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ME 466

PERFORMANCE OF ROAD VEHICLES


2017 Spring Homework 2 Assigned on 20.03.2016
Due date: 30.03.2016

PROBLEM 1 (10 pts)


Obtain expressions for the unknown coefficients A, B, C of the third order polynomial
approximation using the following conditions.
a) Condition 1: Pe = P1 at ne = n1
Condition 2: Power curve has a peak at ne = n1
Condition 3: Torque curve has a peak at ne = n2
b) Condition 1: Pe = P2 at ne = n2
Condition 2: Power curve has a peak at ne = n1
Condition 3: Torque curve has a peak at ne = n2
Use the engine specifications in Example II-1 to plot and compare the approximate
characteristics provided by the polynomial in each case with the actual data.

PROBLEM 2 (10 pts)


The fully open throttle characteristics for an engine are discretized and the data obtained
are stored in two arrays.
Engine speed [rpm] = [1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500
7000];
Engine torque [Nm] = [80 89 96.4 100.5 103 104.8 105 104 100.5 96.8 92.7 88.6 84];
Prepare a simulink diagram using a lookup table for the determination of engine torque
for any specified value of engine speed. Enter the engine characteristics in the lookup
table. Estimate the value of engine torque at an engine speed of 3750 rpm.

PROBLEM 3 (10 pts)


Note that in Example II-2, an n-D look-up table configured for 2-D is used. Try to insert,
instead, a 2-D look-up table from Simulink library browser in the same diagram. See if
you can find the reasons for the choice of an n-D look-up table.

PROBLEM 4 (10 pts)


For the vehicle specified as below, indicate (briefly explain your reasoning)
a) The engine location & drive configuration
b) The engine type
c) The type of the gearbox
d) Calculate the engine speed for a vehicle speed of 100 kph. Longitudinal slip factor
between the wheel speed and the vehicle speed can be neglected considering steady state
conditions.
e) Calculate tractive effort corresponding to an engine torque of 200 Nm in 3rd gear.
Vehicle data: Ferrari Testarossa (1984 - 1991)
Gross vehicle weight (GVW): 1708 kg
Engine: 4.9 liters - 12 cylinder
Max. engine power: 291 kW at 6300 rpm
Max. engine torque: 490 Nm at 4500 rpm
Gear ratios: 3.139, 2.104, 1.526, 1.167, 0.875
Final drive ratio: 3.21
Tyres: front: 240/45VR415 rear: 280/45VR415 (SBR)

Assigned by Dr. Kerem Bayar


ME 466
PERFORMANCE OF ROAD VEHICLES
2017 Spring Homework 2 Assigned on 20.03.2016
Due date: 30.03.2016

PROBLEM 5 (10 pts)


Determine the acceleration at maximum torque and maximum power, in the third and
fourth gears, for the vehicles with the basic specifications listed below. Disregard all
resistances to motion.
a) Tata Xenon
Vehicle mass (test): 2000 kg
Engine: 2.2 liters common rail direct injection
Max. engine power: 103 kW at 4000 rpm
Max. engine torque: 320 Nm at 1700 - 2700 rpm
Gear ratios: 4.1, 2.22, 1.37, 1.0, 0.75
Final drive ratio: 4.00
Tyres: (f/r): 215/16 C106

b) BMW 120d
Mass (GVW): 1500 kg
Distance from cg to front axle: 1345 mm
Distance from cg to rear axle: 1345 mm
Length/width/height [mm]: 4329/1765/1440
Wheelbase: 2690 mm
Front/rear track [mm]: 1535/1535
Drag coefficient: 0.3
Engine displacement: 1995 cc
Compression ratio: 16.5:1
Max engine power/torque: 190 hp at 4000 rpm / 400 Nm @1750 - 2500 rpm
Gear ratios: 4.11, 2.25, 1.40, 1.00, 0.80, 0.66 - R: 3.73
Differential ratio: 3.10
Tyres: 205/55R16 SBR
Tyre inflation pressures: fronts: 32 psi rears: 35 psi

c) MAN Truck
Gross vehicle weight: 23700 kg
Gross combination weight: 44000 kg (use this in your calculations)
Max. engine power: 324 kW at 1900 rpm
Max. engine torque: 2100 Nm at 1000 - 1400 rpm
Gear ratios: 15.85, 12.33, 9.57, 7.44, 5,87, 4.57, 3.47, 2.70, 2.10, 1.63, 1.29 and 1.00.
R: 14.68
Final drive ratio: 2.85
Tyres: (f/r): 295/80R22.5

d) METU Formula Student Competition Car


Gross vehicle weight: 250 kg
Weight distrbution(f/r): 48.5 51.5
Max. engine power: 88.1 kW at 13500 rpm
Max. engine torque: 66 Nm at 11250 rpm
Primary reduction: 2.111
Gear ratios: 2.750, 2.000, 1.667, 1.444, 1.304, 1.208.
Final reduction (chain drive): 2.625
Tyres: (f/r): 185/75R10

Assigned by Dr. Kerem Bayar


ME 466
PERFORMANCE OF ROAD VEHICLES
2017 Spring Homework 2 Assigned on 20.03.2016
Due date: 30.03.2016

PROBLEM 6 (10 pts)


Use the data of Problem 5b to estimate the full throttle acceleration of the vehicle at each
gear, ignoring resistances to motion, at an engine speed of 3000 rpm. Compare the results
you obtain using correct torque peak formulation, with the results you obtain by reading
data from the actual engine torque & and engine power curves versus engine speed at full
throttle condition, given below1.

PROBLEM 7 (10 pts)


For the vehicle whose specifications are given in Problem 5b. Neglect resistances and
1) Determine in each gear at fully open throttle
a) The maximum and minimum vehicle speeds (assume there is sufficient power at all
speeds to overcome resistances)
b) Vehicle acceleration at 240 kph (use the figure above)
c) The limit for the maximum and minimum vehicle acceleration.
2) Plot the variation of tractive effort
a) Versus engine speed
b) Versus vehicle speed
for all gears, on the same set of axes.
PROBLEM 8 (15 pts)
For the car specified in Problem 5b
a) How much reserve power will the vehicle have for acceleration or hill climbing while
traveling at a speed of 220 kph on level road at top gear against a head wind of 12 m/s?

1
Figure source: BMW 1 series catalogue, obtained from BMW Trkiye sales website.

Assigned by Dr. Kerem Bayar


ME 466
PERFORMANCE OF ROAD VEHICLES
2017 Spring Homework 2 Assigned on 20.03.2016
Due date: 30.03.2016

b) If the vehicle encounters a 5% grade after the level road, would it be able to climb the
grade? If the answer is no, what is the maximum grade it can climb at that speed?
PROBLEM 9 (15 pts)
Measured coast down data for a vehicle is given in the list below.
a) Estimate the rolling resistance and drag coefficients of the vehicle (mass: 1480 kg,
frontal area: 2.15 m2) with the method applied in the lecture notes. Take air density as
1.21 kg/m3.
Time [s] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
V [kph] 70.0 62.3 51.5 43.5 37.3 32.1 27.2 22.5

b) Note that with the method explained in the lecture notes, two speeds are used, VH and
VL, corresponding to the average speed value of the coasting down event at high and low
speeds, respectively. There is a less approximate; i.e. more accurate version of the
solution for the coast-down event as given below.
Recall the equation of motion during coast-down is

1
= + 2
2

The exact solution to this equation can be obtained as


2

tan 1
[ ] = where k = 0.5CdAf

1

Solve the equation above for the two unknowns fr and Cd by applying the two coastdown
events from 70 kph to 62.3 kph, and from 27.2 kph to 22.5 kph, and compare the results
with the ones found by the approximate method in the notes.

Assigned by Dr. Kerem Bayar