1 or Table 7-1
unless the ground snow load that equals or exceeds the value based on a 2% annual probability of being
exceeded (50 yr mean recurrence interval) is specified by the purchaser. The design snow load shall be
0.84 times the ground snow load. Alternately, the design snow load shall be determined from the ground
snow load in accordance with ASCE 7. The design snow load shall be reported to the purchaser.
(f) Wind (W): The design wind speed (V) shall be 190 km/hr (120 mph), the 3 sec gust design
wind speed determined from ASCE 7 Figure 6-1, or the 3 sec gust design wind speed specified by the
purchaser (this specified wind speed shall be for a 3 sec gust based on a 2% annual probability of being
exceeded (50 yr mean recurrence interval)). The design wind pressure shall be 0.86 kPa [V/190]2, [(18
lbf/ft2)(V/120)2] on vertical projected areas of cylindrical surfaces and 1.44 kPa(V/190)2, [(30 lbf/ft2)
(V/120)2] uplift (2) on horizontal projected areas of conical or doubly curved surfaces, where V is the 3 sec
gust wind speed. The 3 sec gust wind speed used shall be reported to the purchaser.
1) These design wind pressures are in accordance with ASCE 7 for wind exposure category
C. As an alternative, pressures may be determined in accordance with ASCE 7 (exposure
category and importance factor provided by purchaser) or a national standard for the specific
conditions for the tank being designed.
2) The design uplift pressure on the roof (wind plus internal pressure) need not exceed 1.6
times the design pressure P determined in F.4.1.
3) Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads on the roof are conservatively equal and
opposite and therefore they are not included in the above pressures.
4) Fastest mile wind speed times 1.2 is approximately equal to 3 sec gust wind speed.
(g) Design Internal Pressure (Pi): shall not exceed 18 kPa (2.5 lbf/in2).
(h) Test Pressure (Pt): as required by F.4.4 or F.7.6.
(i) Design External Pressure (Pe): shall not be less than 0.25 kPa (1 in. of water). This standard
does not contain provisions for external pressures greater than 0.25 kPa. . Design requirements for
vacuum exceeding this value and design requirements to resist flotation and external fluid pressure shall
be a matter of agreement between the Purchaser and the Manufacturer.
(j) Seismic (E): seismic loads determined in accordance with sections E.1 through E.6.
(k) Dead load of internal floating roof (Df) including the weight of the flotation compartments,
seal and all other floating roof and attached components.
(l) Internal floating roof uniform live load (Lf1) (0.6 kPa [12.5 lbf/ft2] if no drains are provided,
0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft2] if drains are provided).
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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(m) Internal floating roof point load (Lf2) of at least two men (2.2 kN [500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2])
walking anywhere on the roof.
(n) Internal floating roof area load from liquid trapped in punctured compartments (Lf3) described
in H.4.2.1.3.
(o) Internal floating roof design external pressure (Pfe) on (0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft2] minimum).

3.10.2.1 All roofs and supporting structures shall be designed for load combinations (a), (b), (c), (e), and
(f), and (g) of Appendix Y.

H.4.2 Internal Floating Roof Design


H.4.2.1 Buoyancy Requirements
H.4.2.1.1 All internal floating roof design calculations shall be based on the lower of the product specific
gravity or 0.7 (to allow for operation in a range of hydrocarbon service), regardless of any higher specific
gravity that might be specified by the purchaser.
H.4.2.1.2 All internal floating roofs shall include buoyancy required to support at least twice its dead
weight (including the weight of the flotation compartments, seal and all other floating roof and attached
components), plus additional buoyancy to offset the calculated friction exerted by peripheral and
penetration seals during filling.
H.4.2.1.3 All internal floating roofs with multiple flotation compartments shall be capable of floating
without additional damage after any two compartments are punctured and flooded. Designs which employ
an open center deck in contact with the liquid (types H.2.2.b, c, and g) shall be capable of floating without
additional damage after any two compartments and the center deck are punctured and flooded. With
agreement by the purchaser any floating roof 6 m (20 ft) in diameter or less with multiple flotation
compartments may be designed to be capable of floating without additional damage after any one
compartment is punctured and flooded.
H.4.2.1.4 The internal floating roof shall be designed to meet the requirements of H.4.2.1.3 and to safely
support at least two men (2.2 kN [500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2]) walking anywhere on the roof while it is
floating without damaging the floating roof and without allowing product on the roof. If specified by the
purchaser, the concentrated load design criteria may be modified for roofs less than 9 m (30 ft.) diameter
(where internal floating roofs may become unstable), to account for access needs, and expected
concentrated live loads.
H.4.2.2 Internal Floating Roof Support Design Loads
H.4.2.2.1 Internal floating roof supports and deck structural attachments (such as reinforcing pads and
pontoon end gussets) shall be designed to support the load combinations listed in H.4.2.2.2. The internal
floating roof shall be designed to meet the requirements of H.4.2.1.3 and to safely support at least two
men (2.2 kN [500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2]) walking anywhere on the roof while it is floating or resting on
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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its supports without damaging the floating roof and without allowing product on the roof. If specified by
the purchaser, the concentrated load design criteria may be modified for roofs less than 9 m (30 ft.)
diameter (where internal floating roofs may become unstable), to account for access needs, and expected
concentrated live loads. Consideration shall also be made for non-uniform support settlement/load
distribution, based on anticipated conditions specified by the purchaser.
H.4.2.2.2 Load combinations for floating roof supports

Floating roof support loading (legs or cables) shall be as follows:


1) Df + (Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2)

Additional floating roof loading for cable supports only shall be as follows:
2) Df + Lf3

where -
Df = Dead load of internal floating roof including the weight of the flotation compartments, seal
and all other floating roof and attached components.
Lf1 = Internal floating roof uniform live load (0. 6 kPa [12.5 lbf/ft2] if no drains are provided, 0.24
kPa [5 lbf/ft2] if drains are provided).
Lf2 = Internal floating roof point load of at least two men (2.2 kN [500 lbf] over 0.1 m2 [1 ft2])
walking anywhere on the roof.
Lf3 = Internal floating roof area load from liquid trapped in punctured compartments described in
H.4.2.1.3.
Pfe = Internal floating roof design external pressure (0.24 kPa [5 lbf/ft2] minimum).

Note: If specified by the purchaser, Lf2 may be modified for roofs less than 9 m (30 ft) diameter (where
internal floating roofs may become unstable), to account for access needs, and expected concentrated live
loads.
H.4.2.2.3 Internal floating roofs supported by cables suspended from the fixed roof shall utilize fixed leg
supports for the operating position (low level) set at a level as specified by the purchaser. These legs are
typically not adjustable and are sealed to prevent emissions.

H.4.2.2.4 Cables used to support internal floating roofs shall be designed with a maintenance position
(high level) as specified by the purchaser. The operating position (low level) and length of the cables shall
be such that sinking and/or collapse of the internal floating roof will not apply loads to the support cables.

H.4.2.2.5 Cables used to support internal floating roofs shall be adjusted when the floating roof is at a
level that will prevent loading of the cable to achieve the desired cable length setting.

H.4.2.2.6 Cables, cable segments or cable connections which support the floating roof are prohibited from
using a fusible link or other devices which are designed to fail at a specified load limit.

H.4.2.2.7 Cable connections used to support the floating roof are prohibited from using wire rope u-
clamps.
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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H.4.2.2.8 The allowable working strength of support cables shall be based on a factor of safety of 5.0
below the ultimate strength of the cable. Cables and cable connections shall be designed to provide a
working strength sufficient to meet or exceed the loads from the combinations listed in H.4.2.2.2.

H.4.2.2.9 Cables used to support internal floating roofs shall be stainless steel (grade ???) and shall be
flexible to facilitate repeatable lay down patterns on the floating roof as it travels up and down within the
tank. Lay down patterns shall be positioned to avoid rim seals and floating roof appurtenances that could
prevent the cable from freely extending as the floating roof lowers.
Internal floating roof supports and deck structural attachments (such as reinforcing pads and pontoon end
gussets) shall be designed to support the full dead load of the internal floating roof (including all
components, such as seals and accessories) plus a uniform live load of 0.6 kPa (12.5 lbf/ft2) over the
internal floating roof deck surface while the internal floating roof is resting on its supports. This uniform
live load may be reduced to 0.24 kPa (5 lbf/ft2) if the floating roof is equipped with operable drains or
other means of automatically preventing an accumulation of liquid. Consideration shall also be made for
non-uniform support settlement/load distribution, based on anticipated conditions specified by the
purchaser.

H.5.2.1 Internal Floating Roof Pressure-Vacuum (Bleeder) Vents


H.5.2.1.1 Vents suitable to prevent overstressing of the roof deck or seal membrane shall be provided on
the floating roof. These vents shall be adequate to evacuate air and gases from underneath the roof such
that the internal floating roof is not lifted from resting on its supports during filling operations, until
floating on the stored liquid. The vents shall also be adequate to release any vacuum generated underneath
the roof after it settles on its supports during emptying operations to limit the floating roof external
pressure to Pfe. The purchaser shall specify filling and emptying rates so that the manufacturer can size the
vents.

H.5.2.1.2 Leg or float-activated vents are required unless the purchaser specifies otherwise, such as
pressure vacuum vents, and the associated design conditions See Line 33 of the Data Sheet. Leg activated
vents shall be adjustable as required per H.4.6. Leg-activated vents shall be designed to open
automatically when the roof lowers to 150 mm (6 in.) above its lowest operating position and to close
automatically when the roof raises more than 150 mm (6 in.) above its lowest position. Float-activated
vents shall be designed to remain closed while the roof is floating.

H.5.2.1.5 Internal floating roofs which utilize cable supports and mechanical activated vents shall have a
leg activated vent(s) for the operating position (low level) and a cable activated vent(s) for the
maintenance position (high level). Alternatively, internal floating roofs which utilize cable supports shall
use a pressure vacuum vent(s) to provide the required venting for all floating roof support levels.
AGENDA ITEM: 650-563 Load Combinations for Suspended Floating Roofs
Fall Spring 2005 2006 Chicago, IL 11/16/200502/24/2006 version
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Appendix Y Load Combinations

In this standard, loads are combined in the following manner. Design rules account for these load
combinations, including the absence of any load other than DL in the combinations:

(a) Fluid and Internal Pressure:


DL + F + Pi
(b) Hydrostatic Test:
DL + (Ht + Pt)
(c) Wind and Internal Pressure:
DL + W + 0.4Pi
(d) Wind and External Pressure:
DL + W + 0.4Pe
(e) Gravity Loads:
1) DL +(Lr or S) + 0.4Pe
2) DL + Pe + 0.4(Lr or S)
(f) Seismic:
DL + F + E + 0.1S + 0.4Pi
(g) Gravity Loads for Fixed Roofs with Suspended Floating Roofs:
1) DL + Df + (Lr or S) + Pe + 0.4{Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2 or Lf3)}
2) DL + Df + {Pfe or Lf1 or Lf2 or Lf3)}+ 0.4{(S or Lr) + Pe}

Notes :

1) If the ratio of operating pressure to design pressure exceeds 0.4, the purchaser should consider
specifying a higher factor on design pressure in (c), (d), (e)(1), and (f) above.
2) In the combinations listed in (g), Df, Pfe, Lf1, Lf2 and Lf3 shall be applied as point loads at the cable
attachment to the fixed roof.
3) In combinations listed in (g), Pe shall be 0 kPa (0 lbf/ft2) for tanks with circulation vents meeting
Appendix H requirements.