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FREE SPM 2016 TIPS

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because:
1) SPM is such an important examination for the students in Malaysia as it will affect what
and where a student can study for their tertiary education.

2) These SPM Tips can provide students with the slight edge to score well for the SPM
examination which opens up opportunities for their tertiary education.

Though UniDigest.com revolves around helping students to discover what and where to study
for their tertiary education, we strongly believe that we will be able to help students even
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Our free information portal, counselling and application service will be more useful to the
students if they have more options and opportunities available to them.

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SPM 2016 Bahasa Melayu Tips

SPM BAHASA MELAYU

Paper 1 2 hr 15 min Section A: Karangan Berpandukan Ransangan 30 Marks

Write an Essay based on the attached


reference

Section B: Karangan Umum

Write an Essay based on one (1) of the five 100 Marks


(5) choices given

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Question 1: Rumusan 30 Marks

Summarize the passage

Question 2: Pemahaman
35 Marks
Answer ALL comprehension-based questions

Question 3: Pengetahuan dan Kemahiran Bahasa

Answer ALL grammatical and vocabulary- 30 Marks


based questions.

Question 4: Novel

Answer ALL questions regarding Novels.


15 Marks

General Tips
Speak in Bahasa Melayu as this will help strengthen the command of the language.
Read more Bahasa Melayu novels and newspapers. You can also improve your proficiency by
reading Karangan books.
Learn a new peribahasa and simpulan bahasa every day from now till SPM. This will help you
score extra marks during essay writing.

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Kertas 1
Bahagian A - Karangan Berpandukan Rangsangan:

Based on an analysis from Year 2007 - 2015, Karangan Berpandukan Rangsangan has always
been either on Gambar Foto/Ilustrasi or Gambar Rajah. Familiarize yourself with such formats.
Read the question carefully; focus your essay content on the bolded words to avoid being
terpesong.
Be careful to not write anything below 200 words as this might put you at a disadvantage.
Anything around 220 to 500 words will be good. Spend more time on the next question instead.
Write one (1) Pendahuluan, three (3) Isi and (1) Penutup. There should be 3 points given in the
diagram. If there is lesser, you will need to come up with the remainder point. If there is more
points, you will need to combine certain points as one point.

Bahagian B - Karangan Umum:

Read the Questions carefully and underline the keywords of the Questions.
Pick the Question that you can come out with the most points for.
If the Essay requires you to write in a specific format, only pick that question if you are familiar
with the format.
Write between 600-1000 words.
More often than not, your format should always have one (1) Pendahuluan, four (4) Isi and one
(1) Penutup.
The best way to way to write an Isi is by elaborating the main points by giving further examples.

Kertas 2
Question 1 - Rumusan:

Start by reading the question and focus on the bolded parts. There are 2 parts to the bolded
words which are the Isi Tersurat and Isi Tersirat.
From the passage, underline all points that fulfill the Isi Tersurat stated in the Question.
Come up with at least two (2) points that answers the Isi Tersirat stated in the Question. These
points are not in the passage and it requires you to think critically to get the points.
You should answer in 4 paragraphs; Pendahuluan, Isi Tersurat, Isi Tersirat, and Penutup.
Start the first paragraph (Pendahuluan by Petikan membincangkan.. The Isi Tersurat stated
in the Question must be replaced with a synonym in the Pendahuluan. Eg: Kesan-kesan
merokok must be changed to Akibat merokok.
For the second paragraph (Isi Tersurat), paraphrase the points underlined in the passage. Do not
include the elaborations, only the main points are needed. Reminder to not write the exact
words, but to use as many synonyms as possible.
For the third paragraph (Isi Tersirat), write your own points. Do not overthink the points, as long
as the points make sense, they are good.
For the last paragraph (Penutup), just write a one-line general statement that looks towards the
future. Eg: Semua pihak perlu bekerjasama membanteras gejala sosial ini supaya masyarakat
akan sejahtera.

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Question 2 - Pemahaman:

There are 4 sub-questions to this Question. The first sub-question is based on the passage in
Question 1. The other three sub-questions are based on KOMSAS.
To answer these questions, good understanding of KOMSAS is needed. There is not much
memorization needed as the KOMSAS excerpt will be given.
There will also be questions that requires you to give your own opinions and ideas.
Answer all questions in complete form and not point forms.

Question 3 - Pengetahuan dan Kemahiran Bahasa

There are 4 sub-questions to this Question.Sub-question 1 is on making sentences. You are not
allowed to add any imbuhan unless stated so.
Sub-question 2 to 4 is one correcting mistakes to the sentences. By practicing more, you will get
sharper in spotting the errors.
Sub-question 5 is related to peribahasa. There are a few main peribahasa that can v be used in
this sub-question or in the essays:
Air beriak tanda tak dalam: Empty vessels make the most noise
Alang-alang menyeluk pekasam, biar sampai ke pangkal lengan: If you are doing
something, do it to your best efforts and get some rewards from it.
Bagai cendawan tumbuh selepas hujan: Too much of something at a time period.
Bagai cincin dengan permata: A pair that matches
Bagai layang-layang putus tali: Someone that has lost faith and hope.
Bagai menatang minyak yang penuh: Nurturing someone and bringing them up with lots
of love.
Bagai minyak dengan air: Two people that cannot mix or see eye-to-eye.
Bagai murai dicabut ekor: Someone who loves to talk.
Bagaimana acuan begitulah kuihnya: A child takes after whoever who brings him up.
Baik membawa resmi padi daripada resmi lalang: Its good to be humble.
Berat mata memandang berat lagi bahu memikul: The biggest suffer is on the person
who is experiencing it.

Question 4 - Novels

The novels asked in this question are novels from Form 4 and Form 5.
Read up on the tema, persoalan, sinopsis, nilai murni and read the full novels at least twice.

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SPM 2016 Bahasa Inggeris Tips

SPM BAHASA INGGERIS

Paper 1 1 hr 45 min Section A: Directed Writing 35 Marks

1 Question

Section B: Continuous Writing


50 Marks
Choose 1 Question from 5 Questions

Paper 2 2 hr 15 min Section A: Objective 15 Marks

Graphic Stimuli & Short Text


8 Questions
Cloze Passage
7 Questions

Section B: Information Transfer


10 Marks
10 Questions

Section C: Reading Comprehension

Long Texts with open ended questions 10 Marks


5 Questions
Summary Writing 15 Marks
1 Questions

Section D: Literature Component

Structured Response
1 Question on Poems 5 Marks
Personal Response
1 Question on Novels 15 Marks

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Paper 1

Section A: Directed Writing:

Guidelines

- Read the question properly and jot down some points before begin writing.
- Allocate only 45 minutes on this section. You may want to time yourself by dividing your time
based on the paragraph. Theres no point dwelling on this section more than 45 minutes
because the maximum score is just 35 marks.
- Ensure that your essay format is correct as the format gives you 15 marks.
- Use all the points that are given and cross out the points that have have already been used. You
may elaborate in 1 or 2 sentences.
- Try using a variety of sentences when you write this essay.
- Each points can be elaborated in the form of examples, facts, figures and other information.
- Do avoid grammatical, spelling and punctuation error. Reread your essay after you finish.

Common Mistakes

- Poor time management. If you spend too much time on this section, you will not have enough
time for the following question.
- Long-winded essay. This section requires you to write a short and straight to the point writing.
The more you write, the more mistakes you will make. You are not required to allocate 1
paragraph for 1 point. It can be too lengthy.
- Informal languages. Avoid the usage of slang words such as guys, dudes, contractions such as
cant, dont.
- Flowery words. You do not need to use too flowery or idiomatic words in this section. Leave it to
the following section of continuous writing.

Types of Essays

- Formal Letter, Informal Letter, Speech/ Talk, Speech


- You may want to learn up the common phrases or the sentence structure for each type of essay.
Example: (Informal Letter: I hope this letter finds you in the pink (of health).

Section B: Continuous Writing:

Guidelines

- 5 questions will be given. Usually 2 questions are argumentative/ factual essay, 2 are
narrative/descriptive essay and 1 word-topic essay.
- Choose the one that you are confident with.
- To score in this section, your essay needs to be free from grammar error, variety of sentence
structure, wide vocabulary, relevant points, coherent in paragraphing, well organise and the
essay shows originality as well as interesting.
- Examples:
- Excellent Grammar: know your past tense, past-participle, spelling and punctuation
- Variety of sentence structure: You can play around with active/passive voice. You can
structure a simple, complex, compound sentences depends on your preference.

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- Wide Vocabulary: Use synonyms for the common words such as happy, you can replace
this word with delighted, joyful or hungry to famished.
- Relevant points: Do ensure that you dont run out of topic when answering the essay.
Therefore, it is important that you jot down the points beforehand.
- Coherent in Paragraphing: The flow of your paragraphs need to be in smooth. Try not to
hop on to different points between the paragraphs. The marker will be confused.
- Interesting, Originality: Your story needs to be plotted well. It needs to have a climax
that can keep the readers attention. In other words, do not bore the marker.

Paper 2

Section A: Objective Questions:

Stimuli & Graphic Materials

Guidelines

- Basically this part of the paper is the easiest to score. If possible, try to nail all the questions
right.
- Do more practices from the revision books.
- When answering, narrow down your answers by eliminating wrong options that are given.

Rational Cloze

Guidelines

- This part of the paper is also one of the easiest to score. Therefore, read carefully.
- Again, remove the wrong answers in narrowing down the correct answer.

Section B: Information Transfer:

Guidelines

- Carefully analyse the material given in the paper.


- When answering, try not to use your own words but you can copy exactly the same from the
material shown.
- Your answer needs to be clear and precise. Avoid unnecessary details and writing extra answers.
- Most importantly, avoid spelling mistakes.

Section C: Reading Comprehension:

Long Text and Open Ended Question

Guidelines

- Read the questions and the passage carefully.


- As you read the passage, you can underline which are the important facts.
- If questions do not require you to write down your own opinion, you may copy directly from

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the passage.
- If questions want your personal opinion, structure your answers carefully. Only write down
relevant and logic answers.
- Your answer needs to be clear and precise. Avoid unnecessary details and writing extra
answers.
- Most importantly, avoid spelling mistakes.

Summary Writing

Guidelines

- Firstly, read the questions before you read the passage.


- This will help you identify the important points that is needed from the questions. Do
underline when the points are identified.
- Opening and Closing is not needed. This is a continuous writing format; you should not
answer this section in point form.
- Try identifying 10 points and omit the examples and elaborations.
- Calculate your word count and ensure it doesn exceeds 130 words. Convert long phrases to
short sentences. This will reduce your word count. Do write your word count below your
answer.

Section D: Literature Writing (Poem):

Structure Response

Guidelines

- For this part of the paper, try imagining yourself in the poet perspective.
- You should translate the poem and simplified it to your own words.
- Your answers can be short and precise.
- Avoid spelling error.

Novel

Guidelines

- Before exams, you should be very familiar on the novel and covered all the questions from
the revision books.
- Usually the questions revolve around (Themes / Settings / Plot / Characters / Moral values /
Lessons). Therefore, you have to understand beforehand the ins and outs of the novel.
- When you write down the points, your answer should be related back to the novel. Perhaps,
you can relate it to the character. This will show the marker you are able to apply what
youve understood from the novel.
- It is advisable that you write 3 points of elaboration and 1 personal view. You may write
more than that but be careful not to write wrong points. Though marks will not be deducted
but it affects the markers impression on you understanding towards the novel.
- Your answers must be in full sentences. Structure your sentences in proper grammar and
avoid spelling mistakes.

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SPM 2016 Bahasa Cina Tips

SPM BAHASA CINA

Paper 1 1 hr 45 min Section A: Practical Writing 30 Marks

Section B: Continuous Writing 70 Marks

Paper 2 2 hr 15 min Section A: Modern Text Comprehension 65 Marks

Section B: Classical Text Comprehension 25 Marks

Section C: Idioms 10 Marks

Paper 1A

Preparation:

- Remember formats of Formal Letters, Reports & Notice.


- Memorise on the sentences that are commonly used (refer to revision books & model answers).
Apply in your essay.
Always apply the Important details: time, date, venue, objective, invitation (included in
the essay)

When Answering:

- 2 questions - Only answer the the question that youre more confident at.

- If 2 were answered, examiner will only mark pick the first essay.

- Avoid: Informal Languages, Hanyu Pinyin,

- Do refer back to the question when youre writing to avoid out of topic.

After Answering:

- Recheck your essay to detect any errors.

- Take note on the work count. Max word count: 120 words. If it exceeds word count, remove
unnecessary sentences.

Not Tested in Exam:

- Conversation of text ().

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- Report of meeting ()

Paper 1B. Continuous Writing

- 5 types of questions will be given but choose only 1 that youre most confident at.
- The main types of essay that is most popular in the exam are:
- Factual (),
- Argumentative (),
- Narrative ()
- Descriptive (),
- Sentimental ()
- Be familiar with the types of essays and do memorise good sentences, opening and closings.
This will give your more points and impress the marker.

When Answering:

- Read the questions carefully. List down the important points beside the questions. Gather your
thoughts on what to write in the opening and body.

Factual / Argumentative Essay:

- 6 paragraphs will be efficient (1 opening, 4 Body, 1 Closing)


- Avoid 5 arguments as you will run out of time in your exam. Give you focus on the 4 main bodies
and elaborate clearly on the topics. Give examples and only formal language should be used.

Descriptive / Sentimental / Narrative Essay:

- 5 Important Points to be taken note


- Interesting Story, Clear, Detail on the story, 5 or more paragraph depending on the structure of
your story, include some idioms or flowery sentences if you can (gives you plus points)

General Topics:

- It can be written as factual or descriptive essay as long as it is relevant to the question.


- Do address the topic of the question in every paragraph.

Overall:

- Avoid grammatical error, wrong word. Do replace a new word if youre unsure on a word. Do
not write any hanyu pinyin. Always diversify your sentence structure.
- Check your word count. You essay word count is advisable to be between 600-1000 words.

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Paper 2A. Modern Text Comprehension

Summary ():

- Read the passages carefully. Underline the important and relevant points. Identify the points but
not the elaboration and examples.
- The points given are between 16-18 points. If you are lacked of points to write in, re-read the
paragraph to get more points.
- Convert the dialogues to text. Long sentences changed to shorter sentences and phrases to
lessen the word count. identify the similar words and combine it to the same word. Do use
sequence connector linking 2 or 3 points together. However, do not overuse the connector as it
becomes repetitive.
- Lastly, do a word count check. If your word count is above 120, reduce unnecessary sentences
or words.
- On the marking system, no points will be deducted if wrong points were writen. Although no
marks will not be given for your correct grammar but marks will be deducted from grammatical
error. Therefore, double check on your grammar and the words use.

Comprehension ():

- When tackling this part of the paper, read the questions first then only read the passage/ poem.
You need to understand in depth of the poem/passage.
- Questions related to the passage, you may copy and paste directly from the passage. For poem,
you need to use your own words in deciphering the meaning of the poem.
- Questions that requires your opinion, communicate your points clearly. The number of points
that you should write down is depending on the marking scheme. 1 point might be given 1 or 2
marks.
- Do take note that though you can pen down all the points but be careful to only write
acceptable answers as marks might be deducted if it is irrelevant.
- If the questions require the exact number of answers. Only write down the required number of
answers. If you give extra, points may be deducted.

For Grammar ():

- Type of word (), phrase (), components of sentences (), compound sentences
(), language & style () and idioms () will only be tested. Familiarise yourself with
the types of grammar stated.
- Do refer on revision books and past year questions. Learn from the examples given by these
sources.

Paper 2B. Classical Text Comprehension ()

- Questions will be based on 1 is Prose () and 1 is Poem (). Youll be tested in a form of
Comprehension () and Translation ().

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Comprehension ():

- When you revise, get yourself familiarized with the common used traditional words.
- Go through the glossary that will be given in the exam. translate the classical text-word-by-word
to modern text. To avoid wasting time, do skip sentences that arent familiar to you. As you go
through the passage/poem, you will understand the sentences that isnt familiar to you.
- For questions that can be found from the poem, do not copy directly. Instead, structure you
answer in your own words. You may have to change the dialogues to your own text.
- Most questions require full understanding of the poem/ passage. Therefore, try to understand
by putting yourself in the passage.
- For your own opinion question, ensure your answer is relevant and logical. Answer the
questions based on the marks allocated. For example, 1 point is for 1 mark and elaboration.
Write only answers that are relevant, otherwise marks will be deducted.

Translation ())

- For preparation, ensure that you are familiar with all traditional words and the meaning of it.
- When translating, replace every traditional word in the sentence or phrase with modern words
but it has to be the same the same meaning.
- For traditional words that is similar as modern words, convert the word into a sentence.
- Do not make a mistake by not translating all the words.
- If you translate the words wrongly, marks will not be deducted.

Paper 2C. Idioms ()

- Important! Memorise all 230 Idioms that you learn from high school since remove class to
Form5. Ensure that you know all meaning (), Author () and Source () of all idiom.
- A tip in memorising these idioms is by using your imagination and creativity to remember the
author and source.
- When answering, do not explain every word. Try writing the actual meaning. It is okay that the
meaning runs a bit off from the meanings in the textbook. Marks will not be penalised.
- Avoid making long sentences with the idioms but you have to use the idiom correctly. Even a
brief sentence with the usage of the idiom is sufficient.
- For question that requires you to write an idiom based on the situation, be sure that you
understand the situation clearly before giving it an idiom.

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SPM 2016 Mathematics Tips

SPM MATHEMATICS

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min 40 Multiple Choice Questions (Answer ALL) 40 Marks

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: 11 Questions (Answer ALL) 52 Marks

3 - 6 marks per question

Section B: 5 Questions (Answer 4) 48 Marks

12 marks per question

TOTAL 140 Marks

General Tips

Mathematics is a compulsory subject that you must pass in order for you to get SPM certificate.
SPM Mathematics has a much stricter marking scheme and a higher minimum mark to get A+ as
compared to SPM Additional Mathematics. Hence, do study for it!

Paper 1

Questions can be from Form 1 until Form 5.


You are not required to show any workings.

Paper 2

Go through past year questions and familiarise yourself with the pattern of the questions. The
pattern is similar from year to year.
If you have the time, answer all the 5 questions in Section B.
The examiner will mark all 5 answers and choose the 4 answers with the highest marks.
Show all the workings and do not skip any important steps for every questions!
One (1) mark is given to each important step and the final answer.
If you miss an important step, marks for that step, subsequent steps and final answer
will not be given.
Therefore, correct answer without workings will get a zero (0).
However, if your answer is wrong but you provide some correct workings, you will get
some marks for the correct workings.
Express your answer in fraction or decimal accordingly as per instruction.
Round up to at least 4 significant figures for final answers with infinite decimal places.
Marks can be deducted if final answer is less accurate.

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For questions involving Pi, read the instruction and use the right Pi value (22/7 or 3.142).
For questions involving diagrams, include all the important details on the diagram.
You are NOT allowed to write extra solutions / answers. Marks will be NOT given for the correct
solutions / answers, and marks will be deducted for wrong solutions / answers.

Section A: 10 Definitely Tested Topics

Solid Geometry
Combined solid is the total volumes of the solids
Remaining solid is the subtraction of bigger solid and smaller solid
Circles
Perimeter = 2r
Area = r2
Linear Equations
Equalise the same unknown (e.g. x) and take it out.
Solve the other unknown (e.g. y) and back to solving the first unknown (e.g. x).
Quadratic Expressions and Equations
Solve the equation means find the unknown x.
Must state x = ?, x = ?. There will be 2 answers.
Mathematical Reasoning
Determine whether a given sentence is a statement.
Determine whether a statement is true or false.
Constructing statements using numbers and symbols.
Quantifiers All and Some.
Implications of the form x if and of if y.
The Straight Line
y = mx + c
c is the point where the line touches the y-axis (y-intercept)
Lines and Planes in 3-Dimensions
Use Trigonometry Rule
sin () = opposite side / longest side
cos () = adjacent side / longest side
tan () = opposite side / adjacent side
Matrices
Part a) usually asks to solve problems involving inverse matrix.
Part b) usually asks to solve linear equations with matrices
Gradient and Area under a Graph
The gradient of the distance-time graph of a particle is the speed of the particle.
The gradient of the speed-time graph of a particle is the rate of change of speed of the
particle.
The area under a speed-time graph is the distance travelled.
Rate of change of speed = (Final speed - Initial Speed) / Time
Probability
Probability = Number of outcomes / Total number of possible outcomes
Final answer is always more than 0 and less than 1.

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Section A: 2 Alternately Tested Topics

Sets (Year 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013)
Shading based on the questions (intersection or union)
denotes union, which is the combined area of the sets (or)
denotes intersection, which is the overlapping area of the sets (and)
Graphs of Functions (Year 2005, 2007 and 2009)
The inequalities (upper line is >, lower line is <).
If slanted line, you can imagine it into horizontal straight line.

Section B: 5 Definitely Tested Topics

Statistics
Histogram (Year 2004 and 2005)
x-axis the upper boundary with an additional lower boundary at the front of the
graph
y-axis is frequency
Frequency Polygon (Year 2006)
x-axis is midpoint
y-axis is frequency
Ogive (Year 2007)
x-axis is upper boundary
y-axis is cumulative frequency
additional upper boundary should be added to the table
x-axis and y-axis should be stated in the graph
Graphs of Functions
Linear Functions (less likely to come out as its a straight line after plotted)
y = ax + c
Quadratic Functions (Year 2004 and 2005)
y = ax2 + c
y = ax2 + bx + c
Cubic Functions (Year 2007)
y = ax3
y = ax3 + c
Reciprocal Functions (Year 2006)
y=a/x
Transformations
Translation
Reflection
Rotation
Enlargement (be careful with the word to and from because it determines the image
would be smaller or bigger)
A combined transformation AB means transformation B followed by transformation A.

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Earth as a Sphere
Longitude is the vertical line that specifies the east-west position of a point on the
Earth's surface.
Latitude is the horizontal line that specifies the north-south position of a point on the
Earths surface.
Nautical mile is the unit used to describe the distance between two points along the
common longitude.
Nautical mile = Distance between latitudes x 60
Plans and Elevations
Orthogonal Projections
The edge which can be seen from view direction is drawn as a full line.
The edge which is hidden from view direction is drawn as a dashed line ( ------ ).
Plans and Elevations
Plan is looked from above.
Elevation is looked from the side of the solid.
The length and the edge (ABCD) should be stated correctly.

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SPM 2016 Additional Mathematics Tips

SPM ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

Paper 1 2 hr 25 Short Questions (Answer ALL) 80 Marks

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: 6 Questions (Answer ALL) 40 Marks

Section B: 5 Questions (Answer 4) 40 Marks

Section C: 4 Questions (Answer 2) 20 Marks

TOTAL 180 Marks

General Tips

Express your answer in fraction or decimal accordingly as per instruction.


Round up to at least 4 significant figures for final answers with infinite decimal places.
Marks can be deducted if final answer is less accurate.
For questions involving Pi, read the instruction and use the right Pi value (22/7 or 3.142).
For questions involving diagrams, include all the important details on the diagram.
You are allowed to write extra solutions / answers. Marks will be given for the correct solutions
/ answers, and no marks will be deducted for wrong solutions / answers.
For a part of the question that require to use answer from the previous part of the question, if
your answer for the previous part is wrong and you use it for this part, you will still get marks for
correct workings although you will not get marks for the final answer.

Paper 1

It is not compulsory to write full workings. You will be given full marks if your final answer is
correct.
However, you are strongly advised to write full workings as they might earn you some marks if
your final answer is wrong.

Paper 2

If you have the time, answer all the 5 questions in Section B.


The examiner will mark all 5 answers and choose the 4 answers with the highest marks.
If you have the time, answer an extra question in Section C.
The examiner will mark all 3 answers and choose the 2 answers with the highest marks.
A common strategy to tackle Section C would be to master both Form 4 topics (Solution
of Triangles and Index Number) and study one of the Form 5 topics (Motion along a

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Straight Line and Linear Programming) as your back-up plan if you have extra time.
Show all the workings and do not skip any important steps for every questions!
One (1) mark is given to each important step and the final answer.
If you miss an important step, mark for that step will not be given. However, you will still
be given marks for the correct subsequent steps and final answer.
Correct answer without workings will get 1 mark.

Questions Analysis (2007 - 2013):

Topic P1 P2(A) P2(B) P2(C) Form


(D - Definitely Tested; C - Commonly Tested)

12 Topics to Study First

Quadratic Equations D C 4

Quadratic Functions D C 4

Coordinate Geometry D C C 4

Statistics D C 4

Circular Measures D C 4

Differentiation D C C 4

Progressions D C 5

Linear Law D C 5

Integration D C C 5

Vector D C C 5

Trigonometric Functions D C 5

Probability Distributions D C 5

5 Topics to Study Next

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Functions D 4

Simultaneous Equations C 4

Indices and Logarithms D 4

Permutations and Combinations D 5

Probability D 5

Choose 2 Topics to Study

Solution of Triangles D 4

Index Number D 4

Motion along a Straight Line D 5

Linear Programming D 5

Note: There are 21 topics, but there are only 20 mind maps. Present the mindmap after the table above.
The order of the mind maps follows the topics listed above.

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SPM 2016 Physics Tips

SPM PHYSICS

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Multiple Choice Questions 50 Marks

50 Questions

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: Structured Response 60 Marks

8 Questions
Section B: Essay
20 Marks
Choose 1 Question out of total 2
Section C: Diagram Questions

Choose 1 Question out of total 2 20 Marks

Paper 3 1 hr 30 min Written Practical

Structured Question 28 Marks


2 Questions with sub-questions
Essay Question
Choose 1 Question out of total 2 12 Marks

Total 190 Marks

General Tips

Physics is an elective subject taken by all pure science students and anyone looking to pursue
sciences in their higher education.
The total marks for all paper is 190 marks. Thus it is essential to focus on scoring well in paper 2
and paper 3.
Doing well in Paper 2 and Paper 3 will guarantee a pass to a B. Use Paper 1 to push your grade
to an A.
Physics requires an understanding of concepts and applications of formulas.
You must take part in all lab activity and experiments conducted in school because these
practicals are essential for Paper 3 - as you must recreate them step-by-step in the form of an
essay.
Use Youtube videos to visualize models for better understanding. Use some of the institutes
below to help you.
Tutorvista
GuideTuition
Khan Academy
You must use correct terms for definitions (e.g mass, not weight).

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General Tips: Paper 1

Always remove the answers you know arent possible and narrow down possible answers to
increase probability of correct answers.
Be careful of words like except, all but which of the following is not and other keywords
that can trick you to choose the wrong answers.
Questions are distributed evenly across all topics so you need a good overall understanding.
You are not required to show any workings.

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General Tips: Paper 2

Go through past year questions and familiarise yourself with the pattern of the questions. The
pattern is similar from year to year.
If you have the time, answer all the 2 questions in Section B.
The examiner will mark all 2 answers and choose the 1 answers with the highest marks.
Show all the workings and do not skip any important steps for every questions!
One (1) mark is given to each important step and the final answer.
If you miss an important step, marks for that step, subsequent steps and final answer
will not be given.
Therefore, correct answer without workings will get a zero (0).
However, if your answer is wrong but you provide some correct workings, you will get
some marks for the correct workings.
You are allowed to answer in table form or short sentences - grammar is not a concern but
misspelling names may result in your answer being incorrectly marked. You can also use
diagrams, equations or graphs where suitable
Do not not answer in point form. There is no penalty for answering in point form, but some
inexperienced examiners may deduct your marks if you do so.
Make sure you know the difference between the following:
State - Usually 1-mark question. Just answer the question directly. No further
information necessary.
Define - Give the standard definition using biological words and keywords.
Describe - Simply write what you see.
Explain - Elaborate on how and why the process is happening and what it means.
Suggest - Based on your knowledge of the topic, you must apply it to solve the problem
in the question. As long as your answer is logical and relevant to the question, you
should gain marks for this.

Must Study Topics:


Form 4:
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Form 5
Chapter 4
Chapter 5

General Tips: Paper 3


Question 1

Understand and know what exactly the question is asking for.


Grammatical errors will not affect yours marks as long as the examiner understands what you
are writing.
Do not use any short forms in your answer, or abbreviations without first explaining them.
The only time this is acceptable is when using for metric units.
All chemical compounds should be written fully before writing in formula.
Calculations must show full workings as skipping steps will result in marks deduction. Make sure

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to use the correct units.
Answer in complete sentences as marks allocated for each part of the question is always 3.
Marks are given based on the quality of your answer, so it does actually depend on the number
of points in your answer.
You can write extra points in your answer but take care that your points do not contradict one
another as marks may be deducted.
Numerical data from instruments should follow the decimal places of the instrument in the
correct unit. For example, if recording the temperature from a thermometer that gives
measurements to the 0.01, then your answer should also be in two decimal places.
Axis on graphs must be titled and given units with proper scale. Your graph should be at least
34 of the graph paper.
Where possible to draw your straight or curved line to all points, do so, if not, use best-fit or
straight lines if you need to connect them, based on the question.

Question 2
Design a suitable experiment based on the questions requirements.

Your answer must include:


Aim
Problem Statement
Hypothesis
Variables
State which are the manipulated, responding and fixed variables.
List of Materials & Apparatus
State amount (with correct unit) and concentration of substances
Data Tabulation
Data should be table of responding and manipulated variables.
You do not need to enter actual data, just show the recording table.

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SPM 2016 Chemistry Tips

SPM CHEMISTRY

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Multiple Choice Questions 50 Marks

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: Structured Response 60 Marks

6 Questions
Section B: Essay
20 Marks
Choose any 1 Questions out of total 2
Section C: Diagram Questions

Choose any 1 Questions out of total 2 20 Marks

Paper 3 1 hr 30 min Written Practical

Structured Question 33 Marks


2 Questions with sub-questions

Essay Question 17 Marks

Study Tips for Chemistry Revision:

- To score in this paper you it is important that you need to understand and apply the knowledge
in the exams.
- Do list all formulas & equations that are covered in FM.4 and FM.5.
- You need to be familiar with all the experiment carried out in the reference book. Ensure that
you understand Aim, Problem Statement, Hypothesis, Variables, List of Materials & Apparatus,
Diagram of set-up apparatus, Procedure, Tabulation of Data and Conclusion for all experiments.
This is useful for Paper 3 & Paper 2 Section C (PEKA).
- Facts that doesnt have explaination, do memorise it. This is particularly useful for Paper 1
(MCQ).
- For calculation questions, go through sample questions and you need to know how do you apply
the calculations.
- Practice using model questions and past year questions. This is useful for you to prepare
yourself before the actual exam.

Paper 1

- Due to a short time given for this paper, organise your time properly. Do not dwell on a question
for a long time if youre unable to decide on your answer. Narrow down your answer and that
way youll be wont swayed from the correct answer.

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Paper 2

- When you answer this paper, try using similar words or sentences from your revision answers.
Itll be good if you can apply the chemistry terms in your answer.
- Read the question carefully to avoid answering out of topic. Also, your answers need to be
specific and not too general to the extend its up to the marker to decipher the meaning.
- Be careful in writing down the units and quantities. The marker is very particular on this area.
Also, for your working calculation, write down your workings clearly as it will give you marks for
the working steps. Even if your answer at the end of the calculation is wrong, youll still be
awarded marks for the working.
- It is advisable that you answer in complete sentences as itll be ease the marker
understandability.
- You will not be penalised if extra points are written as long as it is understandable. However, if
wrong facts were given, the marker may deduct your marks.
- When you tackle questions on experiment, do enhance your explanation and dont forget to
include the List of Materials, Apparatus, Procedure, Tabulation of Data and other important
information. Its important you include the amount and concentration of the substances that are
used.
- For graph, ensure that you label both axis and units correctly. Plot it accurately. If the graph line
is needs to be linked to the points in the graph, plot it clearly. If the line doesnt connect the
points, ensure the points above and below of the line have an equal spacing. The graph should
cover at least half of the paper.

Paper 3

- The questions from this paper are related to the experiment done in the lab. You need to
familiarise on all the steps and precaution when doing the experiment.
- When youre in the lab, it is a plus point if you have the skills in reading the burrette, stopwatch
and other apparatus in the lab.
- You need to follow the order in writing the sub topic of the experiment. The correct order is as
stated below:
- Experiment Objective
- Hypothesis
- Apparatus that will be used
- Procedures
- Table of Observation
- Conclusion
- The drawing of the experiment needs to be clear and drawn accurately. Below are common
mistakes that most students make when they draw the apparatus.

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Questions that is related to titration, you need to do 3 tries of titration. First is for a rough estimate while
the 2 titration is an accurate reading. You should record the readings in the table. All titre should be
written to 2 decimal points. The titre readings should not differ too much from 0.10m3.

Additional Answering Tips

Incorrect Observation Correct Observation

Chorine gas released Effervescence. Gas Bubbles Released/Light green


gas given out

Copper formed Brown solid deposited (Brown Deposits)

Deflection of the galvanometer Deflection of the galvanometer needle

Clear (solution) Colourless (solution)

Hydrogen Gas Released No Change

Voltmeter Moves Deflection of voltmeter needle

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Purple Colour Disappears or purple solution Purple solution decolourised/becomes colourless
Bleached

Product of electrolysis at the cathode: Brown Brown deposit/solid


Precipitate

Red litmus paper becomes blue litmus paper Moist red litmus paper turns blue

Copper sulphate turns colourless The blue solution turns colourless

Clear (solution), Colour of water is clear/white Colourless (solution)

No Reaction No Change

Hydrogen Gas Released Bubbles released

Rate of reaction is faster/s lower Rate of reaction is higher/lower

Electrons flow from zinc metal to copper metal Electrons flow from zinc metal to copper metal
through the wire

Reagent to verify iodine -> starch Starch Solution

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SPM 2016 Biology Tips

SPM BIOLOGY

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Multiple Choice Questions 50 Marks

50 Questions

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: Structured Response 60 Marks

5 Questions
Section B: Essay
40 Marks
Choose any 2 Questions out of total 4

Paper 3 1 hr 30 min Written Practical

Structured Question 33 Marks


1 Question with sub-questions

Essay Question 17 Marks

Total 200 Marks

General Tips

Biology is an elective subject taken by all pure science students and anyone looking to pursue
health/life sciences in their higher education.
The total marks for all paper is 200 marks. This means that 1 mark awarded is actually a mark.
Thus it is essential to focus on scoring well in paper 2 and paper 3.
Doing well in Paper 2 and Paper 3 will guarantee a pass to a B. Use Paper 1 to push your grade
to an A.
Biology requires memorisation through understanding - if you view your topics as a single story
about life, it is much easier to connect your learning.
You must take part in all lab activity and experiments conducted in school because these
practicals are essential for Paper 3 - as you must recreate them step-by-step in the form of an
essay.
Use Youtube videos to visualize models for better understanding. Use some of the institutes
below to help you.
Tutorvista
GuideTuition
Khan Academy
You must use correct biological terms for body parts and processes - as the marking scheme is
based on keywords and not understanding of theory, this means you must memorise the terms
while being able to understand and explain processes.
Do not waste time studying Chapter 1 of Form 4 as no question has ever been set from there.

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Jump directly into Chapter 2.

Paper 1

Always remove the answers you know arent possible and narrow down possible answers to
increase probability of correct answers.
Be careful of words like except, all but which of the following is not and other keywords
that can trick you to choose the wrong answers.
Questions are distributed evenly across all topics so you need a good overall understanding.
Paper 1 is filled with diagrams to be matched to names and functions, so make sure you know
main organs and processes like the lungs, reproductive system, mitosis, osmosis.
You are not required to show any workings.

Paper 2

Go through past year questions and familiarise yourself with the pattern of the questions. The
pattern is similar from year to year.
If you have the time, answer all the 5 questions in Section B.
The examiner will mark all 5 answers and choose the 4 answers with the highest marks.
Show all the workings and do not skip any important steps for every questions!
One (1) mark is given to each important step and the final answer.
If you miss an important step, marks for that step, subsequent steps and final answer
will not be given.
Therefore, correct answer without workings will get a zero (0).
However, if your answer is wrong but you provide some correct workings, you will get
some marks for the correct workings.
You are allowed to answer in table form or short sentences - grammar is not a concern but
misspelling names may result in your answer being incorrectly marked. You can also use
diagrams, equations or graphs where suitable
Do not not answer in point form. There is no penalty for answering in point form, but some
inexperienced examiners may deduct your marks if you do so.
Make sure you know the difference between the following:
State - Usually a 1-mark question. Just answer the question directly. No further
information necessary.
Define - Give the standard definition using biological words and keywords.
Describe - Simply write what you see.
Explain - Elaborate on how and why the process is happening and what it means.
Suggest - Based on your knowledge of the topic, you must apply it to solve the problem
in the question. As long as your answer is logical and relevant to the question, you
should gain marks for this.
See the example below:

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1. State the organ where the alveoli is found.
a. Lungs.
2. Define respiration.
a. A process of living organisms involving the production of energy, typically with the
intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex
organic substances.
3. Describe the function of alveoli.
a. The function of the alveoli is to assist in oxygen exchange by providing a large surface
area.
4. Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged in the alveoli.
a. The change in partial pressure from the alveoli (high concentration) to the capillaries
(low concentration) drives the oxygen into the tissue and the carbon dioxide into the
blood (high concentration) from the tissues (low concentration), which is then returned
to the lungs and exhaled.
5. Suggest how alveoli are similar to leaves in the photosynthesis process.
a. They both maximize the ratio of surface area to volume to try to facilitate some type of
exchange. In the case of a leaf, it has a large surface area to help maximize the amount
sunlight that it can capture to produce food via photosynthesis. In the case of alveoli,
the more surface area there is in the alveoli, the faster and more efficiently the gas
exchange happens.

Paper 3: Question 1

Understand and know what exactly the question is asking for.


Grammatical errors will not affect yours marks as long as the examiner understands what you
are writing.
Do not use any short forms in your answer, or abbreviations without first explaining them. The
only time this is acceptable is when using for metric units.
All chemical compounds should be written fully before writing in formula.
Calculations must show full workings as skipping steps will result in marks deduction. Make sure
to use the correct units.
Answer in complete sentences as marks allocated for each part of the question is always 3.
Marks are given based on the quality of your answer, so it does actually depend on the number
of points in your answer.
You can write extra points in your answer but take care that your points do not contradict one
another as marks may be deducted.
Numerical data from instruments should follow the decimal places of the instrument in the
correct unit. For example, if recording the temperature from a thermometer that gives
measurements to the 0.01, then your answer should also be in two decimal places.
Axis on graphs must be titled and given units with proper scale. Your graph should be at least
of the graph paper.
Where possible to draw your straight or curved line to all points, do so, if not, use best-fit or
straight lines if you need to connect them, based on the question.

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Paper 3: Question 2

Design a suitable experiment based on the questions requirements


Your answer must include:
Aim
Problem Statement
Hypothesis
Variables
State which are the manipulated, responding and fixed variables.
List of Materials & Apparatus
State amount (with correct unit) and concentration of substances
Data Tabulation
Data should be table of responding and manipulated variables.

You do not need to enter actual data, just show the recording table.

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SPM 2016 Science Tips

SPM SCIENCE

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Multiple Choice Questions 50 Marks

50 Questions

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: Structure Response 20 Marks

4 Questions

Section B: Structure Response 30 Marks

5 Questions

Section C: Essay 30 Marks


3 Questions (Choose 2)

Total 100 Marks

General Tips

Science is a compulsory subject taken by all non-pure science students.


The total marks for all papers is 130 marks. The balance marks will be awarded via a lab
practical. This means that 1 mark awarded is mark. Thus it is essential to focus on
scoring well in both Paper 1 and Paper 2.
Science requires memorization through understanding you must know key concepts.
You must use correct biological terms for body parts and processes, correct chemistry
notations for substances, and correct units for calculations and measurements as the
marking scheme is based on keywords and not understanding of theory, this means you
must memorise the terms while being able to understand and explain the processes. Do
not waste time studying Chapter 1 of Form 4 as no question has ever been set from
there. Jump directly into Chapter 2.

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Paper 1

Always remove the answers you know arent possible and narrow down possible
answers to increase probability of correct answers.
Be careful of words like except, all but, which of the following is not and other
keywords that can trick you to choose the wrong answers.
Questions are distributed evenly across all topics so you need a good overall
understanding.
You are not required to show any workings.

Paper 2

Go through past year questions and familiarize yourself with the pattern of the
questions. The pattern is similar from year to year.
You must answer ALL questions in Section A and B, and Question 10 and either Question
11 or 12 in Section C.
Show all the workings and do not skip any important steps for every question!
o One (1) mark is given to each important step and the final answer.
o If you miss an important step, marks for that step, subsequent steps and final
answer will not be given.
o Therefore, correct answer without workings will get a zero (0).
o However, if your answer is wrong but you provide some correct workings, you
will get some marks for the correct workings.
You are allowed to answer in table form or short sentence grammar is not a concern
but misspelling names may result in your answer being incorrectly marked. You can also
use diagrams, equations or graphs where suitable.
Do not answer in point form. There is no penalty for answering in point form, but some
inexperienced examiners may deduct your marks if you do so.
Make sure you know the difference between the following:
o State Usually 1-mark question. Just answer the question directly.
o Define Give the standard definition using biological words and keywords.
o Describe Simply write what you see.
o Explain Elaborate on how and why the process is happening and what it
means.
o Suggest Based on your knowledge of the topic, you must apply it to solve the
problem in the question.

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SPM 2016 Pendidikan Moral Tips

SPM PENDIDIKAN MORAL

Paper 1 2 hr 30 min Section A: 8 questions (Must answer all) 100%

Section B: 3 questions (Choose 2)

SPM Pendidikan Moral Format Elaboration

Paper 1: Consists of 2 parts; Section A and Section B that needs to be answered in 2 hours and 30 minutes.
Section A consists of 8 questions which you have to answer all the questions. Each question consists of 10
marks. Section B consists of 3 questions which you will only need to choose 2 questions to answer. Each
question consists of 10 marks. This paper will contribute up to 100% of your overall SPM Pendidikan Moral
mark.

General Tips

1. Questions for SPM Pendidikan Moral will come from the list of 36 Nilai in the syllabus together
with the Definisi and Kata Kunci. Everything about these 36 Nilai will help you in scoring for
your paper so make sure to memorize the exact thing as per the syllabus, from the spelling up to
the imbuhan. On top of that, take time to understand about each Nilai. If you cannot
understand the meaning of each Nilai by yourself, ask your teachers and friends. Listening to
different peoples perspective on how they understand certain things will give you a very broad
understanding.

2. Constant and consistent revision of every Nilai will help you to understand and remember what
you have read better. As the saying goes, practice makes perfect. Revise as many times as you
need until you can confidently answer the practice questions given to you. Always go through the
Nilai, Definisi and Kata Kunci because you never know what you might have forgotten; and
sometimes it even helps you to understand better, hence remember better.

3. Remember that besides reading, you will also need to do exercises and practice questions.
Without them, it will be like watching and understanding how to do public speaking without ever
going on the stage, and thinking that you can now perform confidently without going through the
fear and excitement of presenting to a large crowd. Start by doing the questions topic by
topic, Nilai by Nilai so that you know where you need to improve yourself further on. When
you think you have sufficiently understand all the topics, you can proceed with doing SPM model
test papers, past year SPM trial questions and past year actual SPM questions.

4. Do refer to the marking scheme of past year SPM trial papers so that you understand how scores
are given for each question. This is important so that you can formulate your strategy in answering

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those questions which help you tremendously in maximizing your chances of getting marks for
your answers.

5. Revision before the SPM Pendidikan Moral exam requires you to employ a different strategy. Start
with going through the subtopics that you feel you are the weakest at before going to the
subtopics that are are good at.

SPM Pendidikan Moral Tips

1. Part A: Questions on Nilai require you to use only the Nilai in the syllabus and this is where
understanding what each Nilai meant plays a very important role. By choosing the most
suitable and relevant Nilai, you will be able to answer the questions accordingly. Depending
on the question and the marks allocated for the question, the answers are usually separated
into these 3 elements: Nilai, Penerangan and Contoh.
1 Nilai = 1 Mark: You only need to list the Nilai

1 Nilai = 2 Marks: You will need to list the Nilai and Penerangan

1 Nilai = 3 Marks: You will need to list the Nilai, Penerangan and Contoh

2. Part A: Ways to answer following elements:


Nilai: You should include the word Nilai in front of the Nilai that you wrote

Penerangan: Include the situation and one Kata Kunci of the Nilai

Contoh: Include an example that can allow the individual to relate to the Penerangan

3. Part A: The spelling, imbuhan and susunan must be the same for all Nilai, Kata Kunci and
Situasi. The Definisi Nilai must also be the exact definition as per the syllabus. Once again,
any grammatical and spelling errors may result in deduction of your marks (which is very easy in
Pendidikan Moral), hence you want to be as careful as you can be.

4. Part A: Opinionated questions, require you to give your own ideas. That is how by listening to
different peoples perspective on how they understand certain things will give you a very broad
understanding; which will allow you to provide a very relevant explanation. This is where
sometimes even if your Nilai might not be particularly accurate on first glance, your
explanation may give them a newer perspective and understanding. Being specific is the key
here; instead of giving a general idea.

5. Part A: Questions regarding Akta, Tokoh and Pertubuhan (and any other similar nature
questions), will require your general knowledge and relevant facts from your reference material
such as textbooks or revision books. Try to avoid short forms here because you might be
penalized on your marks.
6. Part B: Questions in Part B usually requires you to give your ideas and/or opinions. The purpose

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of this part is to test a students ability to use moral knowledge critically to analyse, evaluate,
make decisions and solve moral issue.

7. Part B: Similar to opinionated questions in Part A, opinionated questions in Part B require you to
give your own ideas. That is how by listening to different peoples perspective on how they
understand certain things will give you a very broad understanding; which will allow you to
provide a very relevant explanation. This is where sometimes even if your Nilai might not be
particularly accurate on first glance, your explanation may give them a newer perspective and
understanding. Being specific is the key here; instead of giving a general idea.

8. Part B: Similar to Part A, depending on the question and the marks allocated for the question,
the answers are usually separated into these 3 elements: Fakta, Huraian and Huraian
Lanjut.
5 answers: You will need to give 5 Fakta and 5 Huraian

3 answers: You will need to give 3 Fakta, 3 Huraian and 3 Huraian Lanjut

9. Part B: Similar to Part A, questions on Nilai require you to use only the Nilai in the syllabus
and this is where understanding what each Nilai meant plays a very important role. By
choosing the most suitable and relevant Nilai, you will be able to answer the questions
accordingly. Depending on the question and the marks allocated for the question, the answers
are usually separated into these 3 elements: Nilai, Penerangan and Contoh.

IMPORTANT REMINDER: The spelling, imbuhan and susunan must be the same for all Nilai, Kata
Kunci and Situasi. The Definisi Nilai must also be the exact definition as per the syllabus. Once
again, any grammatical and spelling errors may result in deduction of your marks (which is very easy in
Pendidikan Moral), hence you want to be as careful as you can be.

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SPM 2016 Sejarah Tips

SPM Sejarah

Paper 1 1 hr 40 Multiple Choice Questions 30%

Paper 2 2 hr 30 min Section A: 4 Questions (Must answer all) 50%

Section B: 7 Questions (Choose 3)

Paper 3 3 hr Open-Book Test 20%

SPM Sejarah Format Elaboration

Paper 1: Consists of 40 multiple choice questions that needs to be answered in 1 hour. This paper
contributes up to 30% of your overall SPM Sejarah mark.

Paper 2: Consists of 2 parts; Section A and Section B that needs to be answered in 2 hours and 30 minutes.
Section A consists of 4 questions which you have to answer all the questions. Each question consists of 10
marks. Section B consists of 7 questions which you will only need to choose 3 questions to answer. Each
question consists of 20 marks. This paper will contribute up to 50% of your overall SPM Sejarah mark.

Paper 3: Consist of an open-book test format which you will be allowed to bring your Form 4 and Form 5
textbooks and revision books into the hall. You will be given 3 hours to finish this paper. This paper will
contribute up to 20% of your overall SPM Sejarah mark.

General Tips

1. Questions for SPM Sejarah will consist of information from your Form 4 and Form 5 textbooks. If
you do not have either one, it is recommended for you to either buy one or borrow from your
friend. However, studying using only the official textbooks will not be the most effective way as
they contain too much text which will take longer time to understand the topic at hand. With that,
a reference book will come in helpful as they have helped you to break down vital information
into a simple and concise format.

2. As history requires a lot of understanding of the facts, you should always understand the facts
that are being presented whenever you study a topic for the first time. Studying in a timeline
format, story or even making it like a game or competition will help make what can be a dry and
boring subject; interesting to study. You should always understand what you have read so that

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you will not need to memorize the whole book.

3. By understanding what you have read, you will be able to get an idea of what happened or formed
the relation between one fact to the other. This will help you explain things in your own words
with the correct facts without needing to remember everything in the book. (Pay extra attention
to identify and understand important names / words)

4. Pay extra attention to identify and understand important names and events. They are usually
related to one another whereby an event is caused by a previous event which leads leads to
another event. Understanding the relationship between the names and events, will help you
remember them better. If there are too many facts for a particular subtopic; grouping them
together and remembering the groups (and giving meaning to the group) will help you remember
and/or recall them better.

5. Constant and consistent revision of every topic will help you to understand and remember what
you have read better. As the saying goes, practice makes perfect. Revise as many times as you
need until you can confidently answer the practice questions given to you. Always go through the
facts and explanations because you never know what you might have forgotten; and sometimes
it even helps you to understand better, hence remember better.

6. Remember that besides reading, you will also need to do exercises and practice questions.
Without them, it will be like watching and understanding how a footballer kicks a ball without
ever kicking a ball once, and thinking that you can now kick like one. Start by doing the questions
topic by topic so that you know where you need to improve yourself further on. When you think
you have sufficiently understand all the topics, you can proceed with doing SPM model test
papers, past year SPM trial questions and past year actual SPM questions.

7. Do refer to the marketing scheme of past year SPM trial papers so that you understand how scores
are given for each question. This is important so that you can formulate your strategy in answering
those questions which help you tremendously in maximizing your chances of getting marks for
your answers.

8. Revision before the SPM Sejarah exam requires you to employ a different strategy. Start with
going through the subtopics that you feel you are the weakest at before going to the subtopics
that are are good at.

9. Every single year, there will be so called predictions on the questions that will be asked in the SPM
Sejarah Paper 2. The predictions are just that; predictions. Never ever rely on predictions but
instead, religiously read, understand and do exercises.

10. Finally, 1 month before the SPM Sejarah exam, a general topic will be release for Paper 3. Look
for materials from various sources such as the books, newspapers, magazines and the internet.

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Most importantly of all, discuss with your teacher and friends about the topic because more brains
will cut short your time needed to gather resources and help you understand and prepare for the
topic at hand faster.

SPM Sejarah Paper 1 Tips

1. There are 4 questions for you to choose from. Read the questions properly because they might
try to confuse you with questions such as the following are the right answer except or
which of this is not the right answer.

2. Whether you are certain or not certain of the answer for the question, go through the choices
provided and cross out the wrong answers. This will help you to have a safety net in place in
case you read the question wrongly or better yet, if you are not sure of the answer, by crossing
out the wrong answers, you will get closer to the right answer.

SPM Sejarah Paper 2 Tips

1. Part A: Answering in complete sentences are not required; they are not testing your grammar but
you will still need to make sure that the spelling is correct and the answers are structured
properly.

2. Part A: Write as many answers as you think might be the possible answer because no marks are
given for wrong answer; but marks are given for the right answer. And every mark can make a
difference for your grade.

3. Part B: Unlike in Part A, you will need to answer in complete sentences; essay form. If you do not
do so, you will have half of your marks deducted even though you answered the question
correctly. This part is to help an individual to understand the answer that you have written.

4. Part B: Once again, write as many answers as you think might be the possible answer as no marks
are given for the wrong answer; but marks are given for the right answer. Remember that your
answers need to be in complete sentences. If the question asked you to list down the facts, you
will only need to list down the facts without elaboration. However, if the question requires you
to explain or elaborate, you should provide both your facts and explanations. A lot of people did
not get full marks because they did not understand the question properly.

5. Part A and B: Specific answer is the key here; instead of a general idea. Minor spelling errors will
be forgiven but major spelling answer will have your marks deducted. Most importantly, avoid
short forms which you might encounter in reference books.

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SPM Sejarah Paper 3 Tips

1. Bring in any material that is relevant to you for this paper from textbooks, reference books and
any other relevant materials.

2. For this part, usually the scoring for the answer is separated into a 50:50 format. 50% will be for
the facts that you provided while the other 50% is for your opinion. This is where the discussion
with your teachers and friends will help a lot. Your opinions have to be logical and relevant; and
this goes back to how your express your opinion and the reasoning behind it.

3. Similar to SPM Sejarah Paper 2 Part B, you will need to answer in continuous writing form and in
complete sentences. Minor spelling errors will be forgiven but major spelling answer will have
your marks deducted. Most importantly, avoid short forms which you might encounter in
reference books.

4. The challenge that most people face for this paper is the difficulty in organizing too much
information to be presented in a short and concise format, in the allocated time. Never focus on
putting as many possible answers on the paper as possible but focus on getting as many highly
probable answer in the format required by the question as possible. Another suggestion would
be to limit the reference material that you bring into the examination hall; this way you will be
forced to rely on the reference material which will allow focus instead of trying to get reference
from all sources.

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SPM 2016 Prinsip Perakaunan Tips

SPM PRINSIP PERAKAUNAN

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min 40 Multiple Choice Questions (Answer ALL) 40 Marks

Paper 2 2 hr 30min Section A: 3 Questions (Answer ALL) 60 Marks

Section B: 3 Questions (Answer 2)

TOTAL 100 Marks

Analysis of questions from 2007-2013 (K1; number of questions asked, K2; refers to parts of the
questions)

Bil BIL Topic 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2

1 Pengenalan Kepada Perakaunan 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1b

2 Klasifikasi Akaun: Aset, Liability, Ekuiti 3 4 2 5 3 1a 3 4 1


Pemilik, Hasil, Belanja & Akaun Kontra

3 Dokumen Perniagaan Sebagai Sumber 1 1 1 2 3c 1 4


Maklumat

4 Journal Sebagai Buku Catatan Pertama 2 1a 1 1a 2 1a 1 1a 1 2 1a 1 1a

4a

6b

5 Lejar 3 1c 6 1c 5 4 1b 7 1b 4 1b 6 1b 4

3a 1c 1c

3b

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6 Imbangan Duga 3 1c 2 1c 5 1c 1 1c 5 3 3

7 Penyata Kewangan - Milikan Tunggal 8 3 5 7 2 3 3 6 1c 4 1d 1 2a

5 2

8 Perakaunan untuk Tunai 2 3 4 6 3 1 4 1 2

9 Perakaunan untuk Pengajian 1d 1 1 6a

1c

10 Perkongsian 2 3 4 6 3 3 2 5 5 4 2b

2c

11 Syarikat Berhad 2 3 4 1 4 5 3 6 2 3 4b

12 Kelab & Persatuan 2 5 3 2 4 2 2 2 1e 3 3a

3b

3c

13 Rekod Tak Lengkap 3 6 3 5 1 4 2 3 3 3 5a

5b

14 Perakaunan Untuk Pengurusan 2 4 2 6 2 5 2 2 1e 3 3 4

15 Maklumat Untuk Membuat Keputusan 3 1 4 1 6 3 2 6 4

Jumlah Soalan 40 6 40 6 40 6 40 6 40 6 40 6 40 6

Panduan Menjawab Kertas Soalan Prinsip Perakaunan

Dokumen Perniagaan

1. Soalan ini seolah-olah menjadi soalan utama dan wajib dikuasi oleh setiap calon kerana ia
menghasilkan jumlah markah yang terbanyak iaitu 29 markah. Biasanya soalan ini memberikan
dokumen-dokumen perniagaan antara 13 hinggs 15 jumlahnya. Antaranya ialah Invois (Jualan dan
Belian), resit rasmi, penyata akaun, keratan cek, slip bank, bil tunai, baucer, nota kredit, nota
debit, memo, dan lain-lain.

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2. Calon dikehendaki merekod semua urusniaga berdasarkan dokumen-dokumen tersebut ke dalam
buku-buku catatan pertama (jurnal) dan seterusnya membuat posting ke akaun-akaun lejar yang
berkenaan. Akhirnya calon dikehendaki menyediakan Imbangan Duga berdasatkan baki-baki akhir
dalam akaun-akaun lejar.

3. Jika calon-calon benar-benar meneliti semua kertas soalan yang lepas, adalah didapati bahawa
semua dokumen yang diberi disusun mengikut tarikh menaik. Oleh itu sebagai panduan umum,
bagi memudahkan calon menjawab, calon-calon hendaklah menyelesaikan soalan ini satu demi
satu berdasarkan dokumen yang diberi mengikut susunan seperti dalam soalan. Dengan cara ini
dapat mengelakkan calon daripada tertinggal mencatatkan mana-mana urusniaga.

4. Buku-buku catatan pertama yang dimaksudkan ialah:


a. Jurnal AmJurnal
b. Belian Jurnal
c. Jualan Jurnal
d. Pulangan Belian
e. Jurnal Pulangan Jualan
f. Buku Tunai (dua atau tiga ruangan)
g. Buku Tunai Runcit

5. Oleh hal yang demikian, calon hendaklah mengetahui di dalam buku catatan pertama manakah
setiap urusniaga yang diberikan itu perlu direkodkan. Merekod urusniaga ke dalam jurnal-jurnal
yang salah akan mengakibatkan calon kehilangan markah. Juga kesilapan merekod sesuatu
urusniaga ke dalam jernal lebih daripada satu kali akan mengakibatkan calon tidak mendapat
markah (kecuali modal permulaan perniagaan dan catatan pembukaan) boleh direkod dua kali
(dalam jurnal am dan buku tunai). Calon dianggap meneka jika mereka merekod sesuatu
urusniaga dua kali atau lebih, yang mengakibatkan kedua-dua catatan yang dibuat itu dianggap
salah dan tidak diberi sebarang markah.

Panduan-panduan berikut perlu diberi perhatian olah calon apabila merekod urusniaga ke dalam jurnal-
jurnal:

Jurnal Am

Tajuk Jurnal Am mesti ditulis. Jika tajuk tidak ditulis berkemungkinan segala kandungan Jurnal
Am tidak mendapat markah yang sewajarnya.
Mesti tulis ruangan tarikh, butir, debit dan kredit. Jangan tulis butiran dalam bentuk esei. Apa
yang perlu ditulis ialah nama-nama akaun.
Tarikh hendaklah ditulis bagi setiap urusniaga yang direkodkan. Jika terdapat beberapa
urusniaga yang berlainan berlaku pada tarikh yang sama memadai ditulis sekali sahaja pada
urusniaga yang pertama.
Peraturan merekod Jurnal Am ialah mesti dahului catatan Debit dan diikuti catatan Kredit.
Jangan sekali-kali dahului catatan kredit dan diikuti dengan catatan debit. Biasanya catatan
debit sahaja/kredit sahaja tidak diterima.
Setiap catatan dalam jurnal am mesti diikuti oleh satu keterangan yang mesti ditulis di dalam

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kurungan bagi menjelaskan urusniaga yang berlaku.
Hanya satu Jurnal Am biasanya dikehendaki. Oleh itu jangan buat Jurnal Am lebih daripada
satu atau secara berasingan bagi setiap urusniaga.

Buku Tunai

Tajuk Buku Tunai hendaklah ditulis. Jika tajuk tidak ditulis berkemungkinan segala kandungan
buku tunai tidak diterima.
Tarikh dan butir mesti betul untuk mendapat markah pada sesuatu angka yang direkodkan.
Jangan tulis butiran dalam entuk esei. Apa yang perlu ditulis ialah nama-nama akaun.
Tajuk bagi ruangan Diskaun, Tunai dan Bank hendaklah ditulis dengan jelas di kedua-dua
bahagian debit dan kredit Buku Tunai. Biasanya Buku Tunai yang dibuat satu ruangan sahaja,
tidak diterima.
Sebaik-baiknya semua catatan dalam Buku Tunai hendaklah direkodkan mengikut urutan
tarikh urusniaga berlaku.
Baki akhir (baki h/b) ruangan tunai dan bank hendaklah ditunjukkan.

Jurnal Belian

Jangan sekali-kali buat jurnal belian dalam bentuk jurnal am.


Tajuk Jurnal Belian mesti ditulis dengan jelas.
Tarikh, butir dan angka mesti betul untuk memperolehi markah.
Biasanya ruang no invois, detil invois tidak perlu direkodkan untuk menjimatkan masa. Apa
yang penting calon hendaklah turus sahaja merekod di ruangan jumlah dengan angka bersih
(angka bersih diperolehi di akhir sesuatu invois).
Catatan dalam jurnal mestilah dibuat mengikut urutan tarikh urusniaga berlaku
Di akhir bulan / di hujung sesuatu tempoh perakaunan, sesuatu jurnal itu hendaklah ditutup
dan dihitung jumlahnya. Tarikh penutupan jurnal hendaklah ditulis. Berhati-hati menulis
butiran bagi menutup sesuatu jurnal. Tidak menulis tarikh dan butiran yang betul
mengakibatkan calon kehilangan markah.
Butiran yang boleh diterima pakai ialah: Akaun Belian (Dt) atau Jumlah Belian Kredit. Butiran-
butiran lain tidak diterima

Jurnal Jualan / Jurnal Pulangan Belian / Jurnal Pulangan Jualan

Panduan yang sama seperti di atas dipakai.

Akaun-akaun Lejar

Tajuk setiap akaun mestilah ditulis dengan betul dan jelas.


Untuk mendapat markah setiap catatan mesti ditulis butir dan angka yang betul.
Calon biasanya kehilangan markah kerana mereka membuat akaun yang sama dua kali atau
lebih. Dengan kata lain akaun yang sama tidak boleh diulang dua kali atau lebih.
Tarikh bagi setiap catatan perlu direkod dengan betul. Walau bagaimanapun tarikh tidak
begitu penting dan boleh di abaikan.

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Bila membuat posting dari Jurnal-jurnal Khas ke akaun-akaun berkenaan, butiran dalam akaun
tidak boleh ditulis nama secara individu menggantikan "pelbagai penghutang/pelbagai
pemiutang".

Imbangan Duga

Tajuk dan tarikh Ibangan Duga hendaklah ditulis dengan betul dan lengkap. Jika tajuk tidak
ditulis dengan betul dan lengkap anda akan kehilangan markah. Tajuk yang betul hendaklah
ditulis sebagai contoh berikut:
Imbangan Duga Pada 31 Disember 20xx

Butiran dan angka mestilah betul untuk mendapatkan markah. Debit dan kredit butiran
berkenaan juga mesti betul.
Angka-angka dalam Imbangan Duga mesti sama dengan angka baki-baki dalam akaun lejar
berkenaan dan baki tunai dan bank dalam Buku Tunai sahaja.
Angka jumlah keseimbangan Debit dan Kredit tidak penting (biasanya tidak diberi markah).
Oleh itu jika calon mendapati jumlahnya tidak seimbang jangan membuang masa
menjadikannya seimbang.

Teknik Menjawab Penyelarasan Soalan (Adjustment Accounts)

Pelarasan Akaun

Pelarasan dilakukan ke atas butiran akaun kerana mematuhi:

i. Tempoh Perakaunan

ii. Konvensyen Perakaunan

Di antara butiran akaun yang perlu dilaraskan:

i. Belanja

ii. Hasil

iii. Hutang Lapuk

iv. Peruntukan Hutang Ragu

v. Susut nilai

vi. Butiran akaun yang belum direkod

Persembahan perakaunan:

Ditunjukkan dalam akaun penamat dalam bentuk:

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i. T akaun

ii. Penyata

iii. Lembaran Kerja

Dalam penyediaan pelajar MESTI menjaga:

i. Komponan

ii. Struktur akaun

Format:
Soalan diberi dalam bentuk
Baki-baki akaun
Imbangan Duga
Dari bab lain seperti:
Perkongsian
Pengeluaran

Pelarasan Dalam Bentuk Penyata


Jawapan anda perlu ada dalam format Kertas Jawapan Guna kertas Jurnal/Kajang

Langkah 1: Tulis Tajuk

Langkah 2: Catat komponan akaun:

Penyata Pendapatan:

a) Jualan

b) Tolak Kos Jualan

c) (+) Lain Lain Hasil

d) (-) Belanja

Langkah 3: Kunci Kira-Kira:

a) Aset Tetap

b) Aset Semasa

c) (-) Liabiliti Semasa

d) Dibiayai oleh:

e) Liabiliti Jangka Panjang

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Langkah 4: Selesai Maklumat Tambahan melalui Pendekatan CB / ID

Langkah 5: Ambil butiran akaun dalan ID terselaras dan catat dalam komponan / format
disediakan

*Nota: Pengiraan tidak perlu ditunjukkan dalam kertas jawapan anda.

Kecuaian yang pelajar selalu buat dalam peperiksaan

Beberapa kelemahan atau kesalahan umum calon di dalam peperiksaan kertas Prinsip Akaun yang telah
dikenal pasti. Antaranya ialah:

1. Menjawab soalan dengan terlalu gopoh.


2. Tidak memahami kehendak / tugasan soalan terutamanya bagi pelarasan.
3. Cuai dalam membuat pengiraan.
4. Tidak dapat menguasai format akaun yang betul.
5. Tidak mempunyai kaedah penyelesaian yang sistematik dan teratur.
6. Lemah dalam kemahiran mengira dengan cepat.
7. Tidak menjawab mengikut kehendak soalan.
8. Kurang membuat latihan/latih tubi yang mencukupi.
9. Membuang masa atau tidak pandai merancang dan mengagihkan masa mengikut kehendak
soalan dan peruntukan markah.
10. Tidak berkebolehan menggunakan maklumat dan butir-butir yang disediakan di dalam soalan
dengan teliti.
11. Tulisan tidak kemas dan sukar dibaca. Angka-angka tidak ditulis dengan jelas.
12. Catatan-catatan dalam jurnal dan lejar tidak dibuat dengan teratur.

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SPM 2016 Perdagangan Tips

SPM PERDAGANGAN

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Answer ALL 40 questions 40%

Paper 2 2 hrs Section A: Answer THREE questions 60%

Section B: Answer ALL questions

TOTAL 100%

Questions Analysis (2007 - 2013):

Topic P1 P2
(D - Definitely Tested; C - Commonly Tested)

Asas Kepada Perdagangan D D

Unsur Perdagangan C C

Perniagaan Dalam Negeri D D

Perniagaan Antarabangsa C C

Industri Kecil dan Sederhana (IKS) D D

Pemilikan Perniagaan D D

Pelaburan D D

Perbankan dan Institusi Kewangan lain D D

Insurans D D

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Pengangkutan D D

Komunikasi D D

Pergudangan D C

Promosi D C

Peranan Kerajaan Dalam Perniagaan C C

Konsumerisme D D

Disclaimer: The tips below are not meant to replace actual studying of the subject. Students will be able
to score better if this reading material is use as supplementary reading.

Paper 1 and Paper 2 Most Tested Chapters

1) PERBANKAN DAN INSTITUSI KEWANGAN LAIN


Sistem Perbankan Konvensional
Sistem perbankan British yang diubahsuai mengikut peraturan yang ditetapkan oleh
Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)
Berlandaskan prinsip komersial iaitu keuntungan dan kecekapan

Sisterm Perbankan Islam


Berdasarkan prinsip Islam
Tiada mengamalkan riba dan faedah

Perbezaan Sistem Pembankan


Konvensional Islam

Mengandungi unsur riba Mengharamkan unsur riba

Mengikuti peraturan BNM Mengikuti peraturan BMN dan hukum syarah

Bebas melabur dalam semua sektor Hanya melabur di sektor halal

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Pakar pembankan konvensional sebagai Ulama, ahli akademik, pakar permbankan Islam
penasihat sebagai penasihat

Jenis Bank
Bank Pusat
Bank Perdagangan dan Bank Islam
Bank Saudagar
Bank Badan Berkanun
Bank Koperasi

Fungsi Bank Negara Malaysia


Mengeluarkan dan mengawal mata wang Negara
Menjadi jurubank kepada kerajaan
Laksanakan dasar kewangan kerajaan
Menjadi jurubank kepada bank perdagangan

Fungsi Bank Perdagangan


Terima simpanan (akaun simpanan / tetap/ semasa)
Beri kemudahan pembiayaan (pinjaman / overdraf)
Beri kemudahan pembayaran (pindahan kredit / arahan tetap)
Beri perkhidmatan lain (kad kredit / peti simpanan selamat)

Fungsi Bank Saudagar


Terima simpanan dari syarikat besar
Beri pinjaman
Beri khidmat nasihat korporat
Urus pelaburan syarikat berhad
Tangung jamin terbitan syer

Fungsi Bank Badan Berkanun


Bank Simpanan Nasional

Terima simpanan
Beri pinjaman
Tawar kad kredit
Sedia perkhidmatan perbankan Islam

Bank Pembangunan dan Infrastruktur Malaysia Berhad

Biaya aset tetap


Biaya modal kerja
Sedia skim kilang bimbingan
Sedia tabung usahawan baru

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Sedia modal asas untuk Industri Kecil dan Sederhana (IKS)

Bank Pertanian Malaysia

Beri pinjaman
Terima simpanan
Beri kemudahan sewa jentera
Anjur kursus / latihan kepada usahawan bumiputera

Fungsi Bank Badan Berkanun


Terima simpanan
Beri pinjaman
Tawar perkhidmatan perbankan Islam

Ciri-Ciri Bank Islam


Berdasarkan hukum Islam dan peraturan syariah.
Tertakluk kepada Akta Bank Islam 1983.
Riba (bunga atau faedah) tidak dibenarkan
Mudharabah dan musyarakah (amalkan konsep perkongsian untung rugi)
Maisir iaitu perjudian tidak dibenarkan
3 konsep (Wadiah, Mudharabah, Musyarakah)

Cek
Dokumen perintah bertulis oleh penyimpan akaun semasa kepada pihak bank. Cek ini
bertujuan mengarahkan bank untuk membuat sejumlah bayaran pada tarikh tertentu
kepada menerima pembawa cek apabila dituntut.

Pihak-pihak dalam sekeping Cek


Pesuruh bayar - bank yang mengeluarkan cek
Penyuruh bayar - orang / pihak yang menandatangani cek
Penerima - orang / pihak yang menerima bayaran

Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Cek


Kelebihan Kekurangan

Selamat Bukan wang sah

Boleh tangguh pembayaran Melambatkan proses penerimaan wang

Boleh batalkan pembayaran Penerima cek berisiko menerima cek tak sah

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Murah Kos dikenakan di atas penggunaan cek

Tidak perlu mengira duit

Boleh dihantar melalui pos

2) INSURANS
Istilah
Insurer - Syarikat insurans yang memberi perlindungan
Insured - Orang yang membeli polisi insurans
Premium - Bayaran yang dijelaskan oleh insured untuk mendapatkan perlindungan
Polisi - Perjanjian antara insurer dan insured
Pampasan - gantirugi yang dibayar jika berlaku risiko

Peranan Insurans
Kepada Peniaga Kepada Individu Kepada Negara

Melindungi daripada risiko Melindungi individu dan Membangunkan ekonomi


keluarga dari risiko negara

Dapat pampasan jika risiko Jaminan masa depan Memberi peluang pekerjaan
berlaku

Lebih yakin untuk memajukan Dapat pampasan jika berlaku Taraf hidup rakyat meningkat
perniagaan risiko

Satu cara menabung

Risiko Boleh Insurans


Risiko boleh dikira secara statistik. Ada rekod kejadian lalu
Kadar premium boleh ditetapkan
Cth: Kebakaran, kecurian

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Risiko Tidak Boleh Diinsuranskan
Tidak doleh dikira. Tiada rekod kejadian
Kadar premium sukar ditetapkan
Cth: Perubahan fesyen, hutang lapuk

Prinsip Insurans
Penuh Percaya Mutlak
Indemniti
Sumbangan
Subrograsi
Doktrin punya hampiran

Jenis Insurans
Insurans Am
Insurans Kemalangan
Insurans Kenderaan Bermotor
Insurans motor pihak ketiga
Insurans Motor Komprehensif
Insurans Kemalangan Peribadi
Insurans Liabiliti Am
Insurans Liabiliti Majikan
Insurans Kebakaran
Insurans Kebakaran
Insurans Marin/Penerbangan/Perkapalan
Insurans lain

Insurans Hayat
Insurans Hayat Seumur Hidup
Insurans Hayat Sementara
Insurans Endowmen

Insurans Islam
Konsep Takaful
Diuruskan berdasarkan hukum syariah
Guna 3 prinsip insurans biasa, ditambah:
Mudharabah - Perkongsian untung
Tabaruk - Derma dengan ikhlas/wujud dana bersama
Dijalankan dengan asas:
Tiada Gharar - ketidakpastian
Tidak Maisir - perjudian

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Tiada Riba - faedah
Produk Skim Takaful
Takaful keluarga
Takaful Am

3) PENGANGKUTAN
Definisi: Proses pemindahan barang dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain dengan menggunakan
kenderaan

Jenis Pengangkutan
Pengangkutan Darat
Jalan raya
Rel
Pengangkutan Laut
Kapal Kargo
Kapal Kerentan
Feri
Kapal Pesisir Pantai
Pengangkutan Udara
Kapal terbang
Helikopter
Saluran Paip

Kelebihan Pengangkutan Jalan Raya


Boleh serah barang dari pintu ke pintu
Menjimatkan masa
Mengurangkan kerja pemunggahan
Risiko barang rosak lebih kurang
Murah dan cepat untuk jarak dekat
Sesuai bawa barang diperlukan segera
Tiada jadual perjalanan
Kemudahan kenderaan mudah didapati dan banyak
Mudah hubungi kawasan pendalaman

Kekurangan Pengangkutan Jalan Raya


Mahal dan lambat bagi jarak jauh
Ruang muatan terhad
Tidak sesuai mengangkut barang mudah pecah (contoh: kaca, seramik)
Kos penyelenggaraan tinggi
Pembaziran tenaga buruh

Kelebihan Pengangkutan Rel


Murah dan cepat bagi jarak jauh
Ruang muatan lebih luas

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Sesuai untuk bawa barang pukal / berat / kuatiti banyak / bernilai rendah seperti kayu
balak, simen, pasir
Lebih selamat / kurang kemalangan dan selesa
Masa bertolak dan tiba diketahui mudahkan peniaga hantar / tunggu barang

Kekurangan Pengangkutan Rel


Mahal dan lambat bagi jarak dekat
Tiada perkhidmatan pintu ke pintu
Banyak kerja pemunggahan
Risiko barang rosak / hilang tinggi
Tidak fleksibel kerana arah dan masa perjalanan ditetapkan
Kos penyelenggaraan tinggi
Rangkaian perkhidmatan keretapi terhad tidak semua bandar dihubungkan dengan
perkhidmatan kereta api

Badan Berkaitan Dengan Pengangkutan Darat


Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan (JPJ)
Lembaga Pelesenan Kenderaan Perdagangan (LPKP)
Pusat Pemeriksaan Kenderaan Berkomputer (PUSPAKOM)
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB)

Kelebihan Pengangkutan Laut


Boleh bawa muatan banyak
Tambang lebih murah
Sesuai untuk bawa barang pukal seperti kayu balak dan bijih timah
Lebih selamat sebab kadar kemalangan rendah
Tiada kesesakan lalu lintas
Kos penyelenggaraan sedikit
Banyak pilihan kapal seperti kapal kontena, kapal kargo
Ada kemudahan kontenarisasi - cepatkan urusan kastam

Kekurangan Pengangkutan Laut


Tiada serahan pintu ke pintu dan memerlukan pengangkutan lain seperti lori untuk
bawa barang dari atau ke pelabuhan
Kerja pemunggahan yang banyak meningkatkan risiko kecurian dan kerosakan
Perjalanan lambat sampai
Perkhidmatan terhad di kawasan yang ada kemudahan pelabuhan / jeti sahaja

Badan Berkaitan Dengan Pengangkutan Laut


Perbadanan Perkapalan Antarabangsa Malaysia (MISC)
Jabatan Laut
Lembaga Pelabuhan

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Kelebihan Pengangkutan Udara
Sesuai bawa barang mahal dan ringan kerana kadar tambang tidak dipengaruhi oleh
nilai barang
Sesuai bawa barang yang diperlukan segera yang memerlukan pengangkutan yang cepat
/ pantas
Sesuai bawa barang yang tidak tahan lama untuk menjamin agar barang segar dan baik
Sesuai hubungi kawasan pendalaman gunakan helikopter
Barang lebih selamat sebab kawalan keselamatan ketat risiko kecurian kurang oleh itu
kos insurans lebih rendah
Kos pergudangan rendah sebab barang segera dihantar
Ada kemudahan kontenarisasi - mencepatkan urusan kastam

Kekurangan Pengangkutan Udara


Tambang mahal
Saiz dan berat kargo dihadkan
Tiada serahan pintu ke pintu perlukan pengangkutan lain
Kerja pemunggahan yang banyak tingkatkan risiko kecurian dan kerosakan
Perkhidmatan terhad di kawasan yang ada kemudahan lapangan terbang sahaja
Penerbangan mudah tergendala jika cuaca buruk
Kos penyelenggaraan tinggi

Badan Berkaitan Dengan Pengangkutan Udara


Penerbangan Malaysia (MAS)
Jabatan Penerbangan Awam (DCA)

Kelebihan Pengangkutan Saluran Paip


Barang selamat daripada risiko kecurian
Barang segera sampai
Jimat kos pengangkutan kerana tidak guna bahan api
Kos penyelenggaraan rendah sebab kurang berlaku kerosakan

Kekurangan Pengangkutan Saluran Paip


Kos pemasangan saluran paip tinggi
Penggunaannya terhad kepada barang cecair dan gas seperti petrolium, gas dan air
Kebocoran mengganggu penggunaan dan sukar dibaiki

Badan Berkaitan Dengan Pengangkutan Saluran Paip


Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS)

Faktor Pemilihan Jenis Pengangkutan


Kos pengangkutan
Jenis barang yang dibawa
Jarak perjalanan
Kesegeraan

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Risiko kerosakan
Nilai barang yang dibawa

4) KOMUNIKASI
Fungsi Komunikasi
Memudah dan mempercepatkan proses penyebaran maklumat.
Memudahkan peniaga menjalankan aktiviti perniagaan.
Memudahkan kegiatan promosi.
Meluaskan pasaran barangan.
Memudahkan pentadbiran dan pengurusan.
Mengelakkan kerugian dan kerosakan.

Jenis Perkhidmatan Komunikasi


Televisyen dan radio.
Perkhidmatan Pos
Perkhidmatan Mel.
Perkhidmatan kaunter.
Perkhidmatan Lain.
Perkhidmatan Telekomunikasi
Perkhidmatan lisan
Perkhidmatan bercetak
Perkhidmatan Audiovisual
Perkhidmatan Kurier.
EMS
Poslaju Malaysia

Faktor Pemilihan Jenis Perkhidmatan Komunikasi


Kesegaran
Jenis Maklumat
Kos
Mudah didapati dan berhampiran
Jarak

5) KONSUMERISME
Maksud Konsumerisme
Satu perjuangan bagi melindungi hak dan kepentingan pengguna
Satu usaha bagi menyedarkan pengguna tentang hak mereka supaya taraf hidup
meningkat

Matlamat Konsumerisme
Melindungi hak pengguna
Mewujudkan iklim perniagaan yang harmoni
Membina kualiti kehidupan yang lebih baik

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Pengguna
Orang yang menggunakan barang untuk penuhi keperluan dan kehendak

Amalan perniagaan yang tidak sihat


Letak harga tidak berpatutan
Buat iklan mengelirukan
Tawar barang berkualiti rendah
Jual barang yang tidak selamat

Hak pengguna
Hak mendapat keperluan asas
Hak mendapat keselamatan
Hak mendapat maklumat
Hak membuat pilihan
Hak mendapat ganti rugi
Hak bersuara
Hak mendapat pendidikan pengguna
Hak mendapat alam sekitar yang sihat

Lima Tanggungjawab pengguna


Kesedaran mengkritik
Penglibatan dan tindakan
Tanggungjawab sosial
Tanggungjawab alam semulajadi
Bersatu padu

Enam Tanggungjawab pengeluar


Praktikkan amalan perniagaan yang baik
Amal pengiklanan yang beretika
Sedia terima rungutan
Membantu menyebarkan pendidikan konsumerisme
Memelihara alam sekitar
Menjalankan tanggungjawab sosial

Lima prinsip asas membeli dengan bijak


Menentukan jenis barang
Menentukan sebab membeli
Menentukan masa membeli
Memilih tempat membeli
Mengetahui teknik membeli

Peranan kerajaan dalam melindungi pengguna


Tubuh kementerian yang menjaga hal-ehwal pengguna
Beri kesedaran tentang konsumerisme

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Wujudkan akta/peraturan
Tubuh kementerian / jabatan untuk kuatkuasa undang-undang

Agensi lain dan peranannya dalam melindungi pengguna


Majlis Penasihat Pelindung Pengguna Kebangsaan (MPPPK) @ Majlis Pengguna
Tribunal Tuntutan Pengguna
Persatuan Pengguna
Persatuan Pengeluar
Persatuan Profesional
Persatuan Peniaga

Etika Amalan Perniagaan


Diperkenalkan tahun 1982
Digubal oleh Majlis Penasihat Pelindung Pengguna Kebangsaan (MPPPK)
Bertujuan mewujudkan perpaduan di kalangan peniaga, pengeluar, pengguna dan
kerajaan
mengandungi Etika Penjual dan Etika Pembeli
Mempunyai 5 prinsip:
Kenalpasti dan akui hak-hak pengguna
Tidak menyampaikan maklumat yang mengelirukan
Patuhi prinsip perniagaan secara adil
Tidak burukkan pesaing
Amal perniagaan yang jujur

Etika Pembeli (mengandungi dua tanggungjawab pembeli)

Tanggungjawab terhadap penjual

patuhi syarat kontrak


jelaskan hutang mengikut tempoh
tidak boleh paksa penjual sediakan perkhidmatan yang melebihi bayaran
tidak menawarkan harga terlalu rendah sehingga peniaga rugi
tidak kembalikan barang tanpa alasan yang kukuh/ tanpa tunjuk kad jaminan
amalkan sifat sopan santun
beri pandangan untuk tingkatkan kualiti barang

Tanggungjawab terhadap masyarakat

libatkan diri dalam persatuan pengguna


jaga persekitaran tempat tinggal / pelihara alam sekitar
elak aktiviti pembakaran secara terbuka/ yang cemarkan alam sekitar
tidak sebarkan khabar angin seperti kenaikan harga barang/ kekurangan bekalan

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Etika Penjual (Mengandungi enam tanggungjawab penjual)

Tanggungjawab terhadap pekerja

jaga kebajikan pekerja dengan kemudahan tempat tinggal/pengangkutan


beri bimbingan /latihan untuk meningkatkan produktiviti
memberi ganjaran setimpal seperti gaji/bonus

Tanggungjawab terhadap pelanggan

sediakan barang berkualiti


sentiasa berusaha tingkatkan kualiti barang
tepati keperluan dan kehendak pengguna
jual barang pada harga berpatutan
beri maklumat yang lengkap
adakan kempen promosi yang jujur
sediakan khidmat lepas jualan / khidmat nasihat
beri layanan sama rata

Tanggungjawab terhadap pemodal

maklumkan kedudukan pelaburan / perniagaan


beri kadar pulangan yang memuaskan
jalankan pengurusan yang cekap

Tanggungjawab terhadap pembekal

layanan adil kepada semua pembekal


patuhi segala syarat kontrak
berusaha jual barang dengan segera
amalkan sistem payung
pastikan syarat kontrak jelas

Tanggungjawab terhadap masyarakat

pelihara alam sekitar


guna sumber yang manfaatkan masyarakat
beri sumbangan kepada pembangunan / penyelidikan melalui biasiswa / subsidi

Tanggungjawab terhadap kerajaan

bayar cukai
sedia peluang pekerjaan
guna sumber bahan mentah tempatan dengan cekap
adakan rundingan dengan kerajaan mengenai penggubalan / perlaksanaan dasar

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SPM 2016 Ekonomi Asas Tips

SPM EKONOMI ASAS

Paper 1 1 hr 15 min Answer all 40 questions 40%

Paper 2 2 hrs Section A: Answer only 3 questions 60%

Section B: Answer ALL questions

TOTAL 100%

Questions Analysis (2007 - 2013):

Topic P1 P2
(D - Definitely Tested; C - Commonly Tested)

Pengenalan Kepada Ekonomi D D

Pendapatan dan Penggunaan Pendapatan Individu D D

Isi Rumah Sebagai Pengguna D D

Firma Sebagai Pengeluar D D

Pasaran D D

Wang dan Institusi Kewangan D D

Ekonomi Malaysia D C

a) Struktur Ekonomi Negara

Ekonomi Malaysia D D

b) Belanjawan Negara

Hubungan Ekonomi Antarabangsa C D

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a. Perdagangan Antarabangsa

Hubungan Ekonomi Antarabangsa D D

b. Imbangan Pembayaran

Hubungan Ekonomi Antarabangsa D D

c. Pertukaran Asing

Disclaimer: The tips below are not meant to replace actual studying of the subject. Students will be able
to score better if this reading material is used as supplementary reading.

Paper 1 and Paper 2 Most Tested Chapters

1) PENGENALAN KEPADA EKONOMI


Ekonomi
Tingkah laku manusia dalam menggunakan sumber ekonomi yang terhad untuk
memenuhi kehendak yang tidak terhak.

Sumber ekonomi terhad terdiri daripada:


Buruh
Tanah
Modal
Usahawan

Unit ekonomi terdiri daripada;


Isi rumah
Firma
Kerajaan

Masalah ekonomi:
Kekurangan
Pilihan
Kos Lepas

Jenis-jenis barang:
Barang Percuma
Barang Awam
Barang Ekonomi

Masalah asas ekonomi terdiri daripada:


Apa yang hendak dikeluarkan

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Berapa yang hendak dikeluarkan
Bagaimana hendak dikeluarkan
Untuk siapa dikeluarkan

Empat sistem ekonomi:


Kapitalis
Perancangan Pusat
Ekonomi Campuran
Islam

2) PENDAPATAN INDIVIDU DAN PENGGUNAAN PENDAPATAN INDIVIDU

Ekonomi
Tingkah laku manusia dalam menggunakan sumber ekonomi yang terhad untuk
memenuhi kehendak yang tidak terhak.

Tiga sektor ekonomi:


Sektor Utama/ Sektor Primer
Melibatkan pengeluaran secara langsung daripada alam semula jadi sama ada
dari darat atau laut
Contoh: Pertanian, penternakan, perhutanan dan lain-lain
Sektor Kedua
Melibatkan pemprosesan bahan mentah dari sektor utama untuk menghasilkan
barang
Contoh: Arkitek, Kontraktor, Juruteknik Kilang dan lain-lain
Sektor Ketiga
Penyediaan perkhidmatan secara langsung kepada pengguna
Contoh: Doktor, peguam, guru, jururawat

Faktor Pemilihan Pekerjaan


Upah Wang
Faedah Sampingan
Faktor Lain (minat, jarak, prospek pekerjaan, suasana tempat kerja, kelayakan akademik,
keadaan ekonomi semasa)

Jenis Pendapatan Individu


Upah/Gaji
Upah Benar = Upah Wang / Harga Purata Barang
Faedah
Faedah = Pokok x Kadar Faedah x Tempoh
Dividen
Untung
Untung = Hasil - Kos
Sewa
Bayaran Pindahan

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Pendapatan Boleh Guna = Jumlah pendapatan - Potongan wajib

Potongan Wajib terdiri daripada:


Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pekerja (KWSP)
Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO)
Zakat
Cukai Pendapatan

Perbelanjaan penggunaan terdiri daripada:


Keperluan
Keperluan asas
Keperluan lain
Kehendak

Tabungan
Tabungan = Pendapatan Boleh Guna - Perbelanjaan Penggunaan

3) ISI RUMAH SEBAGAI PENGGUNA

Isi Rumah
Isi Rumah = Individu atau keluarga yang tinggal dalam satu rumah dan akan membuat
keputusan ekonomi untuk kepentingan bersama

Peranan Isi Rumah:


Sebagai pembekal faktor-faktor pengeluaran
Sebagai pengguna barang dan perkhidmatan

Konsep Utiliti:
Tingkat atau ukuran kepuasan yang diperoleh oleh isi rumah daripada penggunaan
barang dan perkhidmatan

Hukum Permintaan
Dengan andaian ceteris paribus, semakin tinggi harga sesuatu barang, semakin kurang
kuantiti yang diminta. Semakin rendah harga barang, semakin banyak kuantiti yang
diminta.

Penentu Pemintaan
Harga Barang Itu
Harga Barang Lain
Pendapatan Individu
Cita Rasa Pengguna
Jangkaan Harga Pada Masa Depan
Musim

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Dasar Kerajaan

Keanjalan harga
Keanjalan harga = Peratus perubahan dalam kuantiti yang diminta terhadap sesuatu
barang atau perkhidmatan kesan daripada peratus perubahan harga barang itu

Strategi Perubahan Harga:


Anjal
Strategi: Menurunkan harga; Kesan = Jumlah hasil meningkat
Strategi: Menaikkan harga; Kesan = Jumlah hasil merosot
Tidak Anjal
Strategi: Menurunkan harga; Kesan = Jumlah hasil merosot
Strategi: Menaikkan harga; Kesan = Jumlah hasil meningkat
Anjal Satu
Strategi: Menurunkan harga; Kesan = Jumlah hasil tidak berubah
Strategi: Menaikkan harga; Kesan = Tidak berubah

4) FIRMA SEBAGAI PENGELUAR

Firm ialah satu unit ekonomi atau sebuah organisasi yang merancang bagaimana menggunakan
input (faktor-faktor pengeluaran) untuk, menghasilkan output (barang dan perkhidmatan).

Objektif Firma adalah untuk memaksimumkan keuntungan.

Konsep Pengeluaran ialah aktiviti menggabungkan faktor-faktor pengeluaran (input) untuk


menghasilkan keluaran (output).

Dua jenis input:


Input tetap
Input berubah

Jangka masa pengeluaran


Jangka masa pengeluaran ialah jangka masa apabila firma mampu mengubah input
tetap menjadi input berubah.

Jumlah keluaran
Jumlah unit barang yang mampu dikeluarkan daripada gabungan input tetap dan input
berubah.

Keluaran Purata
Jumlah keluaran yang boleh dihasilkan oleh setiap unit input berubah
Keluaran Purata = Jumlah keluaran/Input berubah

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Keluaran Sut
Pertambahan jumlah keluaran akibat pertambahan satu unit lagi input berubah
Keluaran Sut = Perubahan Jumlah Keluaran/ Perubahan Jumlah Input Berubah

Jumlah Kos
Jumlah perbelanjaan yang terpaksa ditanggung untuk menghasilkan output
Jumlah Kos = Kos tetap + Kos berubah

Kos Purata
Perbelanjaan (kos) bagi setiap unit keluaran yang dihasilkan
Kos Purata = Jumlah Kos / Jumlah Keluaran

Kos Sut
Pertambahan kos akibat daripada pertambahan satu unit keluaran
Kos Sut = Perubahan Jumlah Kos / Perubahan Jumlah Keluaran

Hukum penawaran menyatakan bahawa semakin tinggi harga sesuatu barang, semakin banyak
kuantiti yang ditawarkan oleh firma.

Faktor penawaran:
Harga barang itu
Harga barang lain
Harga faktor pengeluaran
Tingkat teknologi
Jangkaan harga pada masa depan
Cuaca
Matlamat pengeluar
Dasar kerajaan

5) PASARAN

Pasaran merupakan suatu situasi yang membolehkan para pembeli dan penjual berinteraksi
antara satu sama lain dengan tujuan berjual beli barang atau perkhidmatan.

Dua jenis pasaran:


Pasaran langsung
Pasaran tidak langsung

Pasaran barangan merupakan institusi yang membolehkan penjual dan pembeli berinteraksi
dengan tujuan untuk berjual beli barang dan perkhidmatan.

Permintaan pasaran diperoleh dengan menjumlahkan secara mendatar semua kuantiti barang

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yang diminta oleh semua individu di pasaran pada setiap tingkat harga bagi suatu jangka masa
tertentu.

Penawaran pasaran diperoleh dengan menjumlahkan secara mendatar kuantiti yang ditawarkan
oleh setiap firma pada tingkat harga tertentu dan dalam jangka masa tertentu.

Keseimbangan pasaran dicapai apabila jumlah kuantiti yang diminta sama dengan jumlah
kuantiti yang ditawarkan pada suatu tingkat harga tertentu.

Pasaran faktor merupakan tempat faktor-faktor pengeluaran diuruskan.

Pasaran faktor terdiri daripada:


Pasaran Buruh
Pasaran Modal
Pasaran Tanah

Aliran pusingan pendapatan dalam ekonomi dua sektor ditakrifkan sebagai aliran pendapatan
faktor daripada sektor firma kepada sektor isi rumah dan aliran perbelanjaan penggunaan
daripada sektor isi rumah kepada sektor firma.

Aliran fizikal melibatkan pergerakan barang dan perkhidmatan serta faktor-faktor pengeluaran
antara sektor isi rumah dan sektor firma.

Aliran wang melibatkan aliran pendapatan faktor-faktor pengeluaran dan aliran perbelanjaan isi
rumah.

6) WANG DAN INSTITUSI KEWANGAN

Wang merupakan sebarang benda yang diterima umum sebagai alat perantaraan pertukaran.

Sistem barter ialah sistem pertukaran barang secara langsung antara seorang individu dan
individu lain.

Kelemahan Sistem Barter:


memerlukan dua kehendak serentak
barang sukar dibahagikan kepada unit kecil
barang tidak mempunyai simpanan nilai yang bail
barang tidak mempunyai ukuran nilai

Ciri-Ciri Wang
Diterima umum

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Penawaran yang terhad
Kestabilan nilai
Tahan lama
Mudah dibawa
Boleh dibahagikan kepada unit-unit yang kecil

Jenis Wang
Duit Syiling
Wang Kertas
Deposit Semasa

Fungsi Wang
Alat perantaraan pertukaran
Alat simpanan nilai
Alat bayaran tertunda
Alat ukuran nilai

Bank ialah institusi kewangan yang menawarkan perkhidmatan kewangan kepada orang ramai.

Jenis Bank:
Bank perdagangan
Bank pusat
Bank saudagar
Syarikat kewangan

Fungsi Bank Perdagangan


Menerima simpanan
Mengurus pertukaran asing
Memberikan pinjaman
Membuat dan menerima bayaran

Skim Perbankan Islam bertujuan memenuhi keperluan kewangan masyarakat Islam.

Prinsip Skim Perbankan Islam


Wadiah
Mudharabah
Murabahah
Musyarakah
Bai Bithaman Ajil

Bank Pusat merupakan bank induk yang ditubuhkan untuk mengawasi dan mengawal
pelaksanaan segala dasar serta peraturan kewangan yang telah ditetapkan.

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Fungsi Bank Pusat
mengeluarkan mata wang
mengawal kestabilan nilai mata wang
menjadi jurubank kepada bank perdagangan
menjadi jurubank kepada kerajaan

Cara Bank Pusat mengawal inflasi dan kemelesetan ekonomi:


rizab berkanun
rizab tunai
kadar faedah
jual beli surat jaminan kerajaan
kawalan syarat sewa beli

Jenis Institusi Kewangan Bukan Bank


Syarikat Insurans
Bank Simpanan Nasional
Lembaga Tabung Haji
Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pekerja

Fungsi Institusi Kewangan Bukan Bank


Menerima deposit
Menggalakkan tabungan
Menggalakkan pelaburan
Sumber kewangan kepada pasaran modal negara

Sumbangan Institusi Kewangan Bukan Bank kepada Perkembangan Ekonomi Negara


Menggembleng dan menggerakkan dana
Menyediakan peluang pekerjaan
Mengurangkan pinjaman kerajaan dari luar negara
Menstabilkan ekonomi

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