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# The set-up was arranged with varying anode voltage. The voltage used was 4.3, 4.

5,
4.8, and 5.0 kV. The concentric rings observed in the set-up as the anode voltage
increases are shown below:

having 4.5kV

## Fig. 3. Concentric circle having 4.8kV Fig. 4. Concentric circle

having 5.0 kV
As can be observed on the photos, there are two concentric circle present.
This is because of the random orientations of the microscopic crystals of the
sample, which is carbon, the diffraction pattern consists of intensity maxima
forming rings around the direction of the incident beam (Freedman, 2014). Based on
the concentric circles observed, it can be deduced that as the accelerating voltage
increases the diameter of the concentric circle decreases. Thus the diameter of the
ring is inversely proportional to its voltage. This can be confirm in the formula of
the:
D 1.23
d = nm
2 L Va (eq. 1)

Before arriving from the formula above, the eq. 2 was used to determine the
velocity of the electron. Using the varying accelerating voltage, the velocity was
computed.
1 2
e V a= m v (eq. 2)
2

v=
2eVa
m (eq. 3)

## Accelerating Voltage, Va (kV) Velocity (m/s)

4.3 38891969.97
4.5 39786155.06
4.8 41090964.25
5.0 41938289.77

Based from the data above, velocity of the electron increases as the voltage
increases. This is because higher energy or voltage excites the electron thus it
moves faster upon absorption of the energy. From the velocity computed above, the
theoretical wavelength was computed using eq. 4 which is the de Broglie relation.
h
= (eq. 4)
mv

## Velocity (m/s) Wavelength theo (nm)

38891969.97 0.01870281974
39786155.06 0.01828247797
41090964.25 0.01770193318
41938289.77 0.0173442815
Computed theoretical value have decreasing trend upon increase in the
velocity of the electron. The wavelength can also be computed using the value for D
of both the inner concentric circle and outer concentric circle but the interatomic
distance must be solved first. This can be done by solving eq 1 by linear regression.
D 1.23
d = nm
2 L Va (eq. 1)

## where: D = ring diameter (mm); d = interatomic distance (nm); Va = anode voltage

(kV); L = pathlength from the carbon target to the luminescent screen (mm), which
in this experiment is 135 mm.
Table 3. Determination of the interatomic distance (d) for both the inner ring and
outer ring.

## Accelerating Diameterouter Diameterinner douter dinner

Voltage, Va (mm) (mm) (nm) (nm)
(kV)
4.3 0.602 0.310

4.8 0.587 0.298
5.0 0.572 0.281

D
=d (eq. 5)
2L

## Table 4. Determination of the experimental wavelength using the measured

diameters of the ring.

## Accelerating Diameterouter Diameterinner Wavelength Wavelength

Voltage, Va (mm) (mm) (nm) (nm)
(kV) Exp, outer Exp, inner
4.3 0.602 0.310 0.026127304 0.014106013
28 82
4.5 0.598 0.304 0.025953700 0.013832994
92 2
4.8 0.587 0.298 0.025476291 0.013559974
71 58
5.0 0.572 0.281 0.024825279 0.012786418
15 98

Based on Young and Freedman (2014), the greater the accelerating voltage,
the shorter the wavelength. As can be seen from the data above it can be inferred
that the accelerating voltage of the electron is inversely proportional to its
wavelength.

Reference:
Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2014). Sears and Zemansky's University Physics:
with Modern Physics. -- 13th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. p 1428