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# Emily Stover

ESP 414
Student Selection and Description
For this academic change project, I worked with a Kindergarten student named
Brayden. At the time the KeyMath assessment was administered, Brayden
chronological age was 5 years, 10 months and 7 days. Braydens mother feels that his
areas of strength include problem solving and logical thinking. She stated that he enjoys
activities that incorporate these skills building things, putting puzzles together and
sorting activities. I was also informed that Braydens teacher has told his mother that his
verbal communication skills, specifically his spoken vocabulary, are more advanced
than that of a typical kindergarten student. She stated that Brayden does have an
interest in math related activities but often requires visuals and manipulatives. One
specific area of weakness that his mother discussed is his ability to add numbers of
objects together. This was also noted as an area of weakness in the assessment. She
mentioned that this seems to be a concern with numbers higher than ten. Overall, she
feels that Brayden is interested in learning new things and is eager to ask questions to
develop a better understanding of concepts and ideas.
Based on the assessment and observations, Brayden has difficulty with
comparing numbers to identify greater than and less than. His difficulty with comparing
numbers also affects his ability to add groups of objects in given math problems. For
example, if 7 objects are displayed and he was given 5, he would display difficulties in
understanding to add two more. Brayden does rely on visuals and manipulatives to
complete math problems and would benefit from activities that incorporate these while
teaching him the steps of solving the problem. The lessons for this project are designed
to develop comparing and addition skills. Brayden was selected for this project based
on the fact that he is developing basic comparing and addition skills. After assessing his
current skill level, I felt that Brayden would be able to further develop his skills in these
areas when provided with instruction that focuses on apply problem solving skills.

## Development of Observational/Measurement System

Observational Measures
During the first assessment, I placed each pair of cards that the student
answered correctly in one pile. When the assessment was complete, I recorded the
correct and incorrect responses in a chart. For the assessments of the second lesson, I
recorded the information directly into the chart for each student response. I also
included observational notes on the charts for each assessment. An electronic copy of
the charts and notes are attached below.

Baseline 1
Numbers Given On Cards Correct Incorrect
X
7, 9
6,4 X
9,10 X
6, 3 X
7, 5 X
Emily Stover
ESP 414
4,2 X
1, 3 X
7, 6 X
5,9 X
8,6 X
The student struggled with comparing numbers with a difference of one or two. This
occurred more frequently with higher numbers. During the baseline assessment, the
student did not count the numbers to compare the cards, he was making the
selections based on only looking at the cards. The student made the comment that
it was more difficult to compare the cards that did not have equal numbers of circles
in each line. This demonstrated that he was relying on the visual representation of
the dots and not the number.
Session 1 Assessment
Numbers Given On Cards Correct Incorrect
X
5,9
6,5 X
5,4 X
10, 6 X
9,7 X
6,8 X
8,10 X
6,9 X
5,7 X
7,8 X
After receiving instruction, the student independently counted the numbers to
compare the cards. The only evident difficulty the student displayed was needing to
recount the circles. The incorrect responses in the assessment were due to the
student miscounting the circles.

Baseline 2
Number Adding to Equal Correct Incorrect
2 X
3 X
4 X
5 X
6 X
7 X
Emily Stover
ESP 414
8 X
9 X
10 X
The student was able to correctly add to smaller numbers. When presented with
larger numbers, the student frequently recounted his card as well as the teachers.
He was also selecting numbers that were far from those that would equal the
teachers card. For example, the teacher had a card with eight dots and the student
had a card with four. He selected a card to add ten to the four when the correct
answer would have been another card of four. It should be noted that the addition
and equal sign cards were not included into the baseline because the student was
not able to identify them.

Session 2 Assessment
Number Adding to Equal Correct Incorrect
2 X
3 X
4 X
5 X
6 X
7 X
8 X
9 X
10 X
After participating in instruction, the student was able to count the cards more
efficiently. The student still struggled to add to larger numbers when the verbal
prompts were removed. For the assessment the student did correctly place the
cards between the symbols. In the problems that he missed, he was selecting
numbers that were closer to the correct answer than in the baseline assessment.

Session 3 Assessment
Number Adding to Equal Correct Incorrect
2 X
3 X
4 X
5 X
6 X
7 X
Emily Stover
ESP 414
8 X
9 X
10 X
After the second round of instruction, the student was able to independently count
each card and add up to the teachers card. It was apparent that the student was
taking more time to count and think through the problems than in the previous
assessment. The second lesson focused on the higher numbers which appeared to
help the student select the correct answers.

## Administrative Directions and Time Standards

For the first baseline and session assessments, the student is given ten different
pairs of cards. There is a different number of circles on each card. The student is asked
to select which card has the greater number of circles using the see/point discrete trial
method. The teacher will place the correct and incorrect answered cards into separate
piles. The results will be placed in the designated chart after the assessment time. For
the second baseline and session assessments, the student is to count the number of
circles on a card the teacher is holding. The student is then given a card and three
answer cards are placed in front of the student. The teacher prompts the student to
select the card that has the number of circles he needs to add to his card to equal the
number on the teachers card. This will continue until the student has had the
opportunity to add to numbers two through ten. The same discrete trial method is used
during these assessments. The teacher will use the assigned chart to record the
students correct and incorrect responses. There is no time limit for any of the
assessments.
Specific scoring procedures
For baseline one and session one, the answers are separated into a correct and
incorrect pile during the assessment. After the assessment is complete, the teacher
records the results in a chart by marking correct or incorrect for each number pair given.
The results for baseline two, session two and session three are recorded in a chart.
Correct or incorrect is selected for each number that the student is expected to add to.
Schedule of observation
November 9, 2016 4:00pm- KeyMath Diagnostic Assessment was Administered
December 7, 2016 1:30pm- Baseline 1
December 7, 2016 2:00pm- Session 1
December 9, 2016 5:00pm- Baseline2
December 9, 2016 5:40pm- Session 2
December 10, 2016 1:00pm- Session 3
Graphing Procedures
The baseline and session assessments were recorded using an AB graph. The
graph was created using Microsoft Excel. The session, number of correct responses
and phase changes are all included on the graph. A copy of this graph is attached
below.

## Graphing and Charting

Emily Stover
ESP 414

10

6
Number of Crrect Responses
4

0
Baseline 1 Session 1 Baseline 2 Session 2 Session 3

Session

Intervention Development
Students will analyze data and determine when and what intervention(s) are necessary
to change student performance for the area in which they are collecting data. The final
product will include the following:
Diagnosis of Student Performance
On the KeyMath assessment, Brayden scored the lowest in the area of Data
Analysis and Probability. After reviewing the questions that he had answered incorrectly,
I noticed that they each involved comparing. The assessment focused specifically on
comparing with counting and comparing with adding. Braydens mother also indicated
that this is evident when he attempts to add groups of objects together to get a total
number. I chose to start with comparing numbers of objects to identify which is greater.
His baseline score for this area indicated that he was able to correctly compare most
numbers. After receiving instruction on counting to compare groups of objects, the
student was able to meet the set goal by correctly answering eight of the prompts. We
then moved on to adding though comparing numbers. The student correctly answered
four of the nine given problems during the baseline assessment. He participated in a
lesson that focused on teaching him how to compare two numbers to determine how
many more he needed to add for them to be equal. After the first session, the student
was able to correctly answer seven of the ten given problems. Brayden practiced the
skill in an additional lesson and was able to achieve a score of eight on the third session
assessment. Based on this information, Brayden would be ready to move on to the next
skill. This would include adding two sets numbers through using the same method. He
would then identify which problem has the greater answer.
Evidence Based Practice
For each assessment, the Discrete Trial Method was used. The student was
expected to use the see/point strategy during each trial. When Brayden was presented
with the cards, he was expected to point to the card that represented the correct
answer. This was done for each assessment. During the initial session, the student
received instruction on counting objects in order to compare. He was then presented
with two cards and had to select the card that had the greater number of circles. The
following sessions required the student to add by comparing two cards and determining
Emily Stover
ESP 414
what needed to be added to one card to make them equal. During each lesson, the
student was provided with 10 trials. The results were used to determine what numbers
the student needed further instruction on.
Problem, Data, Goals and Materials
Based on the students KeyMath results, the following objectives were created for the
intervention:
1. When presented with two groups of objects, the student will be able to correctly
identify which group has a higher quantity of objects in 8 of 10 given
opportunities
2. When presented with two groups of objects, the student will add the numbers in
the groups to get a total number, getting 8 out of 9 problems correct.

3. When presented with two addition sentences represented by objects, the student
will identify the greater total, getting 8 out of 10 problems correct.
Brayden was demonstrating difficulty with problems that required him to compare
numbers of objects. This also impacted his ability to add groups of objects together. The
intervention requires cards with 1-10 circles on each and data collection charts.
The following lesson plans reflect the intervention:
LESSON PLAN 1
PART 1
Prerequisite Skills:

## The student is able to count to at least 10.

The student understands the difference between more than, less than and
equal to.
The student is able to verbally state numbers represented by objects (one-to-
one correspondence).
Overall Goal:
When presented with two groups of objects, the student will be able to correctly
identify which group has a higher quantity of objects in 8 of 10 given opportunities.
Pennsylvania State Content Standards/Common Core Standards: (List the
content standards that are covered in your lesson).

## Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.2 :Apply one-to-one correspondence to count the number

of objects.
Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.1: Know number names and write and recite the count
sequence.

and quantities.

## Materials: (What materials are needed to successfully complete the lesson)?

Emily Stover
ESP 414
Cards with different numbers of dots on each
Data recording forms
Number line

## PART 2 (Instructional Sequence)

1. Establish purpose:
The teacher will explain that student will be comparing groups to identify which
one has a larger number of dots. It will also be explained that if the student cannot
identify which group has more just by looking at the two, they will need to count to find
the larger number. The teacher will say what do you do if you cant figure out which
group is bigger just by looking at them? The student will be expected to respond with
count the dots. The teacher will then remind the student that they are looking for the
group that is larger, or has more dots.

## 2. Review prerequisite skills and activate prior knowledge: (List specifically

what you will say and what the students are expected to say).
The teacher will tell the student that counting is an important part of the
lesson. The card with ten dots will be presented and the student will be asked to
count the dots by pointing to each one. The teacher will also ask what it means to
have more of something. The student should respond with having a bigger
number or larger amount.
3. Task analyze the skill being taught:
1. After the student has demonstrated the skill of counting each dot, the
teacher will place two cards down on the table.
2. The teacher will ask the student to point to the card that has more dots.
Modification: (Verbal Prompt) If the student responds incorrectly, the teacher
will provide the verbal prompt what should you do if you cannot tell how
which group has more just by looking. The student is expected to respond
with counting the numbers and providing an answer. If the student is
consistently struggling, the teacher will present numbers with a greater
variation to make the difference more noticeable for the student.
3. After each correct response, the teacher will replace one or both of the
cards.
4. The teacher will mark the numbers used in the set that the student was
able to correctly identify. Incorrect answers will be recorded in the same
manner and reviewed at the end of the lesson.
Modification: If the student is unable to identify the group with more on the
second trial. I number line will line will be provided to help the student
determine which number is larger.
Emily Stover
ESP 414
4. Independent practice:
For independent practice, the student will be given the pile of cards and they
will be placed on the table face down. The student will flip two cards over so
that the dots are showing and select which one has more. Each time the
student correctly answers, they will keep their cards until all of the cards have
been flipped.

## 5. Evaluate: (How will determine if students met your objective?)

The student will be evaluated through discrete trial using the same response
method as the lesson (see/point). The teacher will present 10 pairs of cards to
the student. Each pair that the students gets correct will be placed in one pile and
the incorrect answers in another pile. After the assessment, the teacher will count
the number of pairs that the student answered correctly and place that number
on the assessment chart.
6. Summarize:
The teacher will ask the student what were you doing with the cards today? The
student is expected to respond with, comparing, finding the larger number or
counting. The teacher will further the students answer by saying, you were
comparing two sets of numbers to find out which one had more. The lesson will
be concluded by the teacher asking the student about how they knew which
groups had more and allowing time for the student to explain. Reinforcement will
be given at the end for the students work.
LESSON PLAN 2
PART 1
Prerequisite Skills:

## The student is able to count to at least 10.

The student understands the concept of addition.
The student is able to verbally state numbers represented by objects (one-to-
one correspondence)
Overall Goal:
When presented with two groups of objects, the student will add the numbers in the
groups to get a total number, getting 8 out of 9 problems correct.
Pennsylvania State Content Standards/Common Core Standards: (List the
content standards that are covered in your lesson).
Standard Area - CC.2.1: Numbers and Operations

## Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.2 :Apply one-to-one correspondence to count the

number of objects.
Emily Stover
ESP 414
Standard Area - CC.2.1: Numbers and Operations
Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.1: Know number names and write and recite the count
sequence.
Standard Area - CC.2.2: Algebraic Concepts
Standard - CC.2.2.K.A.1: Extend concepts of putting together and taking
apart to add and subtract within 10.

## Cards with different numbers of dots on each

Data recording forms

## PART 2 (Instructional Sequence)

1. Establish purpose:
The teacher will begin by explaining that the student will be adding two groups of
dots presented on two cards. The teacher will ask the student what it means to add. The
student is expected to respond by saying combine or put together. Then, the teacher will
explain that the student will be adding (or putting together) the two numbers they are
given to equal the number or dots on the card that is being held up by the teacher.

## 2. Review prerequisite skills and activate prior knowledge:

The teacher will begin by having the student count the number of dots on
individual cards and telling the student that counting the dots can help them
when adding. The teacher will also ask the student of what it means to compare
something and remind them to think of the previous lessons. The student will be
told that they are expected to compare their final answers to the teachers card.
3. Task analyze the skill being taught:
1. The teacher will begin by holding up a card and placing a card on the table
in front of the student. Three cards will also be placed in a row above the
individual card the student is given.
2. The teacher will ask the student to count the number of dots on the card
she is holding up. The student will verbally state how many dots are on the
card.
3. The student will then be prompted to count the amount of dots on their
own card. After the student has counted their card, the teacher will ask
them how many more dots they would need to add to their card to match
the number on the teachers card.
4. The student will answer by pointing to one of the three cards in the group
above their original card.
Emily Stover
ESP 414
5. If the student correctly answers, she will place the students cards, the
addition sign, the equal sign, and the teacher card to form a number
sentence.
6. The teacher will read the number sentence aloud pointing to each card as
it is read. The student will repeat this step after the student.
Modification: The student will be given cut out dots that are able to be
combined into one group if they are unable to complete the addition problems
using the cards.
7.After each correct response, the teacher switches the cards for herself and
the student.
8. This sequence will be repeated for the remaining 9 problems.
Modification: If the student has difficulty with remaining on-task for all ten
problems, the number will be reduced or the instruction will be split into
segments.
9. The teacher will use the data collection sheet which divides the addition
sentences into number categories. Correct answers will be marked with a
check mark. Incorrect answers will be marked with an X and any problems
that were not covered will be crossed out.
4. Independent practice:
For independent practice, the student will select their own cards to add. The
cards will be placed face up on the table and the student will select two.
When the student adds the two numbers together, they will find the card that
shows their total and build the number sentence. To further the activity, the
teacher can ask the student to write the number sentence.

## 5. Evaluate: (How will determine if students met your objective?)

The student will be evaluated through discrete trial using the same response
method as the lesson (see/point). The teacher will present 10 pairs of cards to
the student. Each pair that the students gets correct will be placed in one pile and
the incorrect answers in another pile. After the assessment, the teacher will count
the number of pairs that the student answered correctly and place that number
on the assessment chart.
6. Summarize: (Describe what you will say to students to review what they have
learned and link it with the purpose at the beginning of the lesson).
The teacher will ask the student what were you doing with the cards today? The
student is expected to respond with adding the number of dots. The teacher will
further the students answer by saying, you were adding two numbers to find a
total and comparing that total to my example. The lesson will be concluded by
the teacher asking the student what strategy they used to add and allowing time
Emily Stover
ESP 414
for the student to explain. Reinforcement will be given at the end for the students
work.
LESSON PLAN 3
PART 1
Prerequisite Skills:

## The student is able to count to at least 10.

The student understands the concept of addition.
The student is able to verbally state numbers represented by objects (one-to-
one correspondence)
Overall Goal:
When presented with two addition sentences represented by objects, the student will
identify the greater total, getting 8 out of 10 problems correct.
Pennsylvania State Content Standards/Common Core Standards: (List the
content standards that are covered in your lesson).
Standard Area - CC.2.1: Numbers and Operations

## Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.2 :Apply one-to-one correspondence to count the

number of objects.
Standard Area - CC.2.1: Numbers and Operations
Standard - CC.2.1.K.A.1: Know number names and write and recite the count
sequence.
Standard Area - CC.2.2: Algebraic Concepts
Standard - CC.2.2.K.A.1: Extend concepts of putting together and taking
apart to add and subtract within 10.

## Cards with different numbers of dots on each

Data recording forms

## PART 2 (Instructional Sequence)

1. Establish purpose:
The teacher will begin by explaining that the student will use what they learned in
the previous two lessons to compare addition sentences to determine which one has a
greater total. The teacher will tell the student that they will be adding two spate sets of
Emily Stover
ESP 414
cards for this lesson instead of one. The student will be made aware that the activities
for this lesson has multiple steps so it is important to listen to each direction.
2. Review prerequisite skills and activate prior knowledge:
The teacher will begin by having the student count the number of dots on
individual cards and telling the student that counting the dots can help them when
adding. The addition and equals sign will also be reviewed with the student. The teacher
will go on to ask the student of what it means to compare something and remind them to
think of the previous lessons. At this point, the student will be told that they will compare
the answers for each of their number sentences to determine which one is greater.
3. Task analyze the skill being taught:
1. The teacher will begin by placing two cards down in front of the student.
The student will be asked to point what goes in between the numbers and
then what goes at the end.
2. The same step will be repeated for the second set of numbers.
3. Three cards will be placed above the two number sentences for the
student to point to for the answers.
4. The teacher will then tell the student to add the numbers from the first set
and point to the card that depicts the correct number of dots. The same
will be done for the second number sentence.
5. When the student points to the correct answers, they will be asked what
two numbers they selected for the totals and to say the number
sentences.
6. The teacher will then ask the student to compare the totals and determine
which number is greater.
Modification: The student will be given cut out dots that are able to be
combined into one group if they are unable to complete the addition problems
using the cards.
7.After each correct response, the teacher switches the cards for the number
8. This sequence will be repeated for the remaining 9 problems.
Modification: If the student has difficulty with remaining on-task for all ten
problems, the number will be reduced or the instruction will be split into
segments.
4. The teacher will use the data collection sheet which divides the addition
sentences into number categories. Correct answers will be marked with a
check mark. Incorrect answers will be marked with an X and any problems
that were not covered will be crossed out.
4. Independent practice:
For independent practice, the student will select their own cards to add. The
cards will be placed face up on the table and the student will select 6. When
the student adds the two numbers together, they will find the card that shows
Emily Stover
ESP 414
their total and build the number sentences. When they complete this, they will
create piles for the numbers that were greater. To further the activity, the
teacher can ask the student to write the number sentences and circle which
one has the greater number answer.

## 5. Evaluate: (How will determine if students met your objective?)

The student will be evaluated through discrete trial using the same response
method as the previous (think/point). The teacher will present 10 pairs of cards to
the student. Each pair that the students gets correct will be placed in one pile and
the incorrect answers in another pile. After the assessment, the teacher will count
the number of pairs that the student answered correctly and place that number
on the assessment chart.
6. Summarize: (Describe what you will say to students to review what they have
learned and link it with the purpose at the beginning of the lesson).
The teacher will ask the student what were you doing with the cards today? The
student is expected to respond with adding the number of dots. The teacher will
further the students answer by saying, you were adding two numbers to find a
total and comparing that totals. The lesson will be concluded by the teacher
asking the student what strategy they used to add and how they determined what
number was greater. Reinforcement will be given at the end for the students
work.

## Intervention Implementation, Evaluation, and Final Analysis (60 Points)

Students will record the implementation of the intervention and all monitoring of
progress. Students will include an analysis of the students performance. Students will
include a graphic display of the student performance for each goal specified above.
Students should also keep anecdotal notes (a journal) of intervention sessions. A
discussion of modifications of the intervention must also be included. The final product
will include the following:
Graphic Display of Student Performance Generated with Microsoft Excel
Emily Stover
ESP 414

10

6
Number of Crrect Responses
4

0
Baseline 1 Session 1 Baseline 2 Session 2 Session 3

Session

## Summary of Student Achievement

In the initial assessment of Braydens ability to compare numbers, he incorrectly
answered four of the ten given prompts. Most of the errors occurred when comparing
numbers with a difference of one or two. The errors were also mostly with higher
numbers. He incorrectly answered two of the prompts during the session one
assessment which meant that he had reached the goal set by the objective. For the
second session, the student was asked to compare the number of circles on a card held
by the teacher and a card he was given. He then had to determine what number circles
needed to be added to his card to equal the amount on the teachers. Brayden
instruction on how to compare the cards in order to count up and find the correct
answer. After one session, his score increased by three. After a final instructional
session, he answered only one problem incorrectly.
Analysis of Student Performance
Observations were conducted during the assessments to reveal areas that may
have affected the students performance. During the first baseline assessment, the
student was not counting to determine which number was greater. He was simply
looking at the cards and selecting an answer. It was noted during the assessment that
the student stated that it was harder to compare the cards when the circles were not in
equal lines which may support that the support that he was relying on the visual
representations. After the first session, the student counted he number of circles on the
card to determine which on had the greater number. The only difficulty that he displayed
was needing to recount cards with a larger number of circles. The incorrect responses
in the session one assessment were due to Brayden miscounting the circles. During the
second baseline assessment the student displayed difficulty adding numbers greater
than 5. He was selecting answers that were far from those that would have correctly
added to the expected number. It is believed that the student was able to correctly
answer the problems involving smaller numbers because there was an obvious
difference in the number of circles. After the instructional session, the student was able
to answer all but 2 of the problems. He began counting up to find the correct answers.
He also became more efficient in counting the numbers on the cards. After one final
Emily Stover
ESP 414
session, the student met the mastery criteria. He was noticeably taking more time to
count and think about the problem than in the previous assessments.
Recommendations
Based on Braydens mastery of the previous skills, the following goals and
objectives were designed to continue to develop his skills. These goals and objectives
will also help to develop skills that Brayden needs for future problem solving.
When presented with two addition sentences represented by objects, the student
will identify the greater total, getting 8 out of 10 problems correct.
o When given two addition problems with numbers between one and five,
the student will compare the answers to determine which is greater,
getting at least 8 of 10 correct.
o When given two addition problems with numbers between six and ten, the
student will compare the answers to determine which is greater, getting at
least 8 of 10 correct.
o When given two addition problems with no answer provided, the student
will compare the numbers in the problem to determine which problem
would have the higher answer, getting 8 of 10 correct.
When presented with a written addition problem, the student will add numbers
between one and ten, getting 8 out of 10 correct.
o Given a written addition problem, the student will use manipulatives to add
numbers between one and five, getting 8 of 10 correct.
o Given a written addition problem, the student will use manipulatives to add
numbers between six and ten, getting 8 of 10 correct.
o Given a written number sentence, the student will correctly add numbers
between one and five without manipulatives, getting 8 of 10 correct.
o Given a written number sentence, the student will correctly add numbers
between six and ten without manipulatives, getting 8 of 10 correct.
These goals and objectives were designed to further develop the students
comparing and addition skills. The first goal incorporates the skills that were learned
in the first and second sessions of the original intervention. This will help the student
to use both of his acquired skills to perform multistep problems. The objectives start
with using the same method as the original intervention and the third removes the
answer from the prompt. This is meant to encourage the student to further analyze
the given problem. The second goal and its corresponding objectives are focused on
developing the students ability to add based on written addition problems. The
student will begin by using manipulatives and once the skill is mastered, the
manipulatives will be removed. This will help the student generalize the skill of
addition by fading the use of manipulatives and learning steps that are needed in
future math skills. The objectives can be taught using the same Discrete Trial
method as the previous sessions.
Emily Stover
ESP 414