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MPJWE2AI

Major Project
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Final Report
2009

Project Title: Life-Cycle Comparison of Hybrid and Conventional Vehicles

Date: 05/10/2009

Project Team:

Identifier: MPJWE2AI

Student workers: Asako Helene Bliek 258004


Wai-Ting Kang 206829
Jonathan Glenn Lau 230437
Jaewook Yang 243741

Academic supervisor: John Weir

Assisting supervisor: Ken Brown

Version: No. 10, 04/10/2009

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Contents

1. Executive Summary 4
2. Introduction 5
3. Literature Review 6
3.1. Life Cycle Assessment 6
3.2. Development of Automotive LCA 6
3.3. Overview of observed LCAs 7
4. Life Cycle Assessment Methodology 8
4.1. Purpose of this Study 8
4.2. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment 8
4.3. Project Scope 9
4.3.1. Product System 9
4.3.2. Functional Unit 10
4.3.3. System Boundaries 10
4.3.4. Data Requirements 10
4.3.5. Assumptions 11
4.4. Limitations 11
5. Vehicle Models and Components 12
5.1. Hybrid Vehicle 12
5.1.1. Background 12
5.1.2. Hybrid Vehicle Model Selection Toyota Prius 2nd Generation 12
5.2. Conventional Vehicle 13
5.2.1. Background 13
5.2.2. Conventional Vehicle Model Selection Toyota Camry 7th Generation 13
5.3. Differential Components 14
5.3.1. GREET model 14
5.3.2. Assumptions 15
5.3.3. Components of Toyota Prius 16
5.3.4. Components of Toyota Camry 16
6. Life Cycle Phases 17
6.1. Manufacturing Phase 17
6.1.1. Embodied Energy Coefficients 17
6.1.2. Other Considerations 18
6.2. Use Phase 18
6.2.1. Vehicle Life 18
6.2.2. Fuel Consumption Drive Cycle, Calorific Values 19
6.2.3. Maintenance/Replacement of Components 19
6.3. Vehicle End-of-Life 20
6.4. Energy Equation 20
6.4.1. Stages for Virgin Material Components 20
6.5. Equations for Energy 21
6.5.1. Manufacturing 21
6.5.2. Maintenance 21
6.5.3. Recycling 21
7. Inventory Analysis 22
7.1. Data Collection Methodology 22
7.2. Manufacturing Phase 23
7.2.1. Assumptions and Estimations 23
7.3. Use Stage 24

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7.3.1. Vehicle Life 24


7.3.2. Fuel Consumption 24
7.3.3. Maintenance 25
7.4. End-of-Life Vehicle Phase 26
7.4.1. Recycling percentage from CES 26
7.4.2. 75% Case 26
7.4.3. 0% and 100% Cases 26
8. Results and Interpretation 27
8.1. Main Results 27
8.1.1. Manufacturing Phase 27
8.1.2. Use Phase 27
8.1.3. End of Life 28
8.1.4. Overall 28
8.2. Manufacturing Phase Comparison 30
8.3. Use Phase Comparison 32
8.4. End-of-Life Phase Comparison 35
8.5. Influence of the Fuel Consumption 37
8.6. Influence of the Drive Cycle 38
8.7. Influence of the Vehicle Life 38
8.8. Influence of the Recycling Percentage 38
8.9. Influence of the use of Rare Metals 39
8.10. Influence of the use of Aluminium 39
8.11. Influence of the Hybrid Battery Replacements 40
8.12. Embodied Energy Coefficients 40
8.13. Fuel Calorific Value 40
9. Conclusions and Recommendations 41

References 42

Appendix A. Supplementary Data - Results and Interpretation 45


Appendix B. Input Data 59
Appendix C. Full Inventory Table Error! Bookmark not defined.
Appendix D. Summary of Results 61
Appendix E. Toyota Prius and Toyota Camry 63
Appendix F. Life Cycle Assessment 65
Appendix G. LCA Task Descriptors 67
Appendix H. LCA Literature Review 71
Appendix I. Vehicle Testing Standards 76
Appendix J. List of Terms and Abbreviations 78
Appendix K. Inventory Analysis Assumptions 78
Appendix M. Supplementary Vehicle Information 81
Appendix N. Scope of Works (17/02/2009) 92
Appendix O. Extracts from Progress Report 1 and 2 102

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1. Executive Summary
Due to the changing global climate, the international community poses a challenge on its
manufacturing and transport industries to reduce their energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In
response to this, automotive companies are continually working towards decreasing their
environmental impact by designing and producing more fuel-efficient green cars. Utilising an
electric propulsion system powered by batteries to consume less fuel than their conventional
counterparts, hybrid vehicles are amongst the most popular green cars in the market.

Despite the potential environmental benefits of hybrid vehicles, there has been some speculation
that the high market price for hybrid cars indicates higher embodied energy in vehicle manufacture.
Although the advantages of increased fuel efficiency during the use phase, that is, the drive cycle,
are qualitatively obvious, there is a cause for concern that the environmental impacts associated
with the production and disposal phase would negate the benefits from hybrid technology overall.

In response to this issue, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of hybrid and conventional
vehicles was conducted to evaluate and compare the energy consumption of the differential
components between the two vehicle types. The full hybrid, Toyota Prius II and the conventional
vehicle, Toyota Camry were investigated and used for comparison in this study.

The energy consumed in each of the phases in the vehicle cycle was evaluated: the manufacturing,
use and end-of-life phases.

The results suggest that hybrid vehicles are a safe solution to societys growing sustainability
concerns since the Prius total energy consumption over its whole life cycle is on average 50% less
than the Camry irrespective of the drive cycle and vehicle life. This is due to the Prius significantly
lower fuel consumption in the use phase that largely determines the overall conclusion.

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2. Introduction
Project Title: Comparative Life-cycle Energy Assessment of Hybrid and Conventional Vehicles

Automobiles are one of the primary sources of urban air pollution, contributing harmful greenhouse
gases that consequently damage the ozone layer and cause climate change1. As part of the
Australian governments solution to the problem, policies and regulations are being imposed on car
manufacturers to meet emission standards and alleviate the effect on the environment, encouraging
them to develop and produce more environmentally friendly cars with low fuel consumption. Due
to the increasing environmental awareness among consumers, there has been a shift in the market
demand for "green" cars.

Utilising an electric propulsion system powered by batteries to consume less fuel than their
conventional (diesel or petrol) counterparts, hybrid vehicles are amongst the most popular green
cars in the market. As one of the leaders in hybrid technology, Toyota Motor Corporation in Japan
has successfully established the 2nd generation Prius as the most popular ultra low-emission Hybrid
Electric Vehicle (HEV) today. By combining a smaller yet highly efficient Atkinson-cycle gasoline
engine with an electric motor, generator, and battery in its Toyota Hybrid System powertrain, the
Prius is able to achieve better fuel economy and less CO2 emissions than most conventional cars.

While the market for hybrids is growing, the primary drawback is the vehicles high retail price.
The steep price difference in vehicles with hybrid technology suggests that they are expensive to
manufacture and thus, requires more energy to produce compared to conventional cars. There is
also a major concern that the batteries used in hybrid vehicles are heavy and harmful to the
environment. The question is, are we really saving energy and decreasing the environmental impact
by driving hybrid cars?

This project aims to address this concern and show evidence to validate the environmental claims
made by hybrid vehicle manufacturers. Using the well established methods of Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA), this project will examine the environmental impacts associated with hybrid
vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. The comparative approach of LCA will estimate the
energy consumption of the differentiating components between these vehicle types during its
manufacturing, user and end-of-life phases.

1 According to the EPA, in Melbourne emissions from motor vehicles account for the following proportions of pollutants in the air:
80% carbon monoxide; 60% nitrogen oxide; 40% volatile organic compounds; 30% particulate matter.

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3. Literature Review

3.1. Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a globally established methodology that still continues to develop
today with the growth of environmental awareness and greater demand to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. In ISO 14040 LCA is defined as the compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs
and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. LCA is a
tool to analyse the environmental impacts at all stages of a products life cycle from raw material
acquisition through production, use, end-of-life treatment, recycling and final disposal.

The LCA framework set in the ISO divides the method into four phases:

1. Goal and Scope Definition


This phase outlines the overall objects for the products under assessment. System
boundaries and environmental parameters are established.

2. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI)


Extensive data collection is carried out. The inputs and outputs involving the product are
carefully measured and quantified.

3. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA)


Thorough analysis is performed including categorisation and classification of the
inventory data. The data is then aggregated, normalised and weighted.

4. Interpretation
The results of an LCI or LCIA are summarised and discussed as a basis for conclusions,
recommendations and decision-making in accordance with the goal and scope definition.

In order to aid the project the most current ISO standards 14040 (LCA Principles and Framework)
and 14044 (LCA Requirements and Guidelines) have been extensively studied. The project will
aim to be guided and operate under these widely accepted standards. Also acknowledged are other
internationally recognised development of LCA by the Centre of Environmental Science Leiden
University, often referred to as the CML Guide to LCA, as well as the Society of Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), the first international organisation to start developing LCA.
Most guides for LCA refer to the methods that these key organisations implement.

3.2. Development of Automotive LCA

The principles, procedures and methods of LCA described by the ISO Environmental Management
Standards only act as a framework on how to conduct a Life Cycle Assessment. Despite the
development of the methodology, there is still no one unique way to conduct a LCA for a given
situation. For the case of an automobile, the level of sophistication and complexity of the product
poses many challenges in LCA implementation. In order to gain a better understanding of how to
approach the method, journals and studies in literature have been reviewed. The literature ranges
from development of LCA specifically in the automotive industry to observing direct applications
of LCA to vehicle related studies. Further details of the Literature Review can be viewed in the
Appendix G.

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Automotive Life Cycle Assessment: Overview, Metrics, and Examples (Ford Motor Company, 1998)

Presents a modified approach called MLCA applied to automotive studies. The MLCA method
simplifies the life cycle inventory output and the objective is to first classify and reduce a large
amount of information to a minimal set of categories, then finding an environmental metric for each
category.

Specific Allocation Rules for Automotive LCAs (Peugeot Citron, 1999)

Focus on development of inventory step in LCA for the automotive sector with specific attention to
the use and end of life vehicle phases. As there are no definitive conclusions on how LCAs are
applied to the automotive industry, this paper studies allocation rules.

3.3. Overview of observed LCAs

Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications
for Policy (Samaras, Meisterling, 2008)

Potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector by using plug-in hybrid
vehicles (PHEV) is investigated as these reductions are dependent on low-carbon electricity
sources. Key areas of the study include assessment of the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and
the associated emissions from the battery component. The investigation of electricity generation
infrastructure and alternatives play a major role in this study.

Application of Life Cycle Assessment for the Environmental Certificate of the Mercedes-Benz S-
Class (Mercedes Car Group, 2006)

Design for Environment (DfE) utilises LCA as an important tool in integrating environmental
protection as a corporate objective at the Mercedes Car Group. Design for environment is a key
element to improve the environmental performance of its products. LCA is applied in the
development of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class vehicle. A new approach has been developed to
integrate recycling and dismantling assessment into software and also increase the efficiency of data
collection and modelling of the system.

Life Cycle Assessment of a Multi-Material Car Component (International Journal for LCA, 2007)

LCA methodology is used to assist in integrating environmental considerations in decisions on


product design and development of a vehicle. In this paper, a new (modified) and current
component was comparatively assessed to verify whether the new component offers a lower
environmental load. The multi-material component in question is part of an automotive brake
system and has four sub-components: a spring, a washer, a poppet and a poppet-retainer.

Life Cycle Assessment and Design Experience from Volvo Car Corporation (Volvo Car
Corporation, 1998)

In order to illustrate how Volvo uses LCA at the design phase, a case study compares the
environmental performance of three different material production options for one car component.
As an example of one of the earlier applications of LCA in the automotive industry, this paper
provides an overview of how the LCA philosophy is applied in a simple comparative case.

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4. Life Cycle Assessment Methodology


A general outline of the LCA was introduced earlier in the Literature Review. This section will
outline the method of implementation of the LCA for the study. Further information regarding the
breakdown of specific tasks in each LCA phase is outlined in Appendix E and F.

4.1. Purpose of this Study

The aim of this project is to present a Life Cycle Assessment that quantifies and compares the
environmental effects associated with hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in terms of their
total energy consumption.

Although literature has cited the potential environmental benefits of hybrid vehicle technology,
there has been some speculation that the high market price for hybrid cars indicates higher
embodied energy in vehicle manufacture. Within the use phase, that is, the consumer driving life,
the advantages of increased fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions is qualitatively
obvious. However, there is a cause for concern that the environmental impacts associated with the
production and disposal phase would negate the benefits from hybrid technology overall.

In order to validly compare hybrid and conventional technologies, an assessment of the different
systems over their entire life cycle would provide a more holistic view. Therefore, the use of LCA
with its encompassing approach appears to be the most appropriate instrument to address the topic
of this case study.

An important objective in developing and describing the LCA methodology used in this study is to
make the analysis as transparent as possible. This is to ensure that the reader can understand and
follow the steps involved, as well as leave an opportunity for other analysts to implement and
propose alternative interpretations, given our data.

The main purpose of this paper is to discover whether hybrid vehicles are a safe solution to
societys growing sustainability concerns, with the intended audience of informing environmentally
conscientious consumers. The study also contributes to literature on conducting LCAs in an
automotive context as well as gives a useful insight into an alternative approach for a comparative
LCA.

4.2. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment

The primary intent of this research is to provide a comparative assertion for two different
products fulfilling the same function, in this case, seeing whether one vehicle type is equal or
superior to the other.

In order to simplify the comparison process, similar and common subsystems and components in
the two vehicle types are identified and then omitted in the LCA. For example, the interior features
of the hybrid vehicle and conventional vehicle are classified as a common subsystem as it is not
unique to the vehicle technology i.e. the two types of cars can both have the same interior without
the functionality of the vehicle changing. This method ensures that the focus on the LCA is on
conducting analysis between the differentiating features between hybrid vehicle technology and
conventional vehicles. Thus, the study will draw conclusions based only on the fundamental
differences between the two vehicle systems.

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The components considered in this study are as follows:

Hybrid Vehicle Conventional Vehicle


Engine Engine
Hybrid Transmission Automatic Transmission
Electric Motor [MG2] Starter
Generator [MG1] Alternator
Hybrid Battery
Inverter

The decision to study a particular component is not only based on the importance of their function
in the use phase, but also their significance in terms of manufacture and recyclability. A more
specific explanation for the justification behind the choices for the component list will be further
discussed in section 5.3.

Although this comparative method is specific to the chosen vehicles models for the study, it aims to
reach a conclusion that one type of vehicle technology is better than the other rather than an
assessment of just the model types in question.

4.3. Project Scope

The goal and scope is arguably the most important phase of an LCA as the results are strongly
influenced by how this step is defined.

To illustrate the challenge in allocation of system boundaries, there are a large number of products
and processes that can be assigned to the production of a single vehicle component. The most
obvious would be the primary production of the raw materials required to manufacture the
components, including mining extraction and processing, but the choice can be made to choose
secondary processes such as additional inputs from associated with the production of the
manufacturing facilities used to create the component. The scope determines which items are
assigned to the given component and which are not. The key features of the scope will be outlined
in this section.

4.3.1. Product System

Differential components between a hybrid vehicle and a conventional vehicle are the main focus of
study for the LCA. The research focused on the differences between these two vehicle types.

Hybrid Vehicle: 2nd generation Toyota Prius (Australia)


Conventional Vehicle: 7th generation Toyota Camry (Australia)

The Toyota Prius was chosen on the basis of popularity and data available, whilst the Toyota
Camry was chosen as the most appropriate choice for comparison.

See section 5 for additional descriptions and details of these products.

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4.3.2. Functional Unit

The functional unit is the central core of any life cycle assessment; since it provides the reference to
which all other data in the reference is compared.

In order to define the functional unit, the common function between the two systems for
comparison is to be identified. The main purpose of a vehicle is to transport passengers from one
place to another. Thus the functional unit in this study is defined as a mid-sized five-door vehicle
for 5 passengers including a luggage compartment with a life of 250,000 km. This description of
the product will act as a reference unit for comparison.

4.3.3. System Boundaries

The total life cycle of a vehicle is defined here to include the steps required to manufacture, operate
and maintain the vehicle throughout its life and finally to the end-of-life phase.

Vehicle life-cycle phases considered in study (further detail in section 6):


Manufacturing Phase
Vehicle Use (including Maintenance)
Vehicle End-of-Life

Part fabrication and vehicle assembly are ignored as it is assumed the change in results due to an
inclusion of these phases would be negligible. Assembly of the hybrid vehicle may be more energy
intensive but the difference is considered minor. Component and vehicle transportation is also
discounted as it is assumed that both cars would be transported the same distance.

Within the considered life-cycle phases, second-order energy and materials are discounted. As an
example, the energy for processing a raw material would be counted but the embodied energy to
create the plant conducting the process is out of the system boundaries.

Also note that the well-to-tank assessment of the fuels used by the vehicles is disregarded as the
same fuel is applied to both vehicle types. Well-to-tank assessment considers the steps from raw
material recovery, through the transportation and processing in manufacturing plants until
conversion to useable fuels for vehicles.

4.3.4. Data Requirements

Considering the System Boundaries, the required data for the Inventory:

Differential Component data


 Mass and Material Composition
 Type and Grade of Material
 Embodied Energy Coefficients
 Primary Production, Processing and Recycling
Fuel Consumption Data (including Calorific Values)
Recycling percentages for materials

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4.3.5. Assumptions

The final results of the project are significantly impacted by the sources for data acquisition. As the
project does not have the resources to produce primary data, the quality of the results is dependent
on the validity of the assumptions of the following major sources:

Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) used to determine embodied energy coefficients


for primary material production, material processing and recycling
GREET Model built on assumptions for determining differential component list and used
material composition values
Drive Cycle Standards used fuel consumption values based on standards, although real
consumption values may likely vary from these results

4.4. Limitations

Although the project aims to follow the ISO 14040s standards for LCA, it does not strictly follow
the required guidelines due to limitations in resources and deadline considerations.

As mentioned in the Literature Review section, there is no set way to conduct a LCA and the
process is especially complex when dealing with automobiles. The depth in which the product
system can be covered is determined by resource availability and allocation of time since the
exploration of the processes involved in a product system is theoretically infinite. Due to these
considerations, this study has followed recommendations for conducting a simplified LCA.

A simplified LCA superficially covers the whole life cycle using generic data when required, and
focuses on the most important environmental aspects and phases of the life cycle. The aim is to
provide similar results as a detailed LCA but with fewer resources.

Several limitations were faced in the progression of this project, which subsequently resulted in an
update of the originally intended scope at the initial appreciation stage.

Difficulty in compiling the life-cycle inventory had largely been due to the limited availability for
vehicle data. This resulted in some delays in the task durations of the project. There has been a lack
of detailed information for hybrid vehicles, especially for specific models, and the team
encountered shortcomings in requesting data from the automotive industry. Confidentiality has
resulted in a limited release of information for public consumption from manufacturers as well as
research papers affiliated to the industry.

In the aforementioned overview of the LCA methodology, the Life Cycle Impact Assessment was
described as one of the four phases in a LCA that requires the classification of all substances in the
inventory table into environmental impact categories. Due to limitations expressed, it follows that
this project is focused on conducting a Life Cycle Inventory study (LCI) rather than a formal Life
Cycle Assessment study (LCA). According to the ISO 14040 LCI studies are defined to be similar
to LCA studies but exclude the Life Cycle Impact Assessment phase (LCIA). To avoid confusion
with the Life Cycle Inventory phase, the overall method followed in this project will continue to be
referred to as an LCA. Therefore, the LCA framework for this project will have three phases: Goal
and Scope definition, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and Interpretation.

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5. Vehicle Models and Components


An in-depth knowledge of the product systems is required to undertake a comparative LCA. The
following section gives an overview of hybrid and conventional vehicles, highlighting the choice in
vehicle models under study and the components under consideration.

5.1. Hybrid Vehicle

5.1.1. Background

A hybrid vehicle (HV) uses two motive power sources, an internal combustion engine and an
electric motor. This technology combines the strengths of both electric vehicles (EV) and
conventional vehicles (CV), while compensating for the shortcomings and limitations of each. It is
therefore able to achieve a more efficient and sustainable driving performance. The main
characteristics of the HV are as follows:

When not in use, the engine is automatically stopped to


Energy Loss Reduction
prevent the loss of energy.
Energy that is lost to friction during deceleration and
Energy Recovery and Re-use braking is recovered as electrical energy for re-use in
the starter and the electric motor.
The presence of the electric motor gives the engine
additional boosts of power during acceleration. This
Lower Fuel Consumption
allows a smaller engine to be used, significantly
reducing fuel consumption.
Overall efficiency is optimised by running the vehicle
on the electric motor when engine efficiency is low and
Energy Efficient Performance
by generating electricity when engine efficiency is
high.

Currently, there are three different types of hybrid vehicles on the market: parallel hybrids, series
hybrids and combined hybrids. All these designs lead to lower fuel consumption and lower running
cost compared to a conventional car of the same size. Descriptions of these different designs are
presented in Appendix L.

5.1.2. Hybrid Vehicle Model Selection Toyota Prius 2nd Generation

Considering the availability of information for research collection, this project focused on
automotive companies that have released hybrids in the Australian market within the past decade.
Amongst the range of car manufacturers, Toyota and Honda has produced the most notable hybrid
models the Toyota Prius and the Honda Civic Hybrid. Due to the substantial on-road experience
and information available for these models, this projects initial investigations concentrated on these
two automotive companies.

After substantial research, the combined hybrid Toyota Prius II was chosen over the parallel hybrid
Honda Civic. Being the worlds first HV to be mass produced, it has been on the global market
since 2000. In 2006, it accounted for 40% of HV sold worldwide, with sales still increasing.
Environmentally, it is the most fuel efficient and cleanest gasoline engine vehicle sold in the United
States as rated by the EPA in 2008 [1].

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The Toyota Prius combined hybrid system is popularly known as Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD),
see Figure 1. It uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor as its motive power sources. The other
components in its powertrain are the generator, nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, power split
device, reduction gear and power control unit (inverter). The power split device and reduction gear
are also part of the hybrid transmission. These components will be presented in more detail in
section 5.3.

Figure 1. Hybrid Synergy Drive

Hybrid powertrains save fuel when it comes to both driving in the city (urban) and in regional areas
or highways (extra-urban). In the low-speed and repeated stop-and-go environment of city driving,
it saves energy by running mostly on the motor and battery. On the other hand, during highway
driving, it is powered by both the engine and electric motor. The presence of the electric motor
allows it to use a smaller engine and reduce fuel consumption without compromising driving
performance. Since the calorific value of fuel is high and the distance travelled during a vehicles
life spans over a hundred thousand kilometres, lower fuel consumption leads to a tremendous
amount of energy saved during the use phase. Refer to Appendix L for more information on the
system operations of the Toyota Prius.

5.2. Conventional Vehicle

5.2.1. Background

A conventional vehicle is a type of automobile that uses only an engine as its motive power source.
Its main energy source is fuel, which it burns to generate the power required for propulsion.

5.2.2. Conventional Vehicle Model Selection Toyota Camry 7th Generation

The conventional vehicle model chosen for this study is the 2007 Toyota Camry 7th Generation,
which was selected over the Toyota Corolla based on weight, dimensions, performance and
capacities. Although the Corolla is closer to the Prius in terms of weight and dimensions [2], the
Camrys 2.4 L engine is more comparable to the Prius 1.5L engine and electric motor in terms of
power and performance [3]. While all three models have the same seating capacity of five
passengers, the Camrys luggage capacity is closer to the Prius [2]. An automatic transmission
version was also selected for the Camry to closely compare with the Prius, since both the automatic
and hybrid transmissions use an electronic control system [4] [5], while a manual transmission uses
a hydraulic control system.

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5.3. Differential Components

In order to make a comparison between hybrid and conventional vehicle technology, the scope of
the LCA requires the selection of differential components between the two product systems. The
approach of undertaking a comparative or differential LCA was decided early on in the project as
mentioned in the Scope of Works document featured in Appendix M. This decision was primarily
due to the lack of available information to carry out a full product analysis, but also gave an
opportunity to explore a new approach in conducting a comparative assessment.

The selected differential components for the Hybrid Vehicle are the engine, battery, motor,
generator, transmission and inverter. For the Conventional Vehicle, the engine, transmission,
starter and alternator have been chosen.

The selection for the list of differential components had undergone several updates throughout the
progress of the project in conjunction with the compilation of the life-cycle inventory data. This
section provides the background information and justifications of assumptions made in order to
compile the final component list, then goes onto giving a brief definition and description of these
components.

5.3.1. GREET model

Several studies that compare different vehicle technologies and fuel alternatives have cited the
GREET2 model as a useful tool in aiding the evaluation of related environmental impacts. The
model is a database developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (managed by the U.S.
Department of Energy) to estimate the energy and environmental emissions of different vehicle and
fuel technologies. It takes into account the manufacturing, recycling and disposal of six different
vehicle technologies including the CV and HV. The Toyota Prius II is identified as the vehicle
model used for HV in GREET.

Table 1: Vehicle subsystems from GREET

Since the material compositions of the major systems identified in GREET is considered
comprehensive and reliable, the differential component list was adapted in order to incorporate this
available information. The above Table 1 shows that the CV does not have a motor, generator and
a power control unit. It also shows that other systems are common, except for the different sizes in
engine, transmission and battery between the HV and CV [6].

2 Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation

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5.3.2. Assumptions

In addition to referring to the major systems in the GREET model, assumptions have been made to
further narrow down the differential component list.

1. Powertrain

To determine a differential component list, it was first recognised that the powertrain accounts for
the fundamental difference between HV and CV technology. It is assumed that although common
components such as the body and interior are different depending on the model, they are considered
only design choices rather than a differentiating feature of in the vehicle technology. The design
choices, for instance in material and shape, could be made similar irrespective of whether it is an
HV or a CV. Hence, systems other than the powertrain were ignored in this study.

2. Engine

The inclusion of the engine as a differential component naturally follows from an analysis of the
powertrain. HVs utilise smaller engines than the average engine of comparable CVs. This
difference in engine size will have effect on the manufacturing phase energy consumption.

3. Brake System

As common with most Toyota models, the Prius and Camry use the same brake technology which
includes the Anti-lock Brake System, Brake Assist, Vehicle Stability Control and Electronic Brake
force Distribution. Although the Prius has an additional Regenerative Braking Cooperative Control,
the only difference of this added brake feature is in the motor and hydraulic brake control system.
Since its function is to recover electric energy loss to friction [5], no additional component is
required. As the brake components in both models are the same, the brake system will be ignored.

4. Battery

Although there are two batteries in an HV, only the hybrid battery will be considered as CV use the
same type of auxiliary battery [5].

5. Hybrid Transaxle & Transmission

The hybrid transmission comprises of a power split device and reduction gear that is assembled
together with the motor and generator to form the hybrid transaxle [5]. As the GREET model treats
the motor and generator separately from the transmission and assigns a separate material
composition to each [6]. Therefore, to follow the model and use its material composition data, the
transaxle will be divided into the motor, generator, and transmission as differential components.

6. Inverter

The inverter is the power manager of HV Prius electric drive system, which regulates power
between the battery, generator, motor and engine. It also contains the respective electronics for
motor and generator [5]. The assumption is made such that it represents a large part of the
additional electronics in the HV Prius

7. Starter & Alternator

The starter and alternator were determined as differential components of CV from [7].

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5.3.3. Components of Toyota Prius

The 1.5 L engine (smaller than Camry) is the primary motive


power source of the Hybrid Vehicle [8]. The Prius smaller
Engine
engine is possible with the additional power from the motor,
generator and battery [9].
The Prius has adopted nickel metal hydride (NiMH) as its
battery. The main function of the battery is to supply electric
power to the motor and generator during starting-off,
Hybrid Battery
acceleration and uphill driving. It is also recharged during
deceleration and braking, and when engine efficiency is low
[8].
The electric motor is the electric motive power source of the
Prius. It utilises electric energy from the battery and generator
Motor [MG2] to drive the vehicle. During regenerative braking, it acts as a
generator by recovering the kinetic energy loss to friction and
converting it to electricity for storage in the battery. [9]
The main purpose of the generator is to convert mechanical
engine power to electricity for use in the motor and storage in
Generator [MG1]
the battery. During initial acceleration from start-up, it acts as
starter motor to start the engine. [9]
The Prius hybrid transmission is part of the hybrid transaxle,
which also consists of the motor and generator. [8] Consisting
of the power split device and reduction gears, it is a
continuously variable transmission (CVT) [9], which changes
Hybrid Transmission
steplessly through an infinite number of effective gear
ratios between maximum and minimum values. Therefore, it is
able to provide better fuel economy by allowing the engine to
run at the most efficient rotational speeds [10].
The Inverter, also known as the Power Control Unit (PCU), is
the power manager of Prius electric drive system. It regulates
Inverter the power between battery, generator, motor and engine. It also
contains the electronics for controlling the motor and generator
[8]. See appendix for more details on its subcomponents.

5.3.4. Components of Toyota Camry

The 2.4 L engine (larger than Prius) is the primary motive


Engine
power source of Conventional Vehicle [11].
The Camry automatic transmission is a compact,
Automatic Transmission lightweight and 5-speed electronically controlled
transmission. [4] See appendix for more details.
The Camrys starter is an electric motor and its main
Starter function is to start the engine by using electric motor and
disengage as soon as the engine starts [12].
The alternators main function is to generate and supply
Alternator electricity for use in the Camrys electrical system and for
storage in the auxiliary battery [13].

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6. Life Cycle Phases


As mentioned in the LCA Methodology section, three main life cycle phases are included in the
system boundary of this study. These are the Manufacturing phase; Vehicle Use phase; and, Vehicle
End-of-Life phase. This section provides further discussion about these phases.

6.1. Manufacturing Phase

6.1.1. Embodied Energy Coefficients

In order to quantify the energy required for the manufacturing phase, it is important to identify the
data required in order to approximate these values. As statistics for energy in manufacture is not
readily available, rough estimations can be made by calculating the energy required for each vehicle
component then summing for the total energy for the considered differential components. The
energy for a component can be calculated by identifying the mass and material used and the
respective embodied energy coefficients.

Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) is used as the main source for Embodied Energy
Coefficient values for this report, a tool that provides a large range of material types, examples of
material applications and a variety of associated material properties. Embodied energy values are
one of the featured properties and CES provides coefficients for primary production, processing as
well as recycling.

Although it is ideal for the practitioner to set the scope and boundary of an LCA, the system inputs
in this project are limited to those defined by the research source. Thus, the outcome of the project
is dependent on any assumptions made in the data collection process in CES. Despite this
drawback, using CES as a primary data source can provide overall consistency in the inventory. For
instance, compiling the inventory from a variety of sources would introduce complications in
corroboration and ensuring validity in the data. Therefore, it is reasonable for this study to rely on
the methods used by CES for data collection and is the most appropriate choice in this situation.

In order to gain a better understanding of the system boundaries the project would be working
under, documentation available in CES was closely examined. The following points give an
overview of how embodied energy for material production and processing is defined and measured
by CES.

According to CES, embodied energy is defined as the energy other than that from biofuels that is
committed in making a unit weight of material from its ores and feedstock. It is noted that the
values given for embodied energy is approximate due to large variations in actual industry practices
which differ in the scale of the plant and equipment used. Therefore an industry average is used
and the variation is approximated to be 20%.

A major assumption in CES is made by setting the system boundary at the first remove only. For
instance, the energy to mine and transport ores and feedstocks would be included, but the building
of the required equipment would be excluded. This definition illustrates the difficulty in quantifying
inputs as there are infinite energy flows that can be associated to the production of a material.

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6.1.2. Other Considerations

1. Aluminium Processing

There has been a rise in the use of aluminium for automotive components, as companies favour
lighter aluminium over steel components to reduce the total vehicle weight. Despite the decrease in
fuel consumption during the use phase, there is a trade off as primary aluminium production is more
energy intensive that steel. Aluminium is renowned for requiring a high level of electricity to smelt
and process. The environmental impacts associated with its production is primarily dependent on
the source of the electricity, whether it is from coal powered station or renewable energy sources.
Although the use of recycled aluminium would decrease energy consumed in the manufacturing
stage, virgin material is mostly used in automotive applications. Thus, in the analysis stage it is
expected that there would be a significant environmental impact of aluminium when compared to
the total energy consumption.

2. Rare Earth Metals

Rare earth metals such as lanthanum, neodymium and cerium are used in the manufacture of hybrid
batteries and are a concern in the manufacturing phase due to their high embodied energy for
primary production. Additionally, these metals have zero recycling embodied energy coefficients
and recycling percentages. The most likely reason is because it is not cost effective to recycle these
metals as they are no longer considered rare due to the abundance in new discoveries from China. If
hybrid vehicles gain popularity and demand, there may be a necessity to recycle rare earth metals.
Furthermore, technology advancements may also make recycling more cost effective in the future.

6.2. Use Phase

In order to quantify the energy demand in the use phase, several key factors must be defined. These
include total vehicle life, fuel consumption rate, vehicle drive cycle, and maintenance/replacement
of components. The predominating reason for energy consumption in this phase is due to the fuel
consumption.

6.2.1. Vehicle Life

It is of significant importance to define the distance a vehicle travels in a lifetime since the primary
function of a vehicle is to transport people or cargo a certain distance. This role acts as a basis in
defining the functional unit

There has been difficulty in finding the average life expectancy of Toyota vehicles in years or
kilometres travelled. According to a local Toyota dealer, the company does not release statistics on
the average life expectancy of its vehicles because a vehicles life depends on a lot of factors such
as frequency of use, driving style, road condition, weather, service history, and situational factors
such as minor accidents. Hence, every vehicle unit sold will have a different life expectancy
depending on its ownership.

Since there are no statistics on the average life expectancy of Toyota vehicles, vehicle life estimates
were made based on communication with Toyota dealers, common knowledge and research.
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the life expectancy of an Australian car is
approximated to be more than 15 years and the average vehicle distance travelled per year was
14,800 km (in 2005). Based on this information, the life expectancy of a vehicle driving under
Australian road conditions would be at least 222,000 km.

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The functional unit for this study has been set to a rounded value of 250,000 km with an average
distance, for simplicity, of 20,000 km travelled per year. In order to introduce sensitivity analysis
in the interpretation stage, this value is set as the average with the addition of a maximum and
minimum value. Knowing that the warranty period of Toyota vehicles are 100,000 km and
assuming that a vehicle travels an average of 20,000 km/year, the minimum lifespan is estimated to
be 5 years. Therefore, the average lifespan is 250,000 km or 12.5 years, and the maximum lifespan
is 400,000 km or 20 years. In this study, the average lifespan (250,000 km) will be referred to as
the reference case.

6.2.2. Fuel Consumption Drive Cycle, Calorific Values

A vehicles fuel consumption can indicate the energy consumed during the use phase. Fuel
consumption is tested under specified conditions in accordance with procedures outlined by vehicle
standards using different drive cycles. In Australian and U.S. standards, three different drive cycles
are defined: urban, extra-urban and combined.

The Australian standards are similar to the European standards, and for this study, the combined
cycle data will be used. The combined drive cycle is a weighted average of the urban and extra
urban cycles.

Since urban and extra-urban values for the Prius and Camry are unavailable in Australia, U.S. data
has been obtained for all three drive cycles from an official fuel-economy website. However, it
must be noted that the testing procedures and definition of terms used for the U.S. standards differ
from the Australian and European counterparts.

In order to calculate energy consumption in the use phase from the fuel consumption data, the
calorific value of the fuel must be found. The calorific value is the fuel energy content given in
(MJ/L) in SI units. The average calorific value of fuel varies depending on temperature (seasonal
changes) and the water-content present (gross or net) in the fuel during combustion. Therefore,
appropriate values and reasonable values must be chosen taking these factors into consideration.

Further details about different testing standards used can be referred in the Appendix H.

6.2.3. Maintenance/Replacement of Components

In addition to the energy consumption due to fuel, the maintenance of the vehicle is an important
factor to include in the use phase. In order to quantify the energy associated for the maintenance of
a vehicle in its use phase, the number of replacements for components must be approximated.
Discussion on the justifications for the frequency of component replacement is discussed in section
7.3.3. The differences in energy for vehicle servicing of the CV and HV are considered negligible
and are excluded in the system boundary.

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6.3. Vehicle End-of-Life

Typically when considering an end-of-life scenario there are two considerations: recycling and final
disposal of the vehicle. In this project, only the energy consumed in recycling is used for comparing
the energy consumption in the end-of-life phase of the vehicle. As it is reasonable to assume that
both vehicles require a similar process in disposal, e.g. the energy required to transport the vehicles
to landfill can theoretically be the same. As the disposal energy would be negligible compared to
the manufacturing and use phase energy consumption, it is assumed that the exclusion of this
vehicle life cycle would not affect the validity of the final conclusion. Furthermore, if the disposal
phase is included in the scope, it would be difficult to estimate the energy used because it is hard to
assign an embodied energy coefficient to the process and energy estimations would vary
significantly depending on the end-of-vehicle practices in different countries.

6.4. Energy Equation

To conduct the LCI analysis, the total energy consumption of a vehicle throughout its whole life
cycle must be calculated.

Total energy consumption is a sum of


Embodied energy in the manufacturing phase
Energy consumed during the use phase and the Embodied energy of the components that are
replaced
Embodied energy for recycling

6.4.1. Stages for Virgin Material Components

The differential components under analysis are either made from virgin materials or recycled
materials. The different stages in a life cycle of a component are dependent on what material type it
is. As most of the differential components are made from virgin materials, only the life cycle of
virgin material will be considered in our study.

For virgin material, the four stages for one complete cycle are:

Recycle

Primary Material OR
Material Use
Processing
Production

Disposal
(outside scope)

Figure 2: Life Cycle Stages

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6.5. Equations for Energy

The amount of Energy consumed during operation can be obtained from the fuel consumption data.

For virgin material components,

. = .
+ . + .
+ . (1)

To calculate the Embodied Energy, the material mass in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) is
multiplied by the corresponding coefficient. The following equations calculate Embodied Energy
for particular phases in the product life using the symbol is to denote the embodied energy
coefficient in each case.

6.5.1. Manufacturing

Total E.E for Manufacturing

= material + material
material
(2)

Note that different coefficients are used for primary material production and for material processing
in the Manufacture phase.

6.5.2. Maintenance

Total E.E for Maintenance

= .

= (# ( ) . ) (3)

The frequency of component replacement must be estimated to determine the number of


replacements experienced over the driving life of the vehicle. This value will vary depending on
the assumptions made on the driving cycle and the vehicle life.

6.5.3. Recycling

Total E.E for Recycling

= ( %) recyclable material
material
(4)

Many of the components under analysis in this study are made from materials that are recyclable,
i.e. steel, iron and polymers. Hence, it is important to take recycling energy into account using the
above equation.

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7. Inventory Analysis

7.1. Data Collection Methodology

Despite the simplification of the LCA, the scope of the investigation still required a large amount of data to be collected. To facilitate the data
collection process, the data was classified in groups under different life cycle stages (see chart 1). Moreover, the blue boxes represent the
different sources.

Differential Components

Manufacturing Use Stage Maintenance Recycling

Mass Material Component life EEC Recycling


Fuel Vehicle Life
Percentage
Toyota EEC Composition Specific Calorific Dealers
Technical Consumption LCA studies CES
Value CES
Manuals
CES GREET CES EPA EPA
ORNL Dealers Cases
Reports web
sources Green Vehicle ABARE
Guide
Mr. I

Chart 3. Data Collection Process

(Refer to Appendix I for a list of terms and abbreviations for Chart 3.)

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7.2. Manufacturing Phase

7.2.1. Assumptions and Estimations

The following section gives a summary of the assumptions and estimation techniques used to
consolidate missing data in order to complete the life cycle inventory. See Appendix J for further
information.

1. Mass Component Data

As highlighted in Chart 3, the mass data inventory was largely sourced from collective Toyota
Technical Manuals and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reports. The following information was
necessary for completion of the LCI:

Generator Mass estimated by assuming the same mass percentage breakdown of the HV
motor
Hybrid Transmission Mass estimated by subtracting motor and generator mass from total
mass of the transaxle
Starter Mass assumed to equal the starter mass of the 2002 Camry for the 2007 Camry
Alternator Mass approximation given from industry expert, Mr. I

2. Material Composition

The GREET model was able to provide the necessary Material Composition data to complete the
LCI. An initial assumption was made to use the lightweight category of materials for both HV
and CV, as opposed to conventional since the Toyota models studied are modern designs (2004
and 2007 models). The material composition of the starter and alternator was assumed to be the
same as the generator and mass as they all function as motors.

3. Specific Material Selection

Since the data on the materials provided in the GREET material composition database was found to
be too generic, further assumptions were required to find the required material property
information.

In CES, a range of materials with an automotive application was chosen with the
assumption that the actual material used would be included within the selected range
Some materials (Ni, Fe, Co, Mg) for the Battery were assumed to be in a pure form
Rare earth metals (La, Ce, Nd, Pr) in the Battery were also assumed to be in a pure form
Organic materials were assumed to be plant-based or ecological plastics, referred to as
foam

4. Process Selection

Components generally undergo different processes during manufacturing. To use the materials
processing embodied energy coefficients in CES, determination of the processes used for each
specific material is necessary. However, due to limited information available on the actual
processes used by Toyota, a dominant manufacturing process was chosen for each material (see
Table 2 below) and it is assumed to make up most of the energy used in processing the material.

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Table 2: Embodied Energy Coefficients and Type of Process

Primary
Processing
Materials production Type of Process
(MJ/kg)
(MJ/kg)
Wrought Al 207.50 2.65 Casting
Cast Al 220.00 2.51 Casting
Steel 32.00 4.41 Casting
Plastic 141.75 8.71 Polymer Molding
Copper 74.10 2.72 Casting
Rare Earth Metals 642.00 0.00 Chemical
Nickel 133.50 0.00 Chemical
Cast Iron 17.30 3.25 Casting
Rubber 167.40 7.81 Polymer Molding
Stainless Steel 81.25 4.31 Casting
Cobalt 481.00 0.00 Chemical
Organic 109.50 7.61 Polymer Molding
Magnesium 377.00 0.00 Chemical
Iron 22.50 0.00 Chemical

7.3. Use Stage

7.3.1. Vehicle Life

As discussed in section 6.2.1 on vehicle life, the functional unit for average life of a vehicle was
chosen as 250,000 km based on research and common knowledge. A minimum and maximum value
was also assigned in order to conduct a sensitivity analysis.

Table 3: Vehicle Life Scenarios

Minimum 100,000 km 5 yrs


Functional Unit (Average) 250,000 km 12.5 yrs
Maximum 400,000 km 20 yrs

7.3.2. Fuel Consumption

In the use phase, fuel is the primary source of energy for both vehicles. In the hybrid vehicle, the
engine provides power to the generator, motor and battery [9], while in the conventional vehicle,
the engine is the motive power source. Although this study only examines the differential
components between the two vehicle types, the data is restricted to fuel consumption for the whole
vehicle. It is assumed that the energy consumed by the whole vehicle in the use phase will give a
close indication of the total energy consumed by the components considered in the product system.
Although the total vehicle weight of the Camry is 200kg heavier than the Prius (refer Appendix D
for specifications), this was determined as a reasonable approximation since the ratio of total mass
of the differential components over the total mass of the whole vehicle is approximately 15% for
both vehicles.

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Table 4: Fuel Consumption

Fuel consumption (L/100km)


Model name Source
Combined Urban Extra Urban

4.4 - - [a]3
Prius 2nd Gen
1.5 VVT-i Hybrid
4.3 3.9 4.6 [b]

Camry 2007
2.4L 4cyl, 9.9 - - [a]
5 speed Sedan,
5 seats, 2WD 8.7 9.8 7.1 [b]
Automatic

Table 5: Fuel Calorific Value

AU US
Fuel Calorific Value (MJ/L)
34.2 31.64 4

7.3.3. Maintenance

There are no statistics on the average lifespan of Toyota components. According to Toyota dealers,
major components such as the Engine, Transmission, Motor and Generator, are expensive and
hence are never replaced. Therefore, the lifespan for these components were estimated to be
equivalent to the maximum vehicle lifespan of 400,000 km or 20 years. On the other hand, the
lifespan of the Battery is based on a dealers account that it lasts 250,000 km or 12.5 years.
Moreover, the Starter and Alternator were estimated to last 150,000 km each. Finally, the number
of replacement of each component can be calculated by taking into account the vehicle and
component lives.

Table 6: Frequency of Replacements

Lifespan Replacements
Toyota Prius
km 100K 250K 400K
1.5L Engine 400K 0 0 0
Hybrid Transmission 400K 0 0 0
Battery 250K 0 0 1
Motor MG2 400K 0 0 0
Generator MG1 400K 0 0 0
Inverter 400K 0 0 0

3 [a] Green Vehicle Guide Website, Australia


[b] Fuel Economy Website, US

4 Average of summer and winter values

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Lifespan Replacements
Toyota Camry
km 100K 250K 400K
2.4L Engine 400K 0 0 0
Automatic Transmission 400K 0 0 0
Starter 150K 0 1 2
Alternator 150K 0 1 2

7.4. End-of-Life Vehicle Phase

Different recycling cases were considered to investigate the effect of recycling percentage.

7.4.1. Recycling percentage from CES

The range of recycling percentages for each material presented in CES reflects the fraction of
current global supply that is derived from recycling, so are the most realistic and reasonable values.

Table 7: Embodied Energy Coefficients and Recycling Percentage

Recycling Recycling
Materials
(MJ/kg) %
Cast Al 19.95 42.6
Steel 8.92 41.95
Plastic 59.50 2.955
Copper 18.40 42.9
Rare Earth Metals 0.00 0
Nickel 33.35 30.4
Cast Iron 5.18 69.25
Rubber 0.00 0
Stainless Steel 22.75 37.4
Cobalt 24.95 24.95
Organic 0.00 0
Magnesium 38.00 38.75
Iron 6.31 55.05

7.4.2. 75% Case

Recycling a minimum of 75% of the total mass of the vehicle is common practice in Australia even
though there is currently no fixed legislation regulating the disposal of end-of-life vehicles.
Therefore, a 75% recycling case for the differential components was considered since both the Prius
and Camry have a similar proportion of total mass of the differential components over the total
mass of the vehicle.

7.4.3. 0% and 100% Cases

Automotive companies such as Toyota are continuously working with recycling companies to
achieve 100% recycling in the future. Hence, the 0% and 100% recycling cases, although not
realistic, were only used to theoretically study the influence of recycling on the total energy
consumed during a vehicles life cycle.

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8. Results and Interpretation


According to the ISO 14040 and 14044 on LCA, the life cycle interpretation phase is where the
results of the inventory analysis are summarised and discussed as a basis for conclusions,
recommendations and decision-making in accordance with the goal and scope definition. This
section will include the identification of essential contributions to the results and evaluate these
results in terms of completeness and sensitivity to particular input parameters.

8.1. Main Results

8.1.1. Manufacturing Phase

Observation: Energy consumption of Prius slightly lower than Camry (

Table 8)

This is an unexpected result as the Prius has additional powertrain components and uses more rare
earth metals. Further investigation of the inventory shows that the main contributing factor to this
result is the large amount of energy intensive aluminium used in the Camrys engine and automatic
transmission.

Table 8: Manufacturing Phase Energy

Manufacturing Energy (MJ)


lower median upper
Prius 26,634.07 30,247.33 33,860.59
Camry 28,207.75 31,089.92 33,972.09

8.1.2. Use Phase

Observation: Energy consumption of Prius significantly lower than Camry (Table 9)

This result is due to the difference in fuel consumption between the two vehicles. The energy
consumed due to the fuel consumption of the Prius is on average half of the Camry for all vehicle
life and drive cycles considered (Supplementary Data - Results and Interpretation

Table 11). The energy consumption for operating either of the vehicles in the use phase is at least 4
times (Table 12 & Table 13) their total manufacturing energy.

Despite the advantage of lower fuel consumption, when the maintenance of the vehicle is
considered the Prius requires one hybrid battery replacement after 250,000km. This is a
disadvantage as the battery has a significantly higher embodied energy than the Camrys
replacement components: the starter and alternator (Table 14: Maintenance Energy).

Table 9: Use Phase Energy

Prius Use Phase Energy (MJ) Camry - Use Phase Energy (MJ)
urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
100K - - 150,480.00 - - 338,580.00
AU
250K - - 376,200.00 - - 846,450.00

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400K - - 601,920.00 - - 1,354,320.00


100K 123,373.76 145,517.76 136,027.48 310,016.11 224,603.51 275,218.38
US 250K 308,434.39 363,794.41 340,068.69 775,040.27 561,508.77 688,045.95
400K 493,495.03 582,071.06 544,109.90 1,240,064.43 898,414.02 1,100,873.52

8.1.3. End of Life

Observation: Energy consumption of Prius slightly higher than Camry (Table 9)

The Prius requires slightly more energy to recycle for all recycling percentages considered. This is
despite the previous observation that there is a larger amount of aluminium used in the Camrys
differential components.

The main reason for this result is due to the additional powertrain components considered in the
Prius. Furthermore, for longer vehicle life, the energy consumed in recycling the Prius replacement
battery is also significantly higher than the recycling energy for the Camrys replacement starters
and alternators.

Table 10: Recycling Energy

CES 75% Case 100% Case


Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper
Prius 1241.25 1452.28 1700.11 2816.38 3357.56 3898.74 3755.17 4476.75 5198.32
Camry 1157.41 1345.54 1559.19 2391.97 2778.06 3164.15 3189.29 3704.08 4218.87

8.1.4. Overall

Observation: Energy consumption of Prius lower than Camry

The overall energy consumption comparison between the Prius and Camry over their whole life
cycle is more straightforward, since the energy consumption in the use phase largely determines the
final result (
Figure 4 and Figure 5). Due to its low fuel consumption, the Prius fares much better than the Camry
in the use phase (Error! Reference source not found.). The Camrys total energy consumption
over its whole life cycle is about 1.4-2.4 times (Error! Reference source not found.) the total
energy consumption of the Prius depending on the drive cycle and vehicle life. Therefore, it can be
concluded that hybrids are more environmentally friendly in terms of energy consumption than
conventional vehicles based on the differential components and vehicle models considered.

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Prius Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption vs Vehicle Life

400,000
Vehicle Life (km)

Manufacturing
250,000 Use
Maintenance
Recycling
100,000

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption (TJ)

Figure 4: Total life cycle energy consumption vs Vehicle Life graph for Prius

Camry Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption vs Vehicle Life

400,000
Vehicle Life (km)

Manufacturing
250,000 Use
Maintenance
Recycling
100,000

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4


Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption (TJ)

Figure 5: Total life cycle energy consumption vs Vehicle Life graph for Camry

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Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption Vs Vehicle Life


(Combined Driving for Prius and Camry)

400,000
Vehicle Life (km)

Camry
250,000
Prius

100,000

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4


Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption (TJ)

Figure 6: Total life cycle energy consumption vs Vehicle life


(combined driving for Prius and Camry)

The overall conclusion is less sensitive to changes in the energy consumption in the manufacturing
and end-of-life phases. Variations in the input parameters such as the embodied energy coefficients,
the amount of rare earth metals in the hybrid battery and the number of battery replacements over
the vehicles life have impact on the manufacturing and end-of-life phases energy comparison but
have small influence on the final result. This is mainly because the overall conclusion is more
dependent on the vehicles fuel consumption, fuel calorific value, drive cycle and vehicle life than
any of the other input parameters.

8.2. Manufacturing Phase Comparison


The embodied energy in the manufacturing phase for both the Prius and Camry is in the magnitude
of 30GJ. The Prius consumes 3% less (Error! Reference source not found.) embodied energy
than the Camry in this phase. This is unexpected as the total mass for differential components is
higher for the Prius and additionally, the Prius uses rare earth metals. The rare earth metals such as
lanthanum, neodymium and cerium that are used in the hybrid battery require large amounts of
embodied energy during the primary material production.

The total mass of the differential components of the Prius is about 25kg (11%) heavier than the
Camry (Error! Reference source not found.). This is because in addition to the engine and
transmission, other powertrain components are considered for the Prius. These include the motor,
generator, hybrid battery and inverter, which add up to 48% (Figure 7) of the total mass of the
differential components in the Prius.

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Mass Per Component

0.8 %
Engine
Camry 57 % 41 %
Transmission
1% Battery
Motor
Generator
Inverter
Prius 34 % 18 % 15 % 18 % 7% 8% Starter
Alternator

0 50 100 150 200 250 300


Mass (kg)
Figure 7: Mass Composition of Differential Components

However, the large amount of aluminium used in the Camrys engine and automatic transmission
outweighs the effects of the Prius additional mass and the use of rare metals. Aluminium accounts
for nearly 50% (

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and Figure 8) of the total mass of the differential components for the Camry. It is well known for
being energy intensive (see section 1) as it requires large amounts of embodied energy during the
primary material production. On the other hand, the amount of low carbon steel is slightly higher
than aluminium in the Prius differential components which is less energy intensive compared to
aluminium.
Mass per Material
steel
4% 4% wrought Al
cast Al
Camry 29 % 36 % 13 % 7% copper
plastic
5% nickel
cast iron
4% stainless steel
Prius 33 % 18 % 13 % 12 % 7 % iron
rubber
4% organic
rare earth metals
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 cobalt
magnesium
Mass (kg)

Figure 8: Mass Composition of Materials


In the case of the Camry, the manufacturing energy consumption is mainly from the engine and
transmission, i.e. they account for about 98% of the total manufacturing energy, whereas for the
Prius, these two components only make up about 47% of the total manufacturing energy (Figure 9).
In contrast, the manufacturing energy consumption of the Prius is more spread out among all its
differential components.
Manufacturing Energy per Component

1%

Camry 51 % 47 % Engine
0.7 % Transmission
Battery
Motor
Generator
Inverter
Prius 35 % 12 % 18 % 17 % 6% 12 % Starter
Alternator

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Total Manufacturing Energy (GJ)
Figure 9: Manufacturing Energy per Component

If the amount of rare earth metals used in the Prius hybrid battery is higher than the original
reference case considered, it would push up the Prius total manufacturing energy (Table 19 and

Figure 10). The effect may be large enough to result in the Camry having a lower total
manufacturing energy than the Prius due to the proximity of breaking even in the original reference
case manufacturing phase energy comparison. However, the overall conclusion will remain true
since the large energy consumption in the use phase significantly outweighs the impact of the
manufacturing energy.

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Total Manufacturing Energy Vs Mass of


Rare Earth Metals
Total Manufacturing Energy (GJ) 42
40
38
36
34
32
30
2.46 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00
Mass of Rare Earth Metals (kg)

Figure 10: Total Manufacturing Energy Vs Amount of rare earth metals

In the inventory analysis, the materials used to produce the differential components were assumed
to have only undergone one manufacturing process, e.g. casting, polymer molding or chemical
processing. There was also no embodied energy coefficient allocated for chemical processing.
However, this may not be true in practice since these components most likely would have
undergone a number of manufacturing processes before becoming the final product and chemical
processing does consume some amount of energy. If this is the case, then the total manufacturing
energy for both the Prius and Camry would be higher. More specific information about the
manufacturing processes of the differential components considered are required in order for
statements about the exact magnitude of the embodied energy consumption in the manufacturing
phase can be made.

Even though there maybe variations in the total manufacturing energy for both the Prius and Camry
due to the underestimation of the processing energy of the differential components, it only has a
small influence on the overall energy consumption comparison over their whole life cycle. The
overall conclusion will remain stable unless the underestimation of the processing energy is large
enough to increase the total manufacturing energy for both vehicles by at least a factor of 4 (Table
12 & 13). Then, in this case, due to the proximity of breaking even, there will be a possibility of the
manufacturing energy outweighing the effect of the large energy consumption in the use phase.
However, this does not appear to be plausible since the fuel consumption results in such a large
energy consumption in the use phase and remains the dominant influence on the overall conclusion.

8.3. Use Phase Comparison


The vehicles fuel consumption for different drive cycles and vehicle life is used in this context to
represent the energy consumed by the differential components in the use phase. The Prius performs
much better than the Camry in terms of the energy consumed in the use phase since its fuel
consumption is significantly lower. This is because the because the Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD)
system effectively utilises a motor, generator and hybrid battery to assist a smaller gasoline engine
to power the vehicle, instead of relying on the engine as the main power source.

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The Prius is most fuel efficient during urban driving and uses about 60% less (Table 11) fuel
compared to the Camry for urban driving. This is because it mainly runs on the motor, generator
and hybrid battery for low speed city driving, whereas the repetitive accelerations and decelerations
during city driving results in higher fuel consumption for the Camry. The Prius also has lower fuel
consumption for combined and extra-urban driving, i.e. about 53% less (Table 11) for combined
and about 35% less (Table 11) for extra-urban driving.

As a result of the lower fuel consumption, the overall energy consumed by the Prius in the use
phase is lower than the Camry for all vehicle life and drive cycles considered (Figure 11: Use Phase
Energy Consumption Vs Vehicle Life). The energy consumption of the Prius in the use phase
ranges from 120GJ to 600GJ (Table 20) and Figure 12: Prius Energy Consumption in the Use Phase
Vs Vehicle LifeFigure 12) and for the Camry, it ranges from 220GJ to 1250 GJ (Table 21 and
Figure 13), depending on the combination of the vehicle life and drive cycle.

Use Phase Energy Consumption Vs Vehicle Life


(Combined Driving for Prius and Camry)

1.6
Use Phase Energy Consumption (TJ)

1.4
1.2
1.0
Camry
0.8
Prius
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
100,000 250,000 400,000
Vehicle Life (km)

Figure 11: Use Phase Energy Consumption Vs Vehicle Life


(combined driving for Prius and Camry)

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Prius Energy Consumption in the Use Phase Vs Vehicle Life

0.7
Use Phase Energy Consumption (TJ)

0.6

0.5 Urban
Cycle
0.4
Extra-
Urban
0.3 Cycle
Combined
0.2 Cycle

0.1

0.0
100,000 250,000 400,000
Vehicle Life (km)

Figure 12: Prius Energy Consumption in the Use Phase Vs Vehicle Life
Camrys Energy Consumption in the Use Phase Vs Vehicle
Life
1.4
Use Phase Energy Consumption (TJ)

1.2

1.0 Urban
Cycle
0.8 Extra-
Urban
0.6 Cycle
Combined
0.4 Cycle

0.2

0.0
100,000 250,000 400,000
Vehicle Life (km)
Figure 13: Camrys Energy Consumption in the Use Phase Vs Vehicle Life

For the Australian combined cycle, the energy consumed by the Camry is about 2.25 times the
Prius, whereas for the US combined cycle, the energy consumption of the Camry is only about 2
times the Prius (Table 22). Due to the fuel efficiency of the Prius, for US urban cycle, the energy
consumption difference is even more obvious, i.e. the energy consumed by the Camry is about 2.5
times (Table 22) the Prius. However, for the US extra-urban cycle, the energy consumption of the
of the Camry is only about 1.5 times (Table 22) the Prius, as the Prius is not as fuel efficient for
extra-urban driving compared to urban and combined driving.

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The energy consumed in the vehicles use phase based on the fuel consumption is so large that it
dominates the total energy consumption over its whole life cycle. In the case of the Prius, the
energy consumption in the use phase can range from about 4-20 times (Table 12 & 13) the total
manufacturing energy. Similarly, the energy consumed by the Camry during the use phase can
range from about 7-44 times (Table 12 & 13) the total manufacturing energy, depending on the
combination of the vehicle life and drive cycle.

Despite the lower fuel consumption, a disadvantage of the Prius compared to the Camry occurs
during the maintenance of the vehicle because its component that needs to be replaced has a
significantly higher embodied energy. The energy intensive hybrid battery needs to be replaced
roughly every 10 years/250,000km and requires about 6GJ of embodied energy to manufacture
(Table 23). In the case of the Camry, the starter and alternator need to be replaced for long vehicle
life but they only require a small amount of manufacturing energy, i.e. they need to be replaced
roughly every 10 years/150,000km but only require about 0.35GJ and 0.2GJ of embodied energy
each (Table 24).

If the number of battery replacements is higher than the considered reference case, it would slightly
increase the Prius maintenance energy in the use phase and the end-of-life recycling energy (Table
25 and Figure 14). This will only have a slight effect on the use phase and end-of-life energy
comparison by making the energy consumption difference between the Prius and Camry more
obvious. However, this will have little influence on the overall conclusion.

Prius' Maintenance Energy Consumption


Vs Hybrid Battery Replacement
30
25
Maintenance Energy (GJ)

20
15
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
No. of Battery Replacements
Figure 14: Maintenance Energy Consumption Vs Hybrid Battery Replacement

8.4. End-of-Life Phase Comparison


In this context, only the energy consumed in recycling is used for comparing the energy
consumption in the end-of-life phase of the vehicle.

The differential components are mostly made from recyclable materials such as aluminium, steel,
iron and copper. Besides being energy intensive during primary material production, aluminium
also requires large amounts of recycling energy. Aluminium accounts for about 44% of the
recycling energy for the Prius and about 67% of the recycling energy for the Camry (Table 26 and
Figure 17). Other materials such as stainless steel, copper, nickel, cobalt, magnesium, plastic and

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rubber have even higher recycling embodied energy coefficients than aluminium but their impact is
small as they only make up a small proportion of the total mass of the differential components.

The Prius requires slightly more recycling energy compared to the Camry for all recycling
percentage considered even though there is a large amount of aluminium used in the Camrys
differential components (Figure 15). This is because the additional powertrain components and
hybrid battery in the Prius outweighs the effects of the aluminium used in the Camry engine and
automatic transmission. i.e. the total mass of the differential components of the Prius is about 25kg
heavier than the Camry and the hybrid battery contains materials that consume more energy during
recycling. Furthermore, the energy consumed in recycling the Prius replacement battery also
outweighs the recycling energy for the Camrys replacement starters and alternators for long vehicle
life.

In the case of the Camry, the energy consumed in recycling is mainly from the engine and
transmission components, i.e. they account for about 96% of the total recycling energy, whereas for
the Prius these two components only make up about 50% of the total manufacturing energy (Table
27). Similar to its manufacturing energy, the Prius recycling energy is also spread out among all its
differential components.

The different recycling percentages affect the total energy consumption for recycling. The recycling
energy for the Prius roughly ranges from 1.2GJ to 5.2GJ (Table 28) and for the Camry, it roughly
ranges from 1.1GJ to 4.2GJ (Table 28), depending on the recycling percentages considered. For the
recycling percentages from CES, the Prius consumes about 8% more energy than the Camry,
whereas for the 75% and 100% recycling cases, it consumes about 21% more recycling energy
(Table 28).

The energy consumed at the vehicles end-of-life is quite small compared to the energy
consumption in the manufacturing and use phases (Figure 16). For the Prius, the recycling energy is
roughly 5%-15% (Table 29) of the total manufacturing energy and is only about 0.2%-4.2% (Table
30) of the energy consumption in the use phase, depending on the combination of the recycling
percentage, drive cycle and vehicle life. In the case of the Camry, the energy consumed for
recycling is even smaller in comparison to the energy consumption in the manufacturing and use
phases due to its higher fuel consumption than the Prius. Camrys recycling energy is about 4%-
12% (table 29) of the total manufacturing energy and is roughly only 0.1%-1.9% (table 30) of the
energy consumption in the use phase. Similarly, this also depends on the combination of the
recycling percentage, drive cycle and vehicle life. As a result of the small recycling energy, it
hardly has any impact on the overall conclusion when comparing the total energy consumption
between the Prius and Camry over their whole life cycle.

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Recycling Energy Vs Recycling Rercentage for Prius and Camry

100%
Recycling Percentage %

75% Prius
Camry

CES

0%

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00


Total Recycling Energy (GJ)
Figure 15: Recycling energy Vs recycling percentages for Prius and Camry

Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption Vs Recycling Percentage for


Prius and Camry

100
Recycling Percentage %

75
Camry
Prius
CES

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


Total Life Cycle Energy Consumption(TJ)

Figure 16: Total life cycle energy consumption Vs Recycling percentages for Prius and Camry

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Recycling Energy Per Material


wrought Al
steel
Camry 48 % 18 % 19 % 7% cast Al
copper
4%
nickel
stainless steel
cast iron
Prius 25 % 22 % 19 % 16 % 8% plastic
iron
4% cobalt
magnesium
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
Recycling Energy (GJ)
Figure 17:Recycling Energy Per Material

Recycling Energy Per Component

3%
Engine
Camry 54 % 42 % Transmission
2% Motor
Battery
Inverter
Generator
Starter
Prius 34 % 17 % 20 % 14 % 8% 7%
Alternator

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6


Recycling Energy (GJ)
Figure 18: Recycling Energy Per Component

8.5. Influence of the Fuel Consumption


In this context, the vehicles fuel consumption for different drive cycles and vehicle life is
used to represent the energy consumed by the differential components in the use phase.

The impact of the vehicles fuel consumption during the use phase is so large that it largely
determines the overall result when comparing the total energy consumption between the
Prius and Camry over their whole life cycle. The fuel consumption data for the vehicles
depend on the drive cycles and vehicle life. They vary slightly between Australia and US
due to the different vehicle testing standards used. A sensitivity analysis was carried out by
varying the drive cycle and vehicle life (see table 31).

For the Prius, the energy consumption in the use phase can be as large as 20 times the total
manufacturing energy, whereas for the Camry it can be as large as 44 times the total
manufacturing energy, depending on the combination of the vehicle life and drive cycle
(Table 12 & 13).

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8.6. Influence of the Drive Cycle


The different drive cycles considered: urban, extra-urban and combined driving play an
important role with regards to the fuel consumption data for the vehicles. The US has the
fuel consumption data for all the three driving cycles for the Prius and Camry, but Australia
only has the fuel consumption data for combined driving.

For the US case, the Prius urban driving fuel consumption is lower than the extra-urban and
combined cycle because it mainly runs more on the motor, generator and hybrid battery for
low speed city driving. The Prius urban fuel consumption is roughly 15% less than extra-
urban driving and about 9% less than the combined cycle (Table 32). For the Camry, its
urban driving fuel consumption is higher than the extra-urban and combined cycle due to
repetitive accelerations and decelerations during city driving. The Camry urban fuel
consumption is about 38% more than extra-urban driving and roughly 13% higher than the
combined cycle (Table 32).

For the Australian case, the fuel consumption data for combined driving is slightly higher
than the US for both vehicles, mainly due to the different testing standards used, i.e. the
Prius Australian combined cycle is about 2% higher than the US and is roughly 14% higher
for the Camry (Table 32).

8.7. Influence of the Vehicle Life


As the vehicle life largely determines the total fuel consumption in the use phase, it also has
a huge effect on the overall result. In this context, a vehicle life of 250,000km/10 years is
considered the reference case. The energy consumed in the use phase increases
exponentially as the vehicle life increases, i.e, if the vehicle life increases from 100,000km
to 250,000km, the energy consumption increases by a factor of 2.5, whereas it increases
only by a factor of 1.6 when the vehicle life increases from 250,000km to 400,000km (table
33).

8.8. Influence of the Recycling Percentage


The recycling percentage affects the total energy consumed in the recycling phase. Different
recycling cases lead to different recycling energy consumption, i.e. recycling percentages
from CES, 75% and 100% recycling cases.

The specific materials recycling percentages from CES reflects the fraction of current
global supply that is derived from recycling. If the recycling percentage increases from 75%
to 100%, the energy consumed increases by about 33% (table 34). However, the 100%
recycling case may not appear to be plausible with the current technology and recycling
regulations in place. The different materials recycling percentages from CES are much
lower than the 75% and 100% recycling cases but they appear to give more realistic results.

Even though the recycling percentage is important in determining the energy consumed at
the vehicle end-of-life, its impact on the overall result is fairly insignificant when comparing
the total energy consumption between the Prius and Camry over their whole life cycle. This
is because the recycling energy is quite small compared to the energy consumption in the
manufacturing and use phases.

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8.9. Influence of the use of Rare Metals


The use of rare earth metals such as lanthanum, neodymium and cerium in the Prius hybrid
battery are important input parameters that have a significant impact on the total embodied
energy consumed in the manufacturing phase. This is because they require large amounts of
embodied energy during the primary material production, i.e. the embodied energy
coefficient for these rare metals can be as high as 27 times the embodied energy coefficient
for normal low carbon steel. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis was carried out by varying the
amount of rare earth metals (see Table 35.).

If the amount of rare earth metals used in the Prius hybrid battery is higher than the original
reference case considered, e.g. 20kg instead of 2.5kg, it would increase the manufacturing
energy of the battery by roughly a factor of 3 (Table 19). This would push up the Prius total
manufacturing energy by about 37% (Table 19). If this is the case, then the effect is large
enough to result in the Camry having a lower total manufacturing energy than the Prius due
to the proximity of breaking even in the original reference case manufacturing phase energy
comparison. Despite this, the overall conclusion will remain true since the large energy
consumption in the use phase significantly outweighs the impact of the manufacturing
energy.

These rare earth metals currently have zero recycling embodied energy coefficients and
recycling percentages as shown on CES. However, if hybrid vehicles become more popular
in the future, then it may be necessary to recycle the rare earth metals. Besides that,
technology advancement may also make recycling more cost effective in the future.

However, the overall conclusion will remain true as the impact of the manufacturing energy
is not large enough to outweigh the impact of the fuel consumption in the vehicles use
phase. The energy consumed in the use phase is so large that it dominates the total energy
consumption of both the vehicles over their whole life cycle.

8.10. Influence of the use of Aluminium


The use of aluminium in the differential components has a significant effect on the
embodied energy in the manufacturing phase and energy consumption in the recycling
phase.

In the manufacturing phase energy comparison, the large amount of aluminium used in the
Camrys engine and automatic transmission outweighs the effects of the Prius higher total
differential components mass and use of rare metal materials. Therefore, the Prius
consumes slightly less embodied energy than the Camry in the manufacturing phase since
aluminium makes up nearly 50% (Table 18) of the total mass of the differential components
for the Camry. Aluminium is well known for being energy intensive because it requires
large amounts of embodied energy during the primary materials production, i.e. the
embodied energy coefficient for aluminium is about 7 times (Table 35) the embodied energy
coefficient for normal low carbon steel.

Besides being energy intensive in the manufacturing phase, aluminium also requires more
recycling energy relative to the other metals such as steel and iron, i.e. the recycling
embodied energy coefficient for aluminium is roughly 2 times the recycling embodied

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energy coefficient for normal low carbon steel and is about 3.6 times the recycling
embodied energy coefficient for cast iron (Table 36).

8.11. Influence of the Hybrid Battery Replacements

The replacement of the hybrid battery in the Prius is the main contributor of the energy
consumption in the maintenance of the vehicle throughout its whole life. Therefore, a
sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of varying the number of battery
replacements (see Table 25) even though it does not reflect plausible cases in reality.

If the number of battery replacements is higher than the considered reference case, e.g. 5
battery replacements over a vehicle life of 400,00km instead of only 1 battery replacement,
it would slightly increase the Prius maintenance energy in the use phase and the end-of-life
recycling energy (Table 25).This will only have a slight effect on the use phase and end-of-
life energy comparison by making the energy consumption difference between the Prius and
Camry more obvious. However, this will have little influence on the overall conclusion.

8.12. Embodied Energy Coefficients


In this study, the most important input parameter in the manufacturing and recycling phase
energy comparison is the embodied energy coefficient of the materials that are used to make
the differential components. The embodied energy coefficients for the different materials
from CES are considered reliable estimates compared to other sources since it contains a
broad range of material types and grades. Furthermore, it also has specific embodied energy
coefficients for the different life cycle phases, i.e. primary material production, processing
and end-of-life recycling. CES provides a lower and upper bound for each materials
embodied energy coefficient and the median used in this context is based on the average of
the two values.

8.13. Fuel Calorific Value


As the vehicles fuel consumption in the use phase has a significant contribution to the
overall result, the fuel calorific value is an important input parameter other than the fuel
consumption data for the different drive cycles. The fuel calorific value is slightly different
for Australia and US. The Australian calorific value for gasoline grade fuel is about 8%
(table 34) higher than the US value since it is the gross calorific value. It assumes that there
is no water present in the fuel during combustion as it has been entirely condensed. In the
US case, there are two different types of fuel calorific value and both values are slightly
lower than the Australian value, i.e. one value for summer and another for winter (table 38).
The US calorific value used in this context is based on the average of the summer and winter
values.

Both the fuel calorific values from Australia and the US were used in this study to be
consistent with the different fuel consumption data from the two countries, resulting in a
more reliable conclusion.

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9. Conclusions and Recommendations


The objectives stated in the Introduction have been successfully met since they have been modified
accordingly with time to reflect the limitations in accessing reliable resources. This was evident in
the difference of the objectives stated in the Progress Reports compared to the initial Scope of
Works document.

The overall energy consumption comparison between the Prius and Camry based on the differential
components over their whole life cycle found that full hybrids are more environmentally friendly
than conventional vehicles in terms of energy consumption. This is because the large energy
consumed in the use phase based on the vehicles fuel consumption largely determines the final
result. As such, the overall conclusion is less sensitive to changes in the energy consumption in the
manufacturing phase and at the end-of-life.

The Toyota Prius fares much better than the Camry in the use phase since it has significantly lower
fuel consumption, i.e. the fuel consumption of the Prius is about half of the Camry for all vehicle
life and drive cycles considered. As a result of this, the Camrys overall energy consumption over
its whole life cycle is roughly 1.4-2.4 times the total energy consumption of the Prius depending on
the drive cycle and vehicle life considered.

Despite the successful completion of the tasks of this project, there are still opportunities for further
work in the future regarding this subject, such as the following:
Investigate and refine estimation of the amount of rare earth metals such as lanthanum,
neodymium and cerium that are used in the Prius hybrid battery. This will give a better
indication of the sensitivity of the manufacturing energy phase in comparison to this input
parameter since rare earth metals require large amount of embodied energy during the
primary production and material extraction steps.
Use another source for the embodied energy coefficients for primary production/material
extraction, processing and recycling to perform the inventory analysis since this will help
check whether the energy consumption results in the manufacturing and end-of-life phase
are considered reasonable.
Broaden the vehicle models analysed in the energy consumption comparison to include
conventional vehicles that have a smaller or a larger engine size than the Camry and other
hybrid models such as the Australian Prius 3rd Generation and the hybrid Honda Civic (mild
hybrid system). This will help to better support the overall conclusion found in this project
so that it holds for any conventional and hybrid vehicles energy consumption comparison
based on the differential components over their whole life cycle.

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References

[1] (2009, September) Wikipedia. [Online]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Prius


[2] Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Limited. (2009) Toyota Australia. [Online].
http://www.toyota.com.au/home
[3] The Clean Green Car Company. (2005) The Clean Green Car Company. [Online].
http://www.cleangreencar.co.nz/faq-prius.html
[4] Toyota Motor Corporation, "Chassis - U250E Automatic Transaxle," in Toyota Camry Technical
Reference Manual.: Toyota Motor Corporation, 2007.
[5] Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota Prius Technical Reference Manual.: Toyota Motor Corporation
Australia Ltd, 2004.
[6] A. Burnham, M. Wang, and Y. Wu, "Development and Applications of GREET 2.7 The
Transportation Vehicle-Cycle Model," Oak Ridge, 2006.
[7] The Clean Green Car Company. (2005) The Clean Green Car Company. [Online].
http://www.cleangreencar.co.nz/prius-technical-info.html
[8] TOYOTA Motor Corporation, PRIUS Technical Reference Manual.: TOYOTA Motor Corporation
AUSTRALIA LIMITED, 2003.
[9] Toyota Motor Corporation. (2003, May) Toyota Hybrid System - THS2.
[10] (2009, September) Wikipedia. [Online].
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuously_variable_transmission
[11] Toyota Motor Corporation, "Engine - 2AZ-FXE Engine," in Toyota Camry Hybrid Technical Reference
Manual.: Toyota Motor Corporation North America, 2007.
[12] Toyota Motor Corporation, "Engine - 2AZ-FE Engine," in Toyota Camry Technical Reference Manual.,
2002.
[13] Bob Hewitt. (2007) Mister Fix It. [Online]. http://www.misterfixit.com/alterntr.htm
[14] T. A. Burress et al., "Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Synergy Drive System," Oak Ridge,
2008.
[15] R. H. Staunton, C. W. Ayers, L. D. Marlino, J. N. Chiasson, and T. A. Burress, "Evaluation of 2004
Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System," Oak Ridge, 2005.
[16] (2009, August ) Wikpedia. [Online]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel-
metal_hydride_battery#cite_note-3
[17] (2009, July) Just-Auto. [Online]. http://www.just-auto.com/article.aspx?id=100133
[18] Toyota Motor Corporation. (2004, January) Toyota Prius: 2004 Model 2nd Generation Emergency
Response Guide.
[19] Toyota Motor Corporation, "ENGINE 2AZ-FE Charging," in Scion tC Technical Reference Manual.,
2007.
[20] (2009, July) Wikipedia. [Online]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_Synergy_Drive
[21] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007, August ) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
[Online]. http://www.epa.gov/OMSWWW/rfgecon.htm

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Life Cycle Assessment

EPA. Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice; EPA/600/R-06/060; U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency: Washington, DC, 2006.

Finkbeiner, M. & Hoffman, R. (2006).Application of life cycle assessment for the environmental
certificate of the mercedes-benz s-class.The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 11,
240-246.

Jensen, A. A. (1997). Life cycle assessment (LCA) : a guide to approaches, experiences and
information sources. Copenhagen, Denmark : European Environment Agency.

ISO. ISO 14040: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and
Framework; Geneva, 2006.

ISO. ISO 14044: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Requirements and
guidelines; Geneva, 2006.

Louis, S. (1998).Life cycle assessment and design--experience from volvo car corporation.Society
of Automotive Engineers.980473.

Le Borgne, R. & Feillard, P. (1999).Specific allocation rules for automotive lcas.Society of


Automotive Engineers.980473.

Nigge, K. M. (2000). Life cycle assessment of natural gas vehicles: development and application of
site-dependent impact indicators. New York, NY: Springer

Randolph, J. (2008). Energy for sustainability : technology, planning, policy. Washington D.C, VA:
Island Press.

Ribeiro, C. , Ferreira, J. V. & Partidrio, P. (2007).Life cycle assessment of a multi-material car


component. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment.12, 336-345.

Samaras, C. & Meisterling, K. (2008).Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from
plug-in hybrid vehicles: implications for policy. Environmental Science Technology. 42, 3170
3176.

Sullivan, J. L., Costic M. M. & Han, W.(1998). Automotive Life Cycle Assessment: Overview,
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Fuel Consumption

Fueleconomy, USA. (n.d.). Retrieved 2009, from http://www.fueleconomy.gov/

Green Vehicle Guide, Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved 2009, from http://www.greenvehicleguide.gov.au/

Toyota Motor Europe. (n.d.). Retrieved 2009,


from http://www.toyota-europe.com/cars/new_cars/prius/specs.aspx

Vehicle Certification Agency, UK. (n.d.). Retrieved 2009, from http://www.vcacarfueldata.org.uk

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Appendix A. Supplementary Data - Results and Interpretation


Table 11: Fuel Consumption Difference

Fuel Consumption (L/100 km)


AU US
Combined Urban Extra-urban Combined
Prius 4.4 3.9 4.6 4.3
Camry 9.9 9.8 7.1 8.7

Table 12: Use phase Energy/Total Manufacturing Energy Prius

Prius Use Phase Energy (MJ) Use phase Energy/Total Manufacturing Energy
urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 150,480.00 - - 4.974984844
AU - 250K - - 376,200.00 - - 12.43746211
AU - 400K - - 601,920.00 - - 19.89993938
US - 100K 123,373.76 145,517.76 136,027.48 4.07883154 4.81092951 4.49717324
US - 250K 308,434.39 363,794.41 340,068.69 10.1970789 12.0273238 11.2429331
US - 400K 493,495.03 582,071.06 544,109.90 16.3153262 19.2437181 17.98869296

Table 13: Use phase Energy/Total Manufacturing Camry

Camry Use Phase Energy (MJ) Use phase Energy/Total Manufacturing Energy
urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 338,580.00 - - 10.89034599
AU - 250K - - 846,450.00 - - 27.22586497
AU - 400K - - 1,354,320.00 - - 43.56138395
US - 100K 310,016.11 224,603.51 275,218.38 9.971595095 7.2243189 8.852334421
US - 250K 775,040.27 561,508.77 688,045.95 24.92898774 18.060797 22.13083605
US - 400K 1,240,064.43 898,414.02 1,100,873.52 39.88638038 28.897276 35.40933768
Final Report 2009 page 47
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Table 14: Maintenance Energy

Prius Camry
Vehicle Life
Maintenance Maintenance
(km)
Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ)
100,000 0.00 0.00
250,000 0.00 543.59
400,000 5,457.05 1,087.18

Table 15: Camry TE/Prius TE

Prius' Total Camry' Total Camry


Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ) TE/Prius TE
combined
AU - 100K 182,179.61 371,015.46 2.04
AU - 250K 407,899.61 879,460.28 2.16
AU - 400K 639,278.10 1,387,905.09 2.17
urban
US - 100K 155,073.37 342,451.57 2.21
US - 250K 340,134.00 808,050.54 2.38
US - 400K 530,853.13 1,273,649.52 2.40
extra-urban
US - 100K 177,217.38 257,038.97 1.45
US - 250K 395,494.02 594,519.04 1.50
US - 400K 619,429.16 931,999.12 1.50
combined
US - 100K 167,727.09 307,653.84 1.83
US - 250K 371,768.30 721,056.23 1.94
US - 400K 581,468.00 1,134,458.62 1.95
Final Report 2009 page 48
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Table 16: Difference in Manufacturing Energy

Manufacturing Energy (MJ)


lower median upper
Prius 26,634.07 30,247.33 33,860.59
Camry 28,207.75 31,089.92 33,972.09
Difference 1,573.68 842.59 111.50
% Difference 5.58% 2.71% 0.33%

Table 17: Difference in Total Mass of Components

Component Prius Mass (kg) Camry Mass (kg)


Engine 86.10 130.00
Transmission 45.58 93.00
Battery 39.00 0.00
Motor 45.00 0.00
Generator 16.42 0.00
Inverter 21.17 0.00
Starter 0.00 2.95
Alternator 0.00 1.80
Total Mass 253.27 227.75

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Table 18: Breakdown of Mass per Material

Material kg kg % %
Wrought Al 45.47 82.50 17.98 36.23
Steel 83.56 65.10 33.03 28.59
Cast Al 32.12 29.61 12.70 13.00
Cast iron 10.85 16.38 4.29 7.19
Stainless steel 7.23 10.92 2.86 4.80
Rubber 4.44 10.11 1.75 4.44
Plastic 17.52 10.11 6.93 4.44
Copper 29.80 2.99 11.78 1.31
Organic 2.74 0.00 1.08 0.00
Nickel 11.00 0.00 4.35 0.00
Iron 4.68 0.00 1.85 0.00
Rare Earth Metals 2.46 0.00 0.97 0.00
Cobalt 0.70 0.00 0.28 0.00
Magnesium 0.39 0.00 0.15 0.00
Wrought Al + Cast Al 77.60 112.11 30.67 49.23

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Table 19: Increasing the Mass of Rare Earth Metals in the Hybrid Battery

Mass of Battery Prius' Total Camry's Total


Manufacturing Energy of Energy
Rare Earth Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Manufacturing Energy
Rare Metals (MJ) Difference
Metals (kg) Energy (MJ) (MJ) (MJ)
2.46 1,579.32 5,458.98 30249.25 31,089.92 840.67
5.00 3,210.00 7,089.66 31879.93 31,089.92 790.01
10.00 6,420.00 10,299.66 35089.93 31,089.92 4,000.01
15.00 9,630.00 13,509.66 38299.93 31,089.92 7,210.01
20.00 12,840.00 16,719.66 41509.93 31,089.92 10,420.01

Table 20: Prius Energy Consumption in the Use Phase

Use Phase Energy (MJ)


urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 150,480.00
AU - 250K - - 376,200.00
AU - 400K - - 601,920.00
US - 100K 123,373.76 145,517.76 136,027.48
US - 250K 308,434.39 363,794.41 340,068.69
US - 400K 493,495.03 582,071.06 544,109.90

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Table 21: Camry Energy Consumption in the Use Phase

Use Phase Energy (MJ)


urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 338,580.00
AU - 250K - - 846,450.00
AU - 400K - - 1,354,320.00
US - 100K 310,016.11 224,603.51 275,218.38
US - 250K 775,040.27 561,508.77 688,045.95
US - 400K 1,240,064.43 898,414.02 1,100,873.52

Table 22: Camrys Energy Consumption/Prius Energy Consumption in Use Phase

Camry's Energy Consumption/Prius' Energy


Consumption
urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 2.25
AU - 250K - - 2.25
AU - 400K - - 2.25
US - 100K 2.512820513 1.543478261 2.023255814
US - 250K 2.512820513 1.543478261 2.023255814
US - 400K 2.512820513 1.543478261 2.023255814

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Table 23: Breakdown of Prius' Differential Components Manufacturing Energy

Note: Median values used for Primary Material Production, Material Processing and Manufacturing Energy

Primary
Processing Manufacturing
Toyota Prius Production
Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ)
Energy (MJ)
1.5L Engine 10,231.99 328.57 10560.56
Hybrid
3614.77
Transmission 3,443.61 171.16
Battery 5,334.95 122.11 5457.05
Motor 5,004.06 145.75 5149.81
Generator 1,825.93 53.18 1879.11
Inverter 3,481.94 104.09 3586.03

Table 24: Breakdown of Camry's Differential Components Manufacturing Energy

Note: Median values used for Primary Material Production, Material Processing and Manufacturing Energy

Primary Processing
Manufacturing
Toyota Camry Production Energy
Energy (MJ)
Energy (MJ) (MJ)
2.4L Engine 15,448.99 496.11 15945.10
Automatic
Transmission 14,257.60 343.64 14601.23
Starter 328.04 9.55 337.60
Alternator 200.16 5.83 205.99

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Table 25: Increasing the Number of Battery Replacements for Prius

Note: Energy Increase with respect to reference case - 1 Battery Replacement for Vehicle Life of 400,000km for Australian
Combined Driving. Median values used for Manufacturing, Maintenance and Recycling Energy (CES Recycling %)

Maintenance Recycling Prius' Total Life Total Life Cycle


No. of Battery Maintenance Recycling
Energy Increase Energy Increase Cycle Energy Energy
Replacements Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ)
(MJ) (MJ) (MJ) Increase(MJ)
0 0.00 - 1,452.28 - 633,619.61 -
1 5,457.05 - 1,653.72 - 639,278.10 -
2 10,914.11 5,457.05 1,855.15 201.43 644,936.59 5,658.49
3 16,371.16 10,914.11 2,056.58 402.87 650,595.08 11,316.98
4 21,828.22 16,371.16 2,258.02 604.30 656,253.56 16,975.46
5 27,285.27 21,828.22 2,459.45 805.73 661,912.05 22,633.95

Table 26: Recycling Energy of Aluminium as a % of Total Recycling Energy

Note: Median values used for Recycling Energy (CES Recycling %)


Recycling Recycling
Material % %
Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ)
Wrought Al 362.25 657.21 24.94 47.74
Steel 312.66 250.03 21.53 18.16
Cast Iron 38.92 58.76 2.68 4.27
Stainless Steel 61.54 92.91 4.24 6.75
Plastic 30.81 17.78 2.12 1.29
Copper 235.26 33.81 16.20 2.46
Nickel 111.50 0.00 7.68 0.00
Iron 16.24 0.00 1.12 0.00
Cobalt 4.37 0.00 0.30 0.00
Magnesium 5.74 0.00 0.40 0.00
Cast Al 273.00 266.26 18.80 19.34
Final Report 2009 page 54
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Table 27: Breakdown of Recycling Energy per Component

Note: Median values used for Recycling Energy (CES Recycling %)

Recycling Recycling
Component % %
Energy (MJ) Energy (MJ)
Engine 491.67 742.37 33.86 53.92
Transmission 244.33 571.95 16.82 41.54
Battery 201.43 0 13.87 0
Motor 295.82 0 20.37 0
Generator 107.94 0 7.43 0
Inverter 111.08 0 7.65 0
Starter 0 38.79 0.00 2.82
Alternator 0 23.67 0.00 1.72

Table 28: Recycling Energy

CES 75% Case 100% Case


Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper
Prius 1241.25 1452.28 1700.11 2816.38 3357.56 3898.74 3755.17 4476.75 5198.32
Camry 1157.41 1345.54 1559.19 2391.97 2778.06 3164.15 3189.29 3704.08 4218.87

Table 29: Recycling Energy at % of Total Manufacturing Energy

Recycling Energy as a % of Total Manufacturing Energy


CES 75% Case 100% Case
Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper
Prius 4.66% 4.80% 5.02% 10.57% 11.10% 11.51% 14.10% 14.80% 15.35%
Camry 4.10% 4.33% 4.59% 8.48% 8.94% 9.31% 11.31% 11.91% 12.42%

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Table 30: Recycling Energy/Use Phase Energy

CES 75% Recycling 100% Recycling


combined Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper
AU - 100K 0.8249% 0.9651% 1.1298% 1.8716% 2.2312% 2.5909% 2.4955% 2.9750% 3.4545%
AU - 250K 0.3299% 0.3860% 0.4519% 0.7486% 0.8925% 1.0363% 0.9982% 1.1900% 1.3818%
AU - 400K 0.2341% 0.2747% 0.3238% 0.5694% 0.6905% 0.8116% 0.7592% 0.9206% 1.0821%
urban
US - 100K 1.0061% 1.1771% 1.3780% 2.2828% 2.7215% 3.1601% 3.0437% 3.6286% 4.2135%
US - 250K 0.4024% 0.4709% 0.5512% 0.9131% 1.0886% 1.2640% 1.2175% 1.4514% 1.6854%
US - 400K 0.2855% 0.3351% 0.3949% 0.6945% 0.8422% 0.9899% 0.9260% 1.1229% 1.3199%
extra-urban
US - 100K 0.8530% 0.9980% 1.1683% 1.9354% 2.3073% 2.6792% 2.5806% 3.0764% 3.5723%
US - 250K 0.3412% 0.3992% 0.4673% 0.7742% 0.9229% 1.0717% 1.0322% 1.2306% 1.4289%
US - 400K 0.2421% 0.2841% 0.3348% 0.5888% 0.7140% 0.8393% 0.7850% 0.9520% 1.1190%
combined
US - 100K 0.9125% 1.0676% 1.2498% 2.0705% 2.4683% 2.8661% 2.7606% 3.2911% 3.8215%
US - 250K 0.3650% 0.4271% 0.4999% 0.8282% 0.9873% 1.1465% 1.1042% 1.3164% 1.5286%
US - 400K 0.2590% 0.3039% 0.3582% 0.6299% 0.7638% 0.8978% 0.8398% 1.0185% 1.1971%

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CES 75% Case 100% Case


combined Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper Lower Median Upper
AU - 100K 0.3418% 0.3974% 0.4605% 0.7065% 0.8205% 0.9345% 0.9420% 1.0940% 1.2460%
AU - 250K 0.1399% 0.1627% 0.1885% 0.2884% 0.3347% 0.3810% 0.3846% 0.4463% 0.5080%
AU - 400K 0.0894% 0.1040% 0.1205% 0.1839% 0.2133% 0.2426% 0.2452% 0.2843% 0.3235%
urban
US - 100K 0.3733% 0.4340% 0.5029% 0.7716% 0.8961% 1.0206% 1.0287% 1.1948% 1.3609%
US - 250K 0.1528% 0.1776% 0.2058% 0.3150% 0.3655% 0.4161% 0.4200% 0.4874% 0.5548%
US - 400K 0.0976% 0.1135% 0.1316% 0.2009% 0.2329% 0.2649% 0.2678% 0.3105% 0.3533%
extra-urban
US - 100K 0.5153% 0.5991% 0.6942% 1.0650% 1.2369% 1.4088% 1.4200% 1.6492% 1.8784%
US - 250K 0.2109% 0.2452% 0.2841% 0.4348% 0.5045% 0.5743% 0.5797% 0.6727% 0.7657%
US - 400K 0.1348% 0.1567% 0.1816% 0.2772% 0.3215% 0.3657% 0.3697% 0.4286% 0.4876%
combined
US - 100K 0.4205% 0.4889% 0.5665% 0.8691% 1.0094% 1.1497% 1.1588% 1.3459% 1.5329%
US - 250K 0.1721% 0.2001% 0.2319% 0.3548% 0.4118% 0.4687% 0.4731% 0.5490% 0.6249%
US - 400K 0.1100% 0.1279% 0.1482% 0.2263% 0.2623% 0.2984% 0.3017% 0.3498% 0.3979%

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Table 31: Varying Drive cycle and Vehicle Life

Prius Use Phase Energy (MJ) Use Phase Energy (MJ)


urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 150,480.00 AU - 100K - - 338,580.00
AU - 250K - - 376,200.00 AU - 250K - - 846,450.00
AU - 400K - - 601,920.00 AU - 400K - - 1,354,320.00
US - 100K 123,373.76 145,517.76 136,027.48 US - 100K 310,016.11 224,603.51 275,218.38
US - 250K 308,434.39 363,794.41 340,068.69 US - 250K 775,040.27 561,508.77 688,045.95
US - 400K 493,495.03 582,071.06 544,109.90 US - 400K 1,240,064.43 898,414.02 1,100,873.52

Table 32: Variation in Fuel Consumption for Different US Drive Cycles

Fuel Comsumption (L/100 km)


US AU
Urban Extra-urban Combined Combined
Prius 3.9 4.6 4.3 4.4
Urban Cycle less by how much % 15.22% 9.30%
Camry 9.8 7.1 8.7 9.9
Urban Cycle more by how much % 38.03% 12.64%

Table 33: Increasing Vehicle Life

Use Phase Energy (MJ)


urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 150,480.00 - - -
AU - 250K - - 376,200.00 - - 2.5
AU - 400K - - 601,920.00 - - 1.6
US - 100K 123,373.76 145,517.76 136,027.48 - - -
US - 250K 308,434.39 363,794.41 340,068.69 2.5 2.5 2.5
US - 400K 493,495.03 582,071.06 544,109.90 1.6 1.6 1.6
Final Report 2009 page 58
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Use Phase Energy (MJ)


urban extra-urban combined urban extra-urban combined
AU - 100K - - 338,580.00 - - -
AU - 250K - - 846,450.00 - - 2.5
AU - 400K - - 1,354,320.00 - - 1.6
US - 100K 310,016.11 224,603.51 275,218.38 - - -
US - 250K 775,040.27 561,508.77 688,045.95 2.5 2.5 2.5
US - 400K 1,240,064.43 898,414.02 1,100,873.52 1.6 1.6 1.6

Table 34: Recycling Energy Increase from 75% to 100% Recycling Case

Recycling Energy % Difference between 75% &


100% Recycling
Lower Median Upper
Prius 33% 33% 33%
Camry 33% 33% 33%

Table 35: Primary Material Production

Primary production
Embodied Energy Coefficient
Lower Median Upper
Low Carbon Steel 29.00 32.00 35.00
Rare Earth Metals 354.00 642.00 930.00
Wrought Aluminium 197.00 207.50 218.00
Cast Aluminium 209.00 220.00 231.00

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Table 36: Recycling Embodied Energy Ceofficitnets

Recycling
Embodied Energy Coefficient
Lower Median Upper
Low Carbon Steel 8.47 8.92 9.37
Wrought Aluminium 17.10 18.70 20.30
Cast Aluminium 17.40 19.95 22.50
Cast Iron 4.92 5.18 5.44

Table 37: Difference in Fuel Calorific Value between Australia and US

Fuel Calorific Value (MJ/L)

AU US
34.2 31.6342966
Australian value higher than US by how much % 8.11%

Table 38: US Fuel Calorific Values

MJ/L
L/Gal Summer Winter Average
3.785411784 31.9130129 31.3555804 31.6342966

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Appendix B. Input Data


Table 15: Mass & Material Composition for Prius

Total Mass % Mass


Toyota Prius Materials
(kg) Composition (kg)
wrought Al 42 36.16
steel 27.3 23.51
cast iron 12.6 10.85
1.5L Engine 86.1 stainless steel 8.4 7.23
rubber 4.2 3.62
plastic 4.2 3.62
copper 1.3 1.12
steel 60.5 27.58
wrought Al 20 9.12
Hybrid Transmission 45.58 copper 19 8.66
organic 0.3 0.14
plastic 0.2 0.09
nickel 28.2 11.00
steel 23.7 9.24
plastic 22.5 8.78
iron 12 4.68
rare earth metals 6.3 2.46
Battery 39
copper 3.9 1.52
cobalt 1.8 0.70
magnesium 1 0.39
wrought Al 0.5 0.20
rubber 0.1 0.04
steel 36.1 16.25
Motor 45 cast Al 36.1 16.25
copper 27.3 12.29
steel 36.1 5.93
Generator 16.42 cast Al 36.1 5.93
copper 27.3 4.48
steel 5 1.06
cast Al 47 9.95
copper 8.2 1.74
Inverter 21.17
rubber 3.7 0.78
plastic 23.8 5.04
organic 12.3 2.60

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Table 16: Mass & Material Composition for Camry

Total Mass % Mass


Toyota Camry Materials
(kg) Composition (kg)

wrought Al 42 54.6
steel 27.3 35.49
cast iron 12.6 16.38
2.4L Engine 130 stainless steel 8.4 10.92
rubber 4.2 5.46
plastic 4.2 5.46
copper 1.3 1.69
steel 30 27.9
wrought Al 30 27.9
Automatic
93 cast Al 30 27.9
Transmission
plastic 5 4.65
rubber 5 4.65
steel 36.1 1.06
Starter 2.95
cast Al 36.1 1.06

Table 17:Embodied Energy Coefficients & Recyclability

Primary
Processing Recycling Recycling
Materials production Type of Process
(MJ/kg) (MJ/kg) %
(MJ/kg)
Wrought Al 207.50 2.65 Casting 18.70 42.6
Cast Al 220.00 2.51 Casting 19.95 42.6
Steel 32.00 4.41 Casting 8.92 41.95
Plastic 141.75 8.71 Polymer Molding 59.50 2.955
Copper 74.10 2.72 Casting 18.40 42.9
Rare Earth Metals 642.00 0.00 Chemical 0.00 0
Nickel 133.50 0.00 Chemical 33.35 30.4
Cast Iron 17.30 3.25 Casting 5.18 69.25
Rubber 167.40 7.81 Polymer Molding 0.00 0
Stainless Steel 81.25 4.31 Casting 22.75 37.4
Cobalt 481.00 0.00 Chemical 24.95 24.95
Organic 109.50 7.61 Polymer Molding 0.00 0
Magnesium 377.00 0.00 Chemical 38.00 38.75
Iron 22.50 0.00 Chemical 6.31 55.05

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Appendix C. Summary of Results


Energy Consumption Calculations

Manufacturing Phase Energy

Prius Camry
Vehicle Life
Manufacturing Energy Manufacturing Energy
(km)
(MJ) (MJ)
100,000 30,247.33 31,089.92
250,000 30,247.33 31,089.92
400,000 30,247.33 31,089.92

Use Phase Energy

Drive Vehicle Life Prius Camry


Cycle (km) Use Phase Energy (MJ) Use Phase Energy (MJ)
100,000 150,480 338,580
AU
250,000 376,200 846,450
combined
400,000 601,920 1,354,320
100,000 123,373.76 310,016.11
US
250,000 308,434.39 775,040.27
urban
400,000 493,495.03 1,240,064.43
100,000 145,517.76 224,603.51
US
250,000 363,794.41 561,508.77
extra-urban
400,000 582,071.06 898,414.02
100,000 136,027.48 275,218.38
US
250,000 340,068.69 688,045.95
combined
400,000 544,109.90 1,100,873.52

Maintenance Energy

Prius Camry
Vehicle Life
Maintenance Energy Maintenance Energy
(km)
(MJ) (MJ)
100,000 0.00 0.00
250,000 0.00 543.59
400,000 5,457.05 1,087.18

Note: Maintenance energy = (number of replacements)*(manufacturing energy of component)

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Recycling Energy

Prius Camry
Recycling Vehicle Life
Recycling Energy Recycling Energy
Percentage (km)
(MJ) (MJ)
0% 250,000 0.00 0.00
100,000 0.00 0.00
CES 250,000 0.00 2.43
400,000 138.06 4.86
75% 250,000 0.00 4.35
100% 250,000 0.00 5.80

Note: Recycling energy takes into account recycling of component replacements

Inventory Table

Primary Recycling Energy (MJ)


Processing Manufacturing
Toyota Prius Production
(MJ) Energy (MJ) 0% CES 75% 100%
(MJ)
1.5L Engine 10,231.99 328.57 10,560.56 0.00 491.67 1,006.79 1,342.39
Hybrid
3,443.61 171.16 3,614.77 0.00 244.33 435.91 581.22
Transmission
Battery 5,334.95 122.11 5,457.05 0.00 201.43 798.61 1,064.82
Motor 5,004.06 145.75 5,149.81 0.00 295.82 521.28 695.04
Generator 1,825.93 53.18 1,879.11 0.00 107.94 190.21 253.61
Inverter 3,481.94 104.09 3,586.03 0.00 111.08 404.75 539.67

Primary Recycling Energy (MJ)


Toyota Processing Manufacturing
Production
Camry (MJ) Energy (MJ) 0% CES 75% 100%
(MJ)
2.4L Engine 15,448.99 496.11 15,945.10 0.00 742.37 1,520.13 2,026.84
Automatic
Transmission 14,257.60 343.64 14,601.23 0.00 571.95 1,202.91 1,603.88
Starter 328.04 9.55 337.60 0.00 19.39 34.17 45.56
Alternator 200.16 5.83 205.99 0.00 11.83 20.85 27.80

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Appendix D. Toyota Prius and Toyota Camry

2004 Toyota Prius


DIMENSIONS
Length (mm) 4445
Width (mm) 1725
Height (mm) 1490
Wheelbase (mm) 2700
Ground clearance - unladen (mm) 107

WEIGHT
Kerb Weight (kg) 1295-1325
Gross Vehicle Mass (kg) 1725
Seating capacity (includes driver) 5
Luggage capacity (litres) 456
Fuel Tank Capacity (litres) 45

DRIVETRAIN
Driven Wheels Front
Transmission Type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Transmission description Electronically controlled

ENGINE
Engine type Petrol
Engine capacity (cc) 1497
Engine description 4cyl/DOHC/4v
Maximum Power 57kW @ 5000rpm
Maximum Torque 115Nm @ 4000rpm
Configuration In-line
Valvetrain DOHC
Number of valves per cylinder 4v
- Variable valve timing Timing only
Fuel system EFI
- Fuel type 91 RON ULP
- Hybrid - Max System Output 82kW
Fuel economy ADR 81/02 Test standard
- Combined (L/100km) 4.4
WARRANTY / SERVICE
Vehicle in years/kilometres 3yrs or 100,000kms

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2007 Toyota Camry


DIMENSIONS
Length (mm) 4815
Width (mm) 1820
Height (mm) 1480
Wheelbase (mm) 2775
Ground clearance - unladen (mm) 129

WEIGHT
Kerb Weight (kg) 1535
Gross Vehicle Mass (kg) 2015
Seating capacity (includes driver) 5
Luggage capacity (litres) 504
Fuel Tank Capacity (litres) 70

DRIVETRAIN
Driven Wheels Front
Transmission Type 5-speed Automatic
Transmission description Electronically controlled

ENGINE
Engine type Petrol
Engine capacity (cc) 2362
Engine description 4cyl/DOHC/4v
Maximum Power 117kW @ 5700rpm
Maximum Torque 218Nm @ 4000rpm
Configuration In-line
Valvetrain DOHC
Number of valves per cylinder 4v
- Variable valve timing Timing only
Fuel system EFI
- Fuel type 91 RON ULP
Fuel economy ADR 81/02 Test standard
- Combined (L/100km) 9.9
WARRANTY / SERVICE
Vehicle in years/kilometres 3yrs or 100,000kms

Final Report 2009 page 66


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Appendix E. Life Cycle Assessment


From ISO -- LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts
throughout a products life cycle from raw material acquisition through production,
use, end-of-life treatment, recycling and final disposal (cradle-to-grave).

There are four phases in an LCA study:


a) The goal and scope definition phase
b) The inventory analysis phase
An inventory of input/output data with the system involving collection of data necessary to meet
goals of study.
c) The impact assessment phase [omitted]
LCIA provides additional information to help assess a product systems LCI results to better
understand their environmental significance. For each impact category, a life cycle impact
category indicator is selected and the category indicator result is calculated; the collection of
indicator results provides information on the environmental issues associated with the inputs
and outputs of the product system.
d) The interpretation phase
The results of an LCI or LCIA are summarised and discussed as a basis for conclusions,
recommendations and decision-making in accordance with the goal and scope definition.

Goal and Scope Definition

The goal of an LCA states:


The intended application
The reasons for carrying out the study
The intended audience, i.e. to whom the results of the study are intended to be communicated
Whether the results are intended to be used in comparative assertions intended to be disclosed to the
public

The scope should be sufficiently well defined to ensure that the breadth, depth and detail of the
study are compatible and sufficient to address the stated goal.
The scope includes the following items:
The product system to be studied
The functions of the product system or, in the case of comparative studies, the systems
The functional unit
The system boundary
Allocation procedures
Impact categories selected and methodology of impact assessment, and subsequent interpretation to be
used
Data requirements
Assumptions
Limitations
Initial data quality requirements
Type of critical review, if any
Type and format of the report required for the study

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Function, functional unit and reference flows

The scope of an LCA shall clearly specify the functions (performance characteristics) of the system
being studied.

Functional Unit (ISO) -- LCA is a relative approach, which is structured around a functional
unit. This functional unit defines what is being studied and is necessary to ensure comparability of
LCA results. All subsequent analyses are then relative to that functional unit, as all inputs and
outputs in the LCI are related to the functional unit. It must be clearly defined and measureable.

The functional unit shall be consistent with the goal and scope of the study.

System Boundaries

The system boundary defines the unit processes to be included in the system. The selection of the
system boundary shall be consistent with the goal of the study. The criteria used in establishing the
system boundary shall be identified and explained.
Decisions shall be made regarding which unit processes to include in the study and the level of
detail to which these shall be studied.

The deletion of life cycle stages, processes, inputs or outputs is only permitted if it does not
significantly change the overall conclusions of the study. Reasons and implications for any
decisions to omit shall be explained.

System Boundaries examples of life cycle stages, unit processes and flows:
Acquisition of raw materials
Inputs and outputs in the main manufacturing/processing sequence
Distribution/transportation
Production and use of fuels, electricity and heat
Use and maintenance of products
Disposal of process wastes and products
Recovery of used products (includes reuse, recycling and energy recovery)
Manufacture of ancillary materials (i.e. material used by the process producing the product but which does not constitute part of
the product)
Additional operations, such as lighting and heating

Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI) - Data Collection

The qualitative and quantitative data for inclusion in the inventory shall be collected for each unit
process that is included within the system boundary. The collected data, whether measured,
calculated or estimated, are utilised to quantify the inputs and outputs of a unit process.
Data for each unit process within the systems boundary can be classified under major headings:

Energy inputs, raw material inputs, ancillary inputs, other physical inputs
Products, co-products and waste
Emissions to air, discharges to water and soil
Other environmental aspects

Data collection can be a source-intensive process. Practical constraints on the data collection should
be considered in the scope and documented in the study report.

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Data calculation

Following the data collection, calculation procedures, including


Validation of data collected
The relating of data to unit processes
The relating of data to the reference flow of the functional unit
are needed to generate the results of the inventory of the defined system for each unit processes and
for the defined functional unit for the product system that is to be modelled. The calculation of
energy flows should take into account the different fuels and electricity sources used, the efficiency
of conversion and distribution of energy flow, as well as the inputs and outputs associated with the
generation and use of that energy flow.

Appendix F. LCA Task Descriptors


Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

Planning Goal Definition and Scoping


Define the statement of objectives for this assessment.
Define and describe the specific hybrid and conventional vehicles chosen with similar
operating specifications.
Identify the system boundaries in which the differential LCA is to be made.
Identify the environmental effects to be reviewed and the suitable environmental parameters
to be used.
Establish the aggregation and evaluation method to be used in performing the differential
LCA.
Establish a practical strategy for data collection taking into account the limitations and
restrictions of gaining access to information from vehicle manufacturers.

Screening
Execute the preliminary stages of the differential LCA.
Adjust plans accordingly during the whole differential LCA process.

Data Collection
Collect and obtain relevant data from various sources through interviews, literature search,
theoretical calculations, database search and qualified guessing.

Inventory Analysis
Identify and quantify all the environmental and economic inputs and outputs (eg. energy,
water and materials usage and environmental releases) of the processes that occur during the
life cycle of the different components of the hybrid and conventional vehicles. This
includes production phase, distribution, use and final disposal of the components.
Compute the inventory table of all the relevant environmental inputs and outputs associated
with the different components of the vehicles.

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Impact Assessment Evaluation (Task deleted)


Classify all the substances in the inventory table into impact categories according to the
effect they have on the environment.
Aggregate within the category (characterisation) to produce an effect score by applying
weighting factors to the different substances.
Normalise each effect calculated for the life cycle of the different components of the
vehicles by benchmarking against the known total effect for this category in order to have a
better understanding of the relative size of an effect.
Weigh the different categories (valuation) by multiplying the normalised effect scores by a
weighting factor representing the relative importance of the effect.

Improvement Assessment
Conduct a sensitivity analysis to improve the results from the impact assessment.
Improve priority and conduct a feasibility assessment to further improve the results from the
impact assessment. (Task deleted)

Interpretation
Evaluate the results of the inventory analysis and improvement assessment to select the
preferred vehicle type based on the assumptions and uncertainties used to generate the
results.

Completion of Tasks (Progress Report 1)

March 2009
Scope of Work Defined projects objectives, tasks and timelines.
Melbourne International Motor Show Collected general information about hybrid vehicle
models, eco cars and upcoming electric vehicles in the Australian market.
Visited Toyota dealer Had a close look at Toyota Prius II and obtained the Prius 1st & 2nd
Generation Technical Reference Manual.
Researched about Toyota Prius, Honda Civic Hybrid, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and
Differential LCA through the library SuperSearch and external contacts (on going)
Wrote emails to contact the vehicle manufacturers (Eg. Toyota, Honda and BEV) and other
organisations (Eg. CSIRO, Harry Watson from SAE, RACV, VicRoads and Australian LCA
society).
Started an online Google groups Allows easy access to files for sharing and storage.

April 2009
Prepared the project description for the Meridians brochure publication.
Called Toyota and Honda headquarters in Australia and Japan.
Received email responses from RMIT, Green Vehicle Guide and Greenwheels.
Visited Honda dealer Had a close look at Honda Civic Hybrid 2nd Generation.
Choose the Toyota Prius over Honda Civic as the hybrid model for the project.
Project scope narrowed down to focus only on embodied energy used in vehicle
manufacture and the energy consumption in the use, disposal and recycling phases.
Read through the Prius 2nd Generation Technical Reference Manual gained an
understanding of how a full hybrid system functions, summarised the important information
obtained and identified the different components in the hybrid vehicle technology compared

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to a conventional vehicle.
Compiled a differential component list between hybrid and conventional vehicles
Research narrowed down to focus on:
o Toyota Prius II differential components weights and materials
o Embodied energy coefficients
o Fuel consumption for vehicle operation
o Car manufacturing and recycling processes
Contacted Harry Watson from SAE, Chris Manzie, Michael Brear, Colin Burvill and a few
Melbourne Universitys postgraduates for industry contacts but was not successful.
Produced drafts for the Goal Definition and Scoping by incorporating the changes in focus
of the project.
Started an online work management space Allows easier access to file sharing, storage and
management of large amounts of research journals.

May 2009
Followed up with Toyota headquarters in Australia and Japan.
Visited Toyota dealer Clarified some of the information about Toyota Prius II from the
Technical Reference Manual.
Decided not to focus on a specific conventional vehicle model and broaden research scope
because there are only small differences between components for different conventional
vehicle models.
Obtained SimaPro program from John Weir.
Updated the differential component list between hybrid and conventional vehicles after
doing further research.
Produced a general equation for calculating the total embodied energy of a component over
the vehicles manufacturing, use, disposal and recycling phases.
Attended 2 hour LCA lecture given by EPA specialist.
Continued research on:
o Life Cycle Assessment
o Toyota Prius differential components weights and materials
o Embodied energy coefficients
o Car manufacturing and recycling processes
o Reliability of fuel consumption data

Completion of Tasks (Progress Report 2)

Differential Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis(LCA) Methodology


Asako attended the LCA two days course by RMITs Centre of Design on the 27-28 May
2009 and gained a detailed understanding of the LCA methodology and how to perform it.

Vehicle Manufacturing Processes


Registered and coordinated to undertake tour of Toyota Australias manufacturing plant site
in Altona on August 6th 2009.
Attended the plant site visit and gained a practical insight into how cars are manufactured.

Life Cycle Inventory


Decided to use an Excel spreadsheet (GREET model) instead of SimaPro to quantify the
data and to perform the inventory calculations.
Produced a template for the data inventory table.

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Differential Components Information


Researched about conventional vehicles and identified the differential components
compared to hybrids.
Choose the Toyota Camry 7th Generation as the conventional vehicle model for comparison.
Decided to use the general material compositions of HEVs instead of specific information
for Toyota Prius components.
Updated the differential components list between hybrids and conventional vehicles that will
be used in the Inventory Analysis and Improvement Assessment.

Embodied Energy Coefficients


Found that embodied energy coefficients obtained from different sources vary significantly
depending on the assumptions used for calculating the coefficients.
Decided to use the CES software as the main source for the embodied energy coefficients.
Obtained the embodied energy coefficients for primary material production, material
processing and recycling.
Decided to use the lower and upper bound values for the embodied energy coefficients
found in the CES software for the inventory calculations.
Decided to use the embodied energy coefficients for NZ building materials to check that the
coefficients obtained from CES are reasonable values.

Energy Equation
Modified the general equation for calculating the vehicles total energy consumption
throughout its life cycle.

Fuel Consumption
Obtained the fuel consumption data for Toyota Prius II from Australia and Europe.
Verified that the fuel consumption data are reliable because the driving tests conducted
follow the European test standards.
Found the definition of combined driving, that is the proportion of urban and non-urban
driving that is used in the European test standards.
Obtained the fuel consumption data for Toyota Camry 7th Generation from Australia and
US.
Found that the US fuel consumption data for Toyota Prius II varies significantly compared
to the Australian and European data.

Drive Cycle
Decide to verify whether its comparable to use the US fuel consumption data with the
Australian or Europe fuel consumption data first before deciding on whether to vary the
drive cycles in the sensitivity analysis.

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Appendix G. LCA Literature Review


Automotive Life Cycle Assessment: Overview, Metrics, and Examples (Ford Motor Company,
1998)

Presents a modified approach called MLCA applied to automotive studies. The MLCA method
simplifies the life cycle inventory output and the objective is to first classify and reduce a large
amount of information to a minimal set of categories, then finding an environmental metric for each
category. The LCIA phase is omitted in MLCA. The environmentally significant categories are
defined specifically for application to a vehicle, some notable categories include:
Consumed Resources
o Life Cycle Stage Energy direct and indirect consumption
o Life Cycle Hydrocarbons direct and indirect hydrocarbons burned
o Life Cycle Fuel Requirement fuel for 120,000 miles for vehicle operation
o System Weight constituent materials of parts and vehicle
Resources Saved
o % Recycled Content amount of vehicle material from recycled sources
o % Recycled at vehicle end-of-life
Emissions (Solid, Atmospheric and Waterborne)

The Life-cycle Inventory is collaborated and information is gathered for the vehicle life cycle
stages: Material Production; Part fabrication and Vehicle Assembly; Vehicle Transportation;
Vehicle Maintenance; Vehicle End-of-Life.

The principles behind the MLCA method described in this report can potentially be applied to our
study. For instance, we could further investigate the relevant environmentally significant categories
for vehicles to assist in life cycle inventory analysis and the holistic concepts behind simplification
of LCA can be applied to our study. In addition, depending on accessibility to information
referenced, some information may be transferrable to consolidate conventional vehicle data.

Specific Allocation Rules for Automotive LCAs (Peugeot Citron, 1999)

Focus on development of inventory step in LCA for the automotive sector with specific attention to
the use and end of life vehicle phases. As there are no definitive conclusions on how LCAs are
applied to the automotive industry, this paper studies allocation rules.
Useful notes on Use Phase:
Main parameters are fuel consumption and emissions of pollutants
Necessary to define reference drive cycle MVEG European drive cycle chosen which
expresses urban and extra-urban driving in terms of acceleration, deceleration and time of idle
phases. Emissions then calculated based on drive cycle.
Fuel consumption previously calculated based on mass allocation but assumes that
consumption is mainly driven by mass ignoring other parameters (e.g. aerodynamics)

The discussion and alternative methods available in conducting analysis for the use and end of life
phase of a vehicle can be applicable for our study. The different methods can be discussed and an
evaluation can be made as to which method would be most beneficial for the goal and purpose of
our LCA. Although the paper comes to some conclusions and develops methods that extend further

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than those generally practised, we may find that some of the recommended allocation rules may not
be best applied in our scenario as they could add an unnecessary level of complexity.

Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications
for Policy (Samaras, Meisterling, 2008)

Potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector by using plug-in hybrid
vehicles (PHEV) is investigated as these reductions are dependent on low-carbon electricity
sources. Key areas of the study include assessment of the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and
the associated emissions from the battery component. The investigation of electricity generation
infrastructure and alternatives play a major role in this study.

Life-Cycle Assessment is used in conjunction with economic input-output methodology (EIO) to


compare the life cycle energy use and global warming potential of three plug-in hybrid vehicles in
comparison to a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) such as the Toyota Prius and a conventional gasoline
vehicle (CV) such as the Toyota Corolla. Hybrid electric vehicles are included in the study as
another approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through improving fuel economy.

The study concludes that PHEV reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 32% compared to
conventional vehicles, but in comparison to hybrid electric vehicles the reduction is small. The
greenhouse gases associated with the PHEV lithium-ion battery materials and production account
for 2-5% of total emissions.

Out of the literature the team has reviewed so far, this study is comparatively the closest to the
objectives of our project. The availability of supporting documents also makes it a good candidate
for closer inspection and study. It is interesting to note that the greenhouse gases for the battery
production accounted for only 2-5% of emissions which we believe is lower than expected, we will
further study the LCA method used to determine whether this is a sound conclusion to make.

Although, the team is unlikely to follow the methods of analysis (i.e. will not use economic input-
output), acquiring a firm understanding of the steps used would benefit the progress of our work.
Further investigation into the data used may also lead to discovery of useable information for our
project.

Functional 1 km of vehicle travel in the United States. Useful life of all vehicles is assumed to be
Unit 240,000km. The PHEVs considered have electric ranges of 30 km, 60km and 90km.
Boundaries Includes greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use and fuel production, and
vehicle and storage battery production
Emissions of vehicle end-of-life are omitted as assumed to be small compared to use
phase
Under resource extraction and product production considering processes: Automobile
production (EIO), fuel production, electricity generation and battery production
Under use phase Service and Maintenance included as an additional input to Vehicle,
Fuel, Electricity and Battery.
Under end-of-life: Vehicle end-of-life and Battery waste disposal considered
Vehicle Automobile manufacturing for all vehicles assumed equivalent apart from addition of
Production storage batteries for hybrid vehicles. HEV electric motors and equipment assumed to
Boundaries account for any differences due to having a smaller IC engine than a comparable CV.
Follows the work of Lave and MacLean in using the Toyota Corolla for the baseline CV
due to similar characteristics, dimensions, and curb weight to the Toyota Prius.
Analysis omits impacts from vehicle service and maintenance (assume similar across
vehicle technologies or that differences have a negligible impact in comparison with the use
phase)

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Battery Battery alternatives explored: Nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries.


Production HEV has Li-ion battery of 16kg and PHEV has Li-ion batteries weighing 75-250kg
depending on electric range. Data on primary energy use for battery production and
recycling comes from Rydh and Sandens cradle-to-grave analysis.
Data Use economic input-output methodology (EIO) to estimate greenhouse gas emissions
Analysis from vehicle manufacturing. Price premium of HEV and PHEV are considered in this
analysis.
EIO-LCA model uses published input-output economic accounts and determines
environmental discharges associated with a dollar value of economic activity in each
sector of the US economy.
GREET estimations of impacts used for batter manufacturing

Application of Life Cycle Assessment for the Environmental Certificate of the Mercedes-Benz S-
Class (Mercedes Car Group, 2006)

Design for Environment (DfE) utilises LCA as an important tool in integrating environmental
protection as a corporate objective at the Mercedes Car Group. Design for environment is a key
element to improve the environmental performance of its products. LCA is applied in the
development of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class vehicle. A new approach has been developed to
integrate recycling and dismantling assessment into software and also increase the efficiency of data
collection and modelling of the system.

The study aims to fully integrate LCA for DfE as a standard function in the vehicle development
process. The results of the conducted LCA indicates that there were several improvements in the
impact assessment categories in global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication
potential and photochemical ozone creation potential. The new vehicle also increased the
proportion of renewable materials.

As this study conducts a full LCA on a vehicle, it acts as a good reference point for our study. The
goal and scope are presented in a transparent manner and gives an indication of how to apply LCA
methods in an automotive example. Though the inventory analysis is not explained in great depth,
the approach in the interpretation for the results in energy consumption and emissions may also
provide a good reference guide.

Functional Unit S-Class car (basic variant; DIN weight, driving distance 300.000 km)
Boundaries Life cycle assessment for car manufacture, use, disposal/ recycling. The system boundaries
should only be exceeded by elementary flows (resources, emissions, deposits).
Inventory Data Weight data of car; information on materials for vehicle parts; Specific energy supply;
Information on materials for standard parts; Use (consumption, emissions); Use (mileage);
Maintenance and care for vehicle [no relevance for result]; Material production, supplied
energy, manufacturing processes and transport:
Recycling Model based on recycling processes in Europe, the environmental burdens of the
recycling/recovery phase are represented based on the standard processes of depollution,
drainage, shredder and deposition and/or incineration of shredder light fraction
Parameters Impact assessment: Abiotic depletion potential, global warming potential (GWP),
photochemical ozone creation potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential.
These impact assessment parameters are based on internationally accepted methods. They
are modelled on categories selected by the European automotive industry.
LCI Analysis Output of calculations include: Primary energy consumption; Emission to the environment
(carbon dioxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide)

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Life Cycle Assessment of a Multi-Material Car Component (International Journal for LCA,
2007)

LCA methodology is used to assist in integrating environmental considerations in decisions on


product design and development of a vehicle. In this paper, a new (modified) and current
component was comparatively assessed to verify whether the new component offers a lower
environmental load. The multi-material component in question is part of an automotive brake
system and has four sub-components: a spring, a washer, a poppet and a poppet-retainer. From the
inventory analysis, conclusions are drawn by comparing the environmental performance of the
alternative scenarios in terms of energy consumption (in use and production phase) and emissions
(air, waste and water). The use phase is identified as where most energy is consumed and most air
pollutants are inventoried. In terms of water emission and solid waste, the production phase is
identified as the major contributor.

This paper briefly cites other examples of where LCA has been used to guide in the automotive
industry to implement design improvements. From their literature review there is an indication that
there is an aligning conclusion that the use phase accounts for the majority of the energy
consumption over the total life-cycle in each vehicle related study.

Although the specific data of the car components of this study would not directly benefit our
project, this example gives a comprehensive insight into the process behind developing the life
cycle inventory in terms of each component. As it is logistically not possible for our project to
collect detailed data for each vehicle component within our scope, an understanding of the analysis
would assist in deciding what estimation techniques to use to simplify the LCA.

System Boundaries Include processes related to the production phase, use phase and final
disposal phase. These life-cycle steps are collected into a flow chart and
assumptions are made on the recycling practices for each material. The
distances and loads involved in component travel are included in the scope of
the study.
Functional Unit Single Component over 150,000 km of use. That component is assembled in
a passenger petrol car with an average mass of 1,080 kg for 150,000 km of
use.
Life Cycle Inventory Material, weight and manufacturing processes for each sub-component is
given. Fuel consumption of the component is allocated in reference to total
fuel consumption of vehicle. Necessary data is collated from partners in the
project including manufacturers, literature and specialised databases.
Databases available in SimaPro are extensively used throughout the
Inventory phase.
Inventory Analysis Graphs obtained for: Life cycle Energy Consumption; Life Cycle solid wastes
generation; Cumulative life cycle air emissions; Cumulative life cycle water
emissions
Impact Assessment Uses problem-oriented approach CML. Impact categories used: Abiotic
depletion; global warming; ozone layer depletion; human toxicity; fresh
water aquatic ecotoxicity; marine aquatic ecotoxicity; terrestrial ecotoxicity;
photochemical oxidation; acidification; eutrophication

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Life Cycle Assessment and Design Experience from Volvo Car Corporation (Volvo Car
Corporation, 1998)

In order to illustrate how Volvo uses LCA at the design phase, a case study compares the
environmental performance of three different material production options for one car component.
Before introducing the case study, this paper explains their supporting tools of the Environmental
Priority Strategies in design method (EPS software) and Volvos Sustainable Product Information
Network for the Environment (SPINE) database to simplify the Inventory phase.

As an example of one of the earlier applications of LCA in the automotive industry (1998), this
paper provides an overview of how the LCA philosophy is applied in a simple comparative case.
Although the article does not give much insight into the inventory and impact assessment phases as
it is performed using the aforementioned EPS software, it has acted well as an initial reference
point in how the goal and scope of an LCA is applied to automobile components.

Functional Unit Tailgate body panel with different materials SMC, steel and aluminium examined
during whole life-cycle
Boundaries Inclusive of all additional materials needed by steel and aluminium options to give
same functionality as SMC panel. Excludes accessory equipment such as glass, rear
wipers and electronic equipment using assumption that these are common to all
material options.
Data Assumptions Illustration of further assumptions in scope of study through the use of flow chart
figures that displays the considered inputs and outputs. The major product phases are
Production, Use and End of Life. Values are attached to inputs (kg of material used),
outputs (kg of recycled waste, kg of landfill, kg of fuel during use). Differences in
energy of assembly considered negligible between three options.
Analysis Use of SPINE database and EPS system, method aggregates all the data in the
Inventory and Impact Assessment phase to one single value expressed in
Environmental Load Unit (ELU). ELU values for each phase (Production, Use and
End-of-Life) are attained for each material and the total sum. Error analysis performed.
Interpretation SMC presents better environmental performance than steel, but cannot draw
conclusions with a comparison between SMC and Aluminium. By giving
environmental impact as function of the distance covered by the car, a breaking point of
50,000km found as minimal distance required for aluminium to have a lower impact
than steel.
Impact Use phase major contributor for abiotic depletion, global warming, photochemical
Assessment oxidation, acidification and eutrophication
Production phase main contributor for ozone depletion, human toxicity, fresh water
aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity.
Sensitivity analysis conducted with respect to fuel consumption reduction value.

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Appendix H. Vehicle Testing Standards


A vehicles fuel consumption can indicate the energy consumed during the use phase. Vehicles are
tested under specified conditions in accordance with the procedures outlined in the Australian
National Standards. The Australian standards are similar to the European standards describe in the
table below. There are three test drive cycles involved: an urban, an extra-urban, and a combined
test drive cycle.

European Standards:

The cycle consists of a series of accelerations, steady speeds, decelerations


Urban and idling. Maximum speed is 31 mph (50 km/h), average speed 12 mph (19
km/h) and the distance covered is 2.5 miles (4 km).

The cycle consists of roughly half steady-speed driving and the remainder
Extra accelerations, decelerations, and some idling. Maximum speed is 75 mph
Urban (120 km/h), average speed is 39 mph (63 km/h) and the distance covered is
4.3 miles (7 km).

The combined figure presented is for the urban and the extra-urban cycle
Combined together. It is therefore an average of the two parts of the test, weighted by
the distances covered in each part.
[2]

In semester 1, fuel consumption of 2nd generation Prius and Camry were obtained from the Green
Vehicle Guide. The guide however only provided the Prius' combined drive cycle result. The
remaining two drive cycle tests data are required to conduct a sensitivity analysis, both of which
were eventually found and compiled over winter break from the Vehicle Certification Agency
website (UK), the official website of Toyota-Europe, and the Fuel-economy website (USA).

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For the Prius II, the European fuel consumption data from the Vehicle Certification Agency will be
used as it lists the data for all three driving cycles: urban, extra urban, and combined driving. The
given data will be utilised within the sensitivity analysis.

On the other hand, fuel consumption data for the Camry is quite limited. Only the combined fuel
cycle is released via the Australian Green Vehicle Guide, and there is no available European data.
This poses a significant problem as data for all three driving cycles is necessary to conduct a
detailed comparison between the Prius and Camry.

Fuel consumption data for all 3 cycles of the Camry can however be found following US Fuel
Economy data. While this may appear to solve the problem, a closer analysis into testing procedures
and definition of terms (City, highway, etc) suggests that US testing standards are different from
that of its Australian and European counterparts. This is strongly indicated by large differences in
data for a given vehicle. For example, the fuel consumption in the urban driving for a Prius is
higher than extra-urban driving according to the European standard whereas US data indicates this
is vice versa. While all three cycles of the Camry are available in the US standards, more analysis
must be conducted to see whether they can be used in its comparison to the Prius.

Standards 2nd Gen Prius 2007 Camry


C
Australia U X X
E-U X X
C X
UK U X
E-U X
C
US U
E-U

Table 2. Availability of Data


(C combined, U urban, EU extra urban drive cycles)

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Appendix I. List of Terms and Abbreviations


EEC Embodied Energy Coefficients
EPA Environment Protection Agency
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
CES Cambridge Engineering Selector
GREET Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model
ABARE Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics
Cases 0%, 75% and 100% cases
Mr. I An anonymous employee of Toyota Motor Philippines

The list above is in reference to the abbreviations used in the methodology section 7.1 for Chart 2.

Appendix J. Inventory Analysis Assumptions

Assumptions for manufacturing phase inventory

Mass Composition

Electric Motor and Generator

From [14] and [15], the following mass distributions for the motor and generator have been
deduced:

Sub-assembly Mass (kg) % Mass


Stator 25.9
80.2
Motor Rotor 10.2
Case 6.36
19.8
Case cover 2.49
Total 45.0 100

Sub-assembly Mass (kg) % Mass


Stator 9.16
80.2
Generator Rotor 4.01
Case 3.25 19.8
Total 16.42 100

To find the total mass of the generator, an estimation was necessary. Since the motor and the
generator are similar in structure and geometry, it is assumed that they have the same mass
percentage breakdown. Therefore, to find the unknown mass of the case of the generator, the
motors mass distribution was used. After determining the mass of the case, the total mass of the
generator is calculated.

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Hybrid Transmission

Using the total mass of the transaxle given in [5], the mass of the Hybrid Transmission is calculated
using the motor and generator masses found above. As previously discussed, the updated
differential component list requires the motor and generator to be treated separately. Subtracting
these values from the total mass will result in an estimate for the hybrid transmission mass.

Starter

As the mass of the starter for the 2007 Camry is unavailable, the starter mass of the 2002 Camry is
used [12]. As the 2002 and 2007 Camry have the same 2.4L engine, this is a realistic assumption.

Alternator

Based on his several years of experience, Mr. I of Toyota Motor Philippines estimated the mass of
the alternator of the 2007 Camry to be 1.8 kg.

Material Composition

Lightweight or Conventional

In the GREET material composition database, HV and CV use either lightweight or conventional
materials [6]. Since the Toyota models under study were sold in 2004 and 2007, they are assumed
to be using lightweight materials. Hence, the lightweight material composition was chosen for this
study.

Motor/generator and Starter/alternator

Although the Generator and Motor of the Prius and the Starter and Alternator of the Camry have
different structures, their fundamental function as motors indicate that despite physical differences,
the material composition will be similar. Thus, the design-related differences are negligible and it
is assumed that they have the same material composition.

Specific Material Selection

The materials provided in the GREET material composition database were found to be too generic.
Resources were also limited in providing information on the specific material used for each
differential component. Hence, assumptions were needed to determine the specific materials used.

Plastic, rubber, wrought Al, cast Al, steel, cast iron, stainless steel, copper

CES lists the applications for each specific material on its database. Hence, a range of specific
materials with the application automotive were selected [6]. In other words, it was assumed that
the actual materials used fall within this range.

Nickel, Iron, Cobalt, Magnesium

Some of the metals used for the Battery were assumed to have been chemically reacted in their pure
form; hence specific materials of commercial purity were selected [6].

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Rare Earth Metals

Lanthanum, Cerium, Neodymium, Praseodymium were found to be the specific Rare Earth Metals
used for the NiMH Battery [16]. It is also assumed that they were chemically reacted, hence
commercially pure.

Organic material

It was found that the organic materials in Toyota vehicles are plant-based plastics or ecological
plastics. They are generally referred to as foam and are said to be used in injection-moulded parts
[17].

Process Selection

Components generally undergo different processes during manufacturing. To use the materials
processing EEC in CES, determination of the processes used for each specific material is necessary.
However, due to limited information available on the actual processes used by Toyota, a dominant
manufacturing process was chosen for each material and it is assumed to make up most of the
energy used in processing the material.

Casting

In general, Casting is more suitable for shaping components of complex geometries such as the
Motor and the Engine because it is a simpler and more economical process compared to other
processes. It is also commonly used for processing metals; hence it was selected as the dominant
process for wrought Al, cast Al, steel, cast iron, stainless steel and copper.

Polymer molding

Polymer molding was the selected dominant process for plastic, organic material and rubber,
because it is a commonly used process for these materials. As the opposite of Casting, it also has
advantages in processing complex geometries.

Chemical Processing

Materials such as Rare Earth Metals, Nickel, Iron, Cobalt and Magnesium were assumed to undergo
Chemical Processing, based on the assumption that they were chemically reacted to form the
Battery. Since CES does not indicate EEC for chemical processing, it is inferred that they are too
small to be considered. Hence, it is assumed that they are negligible.

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Appendix L. Supplementary Vehicle Information

Hybrid Vehicle Types


Series Hybrid

Series hybrids are similar to electric


vehicles, powered only by the electric
motor.

In the series hybrid system, a generator is


driven by the engine to charge the battery.
In turn, the electric motor uses the
electricity stored in the battery to drive the
wheels.

Parallel Hybrid

In parallel hybrids, the engine is the main


power source but is assisted by the electric
motor during standing starts and
accelerations.

As such, both the engine and the electric


motor drive the wheels. The battery is
charged when the electric motor acts as a
generator. The electricity from the battery
is also used by the motor to drive the
wheels. Since there is only one motor, the
battery cannot be charged while driving on
the motor.

Combined Hybrid

Combined hybrids are powered by the


electric motor alone at low speeds and runs
on both the engine and electric motor at
high speeds.

The combined system integrates the


capabilities of both systems. Depending
on driving conditions, it can utilise both
the engine and the motor to achieve the
most efficient driving. It can also use the
generator to charge the battery while
running on motor. This is the system used
in the Prius.

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Toyota Prius II System Operation


Starting, Low speed & Downhill driving

The engine shuts down. Battery electric


energy is converted by the motor to kinetic
energy to drive the wheels. (A)

Normal driving

Power split device separates the engine power


into two paths. The engine drives the wheels
(C). The engine also drives the generator,
which then converts the mechanical/kinetic
energy to electricity in order for the motor to
drive the wheels (B)

The system controls the ratio of power to


each path for maximum efficiency.

Sudden Acceleration

Extra power is supplied from the battery (A),


while the engine and high-output motor
provide smooth response (B+C) for improved
acceleration.

Deceleration and braking

During deceleration and braking, the braking


force on the wheels drives the electric motor
to act as a generator, which recovers the
kinetic energy lost to friction as electrical
energy and stores it in the battery. This is
called Regenerative Braking. (D)

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Battery recharging

Battery level is managed to maintain


sufficient reserves. The engine drives the
generator to recharge the battery when
necessary. (E)

Toyota Prius II Differential Components

Hybrid Transaxle [9]

The hybrid transaxle is attached to the engine on assembly and consists of the electric motor,
generator, power split device and reduction gears. The power from the engine is split into two by
the power split device. One of the output shafts is connected to the motor and the wheels while the
other is connected to the generator. In this way, the motive power from the engine is transmitted
through two routes, i.e., a mechanical route and an electrical route.

The power split device and reduction gears make up the hybrid transmission. It is an electronically
controlled continuously variable transmission. Its main purpose is to change vehicle speed while
continuously varying the rotational speeds of the engine, generator and electric motor.

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Power Split Device [9]

The power split device uses a planetary gear to split engine power between motor, wheels and
generator. The rotational shaft of the planetary carrier inside the gear mechanism is directly linked
to the engine, and transmits the motive power to the outer ring gear and the inner sun gear via
pinion gears. The rotational shaft of the ring gear is directly linked to the motor and transmits the
drive force to the wheels, while the rotational shaft of the sun gear is directly linked to the
generator.

Motor (MG2)

[15]

Description [5]

Serving as the source of supplemental motive force that provides power assistance to the engine as
needed, the electric motor helps the vehicle achieve excellent dynamic performance, including
smooth start-offs and acceleration. When the regenerative brake is activated, the motor (MG2)
functions as a generator as it recovers the vehicles kinetic energy by converting it into electrical
energy for storage in the battery.

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Specifications [5]

Operation [5]

When a three-phase alternating current is passed through the three-phase windings of the stator coil,
a rotational magnetic field is created in the electric motor. By controlling this rotating magnetic
field according to the rotors rotational position and speed, the permanent magnets that are provided
in the rotor become attracted by the rotating magnetic field, thus generating torque.

The generated torque is for all practical purposes proportionate to the amount of current, and the
rotational speed is controlled by the frequency of the alternating current. Furthermore, a high level
of torque, all the way to high speeds, can be generated efficiently by properly controlling the
rotating magnetic field and the angles of the rotor magnets.

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Permanent magnets [5]

The structure of each built-in permanent magnet inside the rotor of the motor has been optimized by
redesigning it to V-shaped structure to improve both power output and torque of the rotor.

Generator (MG1)

[15]

Description [5]

The generator recharges the battery and supplies electrical power to drive the motor. In addition, by
regulating the amount of electrical power generated (thus varying the generators rpm), it
effectively controls the continuously variable transmission function of the transaxle. It also serves
as the starter to start the engine.

Specifications [5]

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Hybrid Battery

[9]

Description [5]

The Prius uses nickel metal hydride (NiMH) as its battery. The main function of the battery is to
supply electric power to the motor and generator during starting-off, acceleration and uphill driving.
It is also recharged during deceleration and braking, and when engine efficiency is low. Since HSD
continues to maintain the battery at a constant level of SOC (state of charge) while the vehicle is
operating normally, it does not rely on the use of external recharges.

The main components of the battery are the NiMH modules, sensors and electronics, service plug
and cooling system. The NiMH modules, sensors and electronics are enclosed in a case and placed
in the luggage compartment behind the rear seat. A service plug that shuts off the circuit is
provided in the middle of NiMH modules. To ensure a consistent performance under repeated heat
generation in charging and discharging of the battery, the electronics and sensors monitor the
temperature of the battery and control the operation of the cooling system.

Specifications [18]

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Power Control Unit

[9]

Description [5]

The Power Control Unit (PCU), commonly referred to as the Inverter, is an electronic package
which regulates the electric power system of the Prius. It contains several important circuits.

Sub - components Functions

generator inverter Converts DC supplied by the battery to AC


motor inverter to turn the electric motors and to use in the
generator, and vice versa.

Buck/boost converter Boosts the normal 201.6 V DC supply


voltage to the maximum of 500 V AC
voltage to feed the electric motors and the
generator.

Voltage-Boosting Converter Steps down the 201.6 V supply voltage


from the battery to 12 V, to be used by
auxiliary systems and electronics.

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1.5 L Atkinson Cycle Engine

[9]
Specifications [5]

Model New Prius


Engine Type 1NZ-FXE
No. of Cyls. & Arrangement 4-cylinder, In-line
Valve Mechanism 16-Valve DOHC, Chain Drive (with VVT-i)
Combustion Chamber Pentroof Type
Manifolds Cross-Flow
Fuel System SFI
Displacement cm3(cu. In.) 1497(91.3)
Bore * Stroke 75.0*84.7(2.95*3.33)
mm(in.)
Compression Ratio 13.0:1
Max. Output (SAE- 57kw @ 5000rpm
NET)
Max. Torque (SAE- 115N.m @ 4000rpm
NET)
Valve Intake Open 18~-15 BTDC
Timing Close 72~105 ABDC
Exhaust Open 34 BBDC
Close 2 ATDC
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Research Octane Number 91 or higher
Engine Service Mass* (Reference) 86.1 (189.8)
Kg(lb)
Oil Grade API SJ, SL, EC or ILSAC
*: Weight show the figure with the oil and engine coolant fully filled

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Toyota Camry Differential Components

Automatic Transmission [4]


U250E automatic transaxle is used on the 2AZ-FE engine models. This automatic transaxle is a
compact, lightweight and high-capacity 5-speed Super ECT (Electronically Controlled Transaxle).

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Starter [12]

Specifications

Alternator [19]

The alternator of the Camry uses a compact and lightweight segment conductor type of generator.
This type of alternator generates a high amperage output in a highly efficient manner.

Specifications

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Appendix M. Scope of Works (17/02/2009)

1. Project
Project title: Life-cycle Comparison of Hybrid and Conventional Vehicles

Automobiles are one of the primary sources of urban air pollution, contributing
harmful greenhouse gases that consequently damage the ozone layer and cause
climate change5. As part of the Australian governments solution to the problem,
policies and regulations are being imposed on car manufacturers to meet emission
standards and alleviate the effect on the environment, encouraging them to develop
and produce more environmentally friendly cars with low fuel consumption. Due to
the increasing environmental awareness among consumers, there has been a shift in
the market demand for "green" cars.

Utilising electrical energy from batteries to consume less fuel than their conventional
(diesel or petrol) counterparts, hybrid vehicles are amongst the most popular green
cars in the market today. While the market for hybrids is growing, the primary
drawback is the vehicles high retail price. The steep price difference in vehicles with
hybrid technology suggests that they are expensive to manufacture and thus, requires
more energy to produce compared to conventional cars. There is also a major concern
that the batteries used in hybrid vehicles are heavy and harmful to the environment.
The question is, are we really saving energy and decreasing the environmental impact
by driving hybrid cars?

To answer this question, the purpose of this project is to perform a comparative audit
to examine the effect that hybrid vehicles have on the environment over their entire
life-cycle.

2. Objectives
The project objectives are to deliver the following:
- Conduct an environmental audit using the differential life cycle analysis
methodology to compare a hybrid and a conventional vehicle with similar
operating specifications.
- If time permits, conduct another environmental audit using the differential life
cycle analysis methodology to compare an electric vehicle and a hybrid or a
conventional vehicle with similar operating specifications.
- If time permits, develop an automotive sustainability index that can be used to
assess any vehicles by conducting a design audit on the hybrid and conventional
vehicles.
- If time permits, investigate the safety aspects of hybrids and electric vehicles to
come up with design improvements, with a major focus on the batteries.

5 According to the EPA, in Melbourne emissions from motor vehicles account for the following proportions of
pollutants in the air: 80% carbon monoxide; 60% nitrogen oxide; 40% volatile organic compounds; 30%
particulate matter.

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3. Definition of starting point


The future looks bright for hybrid car manufacturers in Australia as the market for
green vehicles experienced growth in recent years. Mid last year, Toyota Australia
announced the production of a local hybrid version of its Camry sedan from 2010.
The Australian government supported this move by subsidising and deducting car
tariffs as part of its environmental campaign to promote wider use of eco-cars. As
seen from the recent movements in the industry and the political arena, hybrid
vehicles are progressing towards becoming sustainable replacements for conventional
cars in the near future.

The aim of this project is to conduct an environmental audit to discover whether


hybrid vehicles are a safe solution to our sustainability concerns. To be able to
perform the differential LCA and assess whether hybrids are more environmentally
friendly than conventional vehicles, we require an in-depth understanding of the
different technologies used.

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is powered by an internal combustion engine and an


electric motor. This technology combines the strengths of both Electric Vehicles (EV)
and conventional vehicles, while compensating for the shortcomings and limitations
of each.

Currently, there are three different types of hybrids in the market: parallel hybrids,
series hybrids and combined hybrids. In parallel hybrids, the engine is the main power
source but is assisted by the electric motor during standing starts and accelerations.
By contrast, series hybrids are similar to electric vehicles as transmission is purely
powered by the electric motor. Combined hybrids on the other hand are powered by
the electric motor alone at low speeds and runs on both the engine and electric motor
at high speeds. All these designs lead to lower fuel consumption and lower CO2
emissions compared to a conventional car of the same size.

Since the access to research information has some limitations, this project will focus
on the automotive companies that have hybrids in the Australian market. Amongst the
range of car manufacturers, Toyota and Honda produce the most notable hybrid
models. Toyotas representative car is the Prius, which in 2001 was the first hybrid
car to be released in Australia. From Honda, there are two hybrid models that are
worth noting the Honda Insight and the Honda Civic which have both been
established in the market within the past decade. Due to the substantial on-road
experience and information available for these three models, this project will
concentrate its research on these two automotive companies. For conducting the
environmental audit one of the three mentioned hybrid models will be chosen for
detailed analysis along with a conventional vehicle of similar specification.

In the car industry, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission levels are the two
main measures to assess the environmental friendliness of a vehicle. Although these

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are important factors to the consumer, it does not give a full indication of the total
environmental impact of a vehicle.

This project examines the environmental impact of the respective vehicles, from
manufacture and consumer use to the final recycling and disposal of the product. In
order to quantify and model the complex interaction between a product and the
environment, an all encompassing investigation of the products life-cycle must be
made.

Life-cycle assessment/analysis (LCA) is a globally established methodology that still


continues to develop today with the growth of environmental awareness and greater
demand to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As detailed by the procedures in the
International Standards Organisation (ISO), the LCA method identifies the
environmental impacts in a systematic fashion. Although there is an abundance of
literature on the methods of LCA and despite it being widely practised in the industry,
its complexity makes it challenging to implement in any situation.

In order to investigate the environmental friendliness of hybrid vehicles beyond fuel


consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, the project will conduct a differential
Life-Cycle Assessment between a hybrid vehicle and a conventional vehicle. The
differential approach deviates from traditional LCA as it focuses on only analysing
the difference between two comparable products. In this case, the differences in major
components such as the engine, the drive train and the battery of a hybrid and
conventional car with similar specifications will be analysed. The methodology
behind Life-Cycle Analysis is adaptable and can be simplified for this given project.
This simplification is necessary, as the team simply does not have the resources in
order to provide a detailed LCA on a full automobile.

Life-cycle analysis comprises of four key phases. The first phase, Goal and Scope,
outlines the overall objectives for the products under assessment. System boundaries
and environmental parameters are established at this phase. The second is the Life
Cycle Inventory phase where extensive data collection is carried out. The inputs and
outputs involving the product are carefully measured and quantified. The third stage is
Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Here, thorough analysis is performed. This includes
categorising and classification of the inventory data, aggregating, normalising and
changing the weighting of these scale measures. The final and most important phase is
conducting an Interpretation of the analysis to give a useful outcome and
conclusion. This phase will likely be the most challenging, and these difficulties will
be investigated thoroughly. Overall, detailed research into the procedures for
conducting LCA will be required to produce the best outcome.

By following this methodology, the project will be able to judge whether hybrid
vehicles are as environmentally friendly as believed by the majority of the consumer
market.

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4. Task descriptions
4.1 Preliminary Research
- Initial research to get familiarised with the differences between hybrids and
conventional vehicles including visiting the Melbourne International Motor Show
on 6 March 2009.
- Further research on hybrid cars and conventional vehicles (petrol/diesel powered
engine), initial research on Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis (LCA), comparative
energy auditing and embodied energy indicators.

4.2 Project Scope


- Define the operating specifications of the vehicles for comparison between
hybrids and conventional cars.
- Choose a specific model of hybrid and conventional vehicle with similar operating
specifications for conducting the differential life cycle analysis.

4.3 Differential Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis(LCA) Methodology:

Planning Goal Definition and Scoping


Define the statement of objectives for this assessment.
Define and describe the specific hybrid and conventional vehicles chosen with
similar operating specifications.
Identify the system boundaries in which the differential LCA is to be made.
Identify the environmental effects to be reviewed and the suitable
environmental parameters to be used.
Establish the aggregation and evaluation method to be used in performing the
differential LCA.
Establish a practical strategy for data collection taking into account the
limitations and restrictions of gaining access to information from vehicle
manufacturers.

Screening
Execute the preliminary stages of the differential LCA.
Adjust plans accordingly during the whole differential LCA process.

Data Collection
Collect and obtain relevant data from various sources through interviews,
literature search, theoretical calculations, database search and qualified
guessing.

Inventory Analysis
Identify and quantify all the environmental and economic inputs and outputs
(eg. energy, water and materials usage and environmental releases) of the
processes that occur during the life cycle of the different components of the

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hybrid and conventional vehicles. This includes production phase,


distribution, use and final disposal of the components.
Compute the inventory table of all the relevant environmental inputs and
outputs associated with the different components of the vehicles.

Impact Assessment - Evaluation


Classify all the substances in the inventory table into impact categories
according to the effect they have on the environment.
Aggregate within the category (characterisation) to produce an effect score by
applying weighting factors to the different substances.
Normalise each effect calculated for the life cycle of the different components
of the vehicles by benchmarking against the known total effect for this
category in order to have a better understanding of the relative size of an
effect.
Weigh the different categories (valuation) by multiplying the normalised
effect scores by a weighting factor representing the relative importance of the
effect.

Improvement Assessment
Conduct a sensitivity analysis to improve the results from the impact
assessment.
Improve priority and conduct a feasibility assessment to further improve the
results from the impact assessment.

Interpretation
Evaluate the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment to select
the preferred vehicle based on the assumptions and uncertainties used to
generate the results.

4.4 Additional Tasks if Time Permits:

Electric Vehicles
- Conduct a differential life cycle analysis for comparing an electric vehicle
with a conventional car or a hybrid by repeating the differential LCA
methodology explained previously.

Automotive Sustainability Index


- Develop an automotive sustainability index that can be used to assess any
vehicle by conducting a design audit on the hybrid and conventional vehicle.

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Hybrids and Electric Vehicles Batteries


- Investigate the safety aspects of hybrids and electric vehicles to come up with
design improvements, with a major focus on the batteries.

Administrative/ Assessment Tasks:

Progress Report #1
Complete literature review.
Review completed tasks.
Revise Gantt chart.

Progress Report #2
Professional conference OR written submission.

Project Diary
Record of team discussions with the supervisors (John Weir and Ken Brown)
and within team members.

Final Report
Technical report not more than 40 pages long excluding appendix.

Contributions Paper
Journal-style document.

Oral Examination
Lecture presentation to class.

Meridian Exhibition

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5. Duration of tasks
The additional tasks mentioned in the previous section will commence subject to time
constraints. The tasks depend on the time available after the major objective of
conducting an environmental audit on a hybrid and a conventional vehicle is
completed.

Duration
Start End
(weeks)

1. Preliminary Research 3/3/2009 2.5 20/3/2009


General information on hybrids, electric vehicles,
conventional cars, LCA methodology, etc

2. Project Scope 3/3/2009 2.5 20/3/2009


Identifying operating specification for comparing
different types of vehicles
Vehicle model selection

3. Scope of Works 6/3/2009 2 17/3/2009

4. Differential Life Cycle Analysis

Planning Goal Definition and Scoping 13/3/2009 1 20/3/2009

Screening 21/3/2009 1 27/3/2009

Data Collection 21/3/2009 19 31/7/2009

Inventory Analysis 1/5/2009 4 31/5/2009

Impact Assessment 1/6/2009 4 30/6/2009

Improvement Assessment 1/7/2009 2 16/7/2009

Interpretation 17/7/2009 4 17/8/2009

5. Progress Report 1 22/4/2009 4 22/5/2009

Literature review

Outline achieved tasks


Compare progress expectation and revise Gantt
chart

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6. Progress Report 2 1/7/2009 4 31/7/2009

Revised literature review

Revised Gantt chart

Summary of completed tasks


Summary of data collection progress and
differential life cycle analysis

7. Project Diary 3/3/2009 28 16/9/2009

8. Final Report 17/6/2009 13 16/9/2009

Summary of literature review

Summary of data collection process


Summary of environmental audit results and
accuracy
Appendices

9. Contributions Paper 1/8/2009 7 16/9/2009

10. Oral Examination TBC 2 TBC

Power point Presentation

Presentation Rehearsal

11. Meridian Exhibition October 3 October

Poster Preparation

Presentation Rehearsal

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Gantt Chart

Preliminary Research
Project Scope
Scope of Works
Planning
Screening
Data collection
Start
Inventory Analysis
Duration (days)
Impact Assessment
Improvement Assessment
Interpretation
Progress Report 1
Progress Report 2
Project Diary
Final Report
Contributions Paper

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6. End point
The expected outcomes of this project:
- Assess impact of hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles on the
environment, and seeing which is better.
- Thorough analysis of hybrid versus conventional vehicle throughout whole life
cycle using differential life-cycle analysis methodology.
- Will investigate and quantify the environmental impact of factors beyond
carbon dioxide emission.
- Project will contribute to literature on conducting LCAs on the specific subject
of automobiles.
- Time permitting, complete additional tasks:
o Extend differential Life-Cycle Analysis to electric vehicles
o Develop sustainability index
o Look at safety aspects concentrating on batteries for hybrid and electric
vehicles

Availability of useful info/knowledge/hardware:


- Will have access to LCA program SimaPro which will complement our results.
- Will acquire available data on specific models of automobiles to compile life-
cycle inventory.

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Appendix N. Extracts from Progress Report 1 and 2

Discussion from Progress Report 1

Life Cycle Assessment

In order to develop the methodology for the comparative LCA between hybrid vehicles
and conventional vehicles, assumptions must be made throughout and the goal and
scope of the study must be refined and updated iteratively. Some of the major
assumptions and decisions that will be made for this LCA study will be discussed in
the following section.

Comparative LCA

As the goal of the LCA is to compare the environmental inputs and outputs of hybrid
vehicles compared to conventional vehicles, the purpose of the LCA is to provide a
comparative assertion on whether one vehicle type is equal or superior to another. In
order to simplify the comparison process, similar and common subsystems and
components in the two vehicle type are identified and then omitted in the LCA. This
method ensures that the focus of the LCA is on conducting analysis on the
differentiating features between hybrid vehicle technology and conventional vehicles,
that is, the study will draw conclusions based on only the fundamental differences
between the two types.

An initial component list was constructed by the team through a thorough study of the
Toyota Prius Technical Manual, The Impact of Hybrid Technology on Training and
discussion with the Melbourne City Toyota dealership, the team has moved towards a
final list of components to be included in the study. We have discussed justifications
for excluding certain components and the decision to retain components is not only
based on the importance of their function in the use phase, but their significance in
terms of manufacture and recyclability. The need to update the component list may
arise with further study and progression into developing the LCA.

Defining Functional Unit

In order to define the functional unit, the common function between the two systems
for comparison is to be identified. The main purpose of a vehicle is to transport
passengers from one place to another. Hence, a possible functional unit would be a
vehicle for 5 passengers including luggage compartment with a life of 200,000km.

At this stage, further investigation is required to determine what mileage life to define
in the functional unit. As the use phase would involve the largest environmental
impacts, especially for the conventional vehicle, we may find that using different
mileage values may make significant changes to the LCA outcome. Also, the mileage
would influence the number of replacements made in maintenance over the course of
the life of the vehicle. In order to account for these changes, we may find it beneficial
to conduct a sensitivity analysis using lower and higher values for total mileage life of
the vehicle.

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Drive Cycle Assumptions

Drive cycle must also be defined for the functional unit, as the proportion of urban
(city) and extra-urban (freeway) driving would vary results obtained in the use phase of
the vehicle. This may be the case especially in the hybrid car as under extra-urban
conditions, the battery is not utilised to power the vehicle as much compared to the
urban condition. If we find that varying the drive cycle results in significant changes in
the analysis, we may choose to conduct a sensitivity analysis.

Further investigation is necessary in seeing how fuel consumption statistics for urban
and extra-urban conditions can be used to calculate a specified drive cycle. From our
initial research for the Toyota Prius, there are only two fuel consumption values
available in Australia one for combined driving and one for full urban driving.
Without the value for extra-urban driving, it may not be possible to specify and modify
the drive cycle for our study and we may be limited to the combined drive cycle that is
determined by the Australian Design Rules, under which the vehicle is tested.
Otherwise, we may choose to look at data available from Europe or the United States,
but will result in the data not being localised which may be in conflict with other
information we have collected.

Vehicle life-cycle phases considered

 Material Production
 Part Fabrication and Vehicle Assembly
 Vehicle Transportation will assume that vehicle parts originate from the same
location so there will be negligible differences in vehicle transportation inputs
and outputs.
 Vehicle Use
 Vehicle Maintenance
 Vehicle End-of-Life

The method in which we will define the scope and conduct the Inventory Analysis for
these vehicle-phases is still subject to discussion. For instance, it is a possibility that
the material production, part fabrication and vehicle assembly and the vehicle end-of-
life are taken into account by the embodied energy coefficients chosen for this study.
Otherwise, the type of data we are able to collect will determine how the analysis is
conducted.

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Vehicle Data Collection

Delays in compiling the life-cycle inventory have largely been due to limitations in
collecting vehicle data. There is a lack of detailed information available for hybrid
vehicle data, especially for specific models, and we have encountered many
shortcomings in requesting for information from the automotive industry, in this case,
Toyota. Confidentiality has resulted in limited release of information for public
consumption from manufacturers as well as research papers affiliated to the industry.
Nonetheless, as seen in the literature review (and further detail in the appendix) we
have had some success in collaborating relevant data. The following section details the
current status of missing information and assumptions discussed where the reliability
of the data is not fully verified.

Limitations

The following table identifies where there are gaps in the information and component
data that is required to conduct the LCA. Access to resources was limited, and we are
still searching and trying to obtain information.

Component Missing information


Engine Only material composition for other engines
(different models) was found, no specific
material composition for Prius Engine
Battery Cooling system
Useful data was found however it is outdated
thus more research needed to find updated data
MG1 - Generator Weight; material composition
MG2 - Motor material composition
Inverter/ Power Control Unit Material composition
Power split device/ Planetary Gear Weight; material composition
Unit
Electronics (ECUs, sensors) Weight; material composition
According to a technical specialist working in
the Melbourne Toyota dealership (City Branch),
the Prius contains 30% more electronics than
conventional vehicles. Since this is just an
estimate based on his personal opinion, the
percentage he gave may not be accurate. We
need to verify this later.
Reduction Gear Unit Weight; material composition
Cooling system Material composition

Progress Report #2 2009 page 106


MPJWE2AI

Assumptions

1. Engine
Although there is information on typical materials used in engine parts, there has not
been specific information for the Prius Engine. Therefore, the assumption is made that
the material composition of most engines would have similar proportions and use
common materials (aluminium, cast iron, steel, etc). If the metal composition of the
Prius Engine cannot be obtained, the known material composition of other engines will
be applied.

2. Battery
Panasonic is the manufacturer of Prius HV battery pack and their Ni-MH batteries
would have a similar structure.

3. MG1 and MG2


From the TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM THS II, MG1 has the same structure as MG2. So
we may assume they have the same material composition if no specific information
found from further research.

4. Electronics and Power Control Unit


If the exact material composition of electronics cannot be obtained, we will apply the
standard composition in electronics and assume that the Prius has 30% more
electronics compared to conventional cars. As we know that the Power Control Unit is
also an electronics package (Staunton, 2005), we will consider it as part of the
electronics if further information cannot be found.

5. Gears and Shafts


The gears and shafts that make up the Power split device and Reduction gear unit are
widely used in the automotive industry. We can assume that Toyota uses a standard
material, which can be found in automotive engineering handbooks.

6. Cooling System
According to the Toyota Prius Technical Reference Manual, the cooling system mainly
consists of an electric water pump and a radiator. Since these components are widely
used in the automotive industry, we can assume that standard materials are used, which
may be obtained from manufacturer websites.

Progress Report #2 2009 page 107


MPJWE2AI

Gantt Chart Progress Report 1

Tasks Start Duration (days) End


Preliminary Research 3-Mar 18 20-Mar
Project Scope 3-Mar 78 19-May
Scope of Works 6-Mar 12 17-Mar
Differential Life Cycle Analysis
Planning 13-Mar 172 31-Aug
Screening 21-Mar 164 31-Aug
Data collection 21-Mar 133 31-Jul
Inventory Analysis 1-May 92 31-Jul
Improvement Assessment 15-Jul 17 31-Jul
Interpretation 1-Aug 31 31-Aug
Progress Report 1 1-May 34 3-Jun
Progress Report 2 1-Jul 31 31-Jul
Project Diary 3-Mar 198 16-Sep
Final Report 17-Jun 92 16-Sep
Contributions Paper 1-Aug 47 16-Sep
Oral Examination
Meridian Exhibition

Revised Gantt Chart

Preliminary Research
Project Scope
Scope of Works
Planning
Screening
Data collection
Inventory Analysis
Improvement
Interpretation
Progress Report 1
Progress Report 2
Project Diary
Final Report
Contributions Paper

Progress Report #2 2009 page 108


MPJWE2AI

Revised Gantt Chart - PR2

Preliminary Research
Project Scope
Scope of Works
Planning
Screening
Data collection
Inventory Analysis
Improvement Assessment
Interpretation
Progress Report 1
Progress Report 2
Project Diary
Final Report
Contributions Paper
Oral Examination
Meridian Exhibition

Progress Report #2 2009 page 109


Tasks Start Duration (days) End

Preliminary Research 3-Mar 18 20-Mar


Project Scope 3-Mar 78 19-May
Scope of Works 6-Mar 12 17-Mar
Differential Life Cycle
Analysis
Planning 13-Mar 172 31-Aug
Screening 21-Mar 164 31-Aug
Data collection 21-Mar 153 20-Aug
Inventory Analysis 1-May 112 20-Aug
Improvement Assessment 27-Jul 25 20-Aug
Interpretation 21-Aug 15 4-Sep
Progress Report 1 1-May 25 25-May
Progress Report 2 22-Jul 19 9-Aug
Project Diary 3-Mar 198 16-Sep
Final Report 17-Jun 92 16-Sep
Contributions Paper 10-Aug 38 16-Sep
Oral Examination 28-Jul 11 7-Aug
Meridian Exhibition 6-Oct 22 27-Oct

Progress Report #2 2009