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solution to exam3

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T 2T T v

16.2. (a) v v 2v v 280 cm/s (b) v v 100 cm/s

4 2

T 4m

(c) v 2v v cm/s (d) so the speed is unchanged: v 200 cm/s.

/4 4L

16.6. 1 2 0 f1 f0 . The frequency is unchanged because that is the frequency of the driving force that moves

successive oscillators. But v f , so if the speed is doubled, so is the wavelength.

16.22. Solve: Two pulses of sound are detected because one pulse travels through the metal to the microphone while the other

travels through the air to the microphone. The time interval for the sound pulse traveling through the air is

x 400 m

tair 0 01166 s 11 66 ms

vair 343 m/s

Sound travels faster through solids than gases, so the pulse traveling through the metal will reach the microphone before the

pulse traveling through the air. Because the pulses are separated in time by 9.00 ms, the pulse traveling through the metal takes

tmetal 2.66 ms to travel the 4.00 m to the microphone. Thus, the speed of sound in the metal is

x 400 m

vmetal 1504 m/s 1500 m/s

tmetal 000266 s

16.25. Solve: (a) The speed of light in a material is given by Equation 16.37:

c c

n vmat

vmat n

The refractive index is

vac solid 420 nm

n vsolid c (30 108 m/s) 188 108 m/s

mat vac 670 nm

(b) The frequency is

vsolid 188 108 m/s

f 448 1014 Hz

solid 420 nm

16.41. Model: Your friends frequency is altered by the Doppler effect. The frequency of your friends note increases as

he races toward you (moving source and a stationary observer). The frequency of your note for your approaching friend is

also higher (stationary source and a moving observer).

Solve: (a) The frequency of your friends note as heard by you is

f0 400 Hz

f 432 Hz

vS 250 m/s

1 1

v 340 m/s

(b) The frequency heard by your friend of your note is

v 250 m/s

f f0 1 0 (400 Hz) 1 429 Hz

v 340 m/s

16.44. Model: The mother hawks frequency is altered by the Doppler effect.

Solve: The frequency is f as the hawk approaches you is

f0 800 Hz

f 900 Hz vS 381 m/s

1 vS /v vS

1

343 m/s

Assess: The mother hawks speed of 38.1 m/s 80 mph is reasonable.

If x is a point just to the right of the origin and is very small, the angle (2 x / 0 ) is just slightly bigger than the angle

0 Now sin31 sin30, but sin151 sin150, so the value 0 16 rad is the phase constant for which the

displacement increases as x increases.

(c) The equation for a sinusoidal traveling wave can be written as

2 x x

D( x, t ) Asin 2 ft 0 A sin 2 ft 0

Substituting in the values found above,

x

D( x,t ) (10 mm)sin 2 (50 s 1 )t

2 0 m 6

Solve: While the tension TS is the same in both the strings, the wave speeds in the two strings are not. We have

TS TS

v1 and v2 v12 1 v22 2 TS

1 2

Because v1 L1 /t1 and v2 L2 /t2 , and because the pulses are to reach the ends of the string simultaneously, the above

equation can be simplified to

L12 1 L22 2 L1 2 40 g/m

2 L1 2 L2

t 2

t2 L2 1 20 g/m

Since L1 L2 4 m,

16.51. Solve: The difference in the arrival times for the P and S waves is

d d 1 1

t tS tP 120 s d d 1 23 10 m 1230 km

6

vS vP 4500 m/s 8000 m/s

Assess: d is approximately one-fifth of the radius of the earth and is reasonable.

17.1. (a) When a string is fixed at both ends the number of antinodes is the mode (m-value) of the standing wave, so m 4.

(b) When the frequency is doubled the wavelength is halved. This halving of the wavelength will increase the number of

antinodes to eight.

17.6. The length of the flute is the same regardless of the gas it is filled with; consequently, the fundamental wavelength is

the same too. But because helium atoms have a smaller atomic mass than air molecules, helium atoms move faster on average

at the same temperature. So the speed of sound is greater in helium than in air at the same temperature. In v f if is

unchanged but v is increased, then f must increase also; this is perceived as a higher pitch. The same explanation applies to

the voices of people who have inhaled a breath of helium.

17.7. Use v Ts / and v f Assume the linear mass density is the same in all parts of this question. Use primes for new

T v2 ( f )2 f 2 (2 f0 )2

quantities. (a) 4 Changing the tension is how one tunes a guitar; it would be difficult

T0 v02 ( f0 )2 f02 f02

to increase the tension by a factor of 4 without breaking the string, so only small changes are made this way.

L v /f v /(2 f0 ) 1

(b) so the length must be decreased by a factor of 2. Guitar players effectively decrease the

L0 0 v /f0 v /(f0 ) 2

length by putting their fingers down on the string at various frets to create a node there.

17.5. Model: Reflections at the string boundaries cause a standing wave on the string.

Solve: The figure indicates 5/2 wavelengths on the string. Hence 52 (50 cm) 0 cm 020 m Thus

17.13. Model: The microwave forms a standing wave between the two reflectors.

Solve: (a) There are reflectors at both ends, so the electromagnetic standing wave acts just like the standing wave on a string

that is tied at both ends. The frequencies of the standing waves are

vlight c 30 108 m/s

fm m m m m(15 109 Hz) 15m GHz

2L 2L 2(010 m)

where we have used the fact that electromagnetic waves of all frequencies travel at the speed of light c. The generator can

produce standing waves at any frequency between 10 GHz and 20 GHz. These are

m f m (GHz)

7 10.5

8 12.0

9 13.5

10 15.0

11 16.5

12 18.0

13 19.5

17.21. Model: In a rod in which a longitudinal standing wave can be created, the standing wave is equivalent to a sound

standing wave in an open-open tube. Both ends of the rod are antinodes, and the rod is vibrating in the fundamental mode.

Solve: Since the rod is in the fundamental mode, 1 2L 2(2.0 m) 4.0 m. Using the speed of sound in aluminum, the

frequency is

vAl 6420 m/s

f1 1605 Hz 16 kHz

1 40 m

17.24. Visualize: Examine just one side of the headphones, since it works the same on both sides.

Solve: To produce maximum destructive interference the delayed wave needs to be rad out of phase with the incoming

wave; this corresponds to of a period.

T 1 1

t 0.45 ms

2 2f 2(110 Hz)

Assess: Since v does not appear the answer is independent of it; we are glad noise-canceling headphones do not need to be

readjusted every time the temperature (and therefore the speed) changes. We also did not need to know the distance (1.8 m)

to the buzzing sound. 4.5 ms is doable with modern electronics.

17.27. Solve: (a) The circular wave fronts emitted by the two sources show that the two sources are in phase because the

wave fronts of each source have moved the same distance from their sources.

(b) Let us label the top source as 1 and the bottom source as 2. Since the sources are in phase, 0 0 rad. For the point

P, r1 3 and r2 4. Thus, r r2 r1 4 3 . The phase difference is

2r 2 ( )

2

This corresponds to constructive interference.

For the point Q, r1 72 and r2 2. The phase difference is

2r

2 32 3

This corresponds to destructive interference.

For the point R, r1 52 and r2 72 . The phase difference is

2 ( )

2

This corresponds to constructive interference.

r1 r2 r C/D

P 3 C

Q 7

2

2 3

2

D

R 5

2

7

2

C

17.34. Solve: The beat frequency is the difference of the two gong frequencies: 155 Hz 151 Hz = 4.0 Hz. The number

of beats heard in 2.5 s is (4.0 Hz)(2.5 s) (4.0 beats/s)(2.5 s) 10 beats.

Assess: This would give a vibrating quality to the music.

17.45. Model: The wave on a stretched string with both ends fixed is a standing wave.

Solve: Use the fact that the wave speed v is v T / and apply Equation 17.14 to express both the fundamental frequency

and the second-harmonic frequency:

1 T0 2 T0

f1 , f2

2L 2L

For the second-harmonic frequency to be the same as the fundamental, we must have f1 f 2 , which gives

1 T0 2 T0 T0

T0

2L 2L 4

Thus, the tension must be one-fourth its original value.

Assess: In the second case, the frequency of the fundamental decreased, which means the tension should have decreased,

just as we found.

17.53. Model: Particles of the medium at the nodes of a standing wave have zero displacement.

Solve: The cork dust settles at the nodes of the sound wave where there is no motion of the air molecules. The separation

between the centers of two adjacent piles is 12 . Thus,

123 cm

820 cm

3 2

Because the piston is driven at a frequency of 400 Hz, the speed of the sound wave in oxygen is

v f (400 Hz)(0820 m) 328 m/s

Assess: A speed of 328 m/s in oxygen is close to the speed of sound in air, which is 343 m/s at 20C.

33.4. (a) The equation for gratings does not contain the number of slits, so increasing the number of slits cant affect the

angles at which the bright fringes appear as long as d is the same. So the number of fringes on the screen stays the same. (b)

The number of slits does not appear in the equation for the fringe spacing, so the spacing stays the same. (c) Decreases; the

fringes become narrower. (d) The equation for intensity does contain the number of slits, so each fringe becomes brighter:

I max N 2 I1

122 122

33.6. (a) The width increases because 1 . (b) The width decreases because 1 . (c) Almost uniformly

D D

gray with no minima.

33.9. Moving a mirror by 200 nm increases or decreases the path length by 400 nm. Since one mirror is moved in and the

other out each increases the path length difference by 400 nm. The total is a path length difference of 800 nm, so the spot

will still be bright.

33.1. Model: Two closely spaced slits produce a double-slit interference pattern.

Visualize: The interference pattern looks like the photograph of Figure 33.4(b).

Solve: The bright fringes are located at positions given by Equation 33.4, d sin m m. For the m 3 bright orange fringe,

the interference condition is d sin 3 3(600 109 m). For the m 4 bright fringe the condition is d sin 4 4 Because the

position of the fringes is the same,

d sin 3 d sin 4 4 3(600 109 m) 34 (600 109 m) 450 nm

33.7. Model: Two closely spaced slits produce a double-slit interference pattern.

Visualize: The interference pattern looks like the photograph of Figure 33.4(b).

Solve: The fringe spacing is

L L (589 109 m)(150 102 m)

y d 022 mm

d y 40 103 m

33.12. Model: A diffraction grating produces a series of constructive-interference fringes at values of m that are

determined by Equation 33.15.

Solve: For the m 3 maximum of the red light and the m 5 maximum of the unknown wavelength, Equation 33.15 gives

d sin 3 3(660 109 m)d sin 5 5 unknown

The m 5 fringe and the m 3 fringe have the same angular positions. This means 5 3. Dividing the two equations,

Visualize: The intensity pattern for single-slit diffraction will look like Figure 33.15.

Solve: The minima occur at positions

L

yp p

a

2 L 1 L L L (633 109 m)(15 m)

So y y2 y1 a 2 0 104 m 0 20 mm

a a a y 000475 m

33.25. Model: Light passing through a circular aperture leads to a diffraction pattern that has a circular central maximum

surrounded by a series of secondary bright fringes.

Solve: The width of the central maximum for a circular aperture of diameter D is

244 L (244)(500 109 m)(2 0 m)

w 4.9 mm

D 050 103 m

2

causing the path-length

difference r to increase by .

Visualize: Please refer to the interferometer in Figure 33.24.

Solve: From Equation 33.30, the number of fringe shifts is

2L2 2(100 102 m)

m 30,467

65645 109 m

33.32. Model: An interferometer produces a new maximum each time L2 increases by 1 causing the path-length

2

difference r to increase by .

Visualize: Please refer to the interferometer in Figure 33.24.

Solve: For sodium light of the longer wavelength (1 ) and of the shorter wavelength ( 2 ),

1 2

L m L (m 1)

2 2

We want the same path difference 2(L2 L1) to correspond to one extra wavelength for the sodium light of shorter

wavelength (2 ). Thus, we combine the two equations to obtain:

1 2 2 5890 nm

m (m 1) m(1 2 ) 2 m 981 67 982

2 2 1 2 5896 nm 5890 nm

Thus, the distance by which M 2 is to be moved is

1 5896 nm

L m 982 0 2895 mm

2 2

33.33. Model: Two closely spaced slits produce a double-slit interference pattern with the intensity graph looking like

Figure 33.4(b). The intensity pattern due to a single-slit diffraction looks like Figure 33.15. Both the spectra consist of a

central maximum flanked by a series of secondary maxima and dark fringes.

Solve: (a) The light intensity shown in Figure P33.33 corresponds to a double-slit aperture. This is because the fringes are

equally spaced and the decrease in intensity with increasing fringe order occurs slowly.

(b) From Figure P33.33, the fringe spacing is y 10 cm 10 102 m Therefore,

L L (600 109 m)(25 m)

y d 0 15 mm

d y 0010 m

33.34. Model: Two closely spaced slits produce a double-slit interference pattern with the intensity graph looking like

Figure 33.4(b). The intensity pattern due to a single-slit diffraction looks like Figure 33.15. Both the spectra consist of a

central maximum flanked by a series of secondary maxima and dark fringes.

Solve: (a) The light intensity shown in Figure P33.34 corresponds to a single-slit aperture. This is because the central

maximum is twice the width and much brighter than the secondary maximum.

(b) From Figure P33.34, the separation between the central maximum and the first minimum is y1 1.0 cm 1.0 102 m.

Therefore, using the small-angle approximation, Equation 33.21 gives the condition for the dark minimum:

pL L (25 m)(600 109 m)

yp a 0 15 mm

d y1 10 102 m

33.66. Model: Two closely spaced slits produce a double-slit interference pattern.

Visualize:

Solve: (a) The m 1 bright fringes are separated from the m 0 central maximum by

L (600 109 m)(10 m)

y 00030 m 30 mm

d 00002 m

15

(b) The lights frequency is f c / 5.00 1014 Hz. Thus, the period is T 1/f 2.00 10 s. A delay of

5.0 1016 s 0.50 1015 s is 1 T.

4

(c) The wave passing through the glass is delayed by 1 of a cycle. Consequently, the two waves are not in phase as they

4

emerge from the slits. The slits are the sources of the waves, so there is now a phase difference 0 between the two

sources. A delay of a full cycle (t T ) would have no effect at all on the interference because it corresponds to a phase

difference 0 2 rad Thus a delay of 1

4

of a cycle introduces a phase difference 0 1 (2 ) 1

4 2

rad

(d) The texts analysis of the double-slit interference experiment assumed that the waves emerging from the two slits were

in phase, with 0 0 rad. Thus, there is a central maximum at a point on the screen exactly halfway between the two slits,

where 0 rad and r 0 m. Now that there is a phase difference between the sources, the central maximumstill

defined as the point of constructive interference where 0 radwill shift to one side. The wave leaving the slit with

the glass was delayed by 1 of a period. If it travels a shorter distance to the screen, taking 1 of a period less than the wave

4 4

coming from the other slit, it will make up for the previous delay and the two waves will arrive in phase for constructive

interference. Thus, the central maximum will shift toward the slit with the glass. How far? A phase difference 0 2

would shift the fringe pattern by y 3.0 mm, making the central maximum fall exactly where the m 1 bright fringe had

been previously. This is the point where r (1) , exactly compensating for a phase shift of 2 at the slits. Thus, a phase

shift of 0 12 14 (2 ) will shift the fringe pattern by 14 (3 mm) 0.75 mm. The net effect of placing the glass in the slit

is that the central maximum (and the entire fringe pattern) will shift 0.75 mm toward the slit with the glass.

34.4. The beam bends away from the normal as it goes from medium 2 to medium 1, so n1 n2.

34.7. You will still see the entire image, but it will be dimmer as less light passes through the lens.

34.8. The image is real, so the object distance is greater than f. Solve the thin lens equation for s.

sf

s

s f

If s 2 f , then s 2 f and the image will be the same size as the object. If s 2 f , then the image will be smaller than

the object, and this is not the case, so s must be less than 2f. Therefore s is between f and 2f.

34.13. Model: Use the ray model of light. The sun is a point source of light.

Visualize:

A ray that arrives at the diver 50 above horizontal refracted into the water at water 40.

Solve: Using Snells law at the water-air boundary

nwater 1.33

nair sin air nwater sin water sin air sin water sin 40 air 58.7

nair 1.0

Thus the height above the horizon is 90 air 31.3 31. Because the sun is far away from the fisherman (and the

diver), the fisherman will see the sun at the same angle of 31 above the horizon.

Visualize: Note the right triangle with side d and hypotenuse R.

n2 1.0 1

sin c

n1 n n

But we also have from the right triangle

opp d

sin c

hyp R

Set the two expressions for sin c equal to each other and solve for d.

1 d R

d

n R n

Assess: We expect d to scale with R and be inversely proportional to n.

34.17. Model: Represent the can as a point source and use the ray model of light.

Visualize:

Paraxial rays from the can refract into the water and enter into the fishs eye.

Solve: The object distance from the edge of the aquarium is s. From the water side, the can appears to be at an image

distance s 30 cm. Using Equation 34.13,

n2 n 1.33 30 cm

s s water s s s 23 cm

n1 nair 1.0 133

Solve:

The figure shows the ray-tracing diagram using the steps of Tactics Box 34.2. You can see from the diagram that the image is

in the plane where the three special rays converge. The image is located at s 6 cm to the right of the converging lens, and is

inverted.

Solve: If the object is on the left, then the first surface has R1 24 cm (convex toward the object) and the second surface

has R2 40 cm (concave toward the object). The index of refraction of glass is n 1.50, so the lens makers equation

gives

1 1 1 1 1

(n 1) (150 1) f 30 cm

f 1

R R2 24 cm 40 cm

Assess: This is a converging lens since f 0.

Solve: If the object is on the left, then the first surface has R1 40 cm (concave toward the object) and the second surface

has R2 40 cm (convex toward the object). The index of refraction of glass is 1.50, so the lens makers equation gives

1 1 1 1 1 1

(n 1) (1.50 1) (0 50) f 40 cm

f R1 R2 40 cm 40 cm 20 cm

34.35. Model: Use ray tracing to locate the image. Assume that the converging lens is a thin lens.

Solve: (a)

The figure shows the ray-tracing diagram made using the steps of Tactics Box 34.2. The three special rays after refracting

do not converge. Instead the rays appear to come from a point that is 60 cm on the same side of the lens as the object, so s

60 cm. The image is upright and has a height of 8.0 cm.

(b) Using the thin-lens formula,

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

s 60 cm

s s f 15 cm s 20 cm s 60 cm

The image height is obtained from

s 60 cm

m 4.0

s 15 cm

Thus, the image is 4.0 times larger than the object or h m h 4.0h 4.0(2.0 cm) 8.0 cm. The image is upright. These

values agree with those obtained in part (a).

34.37. Model: Use ray tracing to locate the image. Assume the diverging lens is a thin lens.

Solve: (a)

The figure shows the ray-tracing diagram made using the steps of Tactics Box 34.3. After refraction, the three special rays

do not converge. The rays, on the other hand, appear to originate from a point that is 8.5 cm on the same side of the lens as

the object. So s 8.4 cm. The image is upright and has a height of 1.1 cm.

(b) Using the thin-lens formula, we find

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 60

s cm 8.6 cm

s s f 15 cm s 20 cm s 60 cm 7

The image height is obtained from

s (60/7 cm) 4

m 0.57

s 15 cm 7

Thus, the image is 0.57 times larger than the object, or h m h (0.57)(2.0 cm) 1.1 cm. The image is upright because

m is positive. These values agree, within measurement accuracy, with those obtained in part (a).

Assess: When the object is outside the focal length we get an inverted image.

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